Extramural venous invasion in colorectal cancer stage I
Patients with colorectal carcinoma stage I have a high 5-year survival rate, and tumour recurrence is detected in only approximately 5%–10% of patients.1 2 Most recurrences present as metachronous haematogenic metastases, typically to the liver and lungs, but generally accepted pathomorphological risk factors have not been defined, as adjuvant treatment is currently not recommended for this stage.1 3 However, the introduction of colorectal cancer screening programmes has contributed to increased detection of colorectal carcinoma in early stages; therefore, it is also important to define the risk of metachronous haema...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - May 22, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Dirschmid, K., Sterlacci, W., Rhomberg, M., Offner, F. A. Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Evaluation of a fast and fully automated platform to diagnose EGFR and KRAS mutations in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded non-small cell lung cancer samples in less than one day
Conclusions The Idylla platform is an interesting ancillary first-line fast and fully automated tool to detect EGFR and KRAS mutations in NSCLC samples allowing rapid treatment choices in patients with acute deterioration. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - May 22, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Lambros, L., Caumont, C., Guibourg, B., Barel, F., Quintin-Roue, I., Marcorelles, P., Merlio, J.-P., Uguen, A. Tags: Short report Source Type: research

Bone marrow biopsies performed by both the powered OnControl drill device and the Jamshidi needle produce adequate specimens
Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate the adequacy and quality of the bone marrow (BM) obtained by OnControl powered drill (P-group) and to compare it with manual procedure (M-group). Design Retrospective analysis was done on 75 BM specimens; Jamshidi needle (n=44) and OnControl (n=31). Biopsy length after fixation, evaluable marrow length and total area, and fragmentation, aspiration and marrow dropout artefacts were compared. Results Biopsies were sufficient for diagnosis in 38/44 cases (86%) in the M-group and in 26/31 cases (83%) in the P-group. The most common reason for suboptimal/inadequate biopsies was s...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - May 22, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Jain, S., Enzerra, M., Mehta, R. S., Smith, R., Djokic, M. Tags: Short report Source Type: research

MAGE-A family expression is correlated with poor survival of patients with lung adenocarcinoma: a retrospective clinical study based on tissue microarray
Conclusions Molecular assessment of MAGE-A family members could be considered to improve the prognostic evaluation and to provide a new potential therapeutic strategy for patients with LAC. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - May 22, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Sang, M., Gu, L., Yin, D., Liu, F., Lian, Y., Zhang, X., Liu, S., Huang, W., Wu, Y., Shan, B. Tags: Immunology (including allergy), Lung cancer (oncology), Lung cancer (respiratory medicine) Original article Source Type: research

Reacquisition of E-cadherin expression in metastatic deposits of signet-ring cell carcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal system: a potential anchor for metastatic deposition
Conclusions While the reduction of E-cadherin in primary SRCC supports its pivotal role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a process crucial in tumour progression and metastatic dissemination, the re-expression of this molecule in metastatic SRCC cells implies a reversal to their epithelial phenotype (thus mesenchymal-epithelial transition) which, in turn, theoretically helps tumour cells to anchor and form cohesive metastatic deposits. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - May 22, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Ma, Y. R., Siegal, G. P., Wei, S. Tags: Immunology (including allergy) Original article Source Type: research

Th9 cytokines response and its possible implications in the immunopathogenesis of leprosy
Conclusions The results suggest that Th9 lymphocytes may be involved in the response to Mycobacterium leprae, positively or negatively regulating microbicidal activity of the local immune system in the disease. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - May 22, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: de Sousa, J. R., Pagliari, C., de Almeida, D. S. M., Barros, L. F. L., Carneiro, F. R. O., Dias, L. B., de Souza Aarao, T. L., Quaresma, J. A. S. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Molecular characterisation of acute intermittent porphyria in a cohort of South African patients and kinetic analysis of two expressed mutants
Conclusions This study comprises the most comprehensive characterisation of HMBS gene mutations in patients with AIP in South Africa. The biochemical characterisation of expressed HMBS mutants reveals insight into the mechanism of catalytic activity loss, which may inspire investigation into individualised therapy based on the molecular lesion identified. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - May 22, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Fortgens, P., Pienaar, E., Corrigall, A., Sonderup, M., Spearman, C. W., Meissner, P. Tags: Liver disease, JCP Education, Molecular genetics, Dermatology Original article Source Type: research

