Enhancing research excellence through diversity and transparency.
It is an honor, a privilege, and an enormous responsibility to serve as the editor of the Journal of Educational Psychology (JEP), the leading outlet for high-quality empirical research in the field of educational psychology. The journal’s stellar reputation and standing in the field have continuously grown under the leadership of my predecessors (including those during the last 4 decades: Joanna Williams, Samuel Ball, Robert Calfee, Joel Levin, Michael Pressley, Karen Harris, Art Graesser, and Steve Graham). They have ensured that the work submitted and published in the journal represents the best empirical research...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - January 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Pathways to word reading and calculation skills in young Chinese children: From biologically primary skills to biologically secondary skills.
Drawing on Geary’s (1995) evolution-based model of cognitive and academic development, this study investigated the relation between biologically primary skills (vocabulary, executive functions, and visual-spatial processing) and subsequent word reading and calculation. It also examined the extent to which these relations were mediated by biologically secondary skills (metalinguistic awareness and symbolic numerical processing). A total of 197 Chinese children (age at the first measurement point: M ± SD = 53.38 ± 3.32 months) were assessed three times over 18 months on their vocabulary, spatial perceptio...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - December 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effective intervention for adolescents with reading disabilities: Combining reading and motivational remediation to improve outcomes.
Adolescents with reading disability (RD) participated in a randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of a multiple-component reading intervention with motivational components (PHAST). A total of 514 youth in 6th, 7th, and 8th grade formed instructional groups (4–8) that were randomly assigned to one of three conditions—one of two PHAST interventions (additional comprehension or fluency training) or a remedial reading control condition. Intervention occurred in participants’ schools, 40–60 min daily, 3–5×/week, for 100–125 hr total. Over four outcome assessments, multileve...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - November 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Lift-the-flap features in “first words” picture books impede word learning in 2-year-olds.
This study tested how lift-the-flap features in a commercial picture book of first words affected 2-year-olds’ (N = 32) learning of a new word for an unfamiliar food. Sixteen children saw the original lift-the-flap book, which depicted photos, and 16 saw the same book except that it was modified to have no flaps. The researcher went through the book with the child, labeling each fruit and vegetable six times. All children were unfamiliar with starfruit and were taught that it was called “carambola.” After they saw the book, children’s learning was tested by asking them to choose the target (i.e., &l...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - October 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Gender differences in early literacy: Boys’ response to formal instruction.
Research consistently documents that girls outperform boys in literacy achievement, yet, when considering the starting point—early literacy—we do not have consensus on the origin, meaningful nature, or persistence of such differences. In this two-part study analyzing 5,816 Norwegian students (48.1% girls, average age of 6.1 years), we first considered the presence and meaningful nature of gender differences at school entry. Presence of differences, advantaging girls, was found in letter-recognition, phonemic awareness, word reading accuracy, and spelling. We found no differences in vocabulary performance. Howev...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - September 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

"Teacher self-efficacy and burnout: Determining the directions of prediction through an autoregressive cross-lagged panel model": Correction to Kim and Burić (2019).
Reports an error in "Teacher self-efficacy and burnout: Determining the directions of prediction through an autoregressive cross-lagged panel model" by Lisa E. Kim and Irena Burić (Journal of Educational Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Oct 10, 2019, np). In the original article, one of the studies discussed (Praetorius et al., 2017), was incorrectly interpreted. The longitudinal study findings from Praetorius et al (2017) challenged the assumption that TSE may be an antecedent construct. When teachers’ stable inter-individual differences were taken into account, there were no significant cross-lag...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - September 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Differential patterns of growth in reading and math skills during elementary school.
This study investigated developmental trajectories of reading and math using latent-growth-curve analyses across multiple academic skills, measures, and multiple time periods within a single sample. Reading-related growth was marked by significant individual differences during the early elementary-school period and nonsignificant individual differences during the late elementary-school period. For math-related skills, nonsignificant individual differences were present for early math growth and significant individual differences were present in late elementary-school. No clear pattern of cumulative, compensatory, or stable ...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - September 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Scaling up an extracurricular science intervention for elementary school students: It works, and girls benefit more from it than boys.
