Complex Trauma and Ecological Vulnerability: Development of a Resources Perspective Framework to Inform Longitudinal Examination
AbstractTranslation and application of current complex trauma knowledge for high-risk groups such as the homeless is needed. Existing research in this area has been limited by lack of a cohesive theoretical framework that captures the dynamic and heterogeneous nature of complex trauma within the context of ecological vulnerability (e.g. homelessness). This paper aims to address these gaps by proposing an integrated resources perspective framework situating Layne and colleagues ’ (Layne et al.2009,2010) concept of ‘risk factor caravans’ as central focus. We demonstrate how the ‘risk factor caravan&rs...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - July 22, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Relationship between Trauma History and Eating Disorders in Adolescents
AbstractReasons for developing an eating disorder (ED) are complex, yet one plausible risk factor gaining more relevance in adolescents with EDs is childhood trauma. The current study is the first to examine the presence of childhood trauma in relation to ED symptomatology in adolescents using DSM-5 criteria. It was hypothesized that patients with more traumatic experiences also have more severe ED symptoms. 112 therapists currently treating adolescent patients diagnosed with an ED completed an online survey consisting of a DSM-5 ED symptom checklist and a childhood trauma questionnaire on a current adolescent patient whom...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - July 10, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Assessing the Validity and Clinical Utility of a Developmental Trauma Diagnosis in Ethnic Minority Adolescents
AbstractDevelopmental Trauma Disorder (DTD), a proposed diagnostic construct designed to reflect symptoms common among multiply-traumatized youth, was examined in a population of primarily female, predominantly Hispanic and African-American adolescents seeking psychiatric treatment (N = 53). The study uses a mix of interview and self-report data to test the prevalence of DTD symptoms relative to PTSD symptoms in this sample as well as to differentiate the DTD symptoms from DSM-IV and DSM-5 PTSD. DTD symptomatology was found to be as prevalent in the sample as PTSD symptomato logy and further, DTD was found to...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - July 4, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Physical, Emotional, and Sexual Victimization Across Three Generations: a Cross-Sectional Study
AbstractUsing data gathered from grandparents (G1), parents (G2), and young adults (G3), this study examines the continuity of intergenerational victimization (physical, emotional, and sexual) across three generations. The study included data from 168 participants within three generations: grandparents, G1 (19.2% male, 80.8% female,M = 78.13 years old); parents, G2 (25.5% male, 74.5% female,M = 50.13 years old); and young adults, G3 (40% male, 60% female,M = 21.10 years old). The data is analyzed at two levels: (1) bivariate analyses to address relationships between ...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - July 2, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The Unique Nature of Depression and Anxiety among College Students with Adverse Childhood Experiences
AbstractIt is well established that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) contribute to the development of mental disorders in adulthood. However, less is known about how childhood trauma impacts the mind and the body, whether the resulting mental disorders have different characteristics than those occurring without these antecedent conditions, and if treatment modalities need to reflect the unique nature of mental disorders rooted in trauma. Survey and biomarker data were gathered from a sample of college students (n = 93) to explore the relationship between childhood trauma and mental health. We examine how ne...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - July 2, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Trauma among Kenyan School Children in Urban and Rural Settings: PTSD Prevalence and Correlates
This study estimated the prevalence and correlates of PTSD in Kenyan school children during a period of widespread post-election violence. The UCLA PTSD Reaction Index was administered to 2482 primary and secondary school students ages 11 –17 from rural and urban communities. A high proportion of school children had witnessed people being shot at, beat up or killed (46.9%) or had heard about the violent death or serious injury of a loved one (42.0%). Over one quarter (26.8%, 95% CI = 25.1% - 28.7%) met criteria for PTSD. Correl ates of PTSD included living in a rural (vs urban) area (AOR =&thinsp...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - June 24, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The Effect of Interventions on Functional Impairment in Youth Exposed to Mass Trauma: a Meta-Analysis
This study examined the benefit of psychosocial interventions on functional impairment in youth exposed to mass trauma. A random effects meta-analysis was used to estimate the overall effect in 15 intervention trials identified through a literature review. The moderator analysis examined how the effect of intervention differed across types of populations receiving the intervention (targeted or non-targeted samples), characteristics of intervention delivery (individual or group application and number of sessions), and the context of intervention administration (country income level). The results revealed a significant small...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - June 21, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Mentalization-Based Training Program for Child Care Workers in Residential Settings
