“Automaticity of word recognition is a unique predictor of reading fluency in middle-school students”: Correction to Roembke et al. (2019).
This study developed a new measure of automaticity to overcome these limitations and relates automaticity to standard outcomes. Subjects were 58 middle-school students (mean age = 13.2 years ± 8 months) with average to below-average reading comprehension. To assess automaticity with an accuracy-based measure, backward masking was used: On half the trials, items were presented for 90 ms and replaced by a nonlinguistic mask; on the other half it was presented unmasked to assess children’s knowledge of the word. This was instantiated in 3 experimental tasks developed to maximize reliance on different reading mapp...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - June 27, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Seeing is believing: Gender diversity in STEM is related to mathematics self-concept.
Although female students’ overall performance in mathematics is on a par with the performance of male students, female students tend to report lower levels of mathematics self-concept (MSC) than their male schoolmates. With the present study, we examined for the first time whether occupational gender diversity (i.e., a balanced gender ratio) in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) statistically predicted students’ MSC beyond well-established sources of self-concept formation as described in the big-fish-little-pond effect framework. To this end, we applied linear mixed-effects models to larg...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - February 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Improving children’s understanding of mathematical equivalence via an intervention that goes beyond nontraditional arithmetic practice.
Elementary school children (ages 7–11) struggle to understand mathematical equivalence, a foundational prealgebraic concept. Some manipulations to the learning environment, including well-structured nontraditional arithmetic practice alone, have been shown to improve children’s understanding; however, improvements have been modest. The goal of this study was to test an iteratively developed supplemental intervention for second grade that was designed to yield widespread mastery of mathematical equivalence. The intervention included three components beyond nontraditional arithmetic practice: (a) lessons that int...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - January 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Improving student learning of ratio, proportion, and percent: A replication study of schema-based instruction.
The purpose of this replication study was to provide replication evidence not currently available of the effects of a research-based mathematics program, schema-based instruction, on the mathematical problem-solving performance of 7th-grade students. The replication was implemented in 36 schools in 5 districts; 59 mathematics teachers and their students (N = 1,492) participated in the study. Multilevel hierarchical linear analyses revealed statistically significant differences between conditions on proximal and distal measures of mathematics problem solving, with effects sizes similar to those reported in Jitendra et al. (...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - January 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Examining sources and mechanisms of reading comprehension difficulties: Comparing English learners and non-English learners within the simple view of reading.
In the present study, we compared the extent to which linguistic comprehension (vocabulary and listening comprehension) and word reading explain reading comprehension differentially for English learners (ELs) and non-ELs with reading difficulties. We also investigated whether different mechanisms of reading comprehension failure exist for each group. Using the simple view of reading as our framework, we tested a model in which vocabulary exerts a direct effect on reading comprehension and indirect effects through listening comprehension and word reading. Results from a multigroup structural equation model with a sample of ...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - January 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The role of semantic information in children’s word reading: Does meaning affect readers’ ability to say polysyllabic words aloud?
In an effort to improve oral reading, beginning and remedial reading programs in English focus on phonological awareness skills and recoding with grapheme–phoneme correspondences. The meanings of the words children practice reading aloud are given little emphasis. Some studies now suggest semantic knowledge may have a direct effect on children’s oral reading, but it is unclear whether it is due to knowledge of a given word, general semantic knowledge (vocabulary size), or morphological awareness. We asked third and fourth graders with reading difficulty and their typically achieving peers (N = 95) to read polys...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - January 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Outcomes and antecedents of teacher depersonalization: The role of intrinsic orientation for teaching.
Two longitudinal studies conducted in Israel examined antecedents and outcomes of teacher depersonalization, a relatively understudied dimension of teacher burnout. Study 1 explored the outcomes of depersonalization. We predicted that depersonalization would predict classroom disruption, and that an aspect of intrinsic orientation for teaching, teacher enthusiasm, would mediate this relation. Study 2 explored the antecedents of depersonalization. We predicted that another aspect of intrinsic orientation for teaching, teacher autonomous motivation, would moderate the relation between organizational (principal and peer) supp...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - December 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Motivation in transition: Development and roles of expectancy, task values, and costs in early college engineering.
