The Water-Fat Separation Method for Determining the Fat-free Component of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Humans: A Brief Review
Fat-free mass as well as lean soft tissue mass is a surrogate for skeletal muscle mass and is often used for the normalization of several physiological variables or for the diagnosing of low muscle mass in older adults. However, both fat-free mass and lean tissue mass include nonskeletal muscle components such as the fat-free component of adipose tissue fat cells. A technique known as water-fat MRI provides a noninvasive and radiation-free assessment of the fat-free component of adipose tissue in humans. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - January 21, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Takashi Abe, Zachary W. Bell, Scott J. Dankel, Vickie Wong, Robert W. Spitz, Jeremy P. Loenneke Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Feasibility of Opportunistic Screening for Low Thoracic Bone Mineral Density in Patients Referred for Routine Cardiac CT
Despite being a frequent and treatable disease, osteoporosis remains under-diagnosed worldwide. Our study aim was to characterize the bone mineral density (BMD) status in a group of patients with symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease (CAD) with low/intermediate risk profile undergoing routine cardiac computed tomography (CT) to rule out CAD. This cross-sectional study used prospectively acquired data from a large consecutively included cohort. Participants were referred for cardiac CT based on symptoms of CAD. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - January 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Josephine Therkildsen, Simon Winther, Louise Nissen, Hanne S. J ørgensen, Jesper Thygesen, Per Ivarsen, Lars Frost, Bente L. Langdahl, Ellen-Margrethe Hauge, Morten Böttcher Source Type: research

Statistical Models to Assess Leg Muscle Mass in Ambulatory Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy Using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a movement disorder associated with small and weak muscles. Methods that accurately assess muscle mass in children with CP are scarce. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) accurately estimates midleg muscle mass in ambulatory children with spastic CP. Ambulatory children with spastic CP and typically developing children 5-11 y were studied (n = 15/group). Fat-free soft tissue mass (FFST) and fat mass at the middle third of the tibia (i.e., midleg) were estimated using DXA. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - January 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Chuan Zhang, Daniel G. Whitney, Harshvardhan Singh, Jill M. Slade, Ye Shen, Freeman Miller, Christopher M. Modlesky Source Type: research

Fat Mass Does Not Increase the Precision Error of Trabecular Bone Score Measurements
Introduction: Trabecular bone score (TBS) is an indirect index of trabecular microarchitecture derived from lumbar spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Previous phantom study showed that an increase in soft tissue thickness does not affect TBS reproducibility. We investigated the effect of increasing body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference on TBS precision error on patients, compared to bone mineral density (BMD). Methodology: A population of postmenopausal Caucasian women was distributed in 3 different BMI (normal, overweight, and class I obesity), plus 2 further groups based on waist circumference diameter ( &le...
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - January 17, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Carmelo Messina, Ciriaco Buonomenna, Giorgia Menon, Sandro Magnani, Domenico Albano, Salvatore Gitto, Fabio Massimo Ulivieri, Luca Maria Sconfienza Source Type: research

The Correction of Systematic Error due to Plaster and Fiberglass Casts on HR-pQCT Bone Parameters Measured In Vivo at the Distal Radius
Due to difficulty assessing healing of distal radius fractures using conventional radiography, there is interest in using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) to track healing at the microarchitectural level. Unfortunately, the plaster-of-Paris and fiberglass casts used to immobilize fractures affect HR-pQCT measurements due to beam hardening, and increased noise. The challenge is compounded because casts have variable thickness, and an individual patient will often have their cast changed 2 –3 times during the course of treatment. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - January 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Danielle E. Whittier, Sarah L. Manske, Steven K. Boyd, Prism S. Schneider Source Type: research

Hypophosphatasia in Adults: Clinical Spectrum and Its Association With Genetics and Metabolic Substrates
Background: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare metabolic bone disorder caused by mutations in the alkaline phosphatase (ALPL) gene, and characterized by low circulating alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels and bone, muscle, dental and systemic manifestations. In this case series we investigate the clinical spectrum, genetic and biochemical profile of adult HPP patients from the University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium. Methodology: Adults with HPP were identified through medical record review. Inclusion criteria were: (1) age ≥ 16 yr; (2) consecutively low ALP levels not explained by secondary causes; (3) one or more of the foll...
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - January 14, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Eveline Lefever, Peter Witters, Evelien Gielen, Annick Vanclooster, Wouter Meersseman, Eva Morava, David Cassiman, Micha ël R. Laurent Source Type: research

