Diagnostic Usefulness of Low-Dose Nonenhanced Computed Tomography With Coronal Reformations in Patients With Suspected Acute Appendicitis: A Comparison With Standard-Dose Computed Tomography
Conclusions: Low-dose NECT with coronal reformation showed high diagnostic performance and can be used as the first-line imaging tool in the work-up of patients with suspected acute appendicitis. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal Imaging Source Type: research

The Liver Segmental Volume Ratio for Noninvasive Detection of Cirrhosis: Comparison With Established Linear and Volumetric Measures
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the liver segmental volume ratio (LSVR), a novel volumetric computed tomography measurement, with established linear measurements for differentiating normal from cirrhotic livers. Methods: Hepatic volumes were measured using semiautomated software (Liver Analysis Application, Philips IntelliSpace Portal) on contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography scans in 312 adults, including 108 patients with end-stage liver disease (mean age, 55 years; 63 men/45 women) and 204 healthy controls (potential renal donors; mean age, 46 years; 82 men/122 women). The LSVR was defined as ...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal Imaging Source Type: research

Correction of Motion Artifacts From Shuttle Mode Computed Tomography Acquisitions for Body Perfusion Imaging Applications
Conclusions: Shuttling effects introduced during shuttle-mode CT acquisitions can be computationally corrected for body perfusion applications. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal Imaging Source Type: research

Hepatocellular Carcinoma Histological Grade Prediction: A Quantitative Comparison of Diffusion-Weighted, T2-Weighted, and Hepatobiliary-Phase Magnetic Resonance Imaging
This study aimed to compare quantitative assessments for predicting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) histological grades using magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed magnetic resonance imaging data from 49 patients with 54 surgically resected HCCs (11 well differentiated, 29 moderately differentiated, and 14 poorly differentiated). We measured the lesion-to-liver relative contrast ratio (RCR) on diffusion-weighted (DW), T2-weighted (T2W), and ethoxybenzyl-hepatobiliary images. We also evaluated contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) on DW images, and the apparent diffusion coefficient. We compared the feasi...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal Imaging Source Type: research

Imaging of Rare Primary Malignant Hepatic Tumors in Adults With Histopathological Correlation
Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma are the most common primary liver malignancies in adults (comprising>85%); however, liver is also host to some unusual primary malignant tumors. Some of these tumors show distinct demographic, clinicopathologic, and imaging features. Imaging features of these uncommon primary malignant liver tumors are presented with an attempt to correlate them with histopathology. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal Imaging Source Type: research

Association of Quadriceps Muscle Fat With Isometric Strength Measurements in Healthy Males Using Chemical Shift Encoding-Based Water-Fat Magnetic Resonance Imaging
We presently investigated the association of quadriceps muscle fat with isometric strength measurements in healthy males using chemical shift encoding-based water-fat magnetic resonance imaging. Intermuscular adipose tissue fraction and intramuscular proton density fat fraction correlated significantly (P
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Musculoskeletal Imaging Source Type: research

Feasibility of Dual Flip Angle-Based Fast 3-Dimensional T1 Mapping for Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage of the Knee: A Histologically Controlled Study
Objective: The aim of the study was to validate dual-flip angle-based fast 3-dimensional (3D) T1 mapping for delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cartilage (dGEMRIC) by means of histological analyses in the assessment of the cartilage of the knee in a porcine model. Methods: A total of 15 mini pigs were included in this study. The left knee anterior cruciate ligaments of all mini pigs were transected. The mini pigs were divided into 3 groups postoperatively, with 5 pigs randomly assigned to 1 group. Dual-flip angle-based fast T1 mapping for dGEMRIC was obtained in the sagittal planes at 0 week (...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Musculoskeletal Imaging Source Type: research

The Use of Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Parameters to Identify Possible Signaling Pathways of a Serum Biomarker, HE4
Conclusions: High correlation with MRI parameters related to neoangiogenesis may indicate signaling pathway of HE4. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Breast Imaging Source Type: research