This longitudinal study investigated development in expectancy for success (perceived competence), 3 types of task value (utility, interest, attainment), and 3 types of perceived cost (opportunity, effort, psychological) for engineering students during their first 2 years of college. Latent growth curve models indicated declines in expectancy and values, with attainment value declining more slowly than expectancy, interest value, and utility value. Costs increased over time, with effort cost increasing more rapidly than psychological cost. Demographic differences were observed in initial levels of motivation, but not in ra...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - December 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Introducing a science interest network model to reveal country differences.
In this article, a science interest network model (SINM) is introduced and a first empirical test of the model is presented. The SINM models interest as a dynamic relational construct, in which different interest components, that is, affective, behavioral, and cognitive components and related motivational components mutually reinforce one another within the development of interest. The dynamical relational perspective hypothesizes that the mutual interactions between interest components underlie the development of interest. Applying the SINM to the PISA 2015 data of 2 countries, that is, the Netherlands and Colombia, we we...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - December 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The effects of early numeracy interventions for students in preschool and early elementary: A meta-analysis.
This study evaluated preschool, kindergarten, and 1st-grade interventions on early numeracy content, instructional features, and methodological components that improved students’ math achievement. A total of 34 studies met inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis, with 52 treatment groups. The average weighted effect size for numeracy interventions with two outliers removed was moderate (g = 0.64), and the 95% confidence interval did not include zero [0.52, 0.76]. Results of the final metaregression model predicted larger treatment effects for interventions that included counting with 1-to-1 correspondence and were ...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - December 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Refutation texts compensate for detrimental effects of misconceptions on comprehension and metacomprehension accuracy and support transfer.
Misconceptions impair not only learners’ comprehension of a text but also the accuracy with which they judge their comprehension, that is, metacomprehension accuracy. Refutation texts are beneficial to elicit conceptual-change processes and thus to overcome the detrimental impact of misconceptions on comprehension. However, it is unclear whether refutation texts and the conceptual-change processes induced by reading them benefit metacomprehension accuracy in addition to comprehension and how robust these effects are when reading further texts. We conducted an experiment in which we asked 80 student teachers with a va...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - December 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Pathways to reading comprehension: A longitudinal study from 4 to 9 years of age.
The two major determinants of reading comprehension are language comprehension and decoding, but prior studies of the development of reading comprehension from an early age show inconsistent results. To clarify these inconsistencies we report a 6-year longitudinal study (starting at Age 4 years) where we control for measurement error and track the development and interrelationships between a range of predictors of reading comprehension (language, decoding, and cognitive skills). We found two main pathways to reading comprehension: a highly stable language comprehension pathway (reflecting variations in vocabulary, listenin...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - December 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The forward effects of testing transfer to different domains of learning.
Interim testing of studied information, compared with restudying or no treatment, facilitates subsequent learning and retention of new information—the forward testing effect. Previous research exploring this effect has shown that interim testing of studied information from a given domain enhances subsequent learning and retention of new information within the same domain. In the current research, we ask whether interim testing can enhance subsequent encoding and retention of new information from a different domain. Experiment 1 showed that the forward testing effect is transferable; Experiment 2 further demonstrated ...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - December 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Does the track matter? A comparison of students’ achievement in different tracks.
This study compared the effects of being in different tracks during the first 3 years of secondary education on student academic performance. A sample of a longitudinal cohort study in Flanders (3,205 students in 46 schools) was used to describe the learning gains for mathematics and reading comprehension. Four tracks were distinguished, with a clear hierarchy in mean student academic ability. A comparison was made per pair of tracks that are hierarchically consecutive by matching students who are comparable across these tracks. Three matching methods were applied: propensity score matching, Mahalanobis distance matching a...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - November 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The roles of transfer of learning and forgetting in the persistence and fadeout of early childhood mathematics interventions.
