Introduction to Dual-Energy Computed Tomography
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - November 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Communication Between Arachnoid Cysts and Neighboring Cerebrospinal Fluid Spaces by T2W 3D-SPACE With Variant Flip-Angle Technique at 3 T
Purpose Phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) is a widely used technique for determination of possible communication of arachnoid cysts (ACs). Three-dimensional (3D) sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts using different flip-angle evolutions (3D-SPACE) technique is a relatively new method for 3D isotropic scanning of the entire cranium within a short time. In this research, the usage of the 3D-SPACE technique in differentiation of communicating or noncommunicating type ACs was evaluated. Materials and Methods Thirty-five ACs in 34 patients were retrospectively examined. The 3D-SPAC...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Neuroradiology Source Type: research

Survival Associations Using Perfusion and Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients With Histologic and Genetic Defined Diffuse Glioma World Health Organization Grades II and III
Objective According to the new World Health Organization 2016 classification for tumors of the central nervous system, 1p/19q codeletion defines the genetic hallmark that differentiates oligodendrogliomas from diffuse astrocytomas. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis can stratify survival in adult patients with genetic defined diffuse glioma grades II and III. Methods Sixty-seven patients with untreated diffuse gliomas World Health Organization grades II and III and known 1p/19q codeletion status were included re...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Neuroradiology Source Type: research

Opportunistic Bone Density Measurement on Abdomen and Pelvis Computed Tomography to Predict Fracture Risk in Women Aged 50 to 64 Years Without Osteoporosis Risk Factors
Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate opportunistic vertebral bone density measurement in abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) to predict future osteoporotic fracture in women aged 50 to 64 years without known osteoporosis risk factors. Methods Consecutive female patients 50 to 64 years old without osteoporosis risk factors with 2 CT examinations more than 10 years apart were included. Vertebral height and bone density in each vertebra from T10 to L5 were measured. Vertebral fractures were diagnosed on CT preformed 10 years after the original CT and through online medical records. Results Thirty (...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Musculoskeletal Imaging Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Evaluating the Effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Marrow Adiposity in Postmenopausal Women With Osteopenia
Objective Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) could promote osteogenic differentiation and suppress adipogenic differentiation in bone mesenchymal stem cells ex vivo. However, data on the effect of PEMF on marrow adiposity in humans remain elusive. We aimed to determine the in vivo effect of PEMF on marrow adiposity in postmenopausal women using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Methods Sixty-one postmenopausal women with osteopenia, aged 53 to 85 years, were randomly assigned to receive either PEMF treatment or placebo. The session was performed 3 times per week for 6 months. All women received adequate dietary calc...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Musculoskeletal Imaging Source Type: research

Rotator Cuff Tear Morphologic Parameters at Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Relationship With Muscle Atrophy and Fatty Infiltration and Patient-Reported Function and Health-Related Quality of Life
Conclusions The extent of supraspinatus tendon and musculotendinous junction retraction influences the development of supraspinatus muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration, whereas the extent of infraspinatus tendon tear width influences the development of infraspinatus muscle fatty infiltration. Morphologic parameters defining RCT at magnetic resonance imaging did not correlate with clinical shoulder function scores. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Musculoskeletal Imaging Source Type: research

An Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Histogram Method Versus a Traditional 2-Dimensional Measurement Method for Identifying Non–Puerperal Mastitis From Breast Cancer at 3.0 T
This study aimed to investigate the utility of a volumetric apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram method for distinguishing non–puerperal mastitis (NPM) from breast cancer (BC) and to compare this method with a traditional 2-dimensional measurement method. Materials and Methods Pretreatment diffusion-weighted imaging data at 3.0 T were obtained for 80 patients (NPM, n = 27; BC, n = 53) and were retrospectively assessed. Two readers measured ADC values according to 2 distinct region-of-interest (ROI) protocols. The first protocol included the generation of ADC histograms for each lesion, and various parame...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Breast Imaging Source Type: research

Solid Papillary Carcinoma of the Breast: Magnetic Resonance Mammography, Digital Mammography, and Ultrasound Findings
Conclusion Although SPC was difficult to detect in both DM and US, MRM gave better detection of this rare tumor. The MRM characteristics of SPC were distinct and highly similar to its clinicopathological features. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Breast Imaging Source Type: research