In this study, we analyzed the effects of a recently developed science intervention program aimed at fostering the understanding of science as well as the motivation of elementary school–aged boys and girls. In prior research, this 10-lesson science course was evaluated with efficacy and effectiveness studies, both of which attested to the positive effects of the program. In this study, we examined the impact of this intervention program after it had been scaled up in educational practice as a continuous element of a STEM enrichment program. In this preregistered trial, we applied a multisite cluster randomized contr...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - September 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The impacts of a brief middle-school self-affirmation intervention help propel African American and Latino students through high school.
Stereotype threat has been shown to have deleterious impacts on the short- and long-term academic performance and psychological well-being of racial and ethnic minority students. Psychological variables related to this identity threat represent significant sources of achievement and attainment gaps relative to nonstereotyped Asian and white students who do not tend to be subject to performance declines related to such threats. In the current study, we investigate long-term effects of a brief self-affirmation intervention implemented at-scale to mitigate stereotype threat for seventh-grade African American and Latino studen...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - September 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Unraveling the links between rapid automatized naming (RAN), phonological awareness, and reading.
It is well established that phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) tasks reliably predict children’s developing word reading abilities across a wide range of languages. However, existing research has not yet demonstrated unequivocally whether RAN and PA are independently and causally linked to reading, nor has it fully explored the underlying cognitive mechanisms. Most existing research has assessed PA and RAN in children who may already have some reading skill, making direction of influence hard to ascertain. To address this, the current longitudinal research initially assessed RAN and PA in ...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - August 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Coolness and admiration diverge in early adolescence among African American students in low-income urban schools.
Peer nominations were used to explore age-related differences in the correlates of being admired and being perceived as cool among 542 youths in 5 low-income urban schools (Grades 3–6; 86% African American). Children nominated peers whom they admired and whom they perceived as cool, prosocial, and good at academics. Classroom group-level and dyadic-level analyses yielded complementary findings in support of 3 developmental hypotheses. Consistent with the distinctiveness of coolness and admiration hypothesis, the coolness-admiration partial correlation (net of acceptance) was null in Grades 4–6 (but not in Grade...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - August 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Math anxiety interferes with learning novel mathematics contents in early elementary school.
Whereas some evidence exists that math anxiety may interfere with math performance from the very beginning of primary school, no study to date has attempted to investigate whether math anxiety may also interfere with early math learning (i.e., the encoding of new math knowledge) and not only with recalling already mastered contents in test situations. Across 2 experiments carried out in 2 different countries (Study 1: N = 115, conducted in Italy; Study 2: N = 120, conducted in the United Kingdom), we addressed this question by presenting 6-year-old children with 2 math contents that had not been covered by their school cur...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - August 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Relational reasoning’s contributions to mathematical thinking and performance in Chinese elementary and middle-school students.
The overarching goal of this 2-phase study was to investigate the contributions of relational reasoning to mathematical thinking and performance for 790 primary and middle-school Chinese students. Phase I of the study was undertaken to establish the reliability and validity of the Test of Relational Reasoning-Junior (TORRjr), a 32-item measure developed to assess children’s and young adolescents’ ability to reason analogically, anomalously, antinomously, and antithetically. The range of analyses from item difficulties to the overall structural model showed the TORRjr to be a psychometrically sound measure for s...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - August 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Who are the nonresponders to intervention among Chinese children learning English as a second language?
The purpose of this study was to examine the profiles of nonresponders among native Chinese-speaking students struggling in English reading before and after an intensive intervention in phonological awareness as well as letter knowledge. Struggling English learners (n = 72) were screened from 668 Grade 4 students based on their English word recognition, school English examinations, and nominations by teachers. About 43% of struggling readers were remediated in decoding skills after the intervention. Nonresponders were profiled on both phonological and orthographic processing skills in their first and second languages. More...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - August 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effectiveness of forgiveness education with adolescents in reducing anger and ethnic prejudice in Iran.