This study investigates how children’s forgetting contributes to fadeout and how transfer contributes to the persistence of effects of early childhood mathematics interventions. We also test whether having a sustaining classroom environment following an intervention helps mitigate forgetting and promotes new learning. Students who received the intervention we studied forgot more in the following year than students who did not but forgetting accounted for only about one-quarter of the fadeout effect. An offsetting but small and statistically nonsignificant transfer effect accounted for some of the persistence of the i...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - November 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Identifying teachers’ supports of metacognition through classroom talk and its relation to growth in conceptual learning.
We examined four features of metacognitive support, including the type of metacognitive knowledge supported (personal, strategy, or conditional), the type of metacognitive skill supported (planning, monitoring, or evaluating) the type of instructional manner in which the support was delivered (directives, prompting, or modeling), and the type of framing (problem specific, problem general, or domain general), during three types of instructional activities (individual, group, or whole-class instruction). We compared teacher talk from 20 middle school mathematics classrooms with high growth in conceptual mathematics scores wi...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - October 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The tenuous link between classroom perceptions and motivation: A within-person longitudinal study.
Understanding how classrooms influence a student’s motivation and engagement is a persistent concern in the field of educational psychology. Social–cognitive theories postulate that individual students’ perceptions of their environment influence their motivation and subsequent behavior. However, empirical research directly testing the core tenets of this supposition—that changes in an individual’s perceptions lead to changes in their motivation or behavior—is sparse, largely because of normative methodological approaches focusing on between-person rather than within-person comparisons. U...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - October 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Perseverant grit and self-efficacy: Are both essential for children’s academic success?
Psychological factors such as grit and self-efficacy have been heralded as powerful predictors of performance. Their joint contribution to the prediction of early adolescents’ school success has not been fully investigated, however. The purpose of this study was to examine U.S. elementary and middle school students’ (N = 2,430) grit (assessed as perseverance of effort) and self-efficacy, and their predictive relationship with achievement and teacher-rated motivation and competence in reading and math across one school year. Scalar invariance was found for grit and self-efficacy measures across school level, gen...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - October 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Teacher–student relationships and students’ engagement in high school: Does the number of negative and positive relationships with teachers matter?
This study extended prior research into teacher–student relationships by exploring the relative balance of negative and positive teacher–student relationships in high school students’ academic lives (in each of English, mathematics, science, history, and geography subjects). Also examined was the role of this relational balance in predicting students’ school engagement (operationalized by academic participation, enjoyment, and aspirations). The study involved a longitudinal sample of 2,079 students from 18 high schools. Findings identified a significant linear (main) effect, with an increase in the ...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - October 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The cost of multiple representations: Learning number symbols with abstract and concrete representations.
Parents are frequently advised to use number books to help their children learn the meaning of number words and symbols. How should these resources be designed to best support learning? Previous research has shown that number books typically include multiple concrete representations of number. However, a large body of mathematics education research has demonstrated that there may be costs, as well as benefits, to using both multiple representations and concrete representations when learning mathematical concepts. Here we used an artificial symbol learning paradigm to explore whether the use of abstract (arrays of dots) or ...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - October 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The cognitive benefits of learning computer programming: A meta-analysis of transfer effects.
Does computer programming teach students how to think? Learning to program computers has gained considerable popularity, and educational systems around the world are encouraging students in schools and even children in kindergartens to engage in programming activities. This popularity is based on the claim that learning computer programming improves cognitive skills, including creativity, reasoning, and mathematical skills. In this meta-analysis, we tested this claim performing a 3-level, random-effects meta-analysis on a sample of 105 studies and 539 effect sizes. We found evidence for a moderate, overall transfer effect ...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - October 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Generalizability of automated scores of writing quality in Grades 3–5.