Solitary fibrous tumour of the genitourinary tract: a clinicopathological study of 11 cases and their association with the NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene
Conclusions A subset of solitary fibrous tumours of the genitourinary tract behaved aggressively. Using a break-apart FISH probe cocktail, we found the NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion in 64% of cases. However, the NAB2-STAT6 fusion status was not correlated with STAT6 expression or useful in discriminating between low-risk or high-risk tumours and subsequent clinical outcomes. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - May 22, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Kouba, E., Simper, N. B., Chen, S., Williamson, S. R., Grignon, D. J., Eble, J. N., MacLennan, G. T., Montironi, R., Lopez-Beltran, A., Osunkoya, A. O., Zhang, S., Wang, M., Wang, L., Tran, T., Emerson, R. E., Baldrige, L. A., Monn, M. F., Linos, K., Chen Tags: Molecular genetics Original article Source Type: research

Multicentre validation of a microRNA-based assay for diagnosing indeterminate thyroid nodules utilising fine needle aspirate smears
Conclusions A novel assay utilising microRNA expression in cytology smears was developed. The assay distinguishes benign from malignant thyroid nodules using a single FNA stained smear, and does not require fresh tissue or special collection and shipment conditions. This assay offers a valuable tool for the preoperative classification of thyroid samples with indeterminate cytology. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - May 22, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Lithwick-Yanai, G., Dromi, N., Shtabsky, A., Morgenstern, S., Strenov, Y., Feinmesser, M., Kravtsov, V., Leon, M. E., Hajduch, M., Ali, S. Z., VandenBussche, C. J., Zhang, X., Leider-Trejo, L., Zubkov, A., Vorobyov, S., Kushnir, M., Goren, Y., Tabak, S., Tags: Open access, Morbid anatomy / surgical pathology, Thyroid disease Original article Source Type: research

Cytographic changes on BC-6800 Haematological Analyzer related to the presence of Candida albicans in peripheral blood. A new tool to suspect candidemia?
Conclusions Our observations suggest that the results of the BC-6800, which are due to C. albicans' presence, might be useful to speculate earlier diagnosis of sepsis. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - May 22, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: La Gioia, A., Devito, A., Fiorini, F., Bombara, M., Isola, P., Spinale, B., Francioni, L., Salamone, D., Marelli, P., Buoro, S., Fiorini, M. Tags: Immunology (including allergy) Original article Source Type: research

Front-end genomics: using an alternative approach for the recovery of high-quality DNA from core needle biopsies
Conclusions Although more starting material in terms of the number of cells was present in both the FFPE and frozen section samples than the wash samples, equivalent to better results were obtained from the latter with regard to quality. This approach may be a means to better aliquot the diminutive amounts of tissue associated with core needle biopsies, allowing dissociated cells to be dedicated for molecular studies while keeping the tissue intact for morphological studies. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - May 22, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Mojica, W. D., Hou, T., Sykes, D., Dey-Rao, R. Tags: JCP Education, Clinical diagnostic tests Original article Source Type: research

The incidence of IgG4-positive plasma cells staining TIN in patients with biopsy-proven tubulointerstitial nephritis
Conclusions A number of cases of IgG4-positive plasma cell TIN were observed histologically that had been previously diagnosed as non-specific chronic TIN. IgG4-positive plasma cell TIN made up 1% of all renal biopsies performed over 10 years and 13% of all biopsies demonstrating TIN not related to glomerular disease. IgG4 staining should be considered routinely in biopsies demonstrating primary TIN. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - May 22, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Mac, K., Wu, X. J., Mai, J., Howlin, K., Suranyi, M., Yong, J., Makris, A. Tags: Immunology (including allergy), Clinical diagnostic tests, Ethics Original article Source Type: research