Effect of Sunlight Exposure on Vitamin D Status of Individuals Living in a Nursing Home and Their Own Homes
Introduction/background: The present study was carried out to determine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and related factors in individuals living in nursing home and their own homes. Methodology: This cross-sectional study included 72 elderly people 60 yr and older. All subjects were given a questionnaire form evaluating their individual characteristics, eating habits which affected their vitamin D status, wearing habits, and their duration of sun exposure and a Standardized Mini Mental Test evaluating their cognitive levels. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - January 14, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: F. Okan, S. Okan, H. Zincir Source Type: research

Measurement of Visceral Adipose Tissue in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry: Generation and Application of a Predictive Equation
Purpose: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) permits quantification of visceral adipose tissue (VAT). However, DXA has not been validated against MRI in persons with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). A predictive equation was generated from the measurement of VAT by MRI, a “gold” standard to quantitate VAT, compared to that of DXA, a method with several practical advantages. Method: DXA and MRI scans were performed in 27 participants with SCI. MRI multiaxial images were captured for VAT analysis. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - January 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Liron S. McCauley, Mina P. Ghatas, Ryan M. Sumrell, Christopher M. Cirnigliaro, Steven C. Kirshblum, William A Bauman, Ashraf S. Gorgey Source Type: research

CT-Based Evaluation of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis in Adult Population; Prevalence, Associations and Interobserver Agreement
Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), being an asymptomatic condition, is generally discovered incidentally on imaging and it has not received much attention for research on clinical grounds. We assessed the prevalence of DISH, its associated factors, and interobserver agreement for computed tomography (CT)-based diagnosis of DISH. CT scans of chest, abdomen, and pelvis performed for various clinical indications were retrospectively reviewed. Resnick criteria were used for the diagnosis of DISH. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - December 22, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Hatem Adel, Sohail Ahmed Khan, Syed Omair Adil, Farheen Huda, Usman Khanzada, Murli Manohar, Kamran Masood Source Type: research

Fat Mass Ratio in Brazilian HIV-infected Patients Under Antiretroviral Therapy and Its Relationship With Anthropometric Measurents
This study aimed to establish sex-specific reference values for fat mass ratio and to correlate them with anthropometric measurements for the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus-related lipodystrophy. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - December 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Amanda Bicudo Bruno Nogueira, Juliana Mendes Abreu, Mariana Mesquita Villela, Ana Elisa Boracini Sanchez, Beatriz Silva Chaves, Sergio Setubal, Luis Guillermo Coca Velarde, Rubens Antunes da Cruz Filho, Giovanna Aparecida Balarini Lima, Debora Vieira Soar Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Breast Density, Bone Mineral Density, and Metabolic Syndrome Among Postmenopausal Turkish Women ✰
The relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and menopause remains unclear. The effects of MetS on breast and bone density in this group of women are also not fully elucidated. Herein, we aimed to investigate the relationship between components of the MetS, mammographic breast density (MBD), and vertebral/femoral bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Turkish women. The study group consisted of postmenopausal women with MetS whereas controls postmenopausal women without MetS. All consecutive women who applied to our center for routine postmenopausal follow up and met the inclusion criteria, between July 2013 an...
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - December 5, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Meryem Kuru Pekcan, Rahime Bedir Findik, Aytekin Tokmak, Yasemin Ta şçi Tags: Orginal Article Source Type: research

