Computed Tomography Practice Standards for Severe Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury in the Emergency Department: a National Survey
AbstractAcute medical management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be challenging outside of the resuscitation bay, specifically while obtaining a computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain. We sought out to determine the management practices of Canadian traumatologists for pediatric patients with severe TBI requiring CT in the emergency department (ED). In 2019, surveys were sent to trauma directors in hospitals across Canada to ascertain their clinical practices. Team members present in the CT scan included physicians (89%), registered nurses (100%), and respiratory therapists (38%). The average time to and from the CT...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - September 18, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Sleep as a Moderator of Young Children ’s Traumatic Stress and Behavior Problems: a Treatment-Referred Sample
AbstractEmpirical evidence suggests young children who have experienced trauma are at risk of developing sleep problems and behavior difficulties, but it is unclear of the specific relation between these behavioral health concerns. The primary purpose of the study is to determine whether sleep problems moderate the relation between traumatic stress and behavior problems in a sample of young children referred for treatment. A secondary purpose is to explore if sleep problems also moderate the relation between specific domains of traumatic stress (i.e., intrusion, avoidance, arousal) and behavior problems. Data from 170 pres...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - September 16, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Medical Neglect in Childhood
AbstractThis introduction provides an overview to the special issues on medical neglect in childhood guest edited by Barbara L. Knox, MD, FAAP, Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, The Children ’s Hospital at Providence, Medical Director of Alaska Child Abuse Response and Evaluation Services; Randell C. Alexander, MD, PhD, FAAP, Professor and Chief, Division of Child Protection and Forensic Pediatrics at the University of Florida-Jacksonville; Francois M. Luyet, MD, Clinical Assistant Pr ofessor, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health; and Debra D. Esern...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - September 14, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Facing Forced Displacement: Overcoming Adverse Childhood Experiences
This study aimed to explore the experience of displacement of the participating refugee children and their ways of coping based on their personal narratives and stories. Fifteen refugee children were interviewed about their experiences of forced displacement in Greece. Qualitative analysis was used based on the principles of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Three overarching themes emerged from the data: (a) losses and pains, (b) pressure from multiple sources and (c) life ’s lessons from stressful experiences. The themes represent children’s stress experiences, whereas the latter reflects the wa...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - August 17, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Making the “C-ACE” for a Culturally-Informed Adverse Childhood Experiences Framework to Understand the Pervasive Mental Health Impact of Racism on Black Youth
AbstractThe high prevalence and psychological impact of childhood exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTE) is a major public health concern in the United States. Considerable evidence has demonstrated the significant racial disparities that exist with respect to PTE exposure, indicating that Black youth are particularly burdened by these harmful experiences. Racism may serve a unique role in explaining why Black youth are disproportionately exposed to PTEs, and why mental health disparities are more likely to occur following such experiences. Despite clear evidence acknowledging racism as a major life stressor for Bl...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - August 11, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors among Black Children and Youth
AbstractThere is limited research on the short-term effects of ACEs on Black children and youth. Black children and youth are disproportionately exposed to abuse, neglect, and other victimizations (Drake et al.2009; Wade et al.Journal of Family Issues, 17(3), 283 –316,2014). Investigating ACEs will provide a broader understanding of childhood trauma on developmental processes. The current study investigates how ACES impacts psychological distress, substance use, and delinquency among Black children and youth. Hypotheses were tested using a subsample of longitudinal data from 265 participants who were recruited from s...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - July 2, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Cultural Betrayal as a Dimension of Traumatic Harm: Violence and PTSS among Ethnic Minority Emerging Adults
AbstractAccording to cultural betrayal trauma theory, within-group violence confers a cultural betrayal that contributes to outcomes, including symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSS). Close relationship with the perpetrator, known as high betrayal, also impacts PTSS. The purpose of the current study is to examine cultural betrayal trauma, high betrayal trauma, and PTSS in a sample of diverse ethnic minority emerging adults. Participants (N = 296) completed the one-hour questionnaire online. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that when controlling for gender, ethnicity, and interracial ...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - June 22, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Childhood Trauma History and Negative Social Experiences in College