The present study examined issues pertaining to the reliability of writing assessment in the elementary grades, and among samples of struggling and nonstruggling writers. The present study also extended nascent research on the reliability and the practical applications of automated essay scoring (AES) systems in Response to Intervention frameworks aimed at preventing and remediating writing difficulties (RTI-W). Students in Grade 3 (n = 185), Grade 4 (n = 192), and Grade 5 (n = 193) responded to six writing prompts, two prompts each in the three genres emphasized in the Common Core and similar “Next Generation”...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - October 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Expanding autonomy psychological need states from two (satisfaction, frustration) to three (dissatisfaction): A classroom-based intervention study.
We propose that students experience “autonomy dissatisfaction” when the learning environment is indifferent to their psychological need for autonomy. We hypothesized that (a) students could distinguish this newly proposed need state from both autonomy satisfaction and autonomy frustration, (b) autonomy dissatisfaction would explain unique and rather substantial variance in students’ classroom disengagement, and (c) a full understanding of the psychological need for autonomy necessitates expanding the current emphasis from two need states (satisfaction, frustration) to three (dissatisfaction). In the exper...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - October 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The power of imagination and perspective in learning from science text.
In 2 experiments, college students read a 4-paragraph text on how the human circulatory system works and were instructed to form a mental image of the events described in each paragraph from the perspective of their own body (first-person perspective group) or from the perspective of a fictitious person facing them (third-person perspective group), or were given no imagination instructions (control group). Students who imagined from a first-person perspective outperformed the control group on solving transfer problems, retaining important material, and not retaining unimportant material in Experiments 1 and 2, confirming t...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - October 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Longitudinal relations among self-concept, intrinsic value, and attainment value across secondary school years in three academic domains.
This study expanded on research on temporal relations among motivation constructs as stated by expectancy-value theory, which has so far neglected the differentiation of value facets, the examination of long time spans with multiple measurement waves, and domain-specific patterns of findings. We examined the longitudinal relations among academic self-concept, intrinsic value, and attainment value in the three domains of math, German, and English across 5 annual measurement waves covering Grades 5 to 9 with German secondary school students (N = 2,116). The analyses based on cross-lagged panel models. In math and English, fo...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - October 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effects of parent coaching on Filipino children’s numeracy, language, and literacy skills.
Early childhood interventions that target numeracy, language, and literacy skills can help to mitigate negative educational outcomes among young children from low- to middle-income families in developing countries. The current study evaluates the efficacy of parent coaching programs designed to enrich home numeracy and literacy environments in Cebu City, Philippines. A total of 673 families with 3- to 5-year-old children were randomly assigned to the numeracy, dialogic reading, early literacy skills training, and control groups. Following the 12-week intervention, children in the 578 families that participated in the postt...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - October 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How all students can belong and achieve: Effects of the cultural diversity climate amongst students of immigrant and nonimmigrant background in Germany.
As schools are becoming more culturally diverse, it is crucial to understand how they can approach this diversity in ways that allow all students to feel included and do well. We focus on the manifestation of two related but distinct approaches to cultural diversity, namely equality and inclusion (i.e., promoting positive intergroup contact) and cultural pluralism (i.e., embracing students’ diverse cultural backgrounds as a resource), in the perceived classroom climate. Specifically, we test a model in which the link of cultural diversity climate at school and student outcomes (achievement, academic self-concept and ...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - October 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The role of thinking styles in program satisfaction and perceived intellectual competence among STEM doctoral students.
This research pioneered the investigation of the role of doctoral students’ thinking styles in their program satisfaction and perceived intellectual competence. Participants were 285 STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) students in Hong Kong. Results showed that students’ thinking styles as measured by the Thinking Styles Inventory—Revised II (Sternberg, Wagner, & Zhang, 2007) statistically significantly predicted their program satisfaction and perceived intellectual competence as assessed by two of the scales in the newly constructed Graduate Student Survey (Shin et al., 2015)—b...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - September 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotional intelligence and empathy in aggressors and victims of school violence.