Update on systemic vasculitides
Management of systemic vasculitis has been revolutionised over the last decade with the introduction of targeted biological agents. With an increase in both the prevalence and the recognition of vasculitis as well as the high cost of these agents, it is important to ensure their most optimal utilisation. The goals of vasculitis therapy include the induction and maintenance of remissions, preventing relapses, reducing the toxicity of therapy with the aim of reducing morbidity and mortality as well as improving the quality of life of those afflicted. This review focuses on the recent advances in the diagnosis, surveillance a...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - May 22, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Anwar, S., Karim, M. Y. Tags: Review Source Type: research

A pragmatic approach to vasculitis in the gastrointestinal tract
Although vasculitis involving the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is an uncommon occurrence, occasionally vasculitis can present as haemorrhagic infarction or ischaemia for which a length of bowel is removed. Invariably, the appropriate clinical history is not forthcoming, or vasculitis is not clinically suspected. The purpose of this overview is to provide the practising gastrointestinal (GI) pathologist with a framework to recognise and diagnose vasculitides within the GIT. The classification may be approached by aetiological agent or size of vessel involved; an international consensus group now favours the latter approach....
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - May 22, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Chetty, R., Serra, S. Tags: Editor's choice Review Source Type: research

Haematological cancers: improving outcomes. A summary of updated NICE service guidance in relation to Specialist Integrated Haematological Malignancy Diagnostic Services (SIHMDS)
In modern clinical practice, the diagnosis of haematological malignancies requires the application of a range of laboratory techniques, including morphology, flow cytometry, cytogenetics and molecular pathology. Subsequent disease classification requires correlation with knowledge of the clinical manifestations in individual patients and application of the current WHO classification system, updated in 2016. Employing an integrated approach in this manner can lead to improved accuracy and timeliness of diagnosis, which is highly likely to lead to improved outcomes for patients. In 2016, the National Institute for Health and...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - May 22, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Cuthbert, R. J. G. Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Haematological cancers: improving outcomes. A summary of updated NICE service guidance in relation to Specialist Integrated Haematological Malignancy Diagnostic Services (SIHMDS)
Haematological malignancies are a diverse group of cancers that affect the blood, bone marrow and lymphatic systems. Laboratory diagnosis of haematological malignancies is dependent on combining several technologies, including morphology, immunophenotyping, cytogenetics and molecular genetics correlated clinical details and classification according to the current WHO guidelines. The concept of the Specialised Integrated Haematological Malignancy Diagnostic Services (SIHMDS) has evolved since the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Improving Outcomes Guidance (IOG) in 2003 and subsequently various mo...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - May 22, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Snowden, J. A., O'Connell, S., Hawkins, J., Dalley, C., Jack, A., Mannari, D., McNamara, C., Scott, M., Shenton, G., Soilleux, E., Macbeth, F., On behalf of the Guideline Committee Tags: Guidelines Source Type: research

HBME1 expression in Warthin tumour: relationships to CK5/6, P63, BCL2 and WT1 expression and histogenesis
The histogenesis of Warthin tumours (WT), whether true neoplasm or hyperplasia, is still a matter of debate.1–4 We had recently the opportunity to study the expression of the HBME1 antigen in parotid WT. The HBME1 antibody, raised to cultured mesothelioma cells, is now used routinely in the differential diagnosis of malignant tumours, mainly between mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma as well as in the diagnosis of malignancy of thyroid nodules.5 6 Interestingly, there are data also on HBME1 expression in normal tissues other than the mesothelium, including in salivary glands.7 The immunohistochemical expression of HBME1...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - April 18, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Handra-Luca, A. Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Digital pathology in the diagnostic setting: beyond technology into best practice and service management
Digital pathology (DP) and whole-slide imaging (WSI) technology have matured substantially over the last few years and there is growing evidence from validation studies that WSI is comparable to glass slides for histopathology diagnosis, although with some limitations, which can be appropriately minimised. Whether the controlled environment of validation studies translates to the same level of robustness when WSI is used in the actual diagnostic setting depends on the technical quality of WSI acquisition and on factors that influence the pre-image acquisition variables including the quality of glass slide inputs, and posti...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - April 18, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Cheng, C. L., Tan, P. H. Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research