This article describes a mentalization-based training program for child care workers who care for children aged six to 12  years old. First, the general framework of the training program is presented. Then, some of the therapeutic strategies used to improve the children’s mentalizing capacity are described. Those strategies are adapted to the psychic functioning level of the child. Finally, a summary of a preliminar y study of the program’s efficacy are presented. This work suggests that mentalization-based interventions might represent a valuable approach in child welfare residential care. (Source: Journa...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - June 21, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Using the PAI-A to Classify Juvenile Offenders by Adjudicated Offenses
AbstractTo improve understanding and treatment of criminal behavior, researchers have developed typologies of juvenile offenders, primarily focusing on personality traits and criminal history to classify according to type of offense committed. Existing literature has examined underlying personality characteristics found in different subcategories of criminal offenses in juveniles; however, few studies have employed the Personality Assessment Inventory-Adolescent (PAI-A), instead choosing the MMPI-A. A typical classification model of juvenile offenses categorizes offenses into: Interpersonal, Property, and Drug/Alcohol-rela...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - June 20, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Nightmares in Treatment-Seeking Youth: the Role of Cumulative Trauma Exposure
This study provides useful information related to assessing and addressing nightmares in youth who have experienced trauma. (Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - June 18, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Contemporary Risk Assessment Tools: Should We Use Them for Sexually Abusive Children Ages 4 to 12  Years?
AbstractEmpirical findings are reported on an age group of sexually abusive youth (4 –12 years) not commonly studied. Findings are from major studies employing the ecologically framedMEGA♪ risk assessment tool:MEGA♪Combined Samples Studies (N  = 3901 [1979–2017] (Miccio-FonsecaJournal of Child Sexual Abuse: Special Issue on Risk Assessment of Sexually Abusive Youth,2018a,Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma,2018b) andMEGA♪Combined Cross Validation Studies (N  = 2717). Samples consisted of male, female, and transgender-female, ages 4–19 with coarse sexual improprieties ...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - June 18, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

An Exploratory Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral vs Client-Centered Therapies for Child-Mother Dyads Bereaved from Terrorism
AbstractThe study was an evaluation of Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT; Cohen et al.2017) with child-caregiver dyads who experienced the death of a loved one from terrorism, using a hybrid efficacy/effectiveness design in which there were no required minimum symptom levels. Forty children ages 4 –17 years old whose fathers died in the line of duty on 9/11/2001 and their mothers participated in an RCT comparing TF-CBT and Client-Centered Therapy (CCT). At baseline, mothers’ PTSD, depression, and prolonged grief symptoms were highly elevated, whereas children’s were at normative lev...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - June 18, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

What Are We Missing? How Language Impacts Trauma Narratives
AbstractThe potential for the development of psychopathology in aolescent refugees and asylees is high due to the trauma inherent in their experience. Yet, psychopathology rooted in trauma has proven amenable to treatment. Nonetheless, as most clinicians are monolingual, the language difference between clinician and client may be a barrier of desensitization and processing typically characteristic of trauma therapy. Thus, this study aimed to describe qualitative differences in speech production among native and non-native narratives using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) processing software (Pennebaker et al.2015) ...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - June 11, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Working with Parents and Children Separated at the Border: Examining the Impact of the Zero Tolerance Policy and beyond
AbstractThe crisis of family separation caused by Trump Administration ’s zero tolerance policy (ZTP) on the southern border has focused the nation’s attention and provoked public uproar due to the violation of basic rights and the expected negative impact on children and parents. There is decades’ worth of research documenting the damage of separating children f rom their parents in a wide diversity of circumstances and for a wide variety of reasons. There is also ample research evidence of the impact of any form of childhood trauma and consequent disruptions in development, cognitive impairments, and he...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 30, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Military Life Stressors, Family Communication and Satisfaction: Associations with Children ’s Psychosocial Outcomes
AbstractFamilies experience multiple stressors as a result of military service. The purpose of this study was to examine facets of military life and family factors that may impact child psychosocial and mental health functioning. Using baseline data from the Millennium Cohort Family Study, this study examined family demographics and composition (age, number of children), military life stressors (injury, family, and deployment stressors), family communication and satisfaction as assessed by the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale-IV, parental social functioning assessed via the Short Form Health Survey-36, and...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 21, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Understanding Medical Neglect: When Needed Care Is Delayed or Refused
AbstractThough the most common form of child maltreatment, neglect can prove among the hardest to diagnose, and intervention is equally difficult. In considering neglect of a child ’s medical needs, a number of factors play important roles. Diagnosis should be motivated foremost by the intent of providing the best ongoing care for the patient, supplying what the child has not been able to receive from the caregiver. Characteristics peculiar to the patient, the parents, the p athologic condition, its possible treatments, and the mutual understanding between the child’s caregivers and the treating professionals a...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 21, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The Impact of Trauma-Based Training on Educators