Perforation of a Peptic Ulcer in a Hiatal Hernia Into the Left Ventricle With Systemic Air and Food Embolism
Perforation of a peptic ulcer into the ventricle is uncommon, and the definitive diagnosis is difficult in living patients. We herein report a case of perforation of a peptic ulcer in a hiatal hernia into the left ventricle with systemic air and food embolism. This is the first case report of the perforation diagnosed by computed tomography and confirmed by autopsy. Computed tomography was useful for the diagnosis of perforation into the ventricle. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Cardiovascular and Thoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Pulmonary Emphysema Quantification on Ultra–Low-Dose Computed Tomography Using Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction With or Without Lung Setting
Conclusion Model-based iterative reconstruction improved the agreement between ULDCT and SDCT on emphysema quantification. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Cardiovascular and Thoracic Imaging Source Type: research

The Accuracy of Left Ventricular and Left Atrial Volumetry Using 64-Slice Computed Tomography: In Vitro Validation Study With Human Cardiac Cadaveric Casts
Conclusions Cardiac CT is both accurate and reproducible in assessment of left ventricular and atrial chamber volumes. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Cardiovascular and Thoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Carotid Artery Tortuosity Index Is Associated With the Need for Early Aortic Root Replacement in Patients With Loeys-Dietz Syndrome
This study aimed to determine if carotid arterial tortuosity represents a marker of disease severity in Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS). Methods Fifty-four 54 LDS patients (mean age, 17.0 years) who underwent computed tomogram angiography from January 2004 to December 2013 were retrospectively identified. Carotid artery tortuosity index (CATI) was calculated from computed tomogram angiography. Clinical variables were obtained from the medical records. Relationship between CATI and need for aortic root replacement was evaluated with Cox proportional hazard model and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results Higher CATI was associated...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Cardiovascular and Thoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Single-Shot Coronary Quiescent-Interval Slice-Selective Magnetic Resonance Angiography Using Compressed Sensing: A Feasibility Study in Patients With Congenital Heart Disease
Conclusions This study shows that it is feasible to visualize the coronary origins in patients with CHD with clinically acceptable to good image quality using single-shot coronary QISS MRA with CS. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Cardiovascular and Thoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Evaluation of Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery and Arrhythmia-Insensitive Rapid Cardiac T1 Mapping Pulse Sequences in Cardiomyopathy Patients
Objective The aim of this study was to compare the performance of arrhythmia-insensitive rapid (AIR) and modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) T1 mapping in patients with cardiomyopathies. Methods In 58 patients referred for clinical cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T, we compared MOLLI and AIR native and postcontrast T1 measurements. Two readers independently analyzed myocardial and blood T1 values. Agreement between techniques, interreader agreement per technique, and intrascan agreement per technique were evaluated. Results The MOLLI and AIR T1 values were strongly correlated (r2 = 0.98); howe...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Cardiovascular and Thoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Intrahepatic Splenosis: Incidental Liver Lesion after Splenectomy
We describe the case of a 50-year-old man with history of remote splenectomy who underwent routine lung cancer screening chest computed tomography and was incidentally found to have a liver lesion. Dedicated liver protocol computed tomography demonstrated “archiform” enhancement pattern in the arterial phase and homogenous filling-in enhancement on portal venous and delayed phases. Multiple other smaller enhancing intraperitoneal lesions were also found. These findings along with history of splenectomy confirmed a diagnosis of intrahepatic and intraperitoneal splenosis and helped avoid biopsy. Intrahepatic sple...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal Imaging Source Type: research

Acute Appendicitis Involving a De Garengeot Hernia
We present a case of appendicitis within a De Garengeot hernia. The patient presented to the emergency department with 4 days of worsening abdominal pain. Computed tomography examination revealed an inflamed appendix within a femoral hernia. The patient underwent appendectomy and repair of the femoral defect. Pathological examination was consistent with acute appendicitis. De Garengeot hernia is a rare phenomenon, with less than 5% of femoral hernias containing the appendix and 0.08% to 0.13% containing an incarcerated acute appendicitis. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal Imaging Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features of Endometrial Polyps: Frequency of Occurrence and Interobserver Reliability
Conclusion Magnetic resonance imaging is moderately sensitive for detecting endometrial polyps, demonstrating features that are not sensitive but can be specific, with moderate interobserver agreement. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal Imaging Source Type: research