Progressive Sublesional Bone Loss Extends into the Second Decade After Spinal Cord Injury
Objective: The rate of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) loss at the knee (distal femur (DF) and proximal tibia ) and hip (femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH)) was determined in persons with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) who were stratified into subgroups based on time since injury (TSI). Design: Cross-sectional retrospective review. Setting: Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Private Rehabilitation Hospital. Participants: Data on 105 individuals with SCI (TSI ≤12 months, n = 19; TSI 1–5 years, n = 35; 6–10 years, n = 19; TSI 11–20 years, n = 16; TSI>20 years, n ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - November 29, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Christopher M. Cirnigliaro, Mary Jane Myslinski, Pierre Asselin, Joshua C. Hobson, Adam Specht, Michael F. La Fountaine, Steven C. Kirshblum, Gail F. Forrest, Trevor Dyson-Hudson, Ann M. Spungen, William A. Bauman Source Type: research

DXA-Based 3D Analysis of the Cortical and Trabecular Bone of Hip Fracture Postmenopausal Women: A Case-Control Study
Methods using statistical shape and appearance models have been proposed to analyze bone mineral density (BMD) in 3D from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. This paper presents a retrospective case-control study assessing the association of DXA-derived 3D measurements with osteoporotic hip fracture in postmenopausal women. Patients who experienced a hip fracture between 1 and 6 years from baseline and age-matched controls were included in this study. The 3D-SHAPER software (version 2.7, Galgo Medical, Barcelona, Spain) was used to derive 3D analysis from hip DXA scans at baseline. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - November 28, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Ludovic Humbert, Alexis Bagu é, Silvana Di Gregorio, Renaud Winzenrieth, Xavier Sevillano, Miguel Ángel González Ballester, Luis Del Rio Source Type: research

FRAX 10-yr Fracture Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis —Assessments With and Without Bone Mineral Density May Lead to Very Different Results in the Individual Patient
Objectives: FRAX is a computer-based algorithm developed by the World Health Organisation for estimation of the 10-yr risk of a hip or major osteoporotic fracture. Inclusion of femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) in the estimation is optional. The study aimed to investigate the intra-individual agreement between FRAX fracture risk calculated with and without BMD in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Clinical data and BMD results from 50 RA patients registered in the Danish rheumatology registry (DANBIO) were used for analysis. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - November 27, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Karen Dombestein Elde, Ole Rintek Madsen Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Improving Bone Mineral Density Assessment Using Spectral Detector CT
Introduction: Bone mineral density (BMD) analysis by Dual-Energy x-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) can have some false negatives due to overlapping structures in the projections. Spectral Detector CT (SDCT) can overcome these limitations by providing volumetric information. We investigated its performance for BMD assessment and compared it to DXA and phantomless volumetric bone mineral density (PLvBMD), the latter known to systematically underestimate BMD. DXA is the current standard for BMD assessment, while PLvBMD is an established alternative for opportunistic BMD analysis using CT. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - November 26, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Steven Van Hedent, Kuan-Hao Su, David W. Jordan, Brendan Eck, Fan Liang, Rivka Kessner, Jung-Wen Kuo, Nico Buls, Paul Klahr, Pablo Ros, Raymond F. Muzic Source Type: research

Bone Density at the Entry Point Correlates With the Trabecular Bone of the Thoracolumbar Vertebral Bodies – Quantitative Computed Tomography Study
Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between cortical Bone Mineral Density (BMD) at pedicle entry points with trabecular BMD of the vertebral body in a spinal fracture. Methods: Quantitative computed tomography of the thoracolumbar spine was analyzed using dedicated software – QCT Pro (Mindways, Austin, TX). Results:Forty-six patients were evaluated. Among them 36 females were diagnosed with osteoporosis; the remaining 10 randomly selected from the database both males and females served as a control group. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - November 24, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Wojciech M. Glinkowski, Jerzy Narloch Source Type: research