Diffusion-Weighted Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Semiautomated Voxel Selection Technique Improves Interreader Reproducibility of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Measurements
Conclusions: A semiautomated voxel selection tool can improve interreader reproducibility of breast lesion ADC measures. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Breast Imaging Source Type: research

Noninfectious Meningitis Caused by Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Case Series of 4 Patients
We report magnetic resonance imaging findings of 4 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus who presented with noninfectious meningitis by lupus itself. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated diffuse or localized high-signal intensity in subarachnoid spaces on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) or postcontrast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery. Cerebrospinal fluid study revealed no abnormalities other than increased level of proteins. Our report is the first description of magnetic resonance findings in context of leptomeningeal involvement in non-infectious meningitis of patients with systemic l...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Neuroradiology Source Type: research

Evaluating the Microcirculation of Normal Extraocular Muscles Using Quantitative Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Conclusion: The quantitative DCE-MRI can be used as an important and noninvasive technique to evaluate the microcirculation of extraocular muscles. Further investigations for other extraocular muscles diseases by using quantitative DCE-MRI are warranted. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Neuroradiology Source Type: research

Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Differentiation Between Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma and Lymphoma at the Primary Site
Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the utility of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) for differentiating nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) from lymphoma. Methods: Intravoxel incoherent motion–based parameters including the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), pure diffusion coefficient (D), pseudodiffusion coefficient (D*), perfusion fraction (f), and fD* (the product of D* and f) were retrospectively compared between 102 patients (82 with NPC, 20 with lymphoma) who received pretreatment IVIM DWI. Results: Compared with lymphoma, NPC exhibited highe...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Neuroradiology Source Type: research

Paradoxically Decreased Mean Transit Time in Patients Presenting With Acute Stroke
Conclusions: A paradoxical MTT response is a frequent finding in CTP analysis of patients with acute stroke. Its presence is not associated to the location or size of the affected cerebral territory and could be related to the presence of collateral circulation. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Neuroradiology Source Type: research

Low-Voltage, High-Pitch Computerized Tomography Angiography of the Infrarenal Aorta and Lower Extremity Vessels: Assessment of Radiation Dose, Image Quality With Hybrid Iterative Reconstruction, and Efficacy of Test Injection Using a Monitoring Scan at Knee Level
Objectives: Our aim was to assess image quality and radiation dose of low-voltage high-pitch computed tomography angiography of the infrarenal aorta and lower extremities and evaluate the efficacy of test injection technique using a monitoring scan at knee level. Methods: A total of 60 patients with suspected peripheral arterial disease were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (30 patients, 80 kVp, high pitch [3.2], and hybrid iterative reconstruction [sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction]) and group 2 (30 patients, 120 kVp, low pitch [1.0], and filtered back projection reconstruction). The test injection technique at kn...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Cardiovascular Imaging Source Type: research

Characteristics of Coronary Artery to Pulmonary Artery Fistula on Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography
Conclusions: More than half of patients with CPAF had no related symptoms. Coronary artery-to-pulmonary artery fistula may have a single origin or multiple origins. All of the CPAFs coursed anteriorly to the main pulmonary artery and drained into the anterolateral aspect; the CPAFs identified here frequently exhibited aneurysmal changes. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Cardiovascular Imaging Source Type: research

Role of Cardiac Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Coronary Artery Stenosis in Patients With Ascending Aorta Aneurysm Detected at Transthoracic Echocardiography
Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of cardiac computed tomography (CCT) in the evaluation of coronary artery stenosis in patients with ascending aorta aneurysm detected at transthoracic echocardiography. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with an aneurysm 45 mm or greater at transthoracic echocardiography who underwent CCT from 2012 to 2014 in our hospital. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of CCT for the assessment of coronary artery stenosis ( (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Cardiovascular Imaging Source Type: research

