Trauma Healing Club: Utilizing Culturally Responsive Processes in the Implementation of an After-School Group Intervention to Address Trauma Among African Refugees
AbstractThe State of Tennessee granted appropriations to an urban university in the West Tennessee region to address the needs of at-risk African refugee children and families who have experienced Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). Action oriented research efforts were conducted to address the needs of youth in the local region by developing, implementing, and evaluating a community-based intervention that was not only trauma responsive but culturally competent. The Trauma Healing Club was a treatment package developed and researched for this purpose and offered in an after school support program. This identified interv...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - July 24, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Gender Differences in Children ’s Exposure to Domestic Violence in Nigeria
This study examined gender differences in children’s exposure to domestic violence based on identified gaps in the literature. Through a cross-sectional research design, data were gathered from 280 Nigerian children with a mean age of 14.14 ± 2.36. Data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. The independent sample t-test was utilized for hypothesis testing, with statistical significance set at p   .05]. The authors conclude that there was no statistically significant gender difference in children’s exposure to domestic violence; however, this research informs ...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - July 24, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Correction to: Exposure to IPV Among Children in the Child Welfare System and an Emotional-Behavioral Disability: the Role of Maternal Depression and Social Support
(Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - July 24, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Survivors of Hell: Resilience Amongst Unaccompanied Minor Refugees and Implications for Treatment- a Narrative Review
AbstractApproximately half of the world ’s displaced population are children and a significant proportion of these are unaccompanied asylum-seeking children (UASC). UASC are the most vulnerable of all refugee populations. Up to 90% of UASC have been subjected to exploitation, including trafficking or being drafted into military groups. Having survived the perils of flight, UASC are confronted with continued challenges, including the uncertainties regarding their residential rights in host counties. Unsurprisingly, the prevalence of mental health problems is higher amongst UASC than in any other refugee group. Yet, Me...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - July 22, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Community-Based Interventions for the Treatment and Management of Conflict-Related Trauma in Low-Middle Income, Conflict-Affected Countries: a Realist Review
AbstractWhere low- and middle-income countries have limited economic resources to provide individualized mental health services to people exposed to conflict, community-based interventions may be more appropriate. We aimed to evaluate community level interventions for improving mental health outcomes in Low- and Middle-income countries (LMIC). A realist review of community-based interventions (CBIs) to improve mental health for people in LMIC following conflict. Five databases (Cochrane, PubMed, PsychINFO, Medline, and CINAHL) and a manual search of individual papers. We found 1318 articles, of which 29 were selected. Out ...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - June 25, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Is Trauma Focused-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) Effective in Reducing Trauma Symptoms among Traumatized Refugee Children? A Systematic Review
This study conducted a systematic review that assessed the evidence of the effectiveness of TF-CBT in reducing trauma symptoms among refugee children under 18  years of age. A systematic review was conducted from peer-reviewed literature databases (12 databases): PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (PQDT), Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PROSPERO, EBSCOHost, Campbell Collaboration Library of Systematic Reviews, Social S ciences Index, and grey literature sources published from 1990 to 2019. The search yielded 1650 articles, and 4 peer reviewed studies were identified that met inclusi...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - June 21, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Exposure to IPV among Children in the Child Welfare System and an Emotional-Behavioral Disability: the Role of Maternal Depression and Social Support
This study examines the relationship between children ’s exposure to IPV and EBD among children involved in the child welfare system for suspected maltreatment (both substantiated and unsubstantiated). It specifically examines how children’s trauma symptoms, maternal depression, and maternal social support may impact the relationship between exposu re to IPV and EBD. This study uses structural equation modeling with data from the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Wellbeing to examine the relationship between exposure to IPV and EBD among 989 children (ages 8–17) involved in the child welfare ...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - June 18, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Bullying Victimization of Children with Mental, Emotional, and Developmental or Behavioral (MEDB) Disorders in the United States
This study used the 2018 National Survey of Children ’s Health (NSCH) data of 23,494 children ages 5–17 to estimate multilevel logistic regression with fixed and random effects. Children’s health conditions were treated as level one variables, while family poverty level and neighborhood characteristics such as vandalism and presence/absence of r ecreational centers were treated as level two variables. The paper presents the prevalence of bullying victimization among children with at least one disorder (MDBB = 39.5%), anxiety (20.6%), depression (10.8%), ADD/ADHD (18.3%), behavioral prob...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - June 15, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Coping Methods Used by College Undergraduate and Graduate Students while Experiencing Childhood Adversities and Traumas