AbstractAn extensive literature establishing the prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and their destructive impact over the lifespan has motivated recent efforts to fundamentally alter the educational milieu. One such initiative, entitled “Compassionate Schools,” involves the training of educators in trauma-informed and trauma-sensitive practices, in the hopes of creating scholastic environments more conducive to widespread resilience. Despite encouraging initial reports, few studies have empirically evaluated the impact of Compa ssionate Schools training on attendees. The current investigation re...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 15, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Treating a 16  Year Old with a History of Severe Bullying: Supplementing Cognitive Behavioural Therapy with EMDR within the Context of a Case Formulation Approach
This article describes the use of a case formulation approach, integrating evidence-based treatment in the context of individual clinical traits. It focuses on the supplementation of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of a young person, presenting with an initial diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A case formulation suggested the possibility of a differential diagnosis of Adjustment Disorder, indicating the usefulness of the addition of EMDR sessions to process memories of severe bullying. Previous studies promote the idea of using E...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - May 6, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Response to “Comparing the Effectiveness of EMDR and TF-CBT for Children and Adolescents: a Meta-Analysis
(Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - April 30, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Trauma and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Review, Proposed Treatment Adaptations and Future Directions
AbstractEmpirical investigations of trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are lacking despite indications of increased risk for exposure to potentially traumatic events in this population. Research on the treatment of traumatic stress psychopathology in ASD is even more limited and suggests a critical need for guidance in the area of ASD-specific treatment adaptations. The current paper provides preliminary recommendations for adapting current evidenced-based, trauma-specific interventions, specifically trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), for i...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - April 10, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Sensory Modulation in Children Exposed to Continuous Traumatic Stress
This study examined children with and without PTS symptoms, by comparing their mothers ’ perceptions of their responses to sensory events in daily life. Mothers of 134 non-referred children aged 5–11, exposed to continuous traumatic stress due to political violence, completed the UCLA-RI and the Short Sensory Profile questionnaires. Significant differences emerged between children with different levels of PTS symptoms in various sensory modalities. Furthermore, half of the symptomatic children had suspected clinically significant deficits in sensory processing. In addition, PTSD symptoms were significantly asso...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - April 4, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Changes in Traumatic Memories and Posttraumatic Cognitions Associate with PTSD Symptom Improvement in Treatment of Multiply Traumatized Children and Adolescents
We examined the role of improvements in problematic qualities of traumatic memories and maladaptive posttraumatic cognitions in PTSD symptom reduction, in a randomized, pragmatic trial of narrative exposure therapy vs. treatment as usual with 40 participants 9 –17 years old (48% female, 75% refugee background) repeatedly exposed to war or family violence related trauma. Posttraumatic cognitions, quality of traumatic memories and PTSD symptoms were assessed by self-report before and after treatment. Improvements in both quality of traumatic memories (rMI = .36) and posttraumatic cognitions (rMI&thin...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - April 4, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The Role of Executive Function in Predicting Children ’s Outcomes in a Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Trauma-Related Nightmares and Secondary Sleep Disturbances
AbstractPredictors of children ’s outcomes in trauma-focused interventions are well documented. However, little is known about the role of higher-order cognitive processes, specifically executive function (EF) abilities, in determining children’s responses to treatments specifically for trauma-related sleep disturbances. EF i s independently related to PTSD reactions, sleep deficits, and nightmares. Furthermore, well-developed EF can be protective; thus, we sought to examine whether higher EF predicted better treatment outcomes for trauma-related sleep disturbances. Twenty-three children aged 5 to 17 presenting...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - March 2, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The Association between Caregiver Substance Abuse and Mental Health Problems and Outcomes for Trauma-Exposed Youth
This study utilized data from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Data Set to examine the impact of caregiver impairment on youth outcomes. Trauma-exposed youth with an impaired caregiver due to either: substance use (n = 498), mental health problems (n = 231), or both substance use and mental health problems (n = 305) were compared to youth without a reported impaired caregiver (n = 2282) to determine if impaired caregiver status is independently associated with increased likelihood of negative behavioral and mental health outcomes and service utilizatio...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - February 28, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Enhancing the Lives of Children in Out-Of-Home Care: An Exploration of Mind-Body Interventions as a Method of Trauma Recovery
