The Role of EEG in the Diagnosis and Classification of Epilepsy Syndromes: A Tool for Clinical Practice by the ILAE Neurophysiology Task Force
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - December 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Book Review Source Type: research

Lesion-Constrained Electrical Source Imaging: A Novel Approach in Epilepsy Surgery for Tuberous Sclerosis Complex
Conclusions: Lesion-constrained electrical source imaging on low-resolution EEG data provides complementary information in the presurgical workup for patients with tuberous sclerosis complex, although further validation is required. In the appropriate clinical context, the yield of source localization on low-resolution EEG data may be increased by reduction of the solution space. (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - December 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Changes in Vital Signs During Epileptic and Psychogenic Nonepileptic Attacks: A Video-EEG Study
Introduction: Epilepsy is a common disorder. Psychogenic nonepileptic attack (PNEA) is one of the epilepsy mimics. Video EEG is still the gold standard tool that differentiates between epileptic seizures (ES) and PNEA. Oxygen saturation (SaO2) and ictal vital signs, including heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR), body temperature, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure show crucial changes during ES and PNEA. Purpose: To analyze, compare, and find relationships of changes in ictal vital sign during ES and PNEA. Methods: Ninety-four adults had video EEG monitoring. SaO2, HR, RR, body temperatu...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - December 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Establishing Normal Values for F-Wave Latencies in Diagnosing Peripheral Neuropathies for the Pediatric Population
Conclusions: The F-wave estimated deviance is independent of age and can be accurately applied to the electrodiagnostic testing of pediatric patients with suspected neuropathy. (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - December 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Relationship Between Cauda Equina Conduction Time and Type of Neurogenic Intermittent Claudication due to Lumbar Spinal Stenosis
Conclusions: Cauda equina conduction time differed according to the type of lumbar spinal stenosis. The prolongation of CECT may be caused by the demyelination of the CE. Cauda equina conduction time may be a useful measure for evaluating the dysfunction of the CE rather than radiculopathy for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - December 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Automated Processing of Single-Channel Surface Electromyography From Generalized Tonic–Clonic Seizures to Inform Semiology
Conclusions: The automated processing of sEMG presented here accurately identified durations of tonic, clonic, and total motor durations of generalized tonic–clonic seizures similar to durations identified by epileptologists' review of video-EEG. (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - December 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Appliance of Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases
Conclusions: The presented approach allows the easy and reliable integration of neurophysiological mapping data into GammaKnife treatment plans by the standard GammaPlan software. Diminishing the dose to critical structures might help to minimize side effects and therefore improve quality of life for brain metastasis patients. (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - December 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis on Sleep Disorders and Related Conditions
Summary: Marijuana generally refers to the dried mixture of leaves and flowers of the cannabis plant, and the term cannabis is a commonly used to refer to products derived from the Cannabis sativa L. plant. There has been an increasing interest in the potential medicinal use of cannabis to treat a variety of diseases and conditions. This review will provide the latest evidence regarding the medical risks and potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis in managing patients with sleep disorders or those with other medical conditions who commonly suffer with sleep disturbance as an associated comorbidity. Published data rega...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - December 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

A North American History of Cannabis Use in the Treatment of Epilepsy
Summary: Cannabis has been used for millennia in religious ceremonies, for recreation and for its medicinal qualities. There are multiple accounts detailing the specific ailments cannabis has been used to treat, many of which have included epilepsy. Racial discrimination and political stigmatization led to prohibition, which limited both patients' and researchers' access to the drug through the 20th century. Recently, academic interest has been renewed in cannabis, especially regarding the modulation of cortical excitability via the human endocannabinoid system. Modern research has produced several promising studies rega...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - December 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Cannabinoids as an Emerging Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders
Summary: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a leading psychiatric disorder that mainly affects military and veteran populations but can occur in anyone affected by trauma. PTSD treatment remains difficult for physicians because most patients with PTSD do not respond to current pharmacological treatment. Psychotherapy is effective, but time consuming and expensive. Substance use disorder is often concurrent with PTSD, which leads to a significant challenge for PTSD treatment. Cannabis has recently received widespread attention for the potential to help many patient populations. Cannabis has been reported as a coping ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - December 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