AbstractExperiences in childhood, both positive and negative, are crucial to a child ’s progression. Childhood traumas and adversities are detrimental to children’s development and can have long term consequences that manifest themselves in young adulthood. The purpose of this study is to inductively explore coping strategies used by young adults during their experience of child hood traumas and adversities. A sample of college students from a diverse northeastern university (N = 146) provided quantitative and qualitative survey responses. Students were asked, “What were the tools you used t...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - June 14, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Advocating for a Collaborative Research Approach on Transgenerational Transmission of Trauma
This report aims to outline several pathways (biological, psychological, and sociological) by which trauma may be transmitted across generations. Moreover, it discusses several methods of trauma assessment and the related challenges and benefits. Lastly, this report advocates a biopsychosocial approach – an interdisciplinary model using the interplay of biological, psychological, and social-environmental factors – to research TTT. By promoting the benefits of such an interdisciplinary approach we attempt to break up silos between disciplines and encourage collaboration between academics from v arious background...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - June 3, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Addressing Intergenerational Trauma in an Adolescent Reunification Program: Case Studies Illustrating Service Innovation
AbstractAdolescents in out-of-home care generally have poor prospects for reunification with their birth families. However, for some adolescents in care, with deliberate support and intervention, there may opportunities for successful reunification. The Adolescent Reunification Program (ARP) is an Australian program designed to assist young people aged 12 –17 years return home to their families. The program focuses on supporting families, mentoring young people so as to meet their developmental and educational needs, and providing a safe home environment. It also included an innovative therapeutic component whic...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 29, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Childhood Physical Abuse and Antisocial Traits: Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Clusters
AbstractPosttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are associated with both childhood physical abuse (CPA) and antisocial (AS) traits, yet their potential as mediators of the CPA-AS traits link is understudied and the specific roles of individual symptom clusters in this relation is unknown. The current study aimed to examine the mediational role of PTSS in the relation between CPA and AS traits in a sample of low-income African American women with histories of intimate partner violence (IPV). It was hypothesized that avoidance would emerge as a significant mediator, whereas reexperiencing, numbing, and hyperarousal would not. P...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 29, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Lifespan Integration Therapy with Trauma-Exposed Children: a Hermeneutic Single Case Efficacy Study
Conclusions: The results provide evidence for LI as an important tool that mental health professionals can use to help trauma-exposed children. (Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 29, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Childhood Trauma and Mental Health in the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort
This study aimed to assess the association of childhood trauma, stressful life events and HIV stigma with mental health in South African adolescents from the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort (CTAAC). The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Life Events Questionnaire and the HIV Stigma Scale for South African Adolescents Living with HIV was used to assess childhood trauma, stressful life events and stigma in adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV and healthy controls enrolled in the CTAAC. These measures were associated with mental health outcomes including the Beck-Youth Inventories, Child Behaviour Checklis...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 26, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Inter-Clinician Variability in Primary Care Providers ’ Adverse Childhood Experience Knowledge, Training, Screening Practices, and Perceived Intervention Barriers: an Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study
AbstractAdverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are traumatic events that occur before the age of 18 that can have immediate and long-term negative health, behavioral, and social outcomes. Primary care providers (PCPs) can help mitigate the negative effects of ACEs by identifying at-risk children and families in need of support. This cross-sectional study, that incorporates inter-clinician variability into the sample, explored PCPs ACE knowledge, training, screening practices, and perceived intervention barriers to addressing ACEs. Results found that PCPs had limited familiarity with the ACE study and the effects of ACEs, few...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 20, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The Intersection and Dynamics between COVID-19, Health Disparities, and Adverse Childhood Experiences
AbstractThe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is shining a spotlight on health disparities that have long been overlooked in our society. The intersection between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), longstanding health disparities, and COVID-19 cannot be ignored. The accumulation of traumatic events throughout the childhood and adolescent years can cause toxic stress in the absence of supportive adults. This repetitive activation of the stress response system can be a catalyst to long-term, negative effects on both the body and brain. A major factor to appreciate is that ACEs do not affect all populations equa...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 15, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Mothers Attitudes Toward Child Sexual Abuse Prevention in Schools: A Preliminary Examination