Human polyomavirus DNA detection in keratoacanthoma and Spitz naevus: no evidence for a causal role
In conclusion, evidence for a specific aetiological role of any of the above tested HPyVs in either KA or SN was not disclosed. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - April 18, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Haeggblom, L., Franzen, J., Näsman, A. Tags: Short report Source Type: research

Evaluation of a rapid antigen test for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in cerebrospinal fluid
This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the Uni-Gold ICT to detect pneumococcal antigen in CSF specimens, compared with gold standard bacteriology and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) testing. CSF specimens (n=69) from patients with suspected bacterial meningitis were included in the study. 13/69 (19%) were positive and 56/69 (81%) were negative for pneumococcus by the gold standard tests. The ICT had sensitivity of 85% (55%–98%), specificity of 96% (88%–100%), positive likelihood ratio of 23.7 (6–94) and negative likelihood ratio of 0.16 (0.04–0.57). Overall, a strong correlation between t...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - April 18, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Boulos, A., Fairley, D., McKenna, J., Coyle, P. Tags: Meningitis, Infection (neurology), Clinical diagnostic tests Short report Source Type: research

The role of lymph node size and FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in node-negative colon cancer
Recently, we demonstrated that the intratumoural density of CD3+ and CD8+ T cells is independently prognostic and associated with lymph node (LN) harvest and LN size in node-negative colon cancer. We assumed that FOXP3+ T cells (Tregs) could be inversely associated with these LN features. Therefore, we performed a retrospective immunohistochemical analysis using an already well-characterised collection of stage I/II colon cancer cases. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed the optimal cut-off for predicting cancer-related death to be 70 FOXP3+ Tregs/mm2 at the invasion front. Other than T-stage, none of the r...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - April 18, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Märkl, B., Paul, B., Schaller, T., Kretsinger, H., Kriening, B., Schenkirsch, G. Tags: Immunology (including allergy), Colon cancer Short report Source Type: research

Single-nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-A) improves the identification of chromosomal abnormalities by metaphase cytogenetics in myelodysplastic syndrome
Conclusions SNP-A may complement metaphase cytogenetics to improve the detection of chromosomal abnormalities in myeloid neoplasms. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - April 18, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: da Silva, F. B., Machado-Neto, J. A., Bertini, V. H. L. L., Velloso, E. D. R. P., Ratis, C. A., Calado, R. T., Simoes, B. P., Rego, E. M., Traina, F. Tags: Cytogenetics, Immunology (including allergy) Original article Source Type: research

Continuous measurement of breast tumour hormone receptor expression: a comparison of two computational pathology platforms
Conclusions Paired hormone receptor expression measurements from two different computational pathology platforms agreed well with one another. The user-supervised workflow yielded better classification accuracy than the automated workflow. Appropriately validated computational pathology algorithms enrich molecular epidemiology studies with continuous protein expression data and may accelerate tumour biomarker discovery. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - April 18, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Ahern, T. P., Beck, A. H., Rosner, B. A., Glass, B., Frieling, G., Collins, L. C., Tamimi, R. M. Tags: Breast cancer Original article Source Type: research

PIK3CA and AKT1 mutations in hidradenoma papilliferum
Conclusions PIK3CA and AKT1 are frequently mutated in HP tumours (29% and 14%, respectively). PIK3CA/AKT1 pathway alterations in HP further support the hypothesis that HP is the vulvar (anogenital mammary-like gland) analogue of breast intraductal papilloma. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - April 18, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Goto, K., Maeda, D., Kudo-Asabe, Y., Hibiya, T., Hayashi, A., Fukayama, M., Ohashi, K., Goto, A. Tags: Breast cancer, Gynecological cancer Original article Source Type: research