The Endocannabinoid System and Synthetic Cannabinoids in Preclinical Models of Seizure and Epilepsy
Summary: Cannabinoids are compounds that are structurally and/or functionally related to the primary psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, [INCREMENT]9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabinoids can be divided into three broad categories: endogenous cannabinoids, plant-derived cannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoids (SCs). Recently, there has been an unprecedented surge of interest into the pharmacological and medicinal properties of cannabinoids for the treatment of epilepsies. This surge has been stimulated by an ongoing shift in societal opinions about cannabinoid-based medicines and evidence that cannabidiol, a...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - December 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

The Use of Cannabis as a Treatment for Epilepsy in Adult Patients: Are Side Effects a Limitation of Use?
Summary: Marijuana is the dried leaves, stems, and flowers of a 1- to 5-m weed originating from Central Asia. The most common varieties are Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica. It is usually inhaled as smoke but can also be used as a vapor, taken by mouth as a spray, ingested in tea or as butter in baked goods, or in capsule form and used as an oil. Cannabis has been widely used to treat many medical conditions such as multiple sclerosis symptoms, mood disorders, pain, sleep disorders, and seizures among others. Preclinical and clinical studies have been done over the past decade, among them there are few randomized plac...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - December 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Cannabis for Pediatric Epilepsy
Summary: Epilepsy is a chronic disease characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Up to 30% of children with epilepsy will be refractory to standard anticonvulsant therapy, and those with epileptic encephalopathy can be particularly challenging to treat. The endocannabinoid system can modulate the physiologic processes underlying epileptogenesis. The anticonvulsant properties of several cannabinoids, namely Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (CBD), have been demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Cannabis-based therapies have been used for millennia to treat a variety of diseases including epi...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - December 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Medical Cannabis as a Treatment for Patients With Epilepsy, Sleep Disorders, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - December 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Guest Editorial Source Type: research

2019 American Clinical Neurophysiology Society (ACNS) Annual Meeting
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - November 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Abstracts Source Type: research

An Unusual Case of Median Neuropathy: Application of Short Segmental Sensory Nerve Stimulation
Summary: A 55-year-old woman presented with an 18-month history of intermittent left-hand paresthesias affecting her first, second, and third digits. A small, immobile, nontender midline mass on the volar aspect of the left wrist was also present. Evaluation included normal routine nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography. An ultrasound was performed in the electromyography laboratory, verifying median nerve involvement of the mass within the proximal carpal tunnel. This finding guided the electromyographer to perform the unconventional technique of sensory nerve short segmental stimulation across the carpal ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - November 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Ambulatory EEG Monitoring
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - November 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Book Review Source Type: research

Time Is Brain: The Use of EEG Electrode Caps to Rapidly Diagnose Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus
Objective: To perform a feasibility pilot study comparing the usefulness of EEG electrode cap versus standard scalp EEG for acquiring emergent EEGs in emergency department, inpatient, and intensive care unit patients. Background: Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is a neurological emergency diagnosed exclusively by EEG. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus becomes more resistant to treatment 1 hour after continued seizure activity. EEG technologists are alerted “stat” when there is immediate need for an EEG during oncall hours, yet delays are inevitable. Alternatively, EEG caps can be quickly placed by i...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - November 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Startle and the StartReact Effect: Physiological Mechanisms
Summary: It has been well documented that a prepared response can be triggered at short latency following the presentation of a loud acoustic stimulus that evokes a reflexive startle response. Different hypotheses have been proposed for this so-called “StartReact” effect, although there is still much debate surrounding the physiological mechanisms involved in the observed reduction in reaction time (RT). In this review, we outline the various neurophysiological explanations underlying the StartReact effect and summarize the data supporting, and at times opposing, each possibility. Collectively, the experiment...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - November 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