AbstractProviding school-based child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs ensures that the majority of children will participate in programming. Since many parents may feel ill equipped to have such discussions with their children, programs offered in education settings can bring awareness to this issue. A sample of mothers (N = 268) from across the United States completed an online survey related to their experiences with and attitudes toward school-based CSA prevention programs. Most mothers (70%) had no exposure to prevention programs during their childhood, but the majority (95%) had a positive attitude...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 14, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Reflections of Childhood Violence on Maternity in Turkey
This study examines the effects of paternal violence experiences of women on their own mothering attitudes and on their relationships with their mothers. The study employed the interpretive phenomenology design. To collect data, semi-structured interviews were used. The study group consisted of four women selected according to the criterion sampling method. The results were grouped under three headings: “perceptions about the mother’s attitudes towards the violence perpetrated by the father,” “attitudes towards children,” and “relationships with the mother.” The present study shows...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 14, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Trauma-Informed Intervention with Children: Integrating the CANS Assessment with the ARC Framework in a Clinical Setting
This study included the data from children who received mental heal th services under WV CANS-ARC mapping from 2017 to 2019. Children’s trauma-related symptoms are assessed using the WV CANS at intake and every 90 days to identify any changes in their symptoms. In order to examine the changes of traumatic symptoms over time, the study was limited to children who have at least three time points, with a total of 362 children used for the current analyses using Multilevel modeling with SAS PROC MIXED. The study found that children’s trauma related symptoms significantly decreased in all ARC outcome domains ov...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 14, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Evidence for Revising the Adverse Childhood Experiences Screening Tool: a Scoping Review
AbstractThe relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and risky behavior, chronic illness, and premature mortality is well documented. Despite this evidence, screening for ACEs in primary care settings remains limited. Objections to widespread screening include concerns that the original ACE screening tool limited childhood adversities to family and household dysfunction. The purpose of this scoping review is to describe current knowledge for expanding ACEs categories and revising the formatting and scoring of the screening tool. With the assistance of a medical librarian, we used a two-step process to cond...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 6, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Assessing the Effects of Childhelp ’s Speak Up be Safe Child Abuse Prevention Curriculum for High School Students
ConclusionsHigh school students in the CHSUBS group appeared to gain both child maltreatment knowledge and resistance skills. Future studies on prevention programming for high school students might show results that lead to a reduction in child maltreatment and an increase in better health outcomes for adolescents. (Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 3, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Ego Control Mediates the Effect of Maltreatment on Child Depression
Conclusions: These findings point to the longitudinal paths to early depressive symptoms in maltreated children and the mediating effect of children ’s ego control which could be a target for intervention. (Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - April 24, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Needle Fear among Children during Mass Measles Rubella (MR) Injectable Vaccination Campaign in North India: an Observational Study
AbstractThe cross-sectional observational study evaluated the prevalence and predictors of needle-fear among school-going children during mass Measles-Rubella (MR) immunization campaign (year 2017) in the north Indian city of Chandigarh. Fear of needle was assessed using a single-item self-report global question, anxiety was assessed using the Likert scale (score 1 –5) and the standardized “Children Faces Scale” where facial responses were graded from 0 to 4. Out of a total sample of 2568 school children, 1225 (47.7%) reported needle fear (95% CI: 45.8%–49.6%) on a global single item assessment. On ...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - April 24, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Factors Associated with Cyberbullying Victimisation among Colombian High-School Adolescents
AbstractThe study ’s purpose was to examine the prevalence and explore some factors associated with cyberbullying in high-school adolescents at ​​Santa Marta, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was designed, which participated in students between 13 and 17 years. Participants completed the item for being a vict im of cyberbullying of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey for high school students designed by the Center for Disease Control of the United States. A total of 1462 students answered the questionnaire (M = 14.4 years, SD = 0.8). 19.6% (n = 287) reported lifetime ...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - April 22, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

TF-CBT Informed Teletherapy for Children with Autism and their Families
AbstractA diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often puts a child in a vulnerable position. While the research of the effects of trauma on children diagnosed with ASD is limited, we know children diagnosed with ASD presenting with a comorbid diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have an increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. TF-CBT is an empirically validated treatment for trauma; in this paper, we provide adaptions for using this treatment with children diagnosed with ASD and using this method for teletherapy. These adaptions include recognizing trauma behaviors and ASD behaviors, the use o...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - April 20, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Psychopathology and Dissociation among Boarding School Students in Eastern Turkey