Evaluation of Clinical Plus Imaging Features and Multidetector Computed Tomography Texture Analysis in Preoperative Risk Grade Prediction of Small Bowel Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
Conclusion Texture analysis may become an important comprehensive tool for preoperative risk stratification of SB GISTs. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal Imaging Source Type: research

Computed Tomographic Features of Primary Small Cell Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Gallbladder
Conclusion Primary small cell neuroendocrine tumors of the gallbladder predominantly presents as a large, heterogeneous gallbladder mass with extraluminal growth in association with large metastatic lymph nodes and intrahepatic metastases. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal Imaging Source Type: research

Accuracy of Automated Liver Contouring, Fat Fraction, and R2* Measurement on Gradient Multiecho Magnetic Resonance Images
This study aimed to evaluate the performance of an automated workflow of volumetric liver proton density fat fraction (PDFFvol) and R2* quantification with automated inline liver volume (LV) segmentation. Methods Dual-echo and multiecho Dixon magnetic resonance images were evaluated in 74 consecutive patients (group A, PDFF (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal Imaging Source Type: research

Diagnostic Value of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in Assessment of the Activity of Crohn Disease: 1.5 or 3 T
Conclusions Diffusion-weighted imaging hypersensitivity and apparent diffusion coefficient values accurately assessed the activity of CD. No significant statistical difference in diagnostic accuracy was detected between 1.5 and 3 T. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal Imaging Source Type: research

The Value of Modified Renal Rim Grade in Predicting Acute Kidney Injury Following Severe Acute Pancreatitis
Objective To retrospectively determine the value of modified renal rim grade (MRRG) in predicting acute kidney injury (AKI) in the early phase of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Methods This institutional review board–approved retrospective study included patients with SAP who underwent abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) within 48 hours after disease onset. Modified renal rim grade, renal rim grade, CT severity index, modified CT severity index, extrapancreatic inflammation on CT scores, and posterior pararenal (PPR) space involvement were assessed. Clinical data, including bedside index of se...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal Imaging Source Type: research

Risk Factors Associated With Incomplete Colonoscopy Based on the Analysis of Computed Tomographic Colonography Findings
This study aimed to identify the computed tomographic colonography (CTC) findings of incomplete colonoscopy compared with those of complete colonoscopy. Methods The clinical data and CTC imaging data from January 2004 to December 2012 were retrospectively obtained at 2 different institutions and reviewed by the central review system. A total of 71 patients who underwent both videocolonoscopy and CTC were included in this study. The CTC findings and clinical data were evaluated for the completeness of colonoscopy. Results In the CTC analysis, differences in total colon length, abdominal circumference, and sigmoid colo...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal Imaging Source Type: research

Gadoxetic Acid–Enhanced Hepatobiliary-Phase Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Delineation of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia: Superiority of High-Flip-Angle Imaging
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether hepatobiliary-phase (HBP) flip-angle (FA) increase to 25° improves conspicuity of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and enables HBP delay reduction. Methods This was a retrospective study of 23 patients with 46 FNHs. In each patient, HBP was performed with reduced-delay high FA (early/high), standard-delay high FA (late/high), and standard-delay standard FA (standard). Relative enhancement of liver and FNH periphery, FNH periphery–to–liver contrast ratio, and FNH periphery–to–central scar contrast ratio were compared between each HBP....
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal Imaging Source Type: research

Evaluation of Stomach Neoplasms With 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography: Focus on the Potential Role of Cinematic Rendering
Evaluation of stomach neoplasms by traditional 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography methods such as volume rendering and maximum-intensity projection plays an important role in lesion detection and characterization, preoperative planning, staging, and follow-up. Recently, a new 3D visualization method has become available known as cinematic rendering (CR). This novel technique makes use of a complex global lighting model to impart photorealistic levels of detail to 3D images. Although this new technique has yet to be systematically studied for the evaluation of stomach neoplasms, its intrinsic ability to create realistic...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - September 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal Imaging Source Type: research