AbstractWhile there is literature documenting the association between childhood trauma and later sexual assault or interpersonal violence victimization, less is known about risk of less severe, but still negative, victimization experiences such as sexual harassment, hazing, and bullying in college. The goal of this study was to explore the association between self-reported childhood trauma (both personally experienced and witnessed) and negative social experiences in college-age adults (e.g., sexual harassment, hazing, and bullying), and the role that internalizing difficulties (i.e., depression and stress) plays in this a...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - June 19, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Roles of Emotional Reactions and Potency in Coping with Abusive Experiences of Indian Adolescent
AbstractVictimized children ’s perceptions of the severity of abusive incidents have been found to be associated with their willingness to disclose. However, the relationship between perceptions, disclosure, and coping processes of abused Indian adolescents, has rarely been studied. To explore the roles of emotional reaction s associated with disclosure, and potency on individuals’ perception of the severity of abusive incidents, reluctance to disclose, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. A randomly selected sample, consisting of 324 adolescents (aged 12 to 16) in Kolkata, India was included. Of these, 170 adole...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - June 13, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Simultaneous Heart Rate Variability and Electroencephalographic Monitoring in Children in the Emergency Department
This study suggests that high consent rates are possible with the adequate research infrastructure and physiologic variables may offer an early, non-invasive marker for injury st ratification and prognosis in children. (Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - June 10, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Predict Increased Arterial Stiffness from Childhood to Early Adulthood: Pilot Analysis of the Niagara Longitudinal Heart Study
AbstractAn association among adults between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and arterial stiffness and between arterial stiffness and cardiovascular disease has been established. Recent cross-sectional evidence suggests that ACEs is linked to the development and progression of arterial stiffness, but it remains unclear when these changes begin to manifest. We examine the relationship between ACEs and changes in arterial stiffness from childhood into adulthood using population-based longitudinal data. The Niagara Longitudinal Heart Study (NLHS) pilot data included 76 young adults (females  = 44), with an ...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 30, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Intergenerational Trauma among Families in El Salvador: an Exploratory Study
This study aimed to examine intergenerational trauma exposure among a sample of parents living in a semi-urban Salvadoran community and the relationship between child trauma exposure with maternal perceived discrimination, internal strengths and external support. Survey data was collected from 49 mothers residing in El Salvador. Bivariate analyses and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between children ’s exposure to adverse childhood events and parents’ exposure to adverse childhood events, while controlling for discrimination. The results of the regression analysis i...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 28, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Correction to: Medical Neglect as a Contributor to Poorly Controlled Asthma in Childhood
The corresponding author has the wrong affiliation. The correct one is written below. (Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 19, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The Relationship Between ACEs, Trauma-Related Psychopathology and Resilience in Vulnerable Youth: Implications for Screening and Treatment
This study examined the impact of ACEs in vulnerable adolescents and assessed whether resilience would have a moderating impact on psychological functioning. Participants included 40 youth, aged 12 –17 identified as having experienced family violence and who were referred for treatment at the San Diego Center for Counseling (SD-CC). The relationship between ACEs, trauma-related symptomology, and psychological functioning was examined using results from the Child Posttraumatic Stress Scale (C PSS) and the Personality Assessment Inventory for Adolescents (PAI-A). The Child Youth Resiliency Measure was utilized to asses...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 8, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Self-Blame Mediates the Link between Childhood Neglect Experiences and Internalizing Symptoms in Low-Risk Adolescents
This study aimed to explore individual differences in response to the continuum of severity of neglect in community adolescents, as well as the role of specific cognitive emotion regulation strategies (CERSs) as mediators between childhood neglect and current internalizing symptoms. Low-risk adolescents (12 –19 years old;M age 15.88  years;N = 123; 64 Females) completed questionnaires assessing these experiences. We employed a regression model and a simple mediation analyses. Findings indicate a positive association between childhood neglect, internalizing behaviors, and the adoption of self-b...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - April 29, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Medical Neglect Allegations in the Context of Conflicted Divorce/Separation Child Custody: What Should the Health Care Provider Do?