AbstractA subset of boarding schools for adolescents was established in 1993 in the rural sections of Eastern Turkey to provide equity in terms of availability of education. Even though these schools were beneficial in many respects, implementation of this institutional model gave rise to many challenges such as weaker relationships with parents and defiance of authority figures. Failure to develop a mature response to these challenges could lead to the development of psychopathologies such as depression, psychosis, and dissociation. The main objective of this study is to assess the incidence of psychopathology and dissoci...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - April 16, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Emotional Aspects of Pediatric Post-Intensive Care Syndrome Following Traumatic Brain Injury
AbstractChildren with traumatic brain injury (TBI) requiring neurocritical care are at risk for neurocognitive, emotional, physical, and psychosocial difficulties, collectively known as Post-Intensive Care Syndrome. Our study assessed parent-reported emotional functioning and identified risk factors for emotional sequelae in the acute recovery phase. Fifty-three children between 5 and 18  years old hospitalized for TBI were assessed 1-month following discharge. Relevant injury-, child-, and family-specific variables were collected. Emotional functioning was assessed using PROMIS Parent Proxy Report Short Forms for Anx...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - April 6, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Virtual Reality vs. Standard-of-Care During Pediatric Laceration Repair
The objective of this study was to compare VR to standard of care (SOC) in a pediatric Emergency Department (ED) for pain management and anxiety among children needing a laceration repair procedure. We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial in a tertiary pediatric ED (NCT03681717) with children 6 –16 years of age going through a laceration repair procedure. Intervention was low-cost VR goggles with a free roller coaster application during the procedure or SOC in the ED during the same time (1:1). The primary outcome was post-procedure pain (Faces Pain Scale – Revised (FPS-R)), and secon dary o...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - March 26, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Working Relationally with Adolescents Who Have Experienced Complex Interpersonal Trauma: an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis
AbstractThe study explores practitioners ’ experiences of working with adolescents with complex interpersonal trauma. Five mental health professionals were recruited via purposive and snowball sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, audio-recorded and transcribed. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was employed to iden tify themes related to the research question. Three superordinate themes emerged: “The distance-relationship dynamic”; “The unknown self”; “Practitioners’ presence”. Participants reported the fragility of their relationships with clients, enh...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - March 24, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Understanding Adolescent Girls in Custody Using the Multidimensional Inventory of Development, Sex, and Aggression (MIDSA)
This article is one of the first to assess a wide range of traits and characteristics of girls in custody. The Multidimensional Inventory of Development, Sex, and Aggression (MIDSA) was administered to 30 girls in custody at a juvenile detention facility in California. Individual narrative reports were generated, and their aggregate results were analyzed. Results are first presented at an aggregate level and details from some individual cases are used to provide an especially rich description of particular circumstances, behaviors, and motivations of these girls. Preliminary findings illustrate the chaotic family backgroun...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - February 27, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

When Did I Become a Victim? Exploring Narratives of Male Childhood Sexual Abuse
This report presents narrative data of adult men self-identifying as victims of sexual abuse occurring in childhood or adolescence (CSA). Preliminary data were derived from written public stories posted by men to the Internet (n = 90). Many of these accounts indicate same-sex sexual abuse (male victim, male perpetrator). The primary research question: “how have adult male victims of childhood sexual abuse constructed written narratives of victimization?” The men in this study who posted public narratives about thei r sexual abuse demonstrated evidence in of two (turmoil and taking control) of six ...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - February 24, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

A New Vision for the Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma
(Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - February 17, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Treatment Mediators and Outcomes of Latent Classes of Youth in Psychiatric Residential Treatment
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to examine differences in discharge outcomes between latent classes of youth in psychiatric residential treatment. The mediating effect of family therapy, behavioral management incidents, and length of stay on class membership and treatment outcomes were examined. The sample included 447 youth assigned to one of four classes. Guided by Thornberry and Krohn ’s (2005) interactional theory of continuity and change, change in functional impairment was predicted based on the composition of risk versus protective factors that comprised the latent classes. A manual 3-step approach was u...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - February 11, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Bullying, Victimization, and Resiliency: An Introduction to the Special Issue