AbstractThe prevalence and impact of trauma exposure among young people in the child welfare system in Canada warrants holistic intervention as a means of trauma recovery for this vulnerable population. A trauma-informed approach to practice is outlined through consideration of traditional trauma treatments and mind-body interventions that serve as complementary methods of therapy. Despite limited research on the effectiveness of mind-body interventions with children and adolescents in out-of-home care in Canada, a review of available literature on mindfulness, arts-based methods, and yoga suggests these therapeutic interv...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - February 7, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

How Does Guilt, Influence and Attitudes Effect the Role We Play in Bullying? The Self-Perception Measure
AbstractVariations in perceived feelings of guilt, influence, and attitudes can alter a person ’s behavior. The following article focused on the development and evaluation of a measure that explored how these self-perceptions affect the behaviour of the various participant roles involved in bullying situations. The participant roles explored included the bully, assistant, reinforcer, victim , defender, and outsider. The initial measure started with 30-items; 10-items for each measure (guilt, influence, and attitudes). The principal component analysis helped reduced the total number of items to 15 with guilt, influenc...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - February 4, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Dental Neglect
AbstractDental neglect can be an indicator of general child neglect. Inadequately treated dental disease may have significant long-term impacts on the physical and psychological well-being of children. Primary care providers play a critical role in the prevention of dental neglect, and should be aware of the manifestations of dental caries and dental trauma. When diagnosing dental neglect, health professionals should ensure the child ’s caregivers have demonstrated an understanding of the condition, its consequences, and the recommended treatment and then failed to comply with the treatment. Attempts should be made t...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - February 4, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Developmental and Measurement Implications of Using the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index with College Students
AbstractStudies measuring Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms from childhood into adulthood have been hampered by use of different measures across different developmental stages. Use of one measure across age groups would reduce measurement error and strengthen our understanding of the developmental progression of trauma. Thus, this study examined whether the UCLA PTSD Reaction-Index (PTSD-Index), which was developed for use with children and adolescents (aged 7 to 18), could be used with young adults. The utility of the measure was examined among three age groups of college students (17 –18, 19–20, a...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - February 2, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Child Maltreatment, Chronic Pain, and Other Chronic Health Conditions in Youth in Foster Care
This study exa mined both self- and case file report of maltreatment frequency and type in association with chronic pain, acute pain, and general chronic health condition in a sample of youth in foster care, providing evidence that more maltreatment exposure increases the likelihood of chronic pain, even in youth. This suggests that it may not take decades for the overloaded stress response system to lead to a serious pain condition, but that this process may occur much earlier in the lifespan. The findings have important implications for professionals working to prevent and treat the effects of child maltre atment or chro...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - January 23, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Families ’ Experience of Pediatric Onset Multiple Sclerosis
This study interviewed parents to understand families ’ experience with pediatric onset multiple sclerosis (POMS), which make up 2.7% to 10.5% of all MS cases. 21 sets of parents of children with a confirmed diagnosis of POMS were recruited from two pediatric MS centers. Families experienced stress from the uncertainty prior to diagnosis, anxiety ove r symptoms and possible progression of the disease, frustrations with the uncertain effects of disease-modifying treatments (DMTs), and difficulties with injections. Families had to cope with cognitive and physical effects of POMS at school, decisions about expectations ...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - January 8, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

#freemind: Young Women Using Mindfulness Meditation to Cope with Life in a Juvenile Justice Institution
This study highlights the challenges of living in a correctional institution as a young woman and the barriers such settings pose to the wellbeing and healthy development of their residents. It also points to mindfulness meditation as an operative method of supporting these highly traumatized young women until that time when alternatives to incarceration can be identified. (Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - January 4, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Screening for Trauma Symptoms in Child Welfare-Involved Young Children: Findings from a Statewide Trauma-Informed Care Initiative