How Well Does Dual-Energy Computed Tomography With Metal Artifact Reduction Software Improve Image Quality and Quantify Computed Tomography Number and Iodine Concentration?
The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of the quantitative measurements obtained using dual-energy computed tomography with metal artifact reduction software (MARS). Methods Dual-energy computed tomography scans (fast kV-switching) are performed on a phantom, by varying the number of metal rods (Ti and Pb) and reference iodine materials. Objective and subjective image analyses are performed on retroreconstructed virtual monochromatic images (VMIs) (VMI at 70 keV). Results The maximum artifact indices for VMI-Ti and VMI-Pb (5 metal rods) with MARS (without MARS) were 17.4 (166.7) and 34.6 (810.6), resp...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: CT Phyics Source Type: research

Quantitative Comparison of Virtual Monochromatic Images of Dual Energy Computed Tomography Systems: Beam Hardening Artifact Correction and Variance in Computed Tomography Numbers A Phantom Study
Objective The aim of this study was to quantitatively compare the reduction in beam hardening artifact (BHA) and variance in computed tomography (CT) numbers of virtual monochromatic energy (VME) images obtained with 3 dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) systems at a given radiation dose. Methods Five different iodine concentrations were scanned using dual-energy and single-energy (120 kVp) modes. The BHA and CT number variance were evaluated. Results For higher iodine concentrations, 40 and 80 mgI/mL, BHA on VME imaging was significantly decreased when the energy was higher than 50 keV (P = 0.003) and 60 keV (P...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: CT Phyics Source Type: research

Whole-lesion Apparent Diffusion Coefficient First- and Second-Order Texture Features for the Characterization of Rectal Cancer Pathological Factors
The objective of this study was to explore the value of whole-volume apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) features in characterizing pathologic features of rectal cancer. Methods A total of 50 patients who were diagnosed with rectal cancer via biopsy underwent 3-T pretreatment diffusion-weighted imaging. Apparent diffusion coefficient features, including mean, 10th–90th percentile, Entropy and Entropy(H), derived from whole-lesion volumes were compared between pathologic T1–2 and T3 stages, perineural invasion (PNI) present and absent, lymphangiovascular invasion present and absent, and pathological N0 and N...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal Imaging Source Type: research

Significance and Prevalence of Haziness Surrounding the Hepatic Artery and Celiac Axis on Computed Tomographic Imaging After Pancreaticoduodenectomy
Conclusions Mild to moderate soft tissue stranding with increased attenuation around the hepatic artery and celiac axis is a common finding after pancreaticoduodenectomy that may persist for years after surgery. Such haziness alone has low specificity for tumor recurrence and should not be regarded as an indicator of malignancy. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal Imaging Source Type: research

Computed Diffusion Weighted Imaging of the Liver Using Extrapolation Technique in Patients Who Underwent Liver Transplantation With Hepatocellular Carcinomas: Initial Experience and Feasibility Study
Conclusions In computed DWI of high b-values, contrast between HCC and background liver was very low. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal Imaging Source Type: research

Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Simulating Thoracic Aortic Dissection
We present a 70-year-old woman who had an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) in its deflated state in the aorta during a computed tomography angiogram scan. The scan was performed to assess for aortic dissection. The deflated IABP created a curvilinear filling defect in the aortic lumen that suggested an intimal flap. Herein, we described the finding and suggest key features that can help distinguish between this intra-aortic device and a true dissection. This distinction between the device and aortic dissection is not only important because of the potential pitfall of a false positive diagnosis but also because an IABP itse...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Cardiothoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Motion Artifact Reduction From High-Pitch Dual-Source Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography
Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare quantitative and qualitative measures of aortic, cardiac, and respiratory motion artifact between high-pitch dual-source (DS) and single-source (SS) computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) protocols. Methods This institutional review board–approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act–compliant study retrospectively reviewed 80 non–electrocardiogram-gated CTPA examinations acquired with a second-generation DS system at 100 kVp following 50 mL iodinated contrast injection — 40 consecutive SS and 40 consecutive DS studies. ...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Cardiothoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Dual-Energy Computed Tomography–Based Iodine Quantitation for Response Evaluation of Lung Cancers to Chemoradiotherapy/Radiotherapy: A Comparison With Fluorine-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography–Based Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Response Evaluation Criterion in Solid Tumors
The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between dual-energy computed tomography (DECT)–based iodine quantitation and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging for response evaluation of lung cancers to treatment. Methods In this prospective study, a total of 32 pairs of DECT and 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging acquired consecutively from 13 patients with primary or metastatic lung cancers receiving either radiotherapy alone or chemoradiotherapy were analyzed. Imaging examinations were performed before, immediately, and no later than 6...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Cardiothoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Focal Myocardial Damage in Cardiac Sarcoidosis Characterized by Strain Analysis on Magnetic Resonance Tagged Imaging in Comparison with Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Accumulation and Magnetic Resonance Late Gadolinium Enhancement
Objective The aims of this study were to characterize focal myocardial damage of cardiac sarcoidosis by strain analysis and to compare it with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography. Methods We reviewed 208 segments from 13 cardiac sarcoidosis patients and measured the circumferential strain (Ecc) and the strain change per second (Ecc rate). The mean Ecc and Ecc rate values were compared between the FDG(+) and FDG(−), and the LGE(+) and LGE(−) segments using Welch's t test. Results The peak and max Ecc rates were better in the LGE(−) segments th...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Cardiothoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Are There Imaging Characteristics Associated With Different Histologic Subtypes on Computed Tomography?
Conclusions Calcified plaques are significantly more common in nonepithelioid subtypes compared with eMPM. Given the different prognoses and management of MPM subtypes, accurate noninvasive subtype classification is clinically vital. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Cardiothoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Usefulness of Volume Perfusion Computed Tomography in Differentiating Histologic Subtypes of Thymic Epithelial Tumors
Conclusions These results suggest that VPCT could be useful in differentiating LRTs from HRTs and TCs preoperatively. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Cardiothoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Effect of Leptin on Marrow Adiposity in Ovariectomized Rabbits Assessed by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Objective Leptin acts to influence bone metabolism through indirect hypothalamic relay and direct peripheral pathways. Leptin enhances the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to the osteoblast rather than the adipocyte lineage, but the in vivo impacts of leptin on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced marrow adiposity are poorly understood. In this work, we aimed to address this question. Methods Forty-five female New Zealand rabbits were divided into sham + vehicle, OVX + vehicle, and OVX + leptin for 5 months. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were performed to longitudinally evaluate ma...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Musculoskeletal Imaging Source Type: research

Utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Predicting Severity of Sciatic Nerve Injury
Conclusions The MR characterization of PNI severity remains challenging. Useful features indicative of high-grade PNI include bulbous enlargement, perineural fibrosis, muscle denervation changes, and nerve discontinuity. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Musculoskeletal Imaging Source Type: research

T2-Weighted Dixon Turbo Spin Echo for Accelerated Simultaneous Grading of Whole-Body Skeletal Muscle Fat Infiltration and Edema in Patients With Neuromuscular Diseases
Conclusions T2-weighted Dixon TSE imaging is an alternative for accelerated simultaneous grading of whole-body skeletal muscle fat infiltration and edema in patients with NMDs. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Musculoskeletal Imaging Source Type: research

Differences Between Subtalar Instability and Lateral Ankle Instability Focusing on Subtalar Ligaments Based on Three Dimensional Isotropic Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Conclusion In patients with STI, the ACL is thin and narrow and more commonly absent or torn compared with patients with LAI. Complete tear of ATFL was more common in patients with LAI. Complete tear of CFL was commonly encountered in both the STI and LAI groups. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Musculoskeletal Imaging Source Type: research