AbstractThis special issue focuses on bullying and victimization in young adults and factors that contribute to resiliency. The articles take into consideration cultural factors, gender, and trauma history. Several of the research studies illustrate the complexity of the factors involved in bullying and the traumatic effects of the victimization, and authors highlight targeted ways for intervention and prevention. This special issue also highlights some of the international work being conducted in these areas. The intention of this special issue is to stimulate discussion among researchers, policy makers and practitioners ...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - February 10, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Psychometric Properties of the Dominic Interactive in a Sample of French Canadian Sexually Abused Children
This study aimed to explore the reliability and validity of the Dominic Interactive with a sample of sexually abused children. The sample consisted of 687 children aged from 6 to 11 recruited in specialized intervention centers in Quebec. We conducted confirmatory factor analysis to assess the factorial structure of the questionnaire and assessed the internal consistency of the subscales with Cronbach alphas and McDonalds omegas. Subscales of theDominic Interactive showed good fit with the factorial structure and met the prescribed criteria, except forSpecific Phobias andSeparation Anxiety subscales that showed high interi...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - January 27, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Sensory Modulation Dysfunction in Child Victims of Trauma: a Scoping Review
AbstractDue to the high level of violence globally, providing intervention for child victims of trauma has become a priority for various government departments and health professionals including occupational therapists. Child appropriate sensory modulation intervention, which has its theoretical origins within the occupational therapy profession, has been suggested as a suitable treatment approach for children who are victims of trauma, since the initial experience of trauma occurs on a somatosensory level. Advances in trauma care indicate that children may experience the effects of trauma as an inability to appropriately ...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - January 26, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Resiliency in Young Adulthood and Associations among Retrospective Peer Victimization and Internalizing Problems
AbstractThe social-ecological diathesis-stress model and related empirical work suggests that individuals who experienced peer victimization in childhood are at risk of revictimization and internalizing problems in young adulthood. The current study examined the association between retrospective and current reports of traditional and cyber victimization and internalizing problems, and the buffering effect of resiliency among 1141 young adults. Results indicated that retrospective traditional victimization was positively associated with current traditional and cyber victimization. Retrospective cyber victimization, however,...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - January 25, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Trauma during Early Adolescence and Boys ’ Social Behavior: A Focus on Teen Dating Violence
AbstractAlthough early adolescence is increasingly recognized as commencing a sensitive period for social development, little research exists on the impact of trauma exposure during this juncture. We hypothesized that trauma experienced during early adolescence would be particularly disruptive to the acquisition of social skills necessary for healthy future relationships. Among 1500 boys from the National Comorbidity Study Adolescent Supplement, we examined trauma exposure across developmental periods on interpersonal outcomes in late adolescence. Most (62.3%) participants reported prior exposure to at least one potentiall...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - January 21, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The Role of Trauma-Informed Training in Helping Los Angeles Teachers Manage the Effects of Student Exposure to Violence and Trauma
AbstractExposure to trauma, such as community violence, has far-reaching effects on childrens ’ learning and behavior. While schools are a critical place to provide positive and safe spaces for students, teachers have self-reported a lack of knowledge on how to work effectively with traumatized students. In response to this, there has been an increase in teacher training on trauma-related topics. However, it is unclear how training impacts teachers’ trauma knowledge and difficulty responding to traumatized students in the classroom. As such, this exploratory study used a survey (N = 94) with Los A...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - January 18, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The Role of Resilience in Ethnic Minority Adolescent Navigation of Ecological Adversity
AbstractAdverse childhood experiences and health disparities profoundly affect the health of ethnic minority adolescents and influence their overall well-being. In light of current health disparities and civil unrest, this secondary analysis sought to better understand resilience among ethnic minority adolescents living in rural eastern North Carolina (NC). Using Ungar ’s (2013) Theory of Resilience and Seven Tensions, the two tensions that depicted the most adversity for these adolescents were social justice and power and control. Racism and discrimination were identified as prevalent risk factors. Four tensions in ...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - January 9, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Trauma-Informed Children ’s Ministry: a Qualitative Descriptive Study
AbstractOver half of American children will experience at least one traumatic event, and nearly one in six will experience four or more events. These traumatic events affect children ’s physical and mental health throughout their lives. Consequently, organizations which serve children, including local religious congregations, are urged to adopt the principles of trauma-informed care. The purpose of this study was to describe specific ways in which trauma-informed principles ar e applied by church children’s ministries. We gathered interview, focus group, and observational data from nine different children&rsquo...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - January 6, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Filipino Children and Adolescents ’ Stories of Sexual Abuse: Narrative Types and Consequences