This research investigated the effectiveness of a forgiveness education program on reducing anger and ethnic prejudice and improving forgiveness in Iranian adolescents. There were 224 (Persian, Azeri, and Kurdish) male and female students in 8th grade who were selected from 3 provinces: Tehran, Eastern Azerbaijan, and Kurdestan. Schools were randomly assigned to 2 groups of experimental (N = 123) and control (N = 101) students. Measures included the Enright Forgiveness Inventory, Spielberger’s State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, and the Ethnic Prejudice Scale, administered at pretest, posttest, and follow-up. The...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - August 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Argumentation skills mediate the effect of peer argumentation on content knowledge in middle-school students.
There is compelling evidence that arguing with peers in educational contexts fosters students’ content knowledge and argumentation skills. Indeed, curricula have already been developed that, through tailored support for peer argumentation, promote both content knowledge and argumentation skills simultaneously. However, we do not yet know how to optimize the occurrence of peer argumentation, although there are suggestions in the literature that computers may have a role to play. Likewise, there are uncertainties about the mechanisms through which the benefits of peer argumentation are achieved, especially whether (and...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - August 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Nonlinear relations between achievement and academic self-concepts in elementary and secondary school: An integrative data analysis across 13 countries.
It is well-documented that academic achievement is associated with students’ self-perceptions of their academic abilities, that is, their academic self-concepts. However, low-achieving students may apply self-protective strategies to maintain a favorable academic self-concept when evaluating their academic abilities. Consequently, the relation between achievement and academic self-concept might not be linear across the entire achievement continuum. Capitalizing on representative data from three large-scale assessments (i.e., TIMSS, PIRLS, PISA; N = 470,804), we conducted an integrative data analysis to address nonlin...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - August 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Distributions of textbook problems predict student learning: Data from decimal arithmetic.
This study investigated relations between the distribution of practice problems in textbooks and students’ learning of decimal arithmetic. In Study 1, we analyzed the distributions of decimal arithmetic practice problems that appeared in 3 leading math textbook series in the United States. Similar imbalances in the relative frequencies of decimal arithmetic problems were present across the 3 series: Addition and subtraction more often involved 2 decimals than a whole number and a decimal, but the opposite was true for multiplication and division. We expected children’s learning of decimal arithmetic to reflect ...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - July 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Prevention of reading difficulties in children with and without familial risk: Short- and long-term effects of an early intervention.
This study shows that a 2-year cost-effective early intervention can reduce the incidence of reading difficulties. However, it remains a challenge to make the intervention suited for children in which a lack of preliteracy skills merely seems to reflect a lack of learning opportunities. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: Journal of Educational Psychology)
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - July 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Academic acceleration in gifted youth and fruitless concerns regarding psychological well-being: A 35-year longitudinal study.
Academic acceleration of intellectually precocious youth is believed to harm overall psychological well-being even though short-term studies do not support this belief. Here we examine the long-term effects. Study 1 involves three cohorts identified before age 13, then longitudinally tracked for over 35 years: Cohort 1 gifted (top 1% in ability, identified 1972–1974, N = 1,020), Cohort 2 highly gifted (top 0.5% in ability, identified 1976–1979, N = 396), and Cohort 3 profoundly gifted (top 0.01% in ability, identified 1980–1983, N = 220). Two forms of educational acceleration were examined: (a) age at hig...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - July 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

In-class attention, spatial ability, and mathematics anxiety predict across-grade gains in adolescents’ mathematics achievement.
Identifying meaningful cognitive and noncognitive predictors of mathematical competence is critical for developing targeted interventions for students struggling with mathematics. Here, 317 students’ short-term verbal memory, verbal and visuospatial working memory, complex spatial abilities, intelligence, and mathematics attitudes and anxiety were assessed, and their teachers reported on their attentive behavior in 7th-grade mathematics classrooms. Bayesian regression models revealed that complex spatial abilities and in-class attention were the most plausible predictors of 7th-grade mathematics, but not word reading...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - July 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effects of spatial training on mathematics in first and sixth grade children.