AbstractYoung children who experience abuse, neglect, domestic violence, and other interpersonal forms of trauma are at risk for developing complex psychological trauma. Timely referrals by child welfare services for trauma evaluation and intervention is critical, particularly during the developmentally-sensitive period of birth to three. However, few screening instruments exist that are feasible for implementation in child welfare services and none have reported psychometric data for children under three. The aim of this exploratory, retrospective study was to examine developmental differences in detection rates of two br...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - December 17, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Treatments for Early Childhood Trauma: Decision Considerations for Clinicians
AbstractThe period from birth to age six represents a time of significant risk for exposure to trauma. Following trauma exposure, children may experience significant negative and lasting psychological, cognitive, and physical effects. Over the last two decades, the demand for and availability of evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for children under the age of six who have experienced trauma has dramatically increased. Three of the most well-supported and widely disseminated EBTs for early childhood trauma are Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Parent-Child Interaction Therapy, and Child-Parent Psychotherapy. Increa...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - December 15, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

MEGA ♪ : Empirical Findings on the Preternatural: Sexually Violent and Predatory Sexually Violent Youth
AbstractApplied are empirical findings from two major studies employing the ecologically framedMEGA♪ risk assessment tool:MEGA♪Combined Samples Studies (N  = 3901 [1979–2017] (Miccio-Fonseca2017a,d) andMEGA♪Combined Cross Validation Studies (N  = 2717). Samples consisted of male, female, and transgender-female sexually abusive youth, ages 4–19, including youth with low intellectual functioning of borderline or low average. Findings further support a previously presented nomenclature identifying two subsets overlooked by most contemporary risk assessment tools: sexually violent and ...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - December 5, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The Emotional Experience of Parental Incarceration from the African-American Adolescent Perspective
This article focuses specifically on one of the findings, the emotional experience of parental incarceration. Analogous to Kubler-Ross’s research on the stages of grief, this study found that the participants experienced a distinct set of emotions connected to the phenomenon of parental incarceration. By understanding this distinct set of emotions, child welfare providers as well as social service providers will have a better insight into their patients’ emotional experiences and how these influence behaviors. More research is needed on the adolescent experience of parental incarceration before this phenomenon ...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - December 1, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

A Rare Case of Child Abuse: Multiple Hypodermic Needles Inserted into a Child ’s Body
(Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - December 1, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Trauma, Recidivism Risk, and Reoffending in Male and Female Juvenile Offenders
This study examined – Posttraumatic Stress symptomology, maltreatment history, and childhood adversity – in relation to RNR risk factors for reoffending (criminogenic needs) and recidivism in a sample of female and male juvenile offenders. Rates of PTS symptomology, maltreatment, and childhood adversity were signif icantly higher in this sample compared to prevalence in the general population. Females were more likely to have experienced maltreatment. Several maltreatment and childhood adversity types were significantly related to criminogenic needs. PTS symptomology and adversity were not significant predicto ...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - November 27, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Interpersonal Trauma Exposure, Trauma Symptoms, and Severity of Substance Use Disorder among Youth Entering Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment
AbstractA substantial body of literature has found associations between interpersonal victimization, trauma symptoms, and substance use disorders (SUD) among adolescents. Secondary data analysis was conducted on structured interview data collected by treatment providers as 172 adolescents (ages 12 –19) entered outpatient substance abuse treatment. Results indicate high prevalence rates of interpersonal trauma exposure: 71.5% self-reported trauma exposure, specifically direct physical abuse or assault, sexual abuse or assault, and/or witnessing intimate partner violence of a parent. Severity of SUD, as measured by num...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - November 27, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Expanding the Original Definition of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs)
We report two studies examining psychometric properties of an expanded measure of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) that combined the original ACEs items with items from the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire. In Study 1, we examined its factorial structure, internal consistency, and concurrent validity in undergraduates (N = 1479). In Study 2, we also examined replicability of frequencies of ACEs, test-retest reliability, and convergent and predictive validity. Results suggested a model with four inter-related factors: maltreatment, household dysfunction, community dysfunction, and peer dysfunction/prop...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - November 12, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

A Descriptive Analysis of Long-Term Treatment with Adolescent-Aged Foster Youth
AbstractFoster youth experience a complex combination of psychological symptoms associated with the experience of abuse and/or neglect. Among adolescents, psychological challenges can be magnified by an increased likelihood of placement disruption once in foster care, longer stays in the system, and numerous barriers that impede access and use of mainstream psychological intervention. This manuscript relies on two studies to learn more about the experience of adolescent-aged foster youth who utilize long-term mental health services coordinated through A Home Within, a national nonprofit committed to reducing treatment barr...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - November 10, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Recidivism in Serious Juvenile Offenders: Testing the Mediating Role of Future Orientation