The present study was organized around 2 main objectives: first, to analyze emotional intelligence (EI) both in aggressors and victims of school violence, considering 3 dimensions of EI—emotional attention, emotional clarity, and emotion regulation—and second, to analyze empathy in aggressors and victims of school violence, taking into consideration 2 dimensions—cognitive and affective empathy. Participants were 1,318 Spanish adolescents, aged between 11 and 17 years (47% boys) enrolled in 4 secondary schools, and who completed self-report measures. Analyses of variance were conducted to analyze the data....
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - September 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Individual differences in addition strategy choice: A psychometric evaluation.
The strategy choice model (SCM) is a highly influential theory of human problem-solving. One strength of this theory is the allowance for both item and person variance to contribute to problem-solving outcomes, but this central tenet of the model has not been empirically tested. Explanatory item response theory (EIRT) provides an ideal approach to testing this core feature of SCM, as it allows for simultaneous estimation of both item and person effects on problem-solving outcomes. We used EIRT to test and confirm this central tenet of the SCM for adolescents’ (n = 376) solving of addition problems. The approach also ...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - September 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Decoding and reading comprehension: A test of the decoding threshold hypothesis.
We report results of 2 studies examining the relation between decoding and reading comprehension. Based on our analysis of prominent reading theories such as the Simple View of Reading (Gough & Tunmer, 1986), the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002) and the Self-Teaching Hypothesis (Share, 1995), we propose the Decoding Threshold Hypothesis, which posits that the relation between decoding and reading comprehension can only be reliably observed above a certain decoding threshold. In Study 1, the Decoding Threshold Hypothesis was tested in a sample of over 10,000 Grade 5–10 students. Using quantil...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - September 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Teachers’ perceptions of students’ executive functions: Disparities by gender, ethnicity, and ELL status.
Teacher-report is commonly used to assess executive functions (EFs) in schools, but teachers’ perceptions of EF skills may be biased by students’ demographic characteristics. In this short-term longitudinal study, we assessed whether students’ gender, ethnicity, and English language learner (ELL) status predicted teachers’ reports of students’ EFs, beyond what would be expected based on direct assessment of EFs. In addition, we tested whether these associations changed between the fall and spring. Data were drawn from a school-based study of third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students (N = 558, ...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - September 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The function of selection of assessment leads evaluators to artificially create the social class achievement gap.
To understand the persistent social class achievement gap, researchers have investigated how educational settings affect lower versus higher socioeconomic status (SES) students’ performance. We move beyond the question of actual performance to study its assessment by evaluators. We hypothesized that even in the absence of performance differences, assessment’s function of selection (i.e., compare, rank, and track students) leads evaluators to create a SES achievement gap. In 2 experiments (N = 196; N = 259), participants had to assess a test supposedly produced by a high- or a low-SES student, and used assessmen...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - September 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Children’s reasoning about decimals and its relation to fraction learning and mathematics achievement.
Reasoning about numerical magnitudes is a key aspect of mathematics learning. Most research examining the relation of magnitude understanding to general mathematics achievement has focused on whole number and fraction magnitudes. The present longitudinal study (N = 435) used a 3-step latent class analysis to examine reasoning about magnitudes on a decimal comparison task in 4th grade, before systematic decimals instruction. Three classes of response patterns were identified, indicating empirically distinct levels of decimal magnitude understanding. Class 1 students consistently gave correct responses, suggesting that they ...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - September 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Toward an integrative and fine-grained insight in motivating and demotivating teaching styles: The merits of a circumplex approach.
Guided by Self-Determination Theory, we offer an integrative and fine-grained analysis of teachers’ classroom motivating style (i.e., autonomy support, structure, control, and chaos) to resolve existing controversies in the literature, such as how these dimensions relate to each other and to educationally important student and teacher outcomes. Six independent samples of secondary school teachers (N = 1332; Mage = 40.9 years) and their students (N = 1735, Mage = 14.6 years) read 12 ecologically valid vignettes to rate four dimensions of teachers’ motivating styles, using the Situations-in-School (SIS) questionn...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - September 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The lure of seductive details during lecture learning.