Analysis of the Increase in Bone Mineral Density After Surgical Treatment of Primary Hyperparathyroidism
Aim: To analyze the effect of the surgery in bone mineral density (BMD) and to study the value of preoperative clinical and analytical factors as predictors of bone increase. Material and Methods: Prospective observational study. Postmenopausal women who were operated for primary hyperparathyroidism were included. A bone densitometry of the lumbar spine and femoral neck and analytical determinations (parathyroid hormone [PTH], alkaline phosphatase, albumin, phosphate, creatinine, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3, creatinine clearance, and calciuria) were performed previous to the intervention and after 12 months from surgery. (Source...
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - November 24, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Fernando Mendoza-Moreno, Manuel D íez-Alonso, Enrique Ovejero-Merino, Ana Sánchez-Gollarte, Ricardo Alvarado-Hurtado, Belén Matías-García, Ángel Rodríguez-Pascual, Carlos Medina-Reinoso, Tomás Ratia-Jiménez, Francisco Hernández-Merlo, Javier Gra Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Reliability and Agreement of Various InBody Body Composition Analyzers as Compared to Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Healthy Men and Women
Background: Bioelectrical impedance analysis has evolved over the years to include the use of multiple frequencies and impedance measurements to improve the accuracy and reliability of body composition estimates. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the reliability of the InBody230, InBody720, and InBody770 to measure body fat percent (BF%), fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) in the general population and to compare results to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods: A total of 31 males and 36 females participated in 2 d of testing separated by 24 –72 h. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - November 21, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Cherilyn N. McLester, Brett S. Nickerson, Brian M. Kliszczewicz, John R. McLester Source Type: research

Same-Day Vs Consecutive-Day Precision Error of Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry for Interpreting Body Composition Change in Resistance-Trained Athletes
The application of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in sport science settings is gaining popularity due to its ability to assess body composition. The International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) recommends application of the least significant change (LSC) to interpret meaningful and true change. This is calculated from same-day consecutive scans, thus accounting for technical error. However, this approach does not capture biological variation, which is pertinent when interpreting longitudinal measurements, and could be captured from consecutive-day scans. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - November 16, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Adam J. Zemski, Karen Hind, Shelley E. Keating, Elizabeth M. Broad, Damian J. Marsh, Gary J. Slater Source Type: research

The Impact of Ultrasound Probe Tilt on Muscle Thickness and Echo-Intensity: A Cross-Sectional Study
Introduction/background: To determine the influence of ultrasound probe tilt on reliability and overall changes in muscle thickness and echo-intensity. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six individuals had a total of 15 images taken on both the biceps brachii and tibialis anterior muscles. These images were taken in 2 ° increments with the probe tilted either upward (U) or downward (D) from perpendicular (0°) to the muscle (U6°, U4°, U2°, 0°, D2°, D4°, and D6°). All images were then saved, stored, and analyzed using Image-J software for echo-intensity and muscle thickness measures. (Source: ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - November 16, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Scott J. Dankel, Takashi Abe, Zachary W. Bell, Matthew B. Jessee, Samuel L. Buckner, Kevin T. Mattocks, J. Grant Mouser, Jeremy P. Loenneke Source Type: research

Lumbar Vertebrae Morphological Analysis and an Additional Approach for Vertebrae Identification in Lumbar Spine DXA Images
Introduction: Bone mineral density measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard for diagnosis of osteoporosis. However, DXA interpretation can be influenced by analytic errors which can, in turn, interfere with diagnostic accuracy. One such source of potential error is the accurate identification of specific lumbar vertebrae on lumbar spine DXA images. Although the International Society for Clinical Densitometry has introduced several approaches to aid with this process, there remain individuals whose lumbar vertebrae cannot be labeled with certainty using these approaches. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - November 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Wenmin Guan, Wei Yu, Qiang Lin, Zaizhu Zhang, Guiying Du, Junping Tian, Ying Xu, Evelyn Hsieh Source Type: research

Assessment of Bone and Muscle Measurements by Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography in Geriatric Patients
The loss of bone and muscle mass increases the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) loses sensitivity in older age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone and muscle measurements of peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) in a geriatric cohort with osteoporosis. Bone mineral density and muscle area of 168 patients aged 65 years and older (76.3 ± 6.5) were measured with pQCT at distal forearm additionally to an osteoporosis assessment consisting of anamnesis, blood test and DXA of lumbar spine and hip. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - November 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: M. Drey, M. Henkel, S. Petermeise, S. Wei ß, U. Ferrari, M. Rottenkolber, R. Schmidmaier Source Type: research