AbstractEvidence suggests delinquent youth are more likely to suffer from posttraumatic stress symptoms and links those symptoms to subsequent aggressive behavior and criminal activity. Research also indicates the impact of decision-making capacity in this context. Specifically, future orientation has been shown to play an important role in adolescent delinquency; less future orientation has been linked with persistent delinquency. Notably, trauma exposure is associated with slower development of future orientation in delinquent youth. Using a sample of serious juvenile offenders, the current study examined the relation be...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - November 9, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

From Adversity to Stability to Integration: how One Australian Program is Making a Difference in Therapeutic Foster Care
AbstractThis paper discusses two key strategies detailing how “relationship-focused” and “trauma-informed” intervention practices, which form the basis of an Australian therapeutic program called Treatment and Care for Kids (TrACK), made a difference in the lives of highly traumatised children. The TrACK program fosters highly traumatised children who, due to the complexity of their trauma needs, cannot be placed in traditional generalist foster care. Case files of 48 children were reviewed. Children were either current or former clients over a period of 18 years since the program was initiated...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - November 9, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Child-Centered Play Therapy for Youths Who Have Experienced Trauma: a Systematic Literature Review
AbstractThis systematic review examines the literature on the effectiveness of child-centered play therapy (CCPT) for youths who have experienced traumatic events. Two independent reviewers conducted the search procedures, as well as all data extraction and coding. Seven peer-reviewed articles reporting treatment outcomes were included in the review. As the focus of the review was on CCPT, treatment methods were similar across the seven articles (e.g., use of similar materials). There was also some consistency in findings regarding outcomes related to internalizing problems, self-concept, and self-competence. However, ther...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - November 9, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Gangs and Adolescent Mental Health: a Narrative Review
This study presents a narrative review of the literature on gang culture and its association with mental health, including an in-depth overview of the topic area and reference to key systematic reviews and meta-analyses. This review will define gang culture, discuss the multiple interacting reasons (biological, psychological and social) why some young people may be attracted to gangs; and the psychiatric morbidities associated with being part of a gang. Gang culture and some adolescent mental health problems are intricately linked. This paper highlights ways in which research, practice and policy could be extended to minim...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - October 2, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Examining the Differing Effects of Economic Hardship and Poor Maternal Wellbeing on Cumulative Exposure to Adverse Childhood Experiences
This study examined the differing effects of poor maternal wellbeing and economic hardship on a child’s exposure to ACEs. This study used a random sub-sample (n = 4000) from the 2011 to 2012 National Survey on Children’s Health (NSCH), a nationally representative cross-sectional study of children (N = 95,677) between birth and 17 years old. Confirmatory factor analysis results revealed greater economic hardship had a significant direct effect on a child’s ACE exposure and poorer maternal wellbeing. Poor maternal wellbeing had a significant mediation-like effect on the rela...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - September 21, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

An Ecological Analysis of Risk Factors for Runaway Behavior among Individuals Exposed to Commercial Sexual Exploitation
This study applies an ecological risk factor framework to assess risk for runaway behavior among individuals exposed to commercial sexual exploitation and examines mediating relationships between salient risk factors (i.e. substance abuse, insufficient basic needs, hav ing a much older boyfriend/girlfriend) and runaway behavior. A cross-sectional, retrospective survey was administered to individuals involved in the commercial sex industry using Respondent Driven Sampling methods (N = 273). Bivariate results suggested associations between runaway behavior and childhood emotional and physical abuse, having frie...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - September 17, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Self-Esteem in Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: a Critical Review of the Role of Sibling Relationships and Agenda for Future Research
AbstractThis paper provides a critical analysis of research on self-esteem in children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV), with particular emphasis on the role of sibling relationships. Over 100 empirical and review articles published from 2000 to 2015 examining self-esteem in children exposed to IPV, the role of sibling relationships in the development of self-esteem, and the sibling relationships of children exposed to IPV, were reviewed. Research findings show that self-esteem is an important component of understanding children ’s positive adjustment and their adjustment difficulties. A substantial researc...
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma - September 1, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research