A pretest-training-posttest design assessed whether training to improve spatial skills also improved mathematics performance in elementary-aged children. First grade students (mean age = 7 years, n = 134) and sixth grade students (mean age = 12 years, n = 124) completed training in 1 of 2 spatial skills—spatial visualization or form perception/VSWM—or in a nonspatial control condition that featured language arts training. Spatial training led to better overall mathematics performance in both grades, and the gains were significantly greater than for language arts training. The same effects were found regardless ...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - July 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Social contagion and high school dropout: The role of friends, romantic partners, and siblings.
Social contagion theories suggest that adolescents in relationships with same-age high school dropouts should be at a greater risk of dropping out themselves. Yet, few studies have examined this premise, and none have considered all potentially influential same-age intimates, focusing instead on only either friends or siblings. Moreover, a key influence in adolescents’ social worlds, romantic partners, has been ignored. The goal of this study was to provide a comprehensive view of dropout contagion by considering occurrences of dropout among friends, siblings, and romantic partners. Data came from a sample of Canadia...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - June 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Differential benefits of explicit failure-driven and success-driven scaffolding in problem-solving prior to instruction.
We report empirical evidence from a classroom intervention (N = 221), where we designed scaffolds to explicitly push student problem-solving toward success via structuring, but also toward failure via problematizing. Our rationale for explicit failure scaffolding was rooted in facilitating problem-space exploration. We subsequently compared the differential preparatory effects of success-driven and failure-driven problem-solving on learning from follow-up instruction. Results suggested that failure-driven scaffolding (nudging students to generate suboptimal solutions) and success-driven scaffolding (nudging students to gen...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - June 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Patterns of preschool teachers’ use of discourse strategies with individual Spanish-speaking dual language learners.
Person-oriented approaches can be used to identify how teachers may draw upon a combination of strategies when interacting with individual children. For nearly 1 third of children under the age of 8 who come from a household where a language other than English is spoken, it is crucial to identify patterns of teachers’ use of discourse strategies that are hypothesized as being particularly important in supporting their unique developmental strengths and needs. The current study used latent profile analysis to (a) describe patterns of child-level experiences of teachers’ use of discourse strategies among a low-in...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - June 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Co-occurring trajectories of internalizing and externalizing problems from grades 1 to 12: Longitudinal associations with teacher-child relationship quality and academic performance.
This investigation examined patterns of codeveloping internalizing and externalizing problems from early childhood through adolescence (i.e., Grades 1 to 12). Subgroups of children with heterogeneous developmental trajectories (i.e., pure and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems) were identified and their long-term associations with teacher-child relationship quality and academic (math and reading) performance were assessed. Findings were based on a sample of 784 children (52.6% girls) who were followed from Grade 1 (Mage = 6.57) to Grade 12 (Mage = 17.57). Children’s internalizing problems, external...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - June 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Moderators of dimensional comparison effects: A comprehensive replication study putting prior findings on five moderators to the test and going beyond.
We examined the effects of all moderators within a sample of 1,424 students in Germany by conducting latent moderated structural equation modeling within the framework of the internal/external frame of reference model. Only two moderators showed significant influences on the strength of the dimensional comparison effects: The dimensional comparison effects on students’ math and German self-concepts were stronger, the more students believed in the negative interdependence of math and verbal abilities, and the more dissimilar they perceived the subjects math and German to be. These moderating effects also persisted if ...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - June 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Trajectories of self-determined motivation during the secondary school: A growth mixture analysis.
Based on an accelerated longitudinal design involving three cohorts of secondary school students followed during 3 consecutive school years, this study had three main objectives. First, we sought to identify different profiles of students following distinct trajectories of self-determined motivation over the secondary school years. Second, we examined whether different sources of relatedness (father, mother, teachers, peers) predict membership to these motivational trajectory profiles. Third, we looked at the consequences of these motivational trajectory profiles in terms of adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Nine hundred ...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - June 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Dimensional comparison effects on (gendered) educational choices.