Comparison Between Isotropic 3-Dimensional Fat-Suppressed T2-Weighted Fast Spin Echo (FSE) and Conventional 2-Dimensional Fat-Suppressed Proton-Weighted FSE Shoulder Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3-T in Patients With Shoulder Pain
Objective The aims of this study were to compare isotropic 3-dimensional fat-suppressed T2-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) imaging (T2FS) with 2-dimensional fat-suppressed proton-density–weighted FSE imaging (2D-PDFS) and evaluate feasibility of isotropic 3-dimensional FSE shoulder imaging at 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Seventy-eight patients who underwent shoulder MRI were evaluated. Three-dimensional T2FS and 2D-PDFS were qualitatively graded for delineation of anatomic structures. In quantitative analysis, mean relative signal intensity and relative signal contrast between each structure of th...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Musculoskeletal Imaging Source Type: research

The Ability of Dual-Energy Computed Tomography to Distinguish Normal Bone Marrow From Metastases Using Bone Marrow Color Maps
Conclusions Dual-energy computed-tomography bone marrow color map analysis of patients with metastatic cancers can improve the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and confidence level for the detection of bone metastases. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Musculoskeletal Imaging Source Type: research

Imaging Findings in Papillary Breast Lesions: An Analysis of Ductal Findings on Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasound
This study aims to analyze the imaging features of dilated ducts or ductal extension/relation of masses detected by ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to correlate the results obtained through these 2 different imaging methods. Furthermore, the ability of the ductal relation pattern in differentiating benign and malignant lesions was explored. Methods and Materials Magnetic resonance imaging and US findings of 56 patients who had a pathologic diagnosis of papillary lesion were examined. Ductal findings were classified into four types for both imaging methods: intraductal form, extraductal form, mix...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Breast Imaging Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features of Breast Encapsulated Papillary Carcinoma
Conclusions A well-defined cystic-solid mixed mass with mural nodules, or a circumscribed mass exhibiting the possibility of hemorrhage, may suggest the diagnosis of EPC. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Breast Imaging Source Type: research

Preliminary Study on Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Texture Analysis
Conclusions The fine results indicated a promising approach to predict the molecular subtypes of breast cancer. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Breast Imaging Source Type: research

“Barbell Sign”: A Diagnostic Imaging Finding in Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
We describe a case series of patients with visual symptoms and a typical pattern of brain involvement in definite progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, for which we have coined the term barbell sign. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Neuroimaging Source Type: research

Dependence of Scan Parameters on Nerve Fiber Crossing Depiction in Diffusion Spectrum Imaging in Clinical Practice
Conclusions Depiction sensitivity of nerve fiber crossing in DSI improves at higher NS and bmax settings, but a bmax insensitivity appears at an intermediate NS such as 129. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Neuroimaging Source Type: research

11C-Methionine Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Versus 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Evaluation of Residual or Recurrent World Health Organization Grades II and III Meningioma After Treatment
This study was performed in 17 cases with residual and/or recurrent WHO grades II and III meningiomas. Two neuroradiologists reviewed both PET/CT scans. For agreement, the κ coefficient was measured. Difference in tumor-to-normal brain uptake ratios (T/N ratios) between 2 PET/CT scans was analyzed. Correlation between the maximum tumor size and T/N ratio in PET/CT was studied. Results For agreement by both reviewers, the κ coefficient was 0.51 (P (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Neuroimaging Source Type: research

Conventional and Diffusional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features of Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-Like Episodes in Chinese Patients: A Study of 40 Cases
Conclusions This study demonstrates the conventional and diffusional MRI features of MELAS, suggesting a model of acute stroke-like lesions in which the cortex manifest with cytotoxic edema and the subcortical area with vasogenic edema. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Neuroimaging Source Type: research

Differentiating Neuromyelitis Optica–Related and Multiple Sclerosis–Related Acute Optic Neuritis Using Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Combined With Readout-Segmented Echo-Planar Diffusion-Weighted Imaging
Purpose In clinical practice, acute optic neuritis (ON) associated with the development of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) after the first attack is often indistinguishable from that associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to determine the optimal combination of features derived from conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging using readout-segmented echo-planar imaging (RESOLVE-DWI) for the differentiation of these conditions. Materials and Methods Orbital conventional MRI and RESOLVE-DWI were performed using a 3.0-T scanner on 54 patients with acute ON (26 NMO-related and 28 MS-...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - July 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Neuroimaging Source Type: research