We examined this apparent disconnect by exploring the impact of seductive details in mathematics lecture learning as a function of prior knowledge across 2 affective contexts: low-stakes learning and high-stakes learning. Undergraduate students viewed a video lecture on matrix algebra with or without seductive details either in a low-stakes or high-stakes learning environment. The high stakes were designed to mimic common classroom accountability for learning and were removed prior to the final test. On the final test, seductive details were generally detrimental in the low-stakes, but not high-stakes, learning environment...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - September 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

“A meta-analytic review of the relationship between epistemic cognition and academic achievement”: Correction to Greene et al. (2018).
Reports an error in "A meta-analytic review of the relationship between epistemic cognition and academic achievement" by Jeffrey A. Greene, Brian M. Cartiff and Rebekah F. Duke (Journal of Educational Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Mar 08, 2018, np). In the article, Table 7 contained a production-related error. Overall N was listed as “1,9,319” when it should be “159,319.” All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2018-09738-001.) Epistemic cognition, defined as the ways that people acquire, justify, and u...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - September 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Predicting success on high-stakes math tests from preschool math measures among children from low-income homes.
We report on a longitudinal study of 519 low-income American children ages 5–12, with a focus on mathematics performance. We found that nonsymbolic quantity knowledge and repeating pattern knowledge at the end of preschool were reliable predictors of performance on standards-based high-stakes tests across three different grade levels (4th–6th grade), over and above other math and academic skills. Further, these effects of preschool math knowledge were partially mediated through symbolic mapping and calculation knowledge at the end of 1st grade. These findings suggest that nonsymbolic quantity knowledge and repe...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - August 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A longitudinal study of the domain-generality of African American students’ causal attributions for academic success.
Students’ causal attributions about the reasons underlying their academic successes are important because of the influence of those attributions on academic motivation. We investigated whether students’ success attributions tend to be similar across academic subjects versus specific to academic domain, and whether domain-generality or specificity changes with development. African American students (N = 565) reported their causal attributions for math, science, and English successes longitudinally from elementary to high school. Structural equation modeling showed that individual differences in students’ t...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - August 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Executive function and academic achievement: Longitudinal relations from early childhood to adolescence.
Data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care (N = 1273) were analyzed to assess the longitudinal relations among executive function (EF) components in early childhood (54 months) and adolescence (15 years) and their prediction of academic achievement. We found that after controlling for early achievement, demographic, and home environment variables, only working memory at 54 months significantly predicted working memory at 15 years and that working memory was the only significant EF predictor of achievement at age 15. In contrast, all early achievement measures were significant predictors of later achievement. Furthermore...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - August 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Parental responses to bullying: Understanding the role of school policies and practices.
Research, theory, and practice suggest an important role for parents in supporting their children when exposed to violence and helping them cope with victimization experiences. Despite this little is known about how parents respond to bullying and the factors that influence their response. Using data from 1,117 parents who reported that their middle or high schooler had been bullied in the past 30 days, this article identified different patterns of responses as well as examined the influence of perceptions of school climate, school policies and training, and school structural characteristics on their responses. A latent cl...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - August 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Prediction of children’s early academic adjustment from their temperament: The moderating role of peer temperament.
The goal of the study was to examine whether target children’s temperamental negative emotional expressivity (NEE) and effortful control in the fall of kindergarten predicted academic adjustment in the spring and whether a classmate’s NEE and effortful control moderated these relations. Target children’s NEE and effortful control were measured in the fall via multiple methods, academic adjustment was measured via reading and math standardized tests in the spring, and observations of engagement in the classroom were conducted throughout the year. In the fall, teachers nominated a peer with whom each target...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - July 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Direct and indirect paths from linguistic skills to arithmetic school performance.