Greater Visceral Fat but No Difference in Measures of Total Body Fat in Ambulatory Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy Compared to Typically Developing Children
The objective of this study was to determine if ambulatory children with spastic CP have greater central adiposity compared to typically developing children. Methodology: Eighteen ambulatory children with spastic CP (n  = 5 girls; 8.6 ± 2.9 yr) and 18 age-, sex-, and race-matched typically developing children (controls; 8.9 ± 2.1 yr) participated in this cross-sectional study. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - November 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Daniel G. Whitney, Harshvardhan Singh, Chuan Zhang, Freeman Miller, Christopher M. Modlesky Source Type: research

Association Between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Bone Mineral Density in People With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome
This study was designed as a cross-sectional and observational study. Patients who underwent polysomnography evaluation were classified as normal, mild, moderate, severe, or position-dependent OSAS, and OSAS  + obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). BMD was measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method at the femur and lumbar spine. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - November 2, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Ahmet Cemal Pazarli, Timur Ekiz, Handan İnönü Köseoğlu Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Proceedings of the 2018 Santa Fe Bone Symposium: Advances in the Management of Osteoporosis
The Santa Fe Bone Symposium is an annual meeting devoted to clinical applications of recent advances in skeletal research. The 19th Santa Fe Bone Symposium convened August 3 –4, 2018, in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Attendees included physicians of many specialties, fellows in training, advanced practice providers, clinical researchers, and bone density technologists. The format consisted of lectures, case presentations by endocrinology fellows, and panel discussions, w ith all involving extensive interactive discussions. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: E. Michael Lewiecki, John P. Bilezikian, Lora Giangregorio, Susan L. Greenspan, Sundeep Khosla, Paul Kostenuik, Kelly Krohn, Michael R. McClung, Paul D. Miller, Roberto Pacifici Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

A Valid and Precise Semiautomated Method for Quantifying INTERmuscular Fat INTRAmuscular Fat in Lower Leg Magnetic Resonance Images
The accumulation of INTERmuscular fat and INTRAmuscular fat (IMF) has been a hallmark of individuals with diabetes, those with mobility impairments such as spinal cord injuries and is known to increase with aging. An elevated amount of IMF has been associated with fractures and frailty, but the imprecision of IMF measurement has so far limited the ability to observe more consistent clinical associations. Magnetic resonance imaging has been recognized as the gold standard for portraying these features, yet reliable methods for quantifying IMF on magnetic resonance imaging is far from standardized. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 20, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Andy K.O. Wong, Eva Szabo, Marta Erlandson, Marshall S. Sussman, Sravani Duggina, Anny Song, Shannon Reitsma, Hana Gillick, Jonathan D. Adachi, Angela M. Cheung Source Type: research

Physical Performance Variables and Bone Parameters in a Group of Young Overweight and Obese Women
The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between physical performance variables and bone parameters such as bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content, hip geometry indices, and trabecular bone score in a group of young overweight and obese adult women. Sixty-eight overweight/obese (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2; 25.5–42.4 kg/m2) young women whose ages range from 18 to 35 yr participated in this study. Body composition and bone outcomes were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 20, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Abdel-Jalil Berro, Nathalie Al Rassy, Said Ahmaidi, Patchina Sabbagh, Anthony Khawaja, Ghassan Maalouf, Rawad El Hage Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Mechanical Vibration Associated With Intermittent PTH Improves Bone Microarchitecture in Ovariectomized Rats
Introduction: Intermittent 1-34 parathyroid hormone (iPTH) administration, a bone-forming treatment, is widely used as a therapy for severe osteoporosis. It can only be used for a maximum of 24 mo and must be followed by an antiresorptive drug to retain the new formed tissue. Mechanical load, in the form of low-intensity and high-frequency vibration, has received considerable attention due to its ability to prevent bone loss. Aim: To investigate the ability of whole body mechanical vibration (MV) to potentiate the anabolic effects of iPTH and to inhibit bone resorption following discontinuation of iPTH treatment in estroge...
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 14, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Jenifer Freitas Campos, Aline Gomes Hidalgo Mierzwa, Mariana Freitas-Jesus, Marise Lazaretti-Castro, Keico Okino Nonaka, Rejane Daniele Reginato Source Type: research