Expectancy-value theory (EVT) proposes that students’ appraisals of success expectancy and task value are the main drivers of their study and career choices. Dimensional comparison theory proposes that these beliefs are themselves affected by students comparing their ability across different domains. However, only a few studies have aimed to integrate these approaches and clarify the role of dimensional comparisons within EVT. Using longitudinal data, we aimed to fill this gap by studying within- and cross-domain effects of achievement (grades and test scores), academic self-concept (as a surrogate for expectancy bel...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - June 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Not all sentences are created equal: Evaluating the relation between children’s understanding of basic and difficult sentences and their reading comprehension.
The sentences in texts are far more complex and diverse than those that children commonly encounter in oral language. This raises interesting questions as to whether the understanding of some sentence types might be more important than others in children’s reading comprehension. Accordingly, we examined the relation between children’s reading comprehension and their understanding of two types of sentences: one we label as basic sentences, which are common in both oral and written language, and the other we label as difficult sentences, which are more restricted to written language. One hundred and four English-...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - June 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The effect of epistemic cognition interventions on academic achievement: A meta-analysis.
Epistemic cognition involves the thinking executed as people discern what they know versus what they question, doubt, or disbelieve. Effective or adaptive epistemic cognition underlies the higher-order thinking required for life in the 21st century and has been positively correlated with academic achievement. As such, researchers have designed a number of educational interventions with the goal of developing students’ epistemic cognition, but no comprehensive examination of their efficacy exists. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to better understand the effect of epistemic cognition interventions upon academic...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - June 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How students’ perceptions of teaching quality in one subject are impacted by the grades they receive in another subject: Dimensional comparisons in student evaluations of teaching quality.
According to dimensional comparison theory (DCT), students evaluate their ability in one domain (e.g., math) by comparing their achievement in that domain with their achievement in other domains (e.g., English). Primarily in research on students’ academic self-concept, these comparison processes have been found to lead to positive associations within subjects (e.g., the better the student’s achievement in math, the higher that student’s math self-concept) but negative associations between subjects (e.g., better skills in math than in English lead to a relatively lower self-concept in English than in math;...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - May 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Some stress is good stress: The challenge-hindrance framework, academic self-efficacy, and academic outcomes.
Historically, most investigations involving stress have assumed its undesirability, and deleterious effects have been identified across a variety of domains. Recently, however, researchers in management and health have differentiated between types of stress, and revealed a more complicated picture as a result. Specifically, stressors perceived as goal-relevant and manageable (i.e., challenging) are thought to increase motivation, performance, and well-being, while stressors viewed as goal-relevant but unmanageable (i.e., hindering) are believed to hamper performance and occasion maladaptive behaviors. Empirical support for...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - April 6, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Understanding the relation between boredom and academic performance in postsecondary students.
Prior research has proposed that boredom and academic performance are reciprocally causal of one another. The present study sought to better understand the relationship between boredom and academic performance by, for the first time: distinguishing between boredom proneness, state boredom, and judgments of task boringness; conducting experiments in the laboratory where extraneous variables could be better controlled; and using experimental manipulation for causal conclusions. Study 1 examined the naturally occurring relationship between state boredom and performance on a word list recall task in the laboratory. Study 2 tes...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - April 6, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Reading prosody unpacked: A longitudinal investigation of its dimensionality and relation with word reading and listening comprehension for children in primary grades.
We investigated the dimensionality of various indicators of reading prosody, and the relations of word reading and listening comprehension to the identified dimension(s) of reading prosody, using longitudinal data from Grades 1 to 3. A total of 371 English-speaking children were assessed on oral text reading, word reading, and listening comprehension in the fall and spring of each year (i.e., 6 waves of data). From oral text reading, reading prosody was evaluated on pause structures (pause duration, pause frequency) and pitch (intonation contour, F₀ change) using spectrographic analysis, and on expressiveness, smoothness...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - April 6, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Learning goal orientation in high-ability and average-ability students: Developmental trajectories, contextual predictors, and long-term educational outcomes.