In the present study, we explored how linguistic skills (phonological and semantic) influence the multiple components of school arithmetic (numeration, computation, and word problems) by analyzing them sequentially. We studied a sample of 262 schoolchildren, aged 8 to 11, nested in 27 classrooms, using the following measures: semantic skills, phonological skills, numeration, computation, word problems, visuospatial reasoning, and working memory. On the basis of a multilevel path analysis, we found that phonological and semantic skills predict each arithmetic component differently and independently. Phonological skills disp...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - July 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Short and long-term effects of a mathematics tablet intervention for low performing second graders.
Using a randomized placebo controlled design, we examined the direct and follow-up effects (at 6 and 12 months) of a mathematics tablet intervention. Math training focused primarily on basic arithmetic (addition and subtraction facts up to 12), and secondarily on number knowledge and word problems. We investigated the moderating effects of IQ and socioeconomic factors, and additive effects of working memory (WM) training. A representative sample of 283 low performing second-grade students were randomly assigned to control (n = 52), reading placebo (n = 78), math intervention (MA; n = 76), or math plus WM training (MA + WM;...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - July 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Understanding the role of personal best (PB) goal setting in students’ declining engagement: A latent growth model.
There is a well-documented developmental decline in engagement among adolescents throughout secondary school. Given this pattern of engagement poses problems for both student well-being and their academic outcomes, it is important to examine potential strategies to address this decline. As a growth-oriented strategy, personal best (PB) goal setting may be one viable option to challenge this decline in engagement. Across 3 years of data collection among a sample of N = 368 Australian secondary school students and using latent growth modeling (LGM), we explored 4 ways that PB goal setting may impact engagement: (a) an &ldquo...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - July 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Efficacy of a high school extensive reading intervention for English learners with reading difficulties.
This study examined the effects of Reading Intervention for Adolescents, a 2-year extensive reading intervention targeting current and former English learners identified as struggling readers based on their performance on the state accountability assessment. Students who enrolled at three participating urban high schools were randomly assigned to the Reading Intervention for Adolescents treatment condition (n = 175) or a business-as-usual comparison condition. Students assigned to the treatment condition participated in the intervention for approximately 50 min daily for 2 school years in lieu of a school-provided elective...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Examining developmental relations between core academic language skills and reading comprehension for English learners and their peers.
Although many adolescents struggle to comprehend text, the school-relevant language skills, which might contribute to variation in reading comprehension ability during this developmental period, remain understudied. To expand the research base, this study examines the concurrent development of academic language skills and reading comprehension in a sample of emergent bilinguals (EBs) and their English proficient (EP) peers (n = 573) followed over two academic years, from Grade six to seven. Parallel process latent growth modeling results reveal that academic language and reading comprehension skills develop concurrently, w...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Learning vocabulary from educational media: The role of pedagogical supports for low-income preschoolers.
This article reports on two studies designed to examine the landscape of online streamed videos, and the features that may support vocabulary learning for low-income preschoolers. In Study 1, we report on a content analysis of 100 top language- and literacy-focused educational media programs streamed from five streaming platforms. Randomly selecting two episodes from each program, we identified the prevalence of vocabulary opportunities, and the pedagogical supports—techniques or features in these media that are designed to orient children to specific vocabulary words. In over the 2,000 scenes coded, we identified tw...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - April 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Analytical assessment of course sequencing: The case of methodological courses in psychology.
This study examined the relationships between student achievement (grades) in psychology courses taken before and after methodological courses. We used a longitudinal institutional dataset involving thousands of students across seven cohorts, and control for demographics, SAT achievement, and prior psychology GPA. We found that two courses were especially important: Achievement in statistics and research methods courses related to grades in subsequent advanced seminars, lab courses, and overall psychology GPA. Additionally, relations between research methods achievement and topical course grades were stronger when those co...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - April 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Adult and student interactions in nonclassroom settings.
This study contributes to prior literature through the focus on nonclassroom settings, examination of adult as well as student behavior, and the use of observational methodology in high schools. Implications for schools seeking to reduce problem behaviors and improve school climate in nonclassroom settings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: Journal of Educational Psychology)
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - April 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research