Implementation and Performance of Automated Software for Computing Right-to-Left Ventricular Diameter Ratio From Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography Images
Objective: The aim of this study was to prospectively test the performance and potential for clinical integration of software that automatically calculates the right-to-left ventricular (RV/LV) diameter ratio from computed tomography pulmonary angiography images. Methods: Using 115 computed tomography pulmonary angiography images that were positive for acute pulmonary embolism, we prospectively evaluated RV/LV ratio measurements that were obtained as follows: (1) completely manual measurement (reference standard), (2) completely automated measurement using the software, and (3 and 4) using a customized software interface ...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Cardiovascular Imaging Source Type: research

Impact of Implementing Cardiac CT in Evaluating Patients Suspected of Cardioembolic Stroke
Conclusions: Implementing cardiac CT in assessing patients suspected of cardioembolic stroke added value to echocardiographic evaluation, by detecting major embolic potential findings. In addition, cardiac CT revealed additional potentially significant stroke-unrelated findings and CAD. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Cardiovascular Imaging Source Type: research

Utility of MDCT MIP Postprocessing Reconstruction Images in Children With Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia
Conclusions: Maximum intensity projection images in children with HHT can help identify the presence and the anatomy of pAVMs for future embolization. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Thoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Exponentially Decelerated Contrast Media Injection Rate Combined With a Novel Patient-Specific Contrast Formula Reduces Contrast Volume Administration and Radiation Dose During Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography
Clinical Relevance: Matching contrast injection timing with vessel dynamics significantly improves vessel opacification and reduces contrast dose in the assessment of pulmonary embolism during computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate opacification of the pulmonary vasculature (PV) during CT pulmonary angiography using a patient-specific contrast formula (PSCF) and exponentially decelerated contrast media (EDCM) injection rate. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approved this retrospective study. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography was performed...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Thoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Computed Tomography Features of Septic Pulmonary Embolism Caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae Liver Abscess Associated With Extrapulmonary Metastatic Infection
Conclusions: Multiple pulmonary nodules and DVS were associated with EMI. Hepatic and pulmonary vein invasion are possible causes underlying the metastatic spread of infection. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Thoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Risk Analysis for Pathological Changes in Pulmonary Parenchyma Based on Lung Computed Tomography Images
Conclusions: The study results demonstrate that the proposed LDA model is conductive to lung computed tomography image retrieval and has reliable efficacy on risk analysis about pathological changes of pulmonary parenchyma. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Thoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Image Quality in Oncologic Chest Computerized Tomography With Iterative Reconstruction: A Phantom Study
Conclusions: Quantitative image quality parameters in oncologic chest CT are improved with MBIR compared with FBP and simpler iterative reconstruction algorithms. Artifacts at low doses are reduced. A shift in HU values was shown; thus, absolute HU values should be used with care. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Thoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Prognostic Value of Semiautomatic CT Volumetry in Patients With Stage I Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy
Conclusions: VOL and ATN from 3-dimensional image analysis of CT scans have prognostic values for non–small cell lung cancer patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Thoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Fat Embolism Syndrome: Lung Computed Tomography Findings in 18 Patients
Conclusions: In FE syndrome, pulmonary CT findings are ground-glass opacities and dependent consolidations, associated with other variably overlapping signs, such as lobular opacities, random nodules, septal thickening, and bronchial wall thickening. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Thoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Computed Tomographic Pulmonary Angiographic Findings Can Predict Short-Term Mortality of Saddle Pulmonary Embolism: A Retrospective Multicenter Study
Conclusion: In patients with saddle PE, RVa/LVa and Cobb angle seem valuable in predicting short-term mortality. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - May 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Thoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Ultralow-Dose Abdominal Computed Tomography: Comparison of 2 Iterative Reconstruction Techniques in a Prospective Clinical Study: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - March 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Qualitative Comparison of Noncontrast Head Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Using Rapid Voltage Switching Technique and Conventional Computed Tomography
Conclusions: Optimized noncontrast DECT compared favorably to CCT, with a significant dose reduction benefit. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - March 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Neuroradiology Source Type: research