DXA Errors Are Common and Reduced by Use of a Reporting Template
Objective: High quality dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) acquisition, analysis, and reporting demands technical and interpretive excellence. We hypothesized that DXA errors are common and of such magnitude that incorrect clinical decisions might result. In this 2-phase study, we evaluated DXA technical and interpretation error rates in a clinical population and subsequently assessed if implementing an interpretation template reduced errors. Methods: In phase 1, DXA scans of 345 osteoporosis clinic referrals were reviewed by International Society for Clinical Densitometry-certified technologists (n  = 3) and physi...
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 14, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: D. Krueger, E. Shives, E. Siglinsky, J. Libber, B. Buehring, K.E. Hansen, N. Binkley Source Type: research

Precision of Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Reflection Scans in Muscular Athletes
Background: Offset scanning procedures, such as reflection scanning, allow for dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition assessment of individuals who are too broad for standard scanning dimensions. However, limited information is available concerning the precision of this procedure, particularly in athletes. Methodology: Twenty-seven muscular athletes (n  = 17 males, BMI: 28.8 ± 2.0 kg/m2, DXA body fat: 12.5 ± 2.7%; n = 10 females, BMI: 22.8 ± 1.6 kg/m2, DXA body fat: 19.2 ± 3.4%) underwent consecutive DXA scans on a GE Lunar Prodigy scanner using the reflection scanning t...
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 13, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Grant M. Tinsley, Michael Lane Moore, Austin J. Graybeal Source Type: research

Handgrip Strength Among Korean Adolescents With Metabolic Syndrome in 2014 –2015
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide in adolescents. Metabolic syndrome is a systemic disease that is likely to be associated with other diseases. Studies have shown a relationship between muscle strength, muscle quality, and metabolic syndrome. Handgrip strength is known as a simple tool to measure muscle strength. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between handgrip strength and metabolic syndrome and each metabolic syndrome features in adolescents. Data were obtained from 1050 adolescents (574 boys, 476 girls; age 10 –18 years) who participated in the Korea National Health a...
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Yunkoo Kang, Sowon Park, Seung Kim, Hong Koh Source Type: research

TBS as a Tool to Differentiate the Impact of Antiresorptives onCortical and Trabecular Bone in Children With OsteogenesisImperfecta
Introduction/Background: Osteogenesis imperfecta is a hereditary connective tissue disorder, resulting in low bone mass and high bone fragility. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and in adulthood also the trabecular bone score (TBS) are well established to assess bone health and fracture risk. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the usefulness of TBS in respect to different treatment regimes in children with osteogenesis imperfecta. Changes of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and TBS using DXA scans of children treated with antiresorptive therapies were evaluated. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 8, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Mirko Rehberg, Renaud Winzenrieth, Heike Hoyer-Kuhn, Ibrahim Duran, Eckhard Schoenau, Oliver Semler Source Type: research

A Novel Morphological Analysis of DXA-DICOM Images by Artificial Neural Networks for Estimating Bone Mineral Density in Health and Disease
The objective of the present study was to apply artificial neural networks (ANNs) to estimate total BMD for diagnosing a population of Egyptians with and without pathology, using extracted features from DXA-DICOM images based on the Histogram and Binary algorithms as compared to reference BMD measurements by DXA machine. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 3, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Ehab I. Mohamed, Radwa A. Meshref, Samir M. Abdel-Mageed, Moustafa H. Moustafa, Mohamed I. Badawi, Samy H. Darwish Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Bone Mineral Density And Trabecular Bone Score In Men With Vertebral Fractures
The aim of this study is to evaluate the trabecular bone score (TBS) and bone mineral density (BMD) in men with osteoporotic vertebral fractures. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: V. Povoroznyuk, A. Musiienko Tags: Abstracts from the ISCD Annual Meeting 2018 Source Type: research