The Vagus and Glossopharyngeal Nerves in Two Autonomic Disorders
Summary: The glossopharyngeal and vagus cranial nerves provide the brainstem with sensory inputs from different receptors in the heart, lung, and vasculature. This afferent information is critical for the short-term regulation of arterial blood pressure and the buffering of emotional and physical stressors. Glossopharyngeal afferents supply the medulla with continuous mechanoreceptive signals from baroreceptors at the carotid sinus. Vagal afferents ascending from the heart supply mechanoreceptive signals from baroreceptors in different reflexogenic areas including the aortic arch, atria, ventricles, and pulmonary arterie...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - November 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation
Summary: Invasive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an approved treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy. Besides recognized clinical efficacy in about 60% of patients, there are major drawbacks such as invasiveness and common side effects including hoarseness, sore throat, shortness of breath, and coughing. Invasive VNS applies electrical stimulation to the left cervical branch of the vagus nerve and excites thick-myelinated afferent nerve fibers. Peripheral vagus nerve afferent volley initiates brainstem activity in the nucleus of the solitary tract and provokes typical brainstem and cerebral activation patterns that media...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - November 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

The CPM Effect: Functional Assessment of the Diffuse Noxious Inhibitory Control in Humans
Summary: The diffuse noxious inhibitory control, which has been investigated extensively in animals, consists of the inhibitory modulation of pain pathways after heterotopic noxious stimulation. The subnucleus reticularis dorsalis, which lies in the caudal part of the medulla, together with its descending projections to the wide-dynamic-range neurones, is responsible for the diffuse noxious inhibitory control. Many studies have investigated the diffuse noxious inhibitory control phenomenon in humans. However, owing to the complexity of the effect of descending modulation on human pain perception, expert opinion has recom...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - November 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Differential Diagnosis of Chronic Neuropathic Orofacial Pain: Role of Clinical Neurophysiology
Summary: Orofacial pain syndromes encompass several clinically defined and classified entities. The focus here is on the role of clinical neurophysiologic and psychophysical tests in the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and pathophysiological mechanisms of definite trigeminal neuropathic pain and other chronic orofacial pain conditions (excluding headache and temporomandibular disorders). The International Classification of Headache Disorders 2018 classifies these facial pain disorders under the heading Painful cranial neuropathies and other facial pains. In addition to unambiguous painful posttraumatic or postherpetic...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - November 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Spontaneous, Voluntary, and Reflex Blinking in Clinical Practice
This article is a review of some of the alterations that can be observed in blinking, focusing in four patterns of abnormality that can be distinguished in the blink reflex: (1) afferent versus efferent, which allows characterization of trigeminal or facial lesions; (2) peripheral versus central, which distinguishes alterations in nerve conduction from those involving synaptic delay; (3) upper versus lower brainstem lesions, which indicates the lesions involving specific circuits for trigeminal and somatosensory blink reflexes; and (4) asymmetric abnormal excitability pattern, which shows a unilateral alteration in the des...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - November 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Eye Movement Disorders and the Cerebellum
Summary: The cerebellum works as a network hub for optimizing eye movements through its mutual connections with the brainstem and beyond. Here, we review three key areas in the cerebellum that are related to the control of eye movements: (1) the flocculus/paraflocculus (tonsil) complex, primarily for high-frequency, transient vestibular responses, and also for smooth pursuit maintenance and steady gaze holding; (2) the nodulus/ventral uvula, primarily for low-frequency, sustained vestibular responses; and (3) the dorsal vermis/posterior fastigial nucleus, primarily for the accuracy of saccades. Although there is no absol...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - November 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Ocular Motor and Vestibular Disorders in Brainstem Disease
Summary: The brainstem contains ocular motor and vestibular structures that, when damaged, produce specific eye movement disorders. In this review, we will discuss three brainstem syndromes with characteristic ocular motor and vestibular findings that can be highly localizing. First, we will discuss the lateral medullary (Wallenberg) syndrome, focusing on ocular lateropulsion, saccadic dysmetria, and the ocular tilt reaction. Second, we will review the medial longitudinal fasciculus syndrome including the ocular tilt reaction, nystagmus, and the vestibular-ocular reflex. Lastly, we will discuss hypertrophic olivary degen...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - November 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Brainstem Functions and Reflexes
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - November 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Guest Editorial Source Type: research

