Ceftazidime plasma concentration in a patient with cystic fibrosis treated with ceftazidime/avibactam plus trimethoprim/sulfametoxazole for Bulkholderia cepacia reacutization.
Authors: Saffioti C, Barco S, Cangemi G, Mesini A, Casciaro R, Cresta F, Castellani C, Bandettini R, Morelli P, Castagnola E PMID: 31583970 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - October 6, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Enteropathogenetic nosocomial infections: predisposing clinical characteristics and risk of recurrent infections.
Authors: Corcione S, Segala FV, Castiglione A, Lupia T, Angilletta R, Cavallo R, Ciccone G, De Rosa FG Abstract Nosocomial infections caused by Clostridium difficile, CP-Kp, ESBL-E or Candida spp. are usually associated with a high mortality rate. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the association between the patient characteristics and the risk of development of nosocomial BSI due to Candida or CP-Kp or ESBL-E. Moreover, we described the cumulative incidence of recurrent infections according to each group of nosocomial BSI. Enteral or parenteral nutrition and indwelling CVC at time of diagnosis were associa...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - September 28, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Cost-utility of tafenoquine vs. primaquine for the radical cure (prevention of relapse) of Plasmodium vivax malaria.
In conclusion, TQ was cost-effective in comparison to PQ for radical cure of PV malaria in socio-economic settings of a South-Eastern European country. PMID: 31524099 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - September 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

A life-threatening drug-drug interaction between capecitabine and brivudine in a patient with metastatic breast cancer.
Authors: Tsifi A, Papaxoinis G, Diamantopoulos P, Mantzourani M, Antoniadou V, Halioti A, Gogas H Abstract In the current report we present the case of a patient experiencing a life-threatening drug-drug interaction involving the concurrent administration of capecitabine and brivudine. A 65- year-old female with metastatic breast cancer was commenced on brivudine for Herpes Zoster, while on capecitabine treatment, by a physician unfamiliar with the potential repercussions of this drug-drug interaction. As a result, she developed skin rash, severe oral mucositis, and severe and prolonged pancytopenia. These side eff...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - September 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

A potential novel drug combination for adjuvant therapy in lung cancer: reflections on an early phase of clinical development.
Authors: Roviello G, Nobili S, Mini E PMID: 31432747 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - August 23, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Emerging patterns of resistance in a cohort of Greek patients with recurrent UTIs: a pilot study.
Authors: Moustakas I, Dryllis G, Pouliakis A, Petrikos G, Daikos G, Pittaras T, Karasante P, Karampotsis K, Tsiodras S Abstract Bacterial urogenital infections caused by multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs), are increasingly becoming a severe public health issue. The purpose of the present study was to examine the epidemiology of recurrent UTIs along with antimicrobial resistance patterns in a cohort of patients followed as outpatients at an Infectious Disease clinic of a tertiary care center in Greece. One hundred, sequential patients suffering from recurrent UTIs and coming for clinical evaluation, follow-up an...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - August 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Feasibility of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy using carboplatin plus S-1 in completely resected non-small cell lung cancer patients.
Authors: Inoue M, Kusumoto H, Shiono H, Shintani Y, Ose N, Sakamaki Y, Okami J, Higashiyama M, Takeuchi Y Abstract Feasibility is one of the major concerns during adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with completely resected non-small cell lung cancer. A phase II clinical trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with four courses of carboplatin (AUC 5 at day 1) and S-1 (80 mg/m2/day for 2 weeks followed by a 2-week rest) was performed to evaluate the feasibility (UMIN 9101). The primary endpoint was the completion rate and the secondary endpoints were adverse events, 2-year overall survival and disease-free rates....
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - August 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Risk factors associated with insufficient and potentially toxic voriconazole plasma concentrations: an observational study.
Authors: Wei X, Zhao M, Fu P, Xiao X Abstract The aim of this study was to identify potential factors associated with insufficient/toxic voriconazole trough concentrations (VTCs) in patients in order to screen the high-risk population. A total of 119 VTCs were obtained from 67 patients. Multivariate regression analysis suggested that insufficient VTCs (5.5 mg/L) were significantly associated with lower serum albumin (ALB) level. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that patients whose age
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - July 31, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

In-house rapid colorimetric method for detection of colistin resistance in Enterobacterales: A significant impact on resistance rates.
Authors: Rodriguez CH, Maza J, Tamarin S, Nastro M, Vay C, Famiglietti A Abstract A rapid colorimetric method, the Andrade Screening Antimicrobial Test (ASAT) was evaluated to detect colistin resistance in Enterobacteriales clinical isolates. The sensitivity and specificity were 90.7% and 100%, respectively. In 10/26 E. coli isolates the automatized method failed to detect the resistance, whereas the ASAT detected it accurately. Most of these isolates showed COL MIC values in the range 4-8 µg mL-1 and carried mcr-1. As regards K. pneumoniae COL- resistant isolates, discrepancies between the Phoeni...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - July 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

