Childhood Protective Factors and Future Adult Health Outcomes in an Urban Environment
ConclusionThese findings suggest that a caring family and neighborhood connectedness are protective in mitigating childhood adversity. Devoting resources to strengthen families and communities is a promising strategy to promote healthier adult behaviors. (Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 16, 2022 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Child psychological/emotional abuse and neglect: A definitional conceptual framework
ConclusionsPolicy, practice, and research on PEA (and other forms of child abuse and neglect) are unlikely to progress without clarity about the definitions being used (in terms of their conceptual components) and the rationale for using the specific definitions chosen. The framework provided by the study is an effective tool for describing the components used in PEA definitions and thus distinguishing the differences between definitions. The framework should also be applicable for other types of child abuse and neglect. (Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 13, 2022 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Comparative Performance of the Resilience Inventory (IRES) and Resilience Scale-14 (RS-14) Spanish Versions Among Postpartum Adolescent Mothers
We examined reliability using Cronbach ’s alpha. We used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to assess the construct validity and factor structures of the two scales. Both scales had good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha >  0.7). Correlation between IRES and RS-14 scores was fair (r = 0.53). The EFA results of both scales yielded a three-factor structure. EFA including all items from IRES and RS-14 yielded a six-factor structure. CFA results corroborated the original seven-factor structure for IRES and yielded measures indicating a good level of goodness of fit (com...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 10, 2022 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Does Conduct, Oppositional Defiant, and Panic Disorder Symptoms Associate with Suicidal Ideations Among African American Adolescents?
AbstractPrevious studies suggest that mental illness symptoms among adolescents, such as conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and panic disorder symptoms often associate with suicidal ideations. Despite this, few studies have examined whether these mental illness symptoms associate with suicidal ideations among African American adolescents. To address these limitations, the current study examined whether conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and panic disorder symptoms associated with suicidal ideations (N  = 261). Using binominal logistic regression, results suggest that conduct disorder symptom...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 10, 2022 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The Prevalence, Patterns and Correlates of Childhood Trauma Exposure in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young People in Northern Ireland
ConclusionsThis study highlights the presence of three distinct trauma classes in the NI adolescent population. In particular, this study identifies a small minority of young people who have experienced multiple CT ’s, including sexually based traumas, with these traumas most likely to have occurred in the context of out-of-home care and familial poverty. (Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 7, 2022 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The Efficacy of Targeted Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Improving Mental Health and Cognition Among Youth and Adults with ACE Histories: A Systematic Mixed Studies Review
AbstractMindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are associated with increased psychological wellbeing. The literature suggests that individuals exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) may benefit greatly from MBIs. However, research has tended to focus on universal MBIs for this population with less attention on the effectiveness of targeted approaches. Moreover, there is growing concern regarding the methodological rigor of MBI research. This systematic mixed studies review (SMRS) reports the effectiveness of MBIs for improving mental health and cognition among individuals with ACE histories. Additionally, the revi...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 5, 2022 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Negative Posttraumatic Cognitions in 4- to 8-year-old Children following Maltreatment
ConclusionThese findings indicate that posttraumatic cognitions might be an important diagnostic and treatment target for 4- to 8-year-old children. (Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - April 21, 2022 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Examining Racial/Ethnic Differences in Positive Childhood Experiences Among Respondents in a Southern State
Conclusions:  Findings from this study may be used to promote health equity in early childhood through programs, policies, and practices that seek to address historic, systemic, and intergenerational trauma. (Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - April 20, 2022 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Variation in the prevalence of different forms of bullying victimisation among adolescents and their associations with family, peer and school connectedness: a population-based study in 40 lower and middle income to high-income countries (LMIC-HICs)
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of different forms of bullying victimization experiences and their association with family functioning, peer relationships and school connectedness among adolescents across 40 lower and middle income to high-income countries (LMIC-HICs). Data were drawn from the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) school-based survey of adolescents aged 11 –15 years, between 2013 and 2014. We estimated the weighted prevalence by categorising experiences into traditional bullying victimization only, cyberbullying victimization only, and combined traditional and cyberbullying victimiz...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - April 20, 2022 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Failures in Reflective Functioning, Dissociative Experiences, and Eating Disorder: a Study On a Sample of Italian Adolescents
This study aimed at investigating the role of failures in reflective functioning and dissociation in predicting the risk of eating disorders during adolescence. The Eating Disorder Inventory-3 (EDI-3), the Reflective Functioning Questionnaire (RFQ), and the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES) were administered to a sample of 427 adolescents between 13 and 20  years old. Results of correlational analysis showed that the risk of eating disorders was positively correlated with uncertainty about mental states. Eating disorder risk was also inversely correlated with certainty about mental states. Dissociation sco...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - April 5, 2022 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire —Short Form (CTQ-SF) used with adolescents – methodological report from clinical and community samples
ConclusionsThe CTQ is well accepted and can be trusted to provide consistent and valid self-reports from the age of 14 on childhood maltreatment. Some caution is advised when used with younger adolescents, since the test-retest stability is then weaker, and the interpretation of the M/D scale is more ambiguous. (Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - March 30, 2022 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Community Violence Exposure on a Sample of Anxious, Treatment-Seeking Children
AbstractScreening for adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can help prevent and reduce adverse outcomes on child development, including increased risk for anxiety disorders. Emerging studies strongly support the inclusion of community-level adversities in ACE screeners to consider diverse contexts and populations. Recent studies suggest that community violence exposure (CVE) may have a distinct impact on youth mental health. Although recent studies have examined the association between ACEs, CVE, and mental health in primary care settings, this association has not been examined on treatment-seeking children in urban mental...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - March 7, 2022 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The Resilience of Adolescent Girls: An Archival Diary Study of the Protective Advantages of Ordinary Adolescence in the Holocaust-Era Diaries of Anne Frank and Renia Spiegel
AbstractIn view of recent calls for psychology to use more strengths-based approaches when studying the life experiences of girls, this qualitative archival diary study examined two famous Holocaust-era diaries for evidence of the resilience of adolescence in girls. Adolescent-themed passages were selected from the posthumously published diaries of Anne Frank and Renia Speigel, who kept private diaries while under grave threat and devastation of WWII and the Holocaust. To explore how the ordinary affairs of adolescent development may have contributed to their resilience, we used thematic analysis to explore the prevalence ...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - March 5, 2022 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Alignment of Borderline Personality Disorder and Complex Post-traumatic Stress Disorder With Complex Developmental Symptomatology
AbstractCluster analysis of maltreatment-related mental health symptoms manifested by adolescents in foster care suggest the absence of an underlying taxonomic structure. To test this further, we investigated alignment between mental health symptom profiles derived through cluster analysis and nominal diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Complex Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (C-PTSD), among a sample of 230 adolescents in long-term foster care.  Nominal DSM-V BPD and ICD-11 C-PTSD caseness was estimated from Child Behaviour Checklist and Assessment Checklist for Adolescents score algorithms, and alignmen...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - March 4, 2022 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Does Loneliness Mediate the Relationship Between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and Pain Catastrophizing Among Women?
AbstractMost adults in the United States report experiencing at least one adverse childhood experience (ACE), with around a quarter of the population reporting three or more. ACEs impact adult biological (e.g., hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) and psychosocial (e.g., loneliness) functioning, including cognitive patterns in stressful situations. As one example, pain catastrophizing is an emotional and cognitive reaction to pain that is closely related to low distress tolerance. We hypothesized that women with more ACEs would report greater levels of pain catastrophizing in adulthood, an effect potentially mediated via h...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - March 3, 2022 Category: Child Development Source Type: research