AbstractPediatricians and child health providers face with situation in which families disagree about recommended treatments. Managing these disagreements is more challenging during periods of divorce or separation particularly when parents are in dispute over custody or medical decision-making. Parental disagreement exists along a continuum. General principles apply 1) the worse the conflict, the worse the outcome for children, 2) when conflict is combined with other factors such as separation, the outcome is often worse, and 3) the pediatrician/primary health care provider can mitigate this. This manuscript provides a re...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - April 2, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Internalizing, Externalizing Problems and Psychiatric Hospitalizations: Examination of Maltreatment Chronicity and Coping Style in Adolescents in Foster Care
AbstractChild maltreatment is associated with internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents, as well as psychiatric hospitalizations, which represent severe mental health difficulties and substantial burden on individuals and the health care system. These negative outcomes are especially prevalent in youth in foster care. Not all youth exposed to maltreatment, however, demonstrate poor mental health outcomes. Additional factors, such as maltreatment chronicity and coping style, may help explain why some (but not all) youth develop major psychiatric problems. The purpose of the present study was to examine how mal...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - March 14, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Teaching Youth to Resist Abuse: Evaluation of a Strengths-Based Child Maltreatment Curriculum for High School Students
AbstractChild maltreatment (CM) is a serious and prevalent public health problem in the United States (U.S.) yet programming to combat the issue often overlooks high school aged youth (those aged 14 –17). In 2017, over 90,000 youth in the U.S. experienced CM during their high school years (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services2019). This manuscript will highlight the importance of prevention programs for youth affected by child maltreatment and report the findings of a pilot study that examined the effectiveness of the Childhelp Speak Up Be Safe Prevention Education Curriculum among high school students. The p...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - March 10, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Can Early Life Stress Engender Biological Resilience?
AbstractEarly life is a sensitive period in which social experience provides essential information for normal development (Johnson and BlascoPediatrics in Review, 18(7), 224 –242,1997). Studies have shown that having a loving, primary caregiver early in life acts as a protective factor against social and emotional maladjustments later in life (Egeland and HiesterChild Development, 66(2), 474 –485,1995), while the exposure to childhood adversities, such as child abuse and neglect, have been associated with increased risk of developing diseases later in life (Felitti et al.American Journal of Preventive Medicine,...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - February 5, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Retrospective Accounts of Bullying Victimization at School: Associations with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Post-Traumatic Growth among University Students
AbstractThis retrospective study investigated the association between bullying victimization experiences at school, current post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and post-traumatic growth (PTG) among Greek university students. A sample of 400 university students aged 17 to 40  years (M age = 20.33,SD = 3.18) completed self-reported scales measuring school bullying victimization experiences, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and post-traumatic growth. Results showed that victims of school bullying reported mild levels of PTSD and moderate feelings of post-traumatic growth. Fem...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - January 29, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The Role of Body Image Concerns in Online Sexual Victimization among Female Adolescents: The Mediating Effect of Risky Online Behaviors
AbstractFemale adolescents are particularly at risk of body image concerns. These individuals tend to make greater use of Social Networks and this could lead adolescents into behaviors that increase the risk of online sexual victimization (OSV). This cross-sectional study seeks to investigate the relation between body image concerns and OSV in a sample of female adolescents (n = 229) and the mediating role of three types of risky online behaviors in this link. Body image concerns predict OSV both directly and indirectly. Two of the three risky online behaviors proved to be mediators of the indirect link, name...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - January 23, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