Detection of HPV subtypes by mass spectrometry in FFPE tissue specimens: a reliable tool for routine diagnostics
Conclusions The MS-based assay is highly sensitive, reliable as well as cost-effective and represents a suitable technology for the detection of HPV infections in FFPE tissue material. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - April 18, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Kriegsmann, M., Wandernoth, P., Lisenko, K., Casadonte, R., Longuespee, R., Arens, N., Kriegsmann, J. Tags: Editor's choice, Head and neck cancer Original article Source Type: research

mTOR activity and its prognostic significance in human colorectal carcinoma depending on C1 and C2 complex-related protein expression
Conclusions The presented staining panel could be appropriate and highly recommended for the accurate specification of mTORC1 and C2 activity of tumour tissues. This could help in the selection of mTOR inhibitors and can provide information about prognosis, which may guide decisions about the intensity of therapy. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - April 18, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Sticz, T., Molnar, A., Mark, A., Hajdu, M., Nagy, N., Vegso, G., Micsik, T., Kopper, L., Sebestyen, A. Tags: Colon cancer Original article Source Type: research

Prognostic relevance of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and proliferation in surgically treated primary parotid gland cancer
Conclusions Our findings indicate that activation of the EMT pathway is a relevant explanation for tumour progression in individual histological subtypes of malignant parotid gland lesions, but by far not in all. Evidence of EMT activation in PGC cannot be seen as an isolated prognostic factor. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - April 18, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Busch, A., Bauer, L., Wardelmann, E., Rudack, C., Grünewald, I., Stenner, M. Tags: Head and neck cancer Original article Source Type: research

Harmonisation of full blood count reports, recommendations of the French-speaking cellular haematology group (GFHC)
Conclusions The recommendations can help biologists who are currently undergoing the process of accreditation. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - April 18, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Trimoreau, F., Galoisy, A.-C., Genevieve, F., Bardet, V., Cornet, E., Hurst, J.-P., Lesesve, J.-F., Leymarie, V., Lusina, D., Perez, B., Cahn, J.-Y., Damaj, G., Ugo, V., Troussard, X., for the French-Speaking Cellular Haematology Group Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Fluorescent quantitative PCR detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in tissue sections from granulomatous lesions retrieved using EDTA
This study aimed to use EDTA to retrieve paraffin-embedded tissue sections of inflammatory granulomatous lesions and increase the detection rate of tuberculosis (TB)/non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Due to the influence of chemical reagents during the fixation process, the amplification of fluorescent quantitative PCR was blocked after DNA extraction, and the results were not ideal. Methods Special staining technologies (acid-fast and Auramine O) and fluorescent quantitative PCR were used to detect TB/non-tuberculous mycobacteria in 125 cases of inflammatory granulomatous lesions in paraffin-embedded tissue sections with and...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - April 18, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Wang, X., Xie, F., Zheng, Q., Qi, X., Li, M., Zhou, X., Zheng, Z. Tags: Molecular biology Original article Source Type: research

Elevated levels of autophagy-related marker ULK1 and mitochondrion-associated autophagy inhibitor LRPPRC are associated with biochemical progression and overall survival after androgen deprivation therapy in patients with metastatic prostate cancer
Conclusions High expression of ULK1 concomitant with high expression of LRPPRC may serve as useful markers for shorter BCP-free survival and OS in patients with metastatic PCa after ADT. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - April 18, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Zhang, H.-Y., Ma, Y.-D., Zhang, Y., Cui, J., Wang, Z.-M. Tags: Prostate cancer, Urological cancer Original article Source Type: research

Benchmarking a large regional UK HER2 testing service against current practice guidelines
Aims To critically evaluate HER2 testing data for 3500 consecutive cases over 28 months for a single laboratory and review these findings in the light of current UK reporting guidelines. Methods We have reviewed all data relating to the HER2 testing service including reagents and analytical machine, HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) scoring profiles. We have examined the place of double counting and rapid screening of FISH and when it is and is not safe to do so. This analysis has been facilitated greatly by the inclusion of custom scripts embedded in a spreadsheet used for ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - April 18, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Thomas, J., Loane, J., Matthews, R., Maxwell, S., Ingman, T., Beesley, M., Ferrigan, L. Tags: JCP Education Original article Source Type: research