Neuroimaging Effects of 1 Hz Right Temporoparietal rTMS on Normal Auditory Processing: Implications for Clinical Hallucination Treatment Paradigms: ERRATUM
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Intraoperative Neurophysiology: A Comprehensive Guide to Monitoring and Mapping, 2nd Edition
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Book Review Source Type: research

Video Game-Induced Theta Rhythm
We report similar EEG findings in a patient with genetic generalized epilepsy during smartphone gaming to expand the population and triggers for this theta waveform. Given the young age and type of epilepsy, we suggest that the waveform represents the EEG manifestation of the attention–visuomotor pathway that is stimulus independent. (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Prognostic Value of “A” Waves in Patients With Guillain Barre Syndrome
Conclusions: Presence of “A” waves is usually associated with conduction block and marked degree of demyelination. “A” waves carry poor prognostic value in short-term follow-up parameters in patients with Guillain Barre syndrome. (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Electrophysiological Properties of the Human Diaphragm Assessed by Magnetic Phrenic Nerve Stimulation: Normal Values and Theoretical Considerations in Healthy Adults
This study determined normal values for motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) of the diaphragm following cortical and cervical magnetic stimulation (COMS and CEMS) of the phrenic nerves in healthy adults. Methods: Using surface electrodes, diaphragmatic MEP and CMAP were recorded in 70 subjects (34 ± 13 years, 25 men) following supramaximal cortical magnetic stimulation and CEMS at functional residual capacity and using a standardized inspiratory pressure trigger (−0.5 kPa). All healthy volunteers underwent standard spirometry and measurement of maximum inspiratory and...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Intranasal Dexmedetomidine for Sedation During Magnetoencephalography
Conclusions: Our experience suggests that intranasal dexmedetomidine is an advantageous sedation option for children and adults with intractable epilepsy who are undergoing MEG. Further research is needed to determine the best ways to apply these methods to younger children and those with developmental disabilities. (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Electroencephalographic Reporting for Refractory Status Epilepticus
Conclusions: Many key EEG features are not documented consistently in clinical continuous EEG monitoring reports, including ES characteristics and reactivity assessment. Standardization may be needed for clinical EEG reports to provide informative data for large multicenter observational studies. (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Continuous EEG Monitoring Predicts a Clinically Meaningful Recovery Among Adult Inpatients
Purpose: Continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring is primarily used for diagnosing seizures and status epilepticus, and for prognostication after cardiorespiratory arrest. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cEEG could predict survival and meaningful recovery. Methods: The authors reviewed inpatient cEEG reports obtained between January 2013 and November 2015 and recorded demographics, preadmission modified Rankin Scale, history of preexisting epilepsy, Glasgow Coma Scale for those admitted to the intensive care unit, and EEG data (posterior dominant rhythm, reactivity, epileptiform discharges, seizures, and ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Early EEG Features for Outcome Prediction After Cardiac Arrest in Children
Conclusions: The specificity of the optimal model using a combination of early EEG features was high for unfavorable neurologic outcome and mortality in critically ill children after cardiac arrest. However, the positive predictive value was only 86% for both outcomes. Therefore, EEG data must be considered in overall clinical context when used for neuroprognostication early after cardiac arrest. (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Pediatric Montages in Clinical Practice
Summary: The montages in clinical EEG recordings in neonates, infants, and children follow some basic principles of adolescent or adult EEG recordings; however, special considerations are needed to obtain optimal diagnostic yield in pediatric patients. The aim of this review is to summarize the pediatric montages recommended in clinical practice in the standard clinical neurophysiology laboratory and in special situations. (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Montages for Invasive Monitoring
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Montages for Noninvasive EEG Recording
Summary: Identifying the localization, distribution, and polarity of waveforms are the prime goals of clinical scalp EEG analysis. Appropriate choices of bipolar and referential montages are keys to emphasizing the diagnostic features of interest, and demand some understanding of the spatiotemporal physical behavior of the underlying neuronal generators. Several examples drawn from canonical epilepsy syndromes are used to illustrate this general message. (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Overview of EEG Montages and Principles of Localization
Summary: Montages are logical, orderly arrangements of electroencephalographic derivations or channels that are created to display activity over the entire head and to provide lateralizing and localizing information. Most often, bipolar and referential montages are used for routine electroencephalographic recordings. Common average and Laplacian montages can also be helpful in some situations. Because each type of montage has certain strengths and limitations, the ACNS guidelines recommend the use of multiple classes of montages for each electroencephalographic recording. A variety of factors need to be considered for lo...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