Correlation Between Computed Tomography Density and Functional Status of the Thyroid Gland
This study aimed to determine the correlation between thyroid computed tomography (CT) density and thyroid functional status. Methods: Thyroid CT densities were determined in patients who had a noncontrast CT of the cervical spine and a recent thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) measurement in a cohort of 157 patients. Thyroid CT densities of patients with abnormally low TSH and high TSH were compared to those with normal TSH. A correlation analysis was performed to determine the correlation between TSH levels and CT densities. Results: Both low and high TSH groups demonstrated significantly decreased thyroid CT densities (P
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - March 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Neuroradiology Source Type: research

A Cross-Sectional Voxel-Based Morphometric Study of Age- and Sex-Related Changes in Gray Matter Volume in the Normal Aging Brain
Objective: The aim of the study was to carry out a cross-sectional study of 124 cognitively normal Chinese adults using the voxel-based morphometry approach to delineate age-related changes in the gray matter volume of regions of interest (ROI) in the brain and further analyze their correlation with age. Methods: One hundred twenty-four cognitively normal adults were divided into the young age group, the middle age group, and the old age group. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging was performed with the Achieva 3.0 T system. Structural images were processed using VBM8 and SPM8. Regions of interest were obtained by WFU ...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - March 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Neuroradiology Source Type: research

Potential Utility of Visually AcceSAble Rembrandt Images Assessment in Brain Astrocytoma Grading
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of multivariate factors of Visually AcceSAble Rembrandt Images (VASARI) in brain astrocytoma grading. Methods: Presurgical magnetic resonance images of 126 patients with brain astrocytomas (World Health Organization grade 2, n = 38; grade 3, n = 36; grade 4, n = 52) were rated by 2 neuroradiologists for tumor size, location, and tumor morphology by using a standardized imaging feature set VASARI. Results: Significant differences were noted in 12 factors of VASARI including enhancement quality, enhancing proportion, noncontrast enhancing tumor proportio...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - March 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Neuroradiology Source Type: research

Dural Thickening of the Internal Auditory Canal in Patients With Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension Syndrome
Conclusions: Dural thickening of the IAC showed 100% specificity for SIH syndrome and can increase the accuracy of diagnosis of SIH syndrome. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - March 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Neuroradiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations With Four-Dimensional Arterial-Spin Labeling–Based 3-T Magnetic Resonance Angiography
Conclusions: The 4D-ASL 3-T MRA with color-coded TOA maps is useful for assessing the gross angiographic characteristics of intracranial AVMs. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - March 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Neuroradiology Source Type: research

Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Gemstone Spectral Imaging: A Novel Technique to Determine Human Cardiac Calculus Composition
Conclusions: A potential single-source DECT with GSI mode was first used to examine the morphological characteristics and chemical compositions of a giant human cardiac calculus, in vitro. The CT results were consistent with the Raman spectral data, suggesting that spectral CT imaging techniques could be accurately used to diagnose and characterize the compositional materials in the cardiac calculus. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - March 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Cardiovascular Imaging Source Type: research

Maximizing Information From Routine Staging Computed Tomography in Functional Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: Are There Findings Indicating the Presence of Carcinoid Heart Disease?
Conclusions: In patients with functionally active neuroendocrine neoplasm, an RV-LV ratio of more than 1.07 predicted TR with a relatively high sensitivity and moderate specificity and thus could serve as an indicator of subclinical carcinoid heart disease on routine staging CT. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - March 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Cardiovascular Imaging Source Type: research