Telomere maintenance in soft tissue sarcomas
Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are a diverse group of heterogeneous malignant tumours derived from mesenchymal tissues. Over 50 different STS subtypes are recognised by WHO, which show a wide range of different biological behaviours and prognoses. At present, clinicians managing this complex group of tumours face several challenges. This is reflected by the relatively poor outcome of patients with STSs compared with many other solid malignant tumours. These include difficulties securing accurate diagnoses, a lack of effective systemic treatments and absence of any sensitive circulating biomarkers to monitor patients throughout...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - April 18, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Eastley, N., Ottolini, B., Garrido, C., Shaw, J. A., McCulloch, T. A., Ashford, R. U., Royle, N. J. Tags: Open access Review Source Type: research

Fatal fungal endocarditis in a patient with primary antibody deficiency
Pathogens have well recognised patterns of infections but these rules are often violated in immunocompromised hosts leading to infections by atypical organisms at unexpected sites. While many of the immunodeficiency syndromes could be pinpointed to the molecular level such as X linked agammaglobulinaemia, chronic granulomatous disease and activated PI3K syndrome,1 common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) represents a complex clinical syndrome with heterogeneity at the molecular, immunological and clinical levels.2 As a result of hypogammaglobulinaemia, recurrent infections with encapsulated organisms such as Streptococcus p...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - March 20, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Wong, G. K., King, L. Z., Stephens, M., Huissoon, A. P. Tags: PostScript Source Type: research

Practical Thoracic Pathology: Diseases of the Lung, Heart, and Thymus
This book is a second iteration of a previously entitled book Practical Cardiovascular Pathology, and multiple authors have contributed to this book by adding sections on lung and mediastinum to the previous book. The authors intended to provide a detailed review of lung, mediastinal and cardiac pathology and have successfully provided a comprehensive text, updated classifications of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases and a selection of illustrations, which are arranged systematically. A great effort has been put into incorporating excellent quality colour images, which impart the required visual information. The book ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - March 20, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Khan, Z. Tags: Book review Source Type: research

What are the critical steps in processing blood cultures? A prospective audit evaluating current practice of reporting blood cultures in a centralised laboratory serving secondary care hospitals
Conclusion Gram stain result had the least impact on antibiotic treatment interventions (escalation or de-escalation). Tests that improve identification time for Gram-positive pathogens and sensitivity time for Gram-negative pathogens had the greatest impact in making significant changes to antimicrobial treatment. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - March 20, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Meda, M., Clayton, J., Varghese, R., Rangaiah, J., Grundy, C., Dashti, F., Garner, D., Groves, K., Fitzmaurice, K., Hutley, E. Tags: Short report Source Type: research

Erratum: Expression of growth arrest-specific protein 6 and Axl molecules in the left internal mammary artery of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting
Lee CH, Shieh YS, Tsai CS, et al. Expression of growth arrest-specific protein 6 and Axl molecules in the left internal mammary artery of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. J Clin Pathol 2014;67:506–11. doi:10.1136/jclinpath-2013-202000. Authors acknowledge that Figure 2 is a duplication of Figure 1E. Authors mention the use of age-adjusted Spearman partial correlation analysis in the ‘Results’ section of the paper (page 509, line 4–5), but the r and P value in figure 3 are not age-adjusted. The revised figures 3 with the correct r and P value after adjusting of age are below: (Sou...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - March 20, 2017 Category: Pathology Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Cushing's syndrome: a practical approach to diagnosis and differential diagnoses
Diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (CS) and identification of the aetiology of hypercortisolism can be challenging. The Endocrine Society clinical practice guidelines recommends one of the four tests for initial screening of CS, namely, urinary-free cortisol, late night salivary cortisol, overnight dexamethasone suppression test or a longer low-dose dexamethasone suppression test, for 48 hours. Confirmation and localisation of CS requires additional biochemical and radiological tests. Radiological evaluation involves different imaging modalities including MRI with or without different radio-nuclear imaging techniques. In...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - March 20, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Pappachan, J. M., Hariman, C., Edavalath, M., Waldron, J., Hanna, F. W. Tags: Editor's choice, JCP Education Best practice Source Type: research