A Montage for Every Situation
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Guest Editorial Source Type: research

Reply to: Stimulus-Induced Rhythmic, Periodic, or Ictal Discharges in Coma Incidence and Interrater Reliability of Continuous EEG After a Standard Stimulation Protocol; Statistical Issue to Avoid Misdiagnosis and Mismanagement
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Stimulus-Induced Rhythmic, Periodic, or Ictal Discharges in Coma Incidence and Interrater Reliability of Continuous EEG After a Standard Stimulation Protocol; Statistical Issue to Avoid Misdiagnosis and Mismanagement
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Book Review: EEG in Clinical Practice
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Book Review Source Type: research

Periodic Limb Movements in a Comatose Patient: Case Report
We report the case of a 66-year-old man, with no history of sleep disorders, who presented PLMs during coma caused by an extensive right hemispheric abscess inducing midline shift. These movements were further characterized by video and electromyographic recordings, which displayed bilateral periodic bursts of the tibialis anterior muscles, occurring every 7 to 15 seconds, with no concomitant electroencephalographic correlate. After a long period of hospitalization, the patient eventually regained consciousness and PLMs seem to persist, only in sleep. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that PLMs...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Role of Ultrasonography in Severe Distal Median Nerve Neuropathy
Conclusions: Ultrasonic imaging is useful not only for confirming entrapment of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel in patients with nonlocalizing electrodiagnostic studies but also in detecting pathology in the forearm, which may mimic severe carpal tunnel syndrome. (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Preoperative Evaluation of Iatrogenic Spinal Accessory Nerve Palsy: What Is the Place for Electrophysiological Testing?
Conclusions: The rate of low-amplitude compound muscle action potentials in these patients suffering from spinal accessory nerve neurotmesis was about 30% with our modified electrophysiological testing. We should be aware of this pitfall before surgical nerve repair. Furthermore, electrophysiological testing is an informative preoperative examination revealing the concomitant nerve injuries. (Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Quantitative EEG Biomarkers for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
Purpose: The development of objective biomarkers for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in the chronic period is an important clinical and research goal. Head trauma is known to affect the mechanisms that support the electrophysiological processing of information within and between brain regions, so methods like quantitative EEG may provide viable indices of brain dysfunction associated with even mTBI. Methods: Resting-state, eyes-closed EEG data were obtained from 71 individuals with military-related mTBI and 82 normal comparison subjects without traumatic brain injury. All mTBI subjects were in the chronic period of...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

The Role of EEG in the Erroneous Diagnosis of Epilepsy
Summary: Errors in diagnosis are relatively common in medicine and occur in all specialties. The consequences can be serious for both patients and physicians. Errors in neurology are often because of the overemphasis on "tests" over the clinical picture. The diagnosis of epilepsy in general is a clinical one and is typically based on history. Epilepsy is more commonly overdiagnosed than underdiagnosed. An erroneous diagnosis of epilepsy is often the result of weak history and an "abnormal" EEG. Twenty-five to 30% of patients previously diagnosed with epilepsy who did not respond to initial antiepilept...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Patterns Specific to Pediatric EEG
Summary: Misinterpretations of the EEG can result in erroneous diagnosis of epilepsy, causing considerable family anxiety, over protectiveness of children, and delays in normal development and developmental exploration. The burden of a chronic disease can result in expensive and unnecessary medical treatment. The misdiagnosis of epilepsy has been well documented in adults, but misdiagnosis in normal children can have a long-lasting impact on their health. Furthermore, the EEG has a wider range of morphology and hence a greater opportunity for the missed diagnosis of epilepsy. Lack of familiarity of normal sleep patterns ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology - July 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research