An Innovative Mobile Game for Screening of Pediatric PTSD: a Study in Primary Care Settings
This study investigated psychometric properties of a briefer, more interactive game version of the Child PTSD Symptom Scale for DSM-5 (CPSS-5). Participants (n = 49) were children attending primary care appointments between 8 to 12 years of age who were exposed to a DSM-5 Criterion A trauma. Participants completed the 6-item screening version of the CPSS-5 delivered in mobile tablet game format (theCPSS-5 Screen Team Game) and a self-report version of the full CPSS-5 (CPSS-5-SR) before their medical appointments. The mobile game showed adequate internal consistency ( α = 0.79), was si...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - January 23, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Creating “a Safe Haven”: Emotion-Regulation Strategies Employed by Mothers and Young Children Exposed to Recurrent Political Violence
This study examined the concurrent emotional regulation (ER) strategies employed by mothers and their children in meeting this challenge. Following several incidents of rocket attacks, in southern Israel, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 30 mothers and their children (ages 5 –7). Additionally, mothers completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (Gross and John2003). The main theme emerging from the qualitative analyses of the interviews with the children was adherence to the perception of the shelter room in the home as a “safe haven”, supported by constructed knowledge and acquired skills ...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - December 20, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the 10-item Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) among adolescent mothers in Peru
The objective of this research is to assess the psychometric properties of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) in order to contribute to the literature identifying validated resilience measures in low-resource settings where individuals face significant adversity. This cross-sectional study included 789 adolescent mothers who delivered at a maternity hospital in Lima, Peru. The Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC was used to measure resilience. Internal consistency and construct validity were assessed by evaluating individual item characteristics as well as the association of CD-RISC score with symptoms of de...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - December 20, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The Subjective Experiences and Reactions of Kindergarten Children during and after a Period of Continuous Missile Attacks
AbstractThe current study focused on kindergarten children ’s coping strategies after trauma and PTSD resulting from exposure to emergency situations during the summer of 2014, when their town was under continuous missile attacks, in the south west part of Israel near the Gaza Strip. The study explored children’s trauma by interviewing 150 kindergarten children (ages 4–6). We sought to present the children’s voice and understand their point of view, their subjective experiences, and their ways of coping with traumatic situations. The interviews revealed that during and following the period of contin...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - December 13, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

It ’s Never One Type: the Co-Occurrence of Child Abuse and Neglect among Children Living in Community Residences in Trinidad
This study aimed to provide evidence of the prevalence of multi-type maltreatment and patterns of co-occurrence of child abuse and neglect among children and adolescents in community residences across Trinidad. One hundred and two children and adolescents completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire which captured five abuse and neglect types: emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect and emotional neglect. The correlation analyses revealed significant positive relationships among the three types of abuse and a moderate positive correlation between the two types of neglect. T-test results indicated th...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - December 12, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Medical Neglect as a Contributor to Poorly Controlled Asthma in Childhood
This article aims to review the role of medical neglect as a contributor to poor asthma control. Medical neglect can present as failure of the caretaker to recognize severe asthma symptoms in a child, non-adherence to medical management, failure to prevent chronic exposure to allergens or tobacco smoke, poor child nutrition leading to obesity, and allowing a young child to manage his/her illness without supervision. This article will explore the different factors leading to medical neglect (as illustrated by two cases) and suggest possible interventions aiming to prevent emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and a...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - December 10, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Is Emotional Abuse As Harmful as Physical and/or Sexual Abuse?