Improved Image Quality and Decreased Radiation Dose of Lower Extremity Computed Tomography Angiography Using Low-Tube-Voltage and Adaptive Iterative Reconstruction
Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of low-tube-voltage computed tomography (CT) in combination with 3-dimensional adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR-3D) algorithm in lower extremity CT angiography. Methods: The CT data of the 120-kV group (n = 30) were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm. The CT data of the 100-kV group (n = 30) were reconstructed with FBP as well as AIDR-3D algorithms. Results: The 100-kV group showed significantly lower dose-length product than the 120-kV group (P
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - March 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Cardiovascular Imaging Source Type: research

Assessment of Coronary Artery Calcium on Low-Dose Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography With Iterative Reconstruction
Conclusions: The CCS is feasible using iteratively reconstructed low-dose CCTA with a calcium threshold of>600 HU. Using MIR, only 9% of individuals were reclassified. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - March 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Cardiovascular Imaging Source Type: research

Computed Tomography Observer Agreement in Staging Malignant Lymphoma
Conclusion: Computed tomography observer agreement in staging malignant lymphoma appears to be suboptimal. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - March 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Thoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Is There a Relationship Between Paratracheal Air Cysts and Upper Lobe Fibrosis?
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of paratracheal air cysts (PACs) and their relationship with upper lobe pulmonary fibrosis. Materials and Methods: The routine thoracic computed tomography scans of 3549 patients carried out between January 2014 and April 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. The presence, location, structural characteristics (uniloculated or multiloculated), number of cysts, and anterior-posterior and transverse dimensions of the PAC and its communication with the tracheal lumen were evaluated. The presence of upper lobe fibrosis, emphysema, and bronchiectasis was a...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - March 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Thoracic Imaging Source Type: research

High-Resolution Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases: Is it Possible to Improve Radiologist's Performance?
Conclusions: First HRCT DH was concordant with final diagnosis in approximately half of cases, increasing to approximately 75% when considering any 1 of the 3 DH. Radiologists' knowledge of clinical data or increased degree of certainty improved concordance of HRCT DH and the final diagnosis. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - March 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Thoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Improving Image Quality for Lung Cancer Imaging With Optimal Monochromatic Energy Level in Dual Energy Spectral Computed Tomography
Objective: The aim of this study was to find optimal monochromatic spectral computed tomography (CT) level to improve image quality of lung cancer. Methods: Fifty patients with lung cancers were scanned by spectral CT; monochromatic images at 50, 60, 70 and 80 keV energy levels were generated; and objective analysis including image noise, lesion-to-lung contrast-to-noise ratio, and CT number difference between central and peripheral regions of tumor (dCT value) were measured and compared. Subjective assessment about the overall image quality and inhomogeneity enhancement was compared. Results: The highest contrast-to-noi...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - March 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Thoracic Imaging Source Type: research

Association of Gluteus Medius and Minimus Muscle Atrophy and Fall-Related Hip Fracture in Older Individuals Using Computed Tomography
Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine an association between fall-related hip and/or pelvic fractures and gluteus medius and minimus atrophy. Methods: Retrospective review of 64 patients with fall-related hip/pelvic fractures and 96 age- and sex-stratified controls was performed. Gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, tensor fascia lata, and iliopsoas atrophy was scored using a standard scale. Statistical analysis was performed. Results: There is a significant difference (P
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - March 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal and Pelvic Imaging Source Type: research

Histogram-Based Discrimination of Intravenous Contrast in Abdominopelvic Computed Tomography
Conclusions: Histogram-based automated classifiers for the presence of intravenous contrast are accurate and may be useful for verifying the accurate labeling of the presence of intravenous contrast in CT body studies. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - March 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal and Pelvic Imaging Source Type: research