In this study, we utilized a sample of 5,172 students to study the development of learning goal orientation in high-ability versus average-ability students across late elementary and early secondary school. Additionally, we investigated the association of perceived learning support from teachers and peers with this development. Finally, we examined the predictive value of learning goal orientation for the secondary school outcomes grade retention and nonacademic track pursuit. We found that high-ability students had lower initial learning goal orientation than their peers, and this remained lower across the transition to s...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - April 6, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Improving reading comprehension, science domain knowledge, and reading engagement through a first-grade content literacy intervention.
This study investigated the effectiveness of the Model of Reading Engagement (MORE), a content literacy intervention, on first graders’ science domain knowledge, reading engagement, and reading comprehension. The MORE intervention emphasizes the role of domain knowledge and reading engagement in supporting reading comprehension. MORE lessons included a 10-day thematic unit that provided a framework for students to connect new learning to a meaningful schema (i.e., Arctic animal survival) and to pursue mastery goals for acquiring domain knowledge. A total of 38 first-grade classrooms (N = 674 students) within 10 eleme...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - March 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Immersive virtual reality increases liking but not learning with a science simulation and generative learning strategies promote learning in immersive virtual reality.
In conclusion, learning in IVR is not more effective than learning with video but incorporating generative learning strategies is specifically effective when learning through IVR. The results suggest that the value of IVR for learning science depends on how it is integrated into a classroom lesson. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: Journal of Educational Psychology)
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - March 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Putting fractions together.
Learning fractions is a critical step in children’s mathematical development. However, many children struggle with learning fractions, especially fraction arithmetic. In this article, we propose a general framework for integrating understanding of individual fractions and fraction arithmetic, and we use the framework to generate interventions intended to improve understanding of both individual fractions and fraction addition. The framework, Putting Fractions Together (PFT), emphasizes that both individual fractions and sums of fractions are composed of unit fractions and can be represented by concatenating them (put...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - March 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Does the interleaving effect extend to unrelated concepts? Learners’ beliefs versus empirical evidence.
When learning new information, should students focus on studying 1 concept at a time or should they alternate studying between different concepts? Recent research shows that students should mix up or interleave the study of different concepts, particularly when the concepts are related or hard to discriminate (Carvalho & Goldstone, 2015). But students rarely study only 1 course, so how should the study of unrelated courses be sequenced? Should the study sessions be blocked by course to avoid unproductive juxtapositions or be interleaved across different courses because it inherently involves spaced practice, which is a...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - March 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The moderating effects of psychosocial factors on achievement gains: A longitudinal study.
The moderating effects of motivation, social control, and self-regulation in predicting academic achievement were examined in Grades 11–12 for 3,281 seventh through nine graders. Standardized assessments of college readiness and student self-reported measures of psychosocial factors were used in the study. The results showed that females in Grades 7–9 scored higher than males for motivation and self-regulation. In predicting later achievement in Grades 11–12, motivation and social control moderated prior achievement, whereas self-regulation moderated both sex and prior achievement. Particularly among fema...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - March 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Explorations of classroom talk and links to reading achievement in upper elementary classrooms.
The current study reports on a large-scale quantitative analysis of classroom talk practices and links to different measures of reading achievement within upper elementary classrooms. Data involving 745 fourth- and fifth-grade teachers and 18,844 students from the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) study were used. Talk was quantified via various talk-related indicators from 2 observation protocols and a student survey. Dimensionality analyses suggest these indicators represent 4 factors consisting of teacher explaining, questioning, encouraging of student talk, and big-picture communicating. Links to 2 different standar...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - March 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Closing the word-problem achievement gap in first grade: Schema-based word-problem intervention with embedded language comprehension instruction.