This article discusses risk factors for adults who have suffered early childhood trauma, specifically focusing on emotional abuse, and discusses the negative long-term consequences from childhood trauma such as depression, anxiety, stress, and neuroticism personality. This research study predicts that those who report emotional abuse will have higher sores for depression, anxiety, stress, and neuroticism personality compared to those who reported only physical, only sexual, or combined physical and sexual abuse. Using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, 74...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - December 10, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Bullying and Suicide Ideation: Testing the Buffering Hypothesis of Social Support in a Sub-Saharan African Sample
AbstractSubstantial evidence indicates that adolescents and young adults have a disproportionately high incidence of most forms of violence, including suicide. Suicidality often includes suicidal ideation. The present study examined the relationship between bullying and suicidal ideation, and further tested whether social support moderates the association between the dimensions of bullying (verbal bullying, physical bullying, and bullying victimization) and suicidal ideation among adolescent secondary school students. A cross-sectional design was adopted for the study. Participants were 394 students (249 boys, 145 girls) d...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - December 6, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Child Abuse and Neglect, Callous-Unemotional Traits, and Substance Use Problems: the Moderating Role of Stress Response Reactivity
AbstractYoung adults who experienced child abuse and neglect (CAN) are at significant risk for callous-unemotional traits and substance use problems. Research shows that compromised self-regulation may increase risk for these maladaptive outcomes. In the present cross-sectional study, we examined the moderating role of self-regulation, indexed by heart rate variability reactivity, in the indirect link between CAN and alcohol and other drug use problems via callous-unemotional traits. We utilized a sample of mostly female undergraduate students (N = 130, 81% Female;Mage = 20.72). We hypothesized ...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - November 28, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Responding to Basic and Complex Cases of Child Abuse: a Comparison Study of Recent and Current Child Advocacy Studies (CAST) Students with DSS Workers in the Field
AbstractIn an effort to improve the training of future child protection professionals, more than 70 universities and graduate schools in the United States have implemented Child Advocacy Studies (CAST) minors or graduate programs. In order to assess the efficacy of these programs, 46 current and recent graduates of a CAST minor and 43 child protection professionals currently employed by a Department of Social Services (DSS) were given two vignettes. The first vignette involved a clear case of sexual abuse and the second vignette involved a more complex case involving polyvictimization. The students were asked to identify v...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - November 26, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The Impact of Maltreatment on Internalizing Symptoms for Foster Youth: an Examination of Spirituality and Appraisals as Moderators
AbstractResearch shows that exposure to child maltreatment increases the risk of internalizing symptoms for youth, and that youth in foster care are at a particularly high risk of symptoms. However, not all youth who experience maltreatment evidence maladjustment, making the link between exposure and mental health outcomes unclear and creating a need to examine what factors buffer against symptomatology. A sample of youth in foster care was used to provide a new examination of the relation between child maltreatment exposure and internalizing symptoms, to test the possible moderating effects of both appraisals and spiritua...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - November 23, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Assessing the Effects of Childhood Multitype Maltreatment on Adult Spirituality
AbstractContinued research regarding the effects of experiencing multiple types of childhood maltreatment is necessary in gauging the impact of such experiences on survivors. In an effort to contribute to this area of study, the authors investigated the relationship between multitype childhood maltreatment and adult spirituality and compared three established methods of assessing the these effects to investigate the degree to which a researcher ’s choice of method might affect their findings. Surveys were completed by 254 university students that included data on childhood maltreatment and current spirituality. Findi...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - October 14, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Informal Help-Seeking Process Regarding Romantic Issues and Dating Violence: a Qualitative Study
This study also aimed to describe gender specificities involved in the help-seeking process. Data analysis was performed relying on the help-seeking and change model developed for intimate partner violence (American Journal of Community Psychology, 36, 71-84,2005). A direct content analysis was conducted on semi-structured interviews of 80 youths. All participants reported having experienced at least one romantic relationship difficulty and half of them reported at least one experience of DV victimization in their current romantic relationship. Motives to seek support and help were mentioned by the participants, namely the...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - September 12, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Researching the Effectiveness of Tree of Life: an Imbeleko Approach to Counseling Refugee Youth