Hypovitaminosis D in HIV-infected Patients
Vitamin D (VD) deficiency is highly prevalent among HIV-infected patients and has been associated with a worse disease prognosis. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Cristina Capatina, Anca Streinu Cercel, Daniela Manolache, Oana Sandulescu, Carmen Barbu, Adrian Streinu Cercel, Catalina Poiana Source Type: research

Impact of Whey Protein on Bone Mineral Density: a Systemic Review and Meta-analysis
Previous studies have shown that whey protein and its basic protein fraction, milk basic protein, might have a beneficial effect on bone mass through promoting bone formation and suppressing osteoclast activity. Nonetheless, most studies do not have enough power to examine the potential benefit on bone mass from using whey protein and milk basic protein and the data are contradictory. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Kamonkiat Wirunsawana, Sikarin Upala Source Type: research

Bone Mineral Density Changes in Transsexual Persons: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Both estrogen and testosterone are important in maintaining bone health. It is known that those in the transsexual population undergo significant changes in their body composition and bone mass due to the hormonal changes, either from male-to-female or female-to-male after sex reassignment surgery. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Sikarin Upala, Kamonkiat Wirunsawanya Source Type: research

A Ramped Administration of Pamidronate in Children: Preliminary Results
Pamidronate is the most widely used bisphosphonate to treat osteoporosis in children. It is commonly given IV for 3 consecutive days, for 5 orHtreatment fractures occur at the margins of pamidronate bands that form with bisphosphonate treatment in growing bone. A ramped dosing regimen was proposed to mediate stress-riser formation. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Alyssa K. Givens, Steven Bachrach, H. Theodore Harcke, Heidi Kecskemethy Source Type: research

Age-related decline in BMD is associated with changes in lean mass and modulated by sex and race
Studies have shown that the association between weight and BMD is primarily due to lean mass. Our objective was to determine whether the age-related decline in BMD was associated with changes in body composition (lean/fat mass) and whether it is influenced by sex and race/ethnicity. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Sikarin Upala, Tamara Vokes Source Type: research

Challenges in Osteoporosis Awareness and Management: Results from a Survey of US Postmenopausal Women
Osteoporosis-related fractures are a serious public health burden leading to excess morbidity, excess mortality, and high costs for postfracture care. Risk evaluation and timely disease management are of paramount importance to improve long-term health outcomes. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: E.M. Lewiecki, S.A. Williams, R. Weiss Source Type: research

Change in ultrasound-assessed speed of sound at the tibia and distal radius as a function of age: The Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study.
Speed of sound (SOS in m/s) measured with the BeamMed Sunlight Multi-site quantitative ultrasound (QUS) can predict fracture in women over a five-year period, independent of bone mineral density and other significant risk factors for fracture. The rate of SOS decline may better identify patients with an elevated risk for fracture than a single SOS measurement. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: W.P. Olszynski, D.A. Hanley, K.S. Davison, J.D. Adachi Source Type: research

Comparison study of Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in native Chinese and American Caucasian populations
This study analyzes and compares the trends in Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in Chinese and Caucasian populations collected using the Norland DXA scanner. Earlier studies have indicated that on average, the BMD of the general Chinese population is lower than that of the American Caucasian population. This has been linked to the widespread idea that BMD is largely genetically determined. However, recent BMD studies using Norland DXA units may suggest that bone in the Chinese and Caucasian populations may not differ. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Joshua Rajan, Jingmei Wang, Tom V. Sanchez Source Type: research

Correlation of lumbar spine TBS with distal radius and tibial trabecular density and structure measured with HR-pQCT in men and women in the Toronto Cohort of the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMOS)
To better estimate the risk of bone fractures, both bone mineral density (BMD) and microarchitecture should be measured. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry(DXA) scans are clinically used to provide information about BMD and can be used to determine trabecular bone score (TBS), which gives an estimate of trabecular microarchitecture for lumbar spine(L1-L4). High-resolution pQCT (HRpQCT) is an in vivo measurement of bone microstructure of the distal radius and tibia and its images can be converted to finite elements for estimation of bone strength. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: R.F. Alharthy, A.K. Wong, E. Szabo, D. Yau, A. Demaras, A.M. Cheung Source Type: research