Pure Iterative Reconstruction Improves Image Quality in Computed Tomography of the Abdomen and Pelvis Acquired at Substantially Reduced Radiation Doses in Patients With Active Crohn Disease
We assessed diagnostic accuracy and image quality of modified protocol (MP) computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis reconstructed using pure iterative reconstruction (IR) in patients with Crohn disease (CD). Methods: Thirty-four consecutive patients with CD were referred with suspected extramural complications. Two contemporaneous CT datasets were acquired in all patients: standard protocol (SP) and MP. The MP and SP protocols were designed to impart radiation exposures of 10% to 20% and 80% to 90% of routine abdominopelvic CT, respectively. The MP images were reconstructed with model-based IR (MBIR) and adapti...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - March 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal and Pelvic Imaging Source Type: research

Differentiating Transition Zone Cancers From Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Quantitative Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of quantitative diffusion and perfusion parameters to aid in discriminating between transition zone carcinomas and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods: Twenty-four transition zone cancers and BPH nodules were contoured on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, and raw dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI. Benign prostatic hyperplasia nodules were then stratified into 2 groups based on the presence or absence of a capsule. Apparent diffusion coefficient values, per-voxel Ktrans, kep, vp, and ve ...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - March 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal and Pelvic Imaging Source Type: research

Whole-Lesion Histogram Analysis of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient for the Assessment of Cervical Cancer
Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the application of whole-lesion histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 54 women (mean age, 53 years) with cervical cancers underwent 3-T diffusion-weighted imaging with b values of 0 and 800 s/mm2 prospectively. Whole-lesion histogram analysis of ADC values was performed. Paired sample t test was used to compare differences in ADC histogram parameters between cervical cancers and normal cervical tissues. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to identify the optimal threshold of each parame...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - March 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal and Pelvic Imaging Source Type: research

Liver Malignancies Treated With Intra-Arterial Therapy: Assessment of Early Response as Quantified by Volumetric Enhancement Using Gadoxetate Disodium
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the value of volumetric contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using gadoxetate disodium in early assessment of treatment response after intra-arterial therapy (IAT). Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 21 patients (32 malignant lesions) who underwent MRI using gadoxetate disodium before and early after IAT. Two reviewers reported response by anatomic criteria including Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor (RECIST), Modified RECIST (mRECIST), and European Association for the Study of Liver Disease and functional criteria including volume...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - March 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal and Pelvic Imaging Source Type: research

Investigation of Multisequence Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Detection of Recurrent Tumor After Transurethral Resection for Bladder Cancer
Conclusions: Although multisequence MRI exhibited moderate performance for detecting recurrent tumor, nearly all missed tumors were low grade and noninvasive. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - March 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal and Pelvic Imaging Source Type: research

Adrenal Adenoma and Pheochromocytoma: Comparison of Multidetector CT Venous Enhancement Levels and Washout Characteristics
Purpose: The aim of the study was to compare multidetector CT venous enhancement level and washout characteristics of adrenal adenoma and pheochromocytoma, with the goal of defining a venous enhancement level predictive of pheochromocytoma. Methods: Retrospective review of medical records between 2002 and 2012 was performed to identify adrenal masses measuring less than 4 cm. Inclusion criteria for adrenal adenomas was venous phase contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), confirmatory adrenal CT (precontrast ± washout), 1 to 2 years stability, and absence of clinical indicators of pheochromocytoma. All pathologi...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - March 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal and Pelvic Imaging Source Type: research

Assessment of Blood Oxygen Level–Dependent Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Differentiating Renal Dysfunction From Control Group: Comparing T2* Histogram With Conventional Method
This study consisted of 13 control subjects and 20 patients with renal dysfunction. T2* maps were analyzed using both HIST and the conventional method. For the HIST, each region of interest covering renal parenchyma was applied to T2* map to generate a T2* HIST. The T2* HISTs were classified into type 1, 2, 3, and 4 on the basis of their morphologies. In each T2* HIST, the parameters were acquired from the peak with the smallest mean T2* values, which acted as the medullary T2* values, and from the peak with largest mean T2* values, which acted as the cortical T2* values. For the conventional method, small regions of inter...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - March 1, 2016 Category: Radiology Tags: Abdominal and Pelvic Imaging Source Type: research