This article explains the complexities associated with understanding refugee youth and presents a proposal for studying the possible benefits of Tree of Life therapy. At the present time, Tree of Life therapy has no evidence-base because the published studies of Tree of Life with refugee and/or immigrant youth have sample sizes of one, six, eight, and twenty-nine. As a culturally-grounded, strength-based group counseling approach, Tree of Life therapy addresses traumatic experiences, recognizes participants ’ cultural differences, highlights individual skills, and aids in instilling both confidence and hope for the f...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - September 9, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Upstander Intervention and Parenting Styles
AbstractFindings from a survey of children and adolescents (N = 645) documents that students witness and experience a range of abuse at home and at school. Participants freely acknowledged pushing or shoving (46%) and slapping or hitting peers (40%). The study contributes to the literature by focusing on upstanding (active versus passive bystander interve ntion) and parenting styles. Findings reveal an interesting disconnect between those who say they will intervene when confronted by friends’ or peers’ bullying behaviors and those who actually have intervened. Children and adolescents with author...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - September 6, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The Influence of Youth Gender and Complex Trauma on the Relation Between Treatment Conditions and Outcomes in Therapeutic Residential Care
This study examined the effects of trauma-informed residential care and th e relation between CT and gender. A sample (n = 206) from an evaluation of a youth psychiatric residential facility in the Midwest that transitioned from a traditional care model to a trauma-informed care model was used. A hierarchical regression was used to model the main effects of model of care, gender, CT, length of stay, and crisis re sponse on treatment outcomes; and the moderating effects of gender and CT. The results support the high prevalence of CT in residential care populations. The final model explained 30.2% of the varian...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - August 22, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Traumatic Events Are Associated with Diverse Psychological Symptoms in Typically-Developing Children
AbstractChildhood traumatic events are significant risk factors for psychopathology according to adult retrospective research; however, few studies examine trauma exposure and psychological symptoms in pre-adolescent children. Typically-developing children, aged 9 –12 years (N = 114), were recruited from the community and selected from the Developmental Chronnecto-Genomics (Dev-CoG) study examining child development. Children completed questionnaires about traumatic life events, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, depression, dissociation, anger, and internalizing and ext ernalizing behaviors. Parents a...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - August 19, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Malnutrition and Medical Neglect
This article reviews the relationship between medical neglect, nutritional deprivation, and over-nutrition to explore when a diagnosis of medical neglect may be applicable. (Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - August 17, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Psycho-Emotional Violence, Its Association, Co-Occurrence, and Bidirectionality with Cyber, Physical and Sexual Violence
AbstractUsing data from a cross-sectional sample of seventh to twelfth graders who attended northeastern schools between 2011 and 2012, we examined the associations between psycho-emotional dating violence and cyber, physical, and sexual violence Overall, we found that respondents experienced more than one type of dating violence simultaneously, indicating the prevalence of co-occurrence in dating violence. Further, being a victim of psycho-emotional violence was associated with perpetrating similar types of violence, suggesting the bidirectional nature of this type of aggression. Among the covariates, we found that peer b...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - August 17, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Early Adversity and Sexual Risk in Adolescence: Externalizing Behaviors as a Mediator
We examined data from 122 adolescent girls, ages 13 –18, who were involved in the juvenile justice system or receiving social supports from local agencies and schools. Girls were asked to report their exposure to ACEs and engagement in sexual risk behavior and caregivers were asked to report on girls’ internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Re gression analyses indicated that girls who experienced more ACEs and exhibited more externalizing behaviors demonstrated higher rates of sexual risk. Further, externalizing behaviors partially mediated the association between ACEs and sexual risk behavior. Findings sug...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - August 7, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Safe Place: Clinical Utility and Feasibility of a Multi-Disciplinary Intervention for Children with Sensory Processing Disorder and Complex Trauma – a Feasibility Study
AbstractIssues of feasibility, acceptability, satisfaction, safety, and fidelity were examined in a single case program review as an initial step to assessment of the clinical utility of the SAFE PLACE program, a unique multi-disciplinary intervention program for children with complex trauma and sensory processing disorder. The feasibility of conducting a pilot intervention study was also examined. A mixed methods, single-case, program review was conducted. The intervention was the 12-week SAFE PLACE program with pre and post-intervention baseline periods. Random intervention sessions were assessed for fidelity. Post-progr...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - August 7, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Two Sides of Child Maltreatment: from Psychopathic Traits to Altruistic Attitudes Inhibition