Development and in-use evaluation of a novel Luminex MicroPlex microsphere-based (TRIOL) assay for simultaneous identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and detection of first-line and second-line anti-tuberculous drug resistance in China
Conclusions The TRIOL assay has higher throughput, lower cost and is less labour intensive than the PCR-sequencing assays. The TRIOL assay is advantageous in having the capability to detect resistance to multiple drugs and an open-architecture system that allows addition of more specific primers to detect uncommon mutations. Inclusion of additional primers for the identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria, spoligotyping and improvement of rifampicin resistance detection would enhance the use of the TRIOL assay in future clinical and epidemiological studies. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - March 20, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Yin, F., Chan, J. F.-W., Zhu, Q., Fu, R., Chen, J. H.-K., Choi, G. K.-Y., Tee, K.-M., Li, L., Qian, S., Yam, W.-C., Lu, G., Yuen, K.-Y. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Significance of coexistent granulomatous inflammation and lung cancer
Conclusions Incidental detection of granulomatous inflammation in patients undergoing lung resection for cancer, even in a TB-endemic country, may not require any intervention. Such findings may be due to either mycobacterial infection in the past or ‘sarcoid reaction’ to cancer. Although all patients should have their resected specimen sent for acid-fast bacilli culture and followed up until the culture results are reported, the initiation of the management of such patients as per existing lung cancer management guidelines does not affect their outcome adversely. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - March 20, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Dagaonkar, R. S., Choong, C. V., Asmat, A. B., Ahmed, D. B. A., Chopra, A., Lim, A. Y. H., Tai, D. Y. H., Kor, A. C., Goh, S. K., Abisheganaden, J., Verma, A. Tags: Open access, Immunology (including allergy), Lung cancer (oncology), Inflammation, Lung cancer (respiratory medicine) Original article Source Type: research

The role of miRNA-21 and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in colorectal cancer
Conclusions Our data suggest that miRNA-21 in association with E-cadherin and snail-1 does not play a significant role in the development and progression of this disease. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - March 20, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Jaca, A., Govender, P., Locketz, M., Naidoo, R. Tags: Immunology (including allergy), Colon cancer Original article Source Type: research

HPV self-sampling in CIN2+ detection: sensitivity and specificity of different RLU cut-off of HC2 in specimens from 786 women
Conclusions Our results confirm that the cut-off value of 1 suggested by Qiagen for PreservCyt specimen is the best cut-off value also for self-sampled specimens. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - March 20, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Bottari, F., Igidbashian, S., Boveri, S., Tricca, A., Gulmini, C., Sesia, M., Spolti, N., Sideri, M., Landoni, F., Sandri, M. T. Tags: Cervical cancer, Cervical screening, Gynecological cancer Original article Source Type: research

Clinicopathological characteristics of oestrogen receptor negative, progesterone receptor positive breast cancers: re-evaluating subsets within this group
Conclusions Our findings suggest that ER(–)/PR(+) BCs exist, although rare, with distinct pathological and clinical characteristics from patients with ER(+)/PR(+) BCs. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - March 20, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Ahmed, S. S., Thike, A. A., Zhang, K., Lim, J. C. T., Tan, P. H. Tags: Immunology (including allergy), Breast cancer Original article Source Type: research

Tumour cell invasion into blood vessels is significantly related to breast cancer subtypes and decreased survival
Conclusions Our findings indicate that BVI by tumour cells is strongly associated with aggressive tumour features including a basal-like phenotype, and BVI was an independent prognostic factor in contrast to what was found for LVI. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - March 20, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Klingen, T. A., Chen, Y., Stefansson, I. M., Knutsvik, G., Collett, K., Abrahamsen, A. L., Aase, H., Aas, H., Aas, T., Wik, E., Akslen, L. A. Tags: Immunology (including allergy), Breast cancer Original article Source Type: research