The main purpose of this study was to test the effects of word-problem (WP) intervention, with versus without embedded language comprehension (LC) instruction, on at-risk 1st graders’ WP performance. We also isolated the need for a structured approach to WP intervention and tested the efficacy of schema-based instruction at 1st grade. Children (n = 391; Mage = 6.53, SD = 0.32) were randomly assigned to 4 conditions: schema-based WP intervention with embedded language instruction, the same WP intervention but without LC instruction, structured number knowledge (NK) intervention without a structured WP component, and a...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - February 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Peer social acceptance and academic achievement: A meta-analytic study.
Using meta-analytic techniques, we examined systematically the evidence linking peer social acceptance to academic achievement. Based on 72 studies that yielded 157 effect sizes, we analyzed relations between social acceptance and academic outcomes (e.g., academic grades, test scores), including the extent to which relations were moderated by sex, grade level (primary vs. secondary), culture (country of origin), and measurement strategies (peer nomination vs. rating strategies; classroom-based vs. standardized indicators of achievement); and mediated by motivation (self-concept, affective outcomes) and active engagement. A...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - February 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Using the selection, optimization, and compensation model of action-regulation to explain college students’ grades and study satisfaction.
Statistics on study disruptions and delays and their negative impact on academic performance call for action-regulation strategies that students can use to manage their performance and well-being. In the present research, we rely on the action-regulation model of selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC), which was developed in the life span developmental literature. The aim of the present study was to establish indirect links between two specific SOC components (i.e., elective selection and optimization) and study outcomes (i.e., end-of-first-year average grade and study satisfaction) through higher self-efficacy be...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - February 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Elementary students’ cognitive and affective responses to impasses during mathematics problem solving.
We propose a model delineating the role of control, value, and cognitive disequilibrium in elementary students’ experience of emotions during mathematics problem solving. We tested this model across 2 studies. In Study 1, using an explanatory mixed-methods design, 136 students from Grades 3 to 6 worked on a complex mathematics problem appropriate for their grade level. A think-aloud protocol was used to capture cognitive processes, and trend analyses were applied to students’ transcriptions to assess convergence or divergence of the quantitative results and to provide a richer account of students’ experie...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - February 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The effects of historical reading and writing strategy instruction with fourth- through sixth-grade students.
In this quasi-experimental study, 608 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students explored 5 historical investigations. In the experimental condition, teachers used a cognitive apprenticeship model to teach students historical reading and writing strategies. Comparison teachers used the same materials to deliver a business-as-usual form of instruction. Random assignment was at the individual level for fourth and fifth graders and at the classroom level for sixth graders. After controlling for gender, ethnicity, and pretest scores, the findings indicated that experimental students outperformed their peers in control classroom...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - February 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Black–White achievement gaps differ by family socioeconomic status from early childhood through early adolescence.
Theory and limited research indicate that race and socioeconomic status (SES) interact dynamically to shape children’s developmental contexts and academic achievement, but little scholarship examines how race and SES intersect to shape Black–White achievement gaps across development. We used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–99 (N ≈ 9,100)—which tracks a nationally representative cohort of children in the United States—to investigate how race and family SES (i.e., parental education and household income) intersect to shape trajectories of academ...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - February 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Using process data to explain group differences in complex problem solving.
In large-scale assessments, performance differences across different groups are regularly found. These group differences (e.g., gender differences) are often relevant for educational policy decisions and measures. However, the formation of these group differences usually remains unclear. We propose an approach for investigating this formation by considering behavioral process measures as mediating variables between group membership and performance on the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment complex problem solving (CPS) items. We found that across all investigated countries interactive behavior can fully exp...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - January 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The componential model of reading in bilingual learners.
We examined the direct and indirect contributions of these 3 domains to reading comprehension in bilingual learners. Participants included 124 bilingual children in Grades 4 through 6 who spoke Chinese as their first language. They were administered a battery of language and literacy measures, and motivation and acculturation questionnaires. Additionally, the participants’ parents completed a home literacy environment questionnaire in Chinese. Using structural equation modeling, we found direct effects of the cognitive and psychological domains on reading comprehension. The ecological domain only had an indirect infl...
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology - January 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research