AbstractChild maltreatment is a known risk factor for criminal behavior, however, only a few studies have addressed the relationship between child maltreatment and the development of psychopathic traits. Meanwhile, the effect of adverse childhood experiences on prosocial behavior is practically unknown. The current research aims to explore the relationship between child maltreatment, psychopathic traits and altruistic attitudes among young adults. Six hundred and seventy-three young adults from the community filled out the Adverse Childhood Experience Questionnaire, the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory – Short Ver...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - August 3, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

When Medical Care and Parents Collide-Parents Who Refuse Testing and or Treatment for Children
AbstractMedical Neglect is a challenging diagnosis. Physicians and parents may clash over what they both perceive to be in the best interest of the child. Cultural, religious, financial, or philosophical differences between the health care providers and families can be difficult to negotiate. This paper reviews the definition of medical neglect and describes barriers that can prevent families from following medical recommendations for their child. Involvement of statutory authorities to intervene in cases of medical neglect may be helpful, but also may result in increased friction between parents and the health system, oft...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - August 2, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Exposure to Domestic Violence during Adolescence: Coping Strategies and Attachment Styles as Early Moderators and their Relationship to Functioning during Adulthood
AbstractThe present study aimed to investigate the impact of exposure to domestic violence during adolescence on an individual ’s psychological health, ability to regulate emotions, and sense of satisfaction with life, during adulthood. Additionally, it aimed to investigate the long-term role of different coping strategies and attachment with primary caregiver, during adolescence, as potential moderators in the relationsh ip between severity of domestic violence exposure during adolescence and an individual’s functioning during adulthood. A total of 218 adult participants completed measures regarding exposure t...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - July 31, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Traumatized Witnesses: Review of Childhood Exposure to Animal Cruelty
(Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - July 30, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Assessing Medical Neglect in HIV-Exposed or Infected Children
AbstractHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes a chronic illness requiring lifelong medical care to prevent opportunistic infections and death. It is important to identify medical neglect in children that are perinatally exposed to or living with human immunodeficiency virus and to take steps to prevent it. Diagnosis of medical neglect must be considered in the context of the caregivers ’ understanding of the risks of harm, and the logistical, cultural and social factors that may influence their actions or non-actions. When medical neglect as failure of treatment or prevention of infection is suspected, medical pr...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - July 23, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Complex Trauma and Ecological Vulnerability: Development of a Resources Perspective Framework to Inform Longitudinal Examination
AbstractTranslation and application of current complex trauma knowledge for high-risk groups such as the homeless is needed. Existing research in this area has been limited by lack of a cohesive theoretical framework that captures the dynamic and heterogeneous nature of complex trauma within the context of ecological vulnerability (e.g. homelessness). This paper aims to address these gaps by proposing an integrated resources perspective framework situating Layne and colleagues ’ (Layne et al.2009,2010) concept of ‘risk factor caravans’ as central focus. We demonstrate how the ‘risk factor caravan&rs...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - July 22, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Relationship between Trauma History and Eating Disorders in Adolescents
AbstractReasons for developing an eating disorder (ED) are complex, yet one plausible risk factor gaining more relevance in adolescents with EDs is childhood trauma. The current study is the first to examine the presence of childhood trauma in relation to ED symptomatology in adolescents using DSM-5 criteria. It was hypothesized that patients with more traumatic experiences also have more severe ED symptoms. 112 therapists currently treating adolescent patients diagnosed with an ED completed an online survey consisting of a DSM-5 ED symptom checklist and a childhood trauma questionnaire on a current adolescent patient whom...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - July 10, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Assessing the Validity and Clinical Utility of a Developmental Trauma Diagnosis in Ethnic Minority Adolescents
AbstractDevelopmental Trauma Disorder (DTD), a proposed diagnostic construct designed to reflect symptoms common among multiply-traumatized youth, was examined in a population of primarily female, predominantly Hispanic and African-American adolescents seeking psychiatric treatment (N = 53). The study uses a mix of interview and self-report data to test the prevalence of DTD symptoms relative to PTSD symptoms in this sample as well as to differentiate the DTD symptoms from DSM-IV and DSM-5 PTSD. DTD symptomatology was found to be as prevalent in the sample as PTSD symptomato logy and further, DTD was found to...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - July 4, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research