AbstractThere is a paucity of qualitative research on children ’s and adolescents’ perceptions of their sexual abuse experiences. This paper aims to describe the narrative types and consequences of sexual abuse stories among ten female Filipino children and adolescents. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using dialogical nar rative analysis. Results show that three narrative types appear in the stories of the survivors. These are the tragic resistance narrative, rescued slave narrative, and heroic saga narrative, and each of these narratives has idiosyncratic effects on the iden...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - January 6, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Gender Differences in Childhood Maltreatment: A Comparative Study of Nightmare Sufferers and Non-sufferers
AbstractChild maltreatment has been identified as a significant problem, both within India and outside. According to UNICEF, over the last decade, there has been a growing recognition about this, but the problem has remained unresolved largely due to being underreported and undocumented. Previous research in this area has reported inconsistent gender differences across the world. Besides, there are shreds of evidence to suggest that childhood maltreatment would be associated with nightmares later in life, but a handful of studies exist in this context. Moreover, there is a paucity of research concerning the interaction eff...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - January 5, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

A Causal Model of Children ’s Vicarious Traumatization
AbstractChildren may be vicariously traumatized from learning about the trauma of family and friends. To date, a causal model of children ’s vicarious traumatization has not been empirically validated in the literature. This paper fills the gap in the literature by reporting on the direct effect of vicarious trauma on children independent of caregiving impairment. Data for the study came from the National Survey of Children’s Expo sure to Violence I (NATSCEV I). This unique dataset features two indicators of vicarious trauma exposure: (1) family victimization and (2) community violence. Hierarchical multiple re...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - January 4, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Adverse Childhood Experiences, Depression, Resilience, & amp; Spirituality in African-American Adolescents
AbstractResearch shows that exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is common among adolescents and that exposure to ACEs is associated with an increased risk of depression in adolescents. Furthermore, it is unknown whether resilience and spirituality moderate the association between ACEs and depression in African-American adolescents. Thus, the present study examined the prevalence of ACEs and the association between ACEs and the risk for depression in African-American adolescents and examined whether this association is moderated by resilience and spirituality. Survey data were collected from African-American ad...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - January 4, 2021 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Factors Predictive of Behavioural and Emotional Dysfunction in Adolescents in a Secure Children ’s Home
AbstractThe aim of the present study was to investigate what factors are predictive of behavioural and emotional dysfunction in adolescence. A sample of 60 young people accommodated under a welfare or youth custody service order in a UK secure children ’s home between 2016 and 2018 was used. Data regarding young people’s Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE’s) history, scores on standard assessments and factors thought to indicate behavioural and emotional dysfunction were collected from file information. Correlations and regression models wer e used to analyse the data. Analyses found that young people in ...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - November 17, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Founding Editor-in-Chief Acknowledgments and Introduction to Special Issue
(Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - November 14, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Implementation of an Evidence-Based Psychotherapy for Trauma-Exposed Children in a Lower-Middle Income Country: the Use of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in El Salvador
The objective of this project was twofold: 1) to train providers in El Salvador in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) as part of a clinical implementation project within a non-governmental organization, and 2) to conduct program evaluation to determine the feasibility of implementation and the effectiveness of the treatment. Fifteen Salvadoran psychologists were trained in TF-CBT who then provided TF-CBT to 121 children and adolescents ages 3 –18 in community-based locations. The mean number of traumas reported by youth was 4.39. Results demonstrated large effect sizes for reduction in youth-reporte...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - November 7, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Pilot Randomized Control Trial: Efficacy of a Group-Based Psychosocial Program for Youth with PTSD in the Brazilian Favelas
In conclusion, TRT was found to be effective for child ren with PTSD and Depression who experienced drug violence in a Brazilian favela. TRT is recommended for future delivery. Larger scale RCTs are needed in Brazilian favelas. (Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - November 2, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Faith-Based Medical Neglect: for Providers and Policymakers
AbstractA substantial minority of Americans have religious beliefs against one or more medical treatments. Some groups promote exclusive reliance on prayer and ritual for healing nearly all diseases. Jehovah ’s Witnesses oppose blood transfusions. Hundreds of thousands of schoolchildren have religious or conscientious exemptions from immunizations. Such exemptions have led to personal medical risk, decreases in herd immunity, and outbreaks of preventable disease. Though First Amendment protections for religious freedom do not include a right to neglect a child, many states have enacted laws allowing religious objecto...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - October 9, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research