Expression pattern of miR-451 and its target MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor) in colorectal cancer
Conclusions The results showed that miR-451 could play a role in development and progression of colorectal cancer and likely by targeting MIF. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - March 20, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Mamoori, A., Gopalan, V., Lu, C.-T., Chua, T. C., Morris, D. L., Smith, R. A., Lam, A. K.-Y. Tags: Immunology (including allergy), Colon cancer Original article Source Type: research

Traditional serrated adenomas and serrated carcinomas in carcinogen-treated rats
Conclusions DMH/SD-rats develop serrated and microtubular adenomas and carcinomas in the colon, whereas GLU1/F-344 rats develop microtubular adenomas in the colon and microtubular adenomas and carcinomas in the small intestine. The two rat-settings emerge as suitable models to study the molecular attributes of serrated and microtubular neoplasias under the standard conditions of the laboratory. This study is the first showing that a substantial number of serrated and particularly microtubular adenomas and carcinomas develop in the colon and small intestine of experimental rats. Importantly, serrated and microtubular neopla...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - March 20, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Rubio, C. A. Tags: Small intestine, Colon cancer, Intestinal cancer Original article Source Type: research

EGFR mutation detection on lung cancer cytological specimens by the novel fully automated PCR-based Idylla EGFR Mutation Assay
Conclusions Idylla EGFR prototype assay is sensitive on extracted DNA and can reliably be applied on cytological samples, enabling implementation of EGFR testing even in less experienced diagnostic units. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - March 20, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: De Luca, C., Gragnano, G., Pisapia, P., Vigliar, E., Malapelle, U., Bellevicine, C., Troncone, G. Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Estimate of false-positive breast cancer diagnoses from accuracy studies: a systematic review
Conclusions High heterogeneity of the included studies precluded formal pooling estimates. When considering studies of higher sample size or methodological quality, false-positive rates and MBM are around 1%. The impact of false-positive histological diagnoses of breast cancer on unnecessary treatment, as well as that of overdiagnosis, is not negligible and is of importance in clinical practice. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - March 20, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Segnan, N., Minozzi, S., Ponti, A., Bellisario, C., Balduzzi, S., Gonzalez-Lorenzo, M., Gianola, S., Armaroli, P. Tags: Review Source Type: research

A historical perspective on crush syndrome: the clinical application of its pathogenesis, established by the study of wartime crush injuries
Crush syndrome is a fine example of how pathology can play a direct role in revealing the best treatment and management for diseases. It can occur when crush injuries are sustained. Skeletal muscle becomes damaged under the weight of a heavy object, and victims experience severe shock and renal failure. The discovery of the pathology of crush syndrome belongs to two individuals: Seigo Minami and Eric Bywaters. They separately helped to define the pathogenesis of crush syndrome during World Wars I and II. Seigo Minami is believed to have been the first to record the pathogenesis of crush syndrome. In 1923, he described the ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - March 20, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Peiris, D. Tags: JCP Education, Musculoskeletal syndromes Review Source Type: research

Prognostic implications of RASAL1 expression in oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma
Activation of RAS signalling through the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK cascade is a well-established event in various human cancers, leading to increased cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis and immortalisation of tumour cells.1 2 Recently, RASAL1 (RAS protein activator like 1), a RAS GTPase-activating protein, which catalyses the inactivation of RAS, has been shown to act as a tumour suppressor in thyroid carcinoma, providing a potential alternative genetic background for tumours not harbouring ‘classical’ mutations in RAS or BRAF genes.3 RASAL1 belongs to the so-called ‘RAS superfamily GTPases’ and has b...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - February 15, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Knief, J., Reddemann, K., Lazar-Karsten, P., Herhahn, T., Petrova, E., Wellner, U., Thorns, C. Tags: PostScript Source Type: research

Incidental EBV-positivity in paediatric post-transplant specimens demonstrates the need for stringent criteria for diagnosing post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders
Conclusions These findings reinforce the need for strict morphological and clinical criteria, other than EBV-positivity, when diagnosing PTLD in the paediatric population. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - February 15, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: King, R. L., Paessler, M. E., Howard, M. T., Wertheim, G. B. Tags: Immunology (including allergy), Ear, nose and throat/otolaryngology Short report Source Type: research