Decreased total and central adiposity after 100 exoskeletal-assisted walking sessions in persons with chronic spinal cord injury
In persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), paralysis results in extreme physical inactivity and a higher percent of body fat. The accumulation of excess fat in the visceral cavity is a primary contributor to metabolic abnormalities and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), one of the leading causes of death in the SCI population. Powered exoskeleton-assisted walking (EAW) are robotic devises that promote exercise through rehabilitation and overground walking that may have positive effects on body composition and cardiometabolic health. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Christopher M. Cirnigliaro, Steven Knezevic, Adam Specht, Alex T. Lombard, Ann M. Spungen, William A. Bauman, Steven C. Kirshblum, Erica L. Garbarini, Jonathan Augustine, Gail Forrest Source Type: research

Early findings of a technology driven FLS in improving identification, treatment and follow up of hip fracture patients
In an effort to improve the diagnosis and treatment rate in patients with fragility fractures, many health care organizations have implemented secondary prevention programs, widely known as fracture liaison service (FLS). At an academic medical center, a technology driven FLS was developed as a joint effort between the departments of Internal Medicine and Orthopedic Surgery and was launched in March 2016. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Javaneh Lyons, Elizabeth Ames, Florian Foerg, Patrick Schottel, Elizabeth Rosy Hill, Amanda Kennedy, Augusta Wilson, Edward Leib Source Type: research

Effect of positioning of the roi on bmd of the forearm and its subregions
Inconsistent positioning of patients and region of interest (ROI) is known to influence the precision of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in the spine and hip. However it is unknown whether minor shifts in the positioning of the ROI along the shaft of the radius affect the measurement of forearm BMD and its subregions. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Elizabeth O. Rosen, Elizabeth A. McNamara, LaTarsha G. Whittaker, Alan O. Malabanan, Harold N. Rosen Source Type: research

Effect of Vertebral Body Exclusion on TBS and FRAX Calculations
Spinal degenerative changes are common and elevate DXA-measured BMD. However, existing data suggest trabecular bone score (TBS) is relatively unaffected by degenerative changes. Clinically, we observed patients in whom spinal degenerative changes appeared to substantially elevate not only BMD, but also TBS. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: R. White, N. Binkley, D. Krueger Source Type: research

Effect of 3 year Denosumab Treatment on Hip Structure in Japanese Postmenopausal Women and Men with Osteoporosis
Denosumab inhibits bone resorption by binding to and inactivating RANK ligand (RANKL), a key mediator of osteoclast formation, maturation and activation. As in the pivotal phase 3 study, FREEDOM, in predominantly postmenopausal Caucasian women with osteoporosis the efficacy of denosumab was evaluated by the phase 3 study, DIRECT, in Japanese osteoporosis patients. The study showed that 2-year treatment of denosumab significantly reduced risk of new vertebral fracture by 74.0% compared to placebo. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Teruki Sone, Naohiro Kon, Naoki Okubo, Masao Fukunaga, Masako Ito, Toshitaka Nakamura Source Type: research

Epidemiology Of Hip Fractures In Ukraine: Results Of STOP-Study
Hip fracture is one of the most serious complications of osteoporosis, which has important medical, social and economic complications. It is well known that incidence of hip fractures gradually increases with age and depends on the sex, but similar epidemiological studies in Ukraine are limited. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: V.V. Povoroznyuk, N.V. Grygorieva, M.O. Korzh, S.S. Strafun, V.M. Vaida, F.V. Klymovytsky, R.O. Vlasenko, J.A. Kanis, H. Johansson, E.V. McCloskey Source Type: research

Estimates of the precision of total and regional soft tissue body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in persons with chronic spinal cord injury
In both the clinical and research setting, the total body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan is widely employed to measure longitudinal changes in fat tissue mass and lean tissue mass of the total body and regional areas in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Knowledge of the precision error is essential due to less than optimal limb positioning (i.e., joint contracture and spasticity) that could confound the reliability of body composition measurements. (Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry)
Source: Journal of Clinical Densitometry - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Christopher M. Cirnigliaro, Ashraf S. Gorgey, William A. Bauman, Robert A. Adler Source Type: research