A novel parameter to predict the effects of antibiotic combinations on the development of Staphylococcus aureus resistance: in vitro model studies at subtherapeutic daptomycin and rifampicin exposures.
Authors: Golikova MV, Strukova EN, Portnoy YA, Dovzhenko SA, Kobrin MB, Zinner SH, Firsov AA Abstract The search for optimal predictors of anti-mutant effects remains a pressing problem in studies of antibiotic-associated bacterial resistance. To relate the emergence of bacterial resistance with the antibiotic mutant prevention concentration (MPC), a novel integral parameter - the area around the resistance threshold, i.e. MPC level (AAMPC) is proposed. The AAMPC is the algebraic sum of the area under the antibiotic concentration-time curve that is above the MPC (positive area) and the area above the concentration-...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - July 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Comparative in vitro potency and kill curve activity of tedizolid and linezolid against Gram-positive bacteria isolated from Chinese hospitalized patients in 2013-2016.
Authors: Wang S, Li Y, Xue F, Liu J, Yang W, Zhang J, Glenschek-Sieberth M, Lyu Y Abstract We compared the kill-curve activity of tedizolid and linezolid at clinically relevant (total or free plasma, lung) concentrations against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) isolated from Chinese patients. Tedizolid had greater in vitro potency than linezolid against staphylococci, streptococci and enterococci species (tedizolid minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range: ≤ 0.016-0.5 µg/mL; linezolid MIC range: 0.25-2 µg/mL)...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - June 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Breakthrough pneumonia, meningitis and bloodstream infection due to Streptococcus pneumoniae during cefixime therapy.
We describe three cases of breakthrough pneumococcal severe life-threatening infections, including two meningitis and one bloodstream infection in patients treated with cefixime for otitis, sinusitis and pneumonia, respectively. Cefixime does not seem to be fully effective in treating invasive pneumococcal diseases. Because penicillin non-susceptibility might be linked to cefixime failure, the prompt knowledge of susceptibility to penicillin in S. pneumoniae might be very useful. Furthermore, MIC of cefixime should be measured because values>0.5 mg/L might be related to failure. PMID: 31215358 [PubMed - as su...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - June 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

A feasibility study of gemcitabine, S-1 and leucovorin combination therapy (GSL) for advanced biliary tract cancer.
Conclusions: This study showed the feasibility and potential efficacy of GSL as a first-line treatment in patients with advanced BTC. PMID: 31179889 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - June 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Resistance studies with Streptococcus pneumoniae using an in vitro dynamic model: amoxicillin versus azithromycin at clinical exposures.
Authors: Golikova MV, Strukova EN, Portnoy YA, Dovzhenko SA, Kobrin MB, Zinner SH, Firsov AA Abstract Current knowledge of the emergence of Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance during treatment with aminopenicillins and macrolides is limited. In particular, clinical reports on isolation of azithromycin-resistant mutants do not relate their enrichment to the actual antibiotic concentrations in blood. In the present work, the selection of amoxicillin- and azithromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae mutants at therapeutic and subtherapeutic antibiotic exposures was studied in an in vitro dynamic model. There was no enrichment...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - June 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Antimicrobial stewardship knowledge and perception among physicians and pharmacists at leading tertiary teaching hospitals in Zambia: implications for future policy and practice.
This study was undertaken to address this at Zambia's leading specialized teaching hospitals. Descriptive, cross-sectional study involved 137 physicians and 61 pharmacists. AMS knowledge was relatively low among physicians (51%) and pharmacists (39%). Few physicians (9%) and pharmacists (20%) demonstrated sufficient knowledge of the basic principles of AMS. Physicians' and pharmacists' knowledge levels were significantly associated with years of practice, job position or practice rank, and previous AMS training. The majority (95%) perceived AMR as a current problem in their practise. Most physicians (92%) and pharmacists (...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - June 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Impact of inappropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy on mortality in pediatric patients with bloodstream infection: a retrospective observational study.
Authors: Kyo M, Ohshimo S, Kosaka T, Fujita N, Shime N Abstract Inappropriate empiric antibiotic therapy for bloodstream infection could be associated with mortality in adults. However, data for pediatric patients have been scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of an inappropriate empiric antibiotic therapy on mortality in pediatric patients with bloodstream infection. We retrospectively analyzed the data of pediatric patients with consecutive positive blood culture in the university hospital between 2007 and 2016. The association between the use of inappropriate empiric therapy and mortal...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - June 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

The effect of topical voriconazole on conjunctiva in rats as revealed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry.
In conclusion, voriconazole has side effects due to phototoxicity including squamous cell carcinoma. Clinicians should particularly be careful with the long-term use of topical voriconazole and should follow-up patients strictly in terms of ocular surface alterations. PMID: 31140369 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - May 31, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Antimicrobial treatment of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia invasive infections: Systematic review.
Authors: Anđelković MV, Janković SM, Kostić MJ, Živković Zarić RS, Opančina VD, Živić MŽ, Milosavljević MJ, Pejčić AV Abstract Stenotrophomonas maltophilia can cause serious infections in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this systematic review was to establish what invasive infections in humans are caused by S. maltophilia and to evaluate the optimal choice of antibiotics for their treatment. MEDLINE, EBSCO, SCOPUS, SCINDEKS and GOOGLE SCHOLAR were systematically searched for clinical trials, observational studies, case reports or case series describing invasive infections with S. maltophilia in...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - May 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

In vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam against clinical isolates of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Italy.
Authors: Viaggi V, Pini B, Tonolo S, Luzzaro F, Principe L Abstract Resistance to carbapenems in Enterobacteriaceae is a serious concern for public health. Alternative treatment options involving carbapenem-sparing regimen for patients with serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are urgently needed. Ceftazidime/avibactam (CZA) is a new combination of a third generation cephalosporin and a non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor, in which avibactam is capable to expand the ceftazidime activity also against extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. To da...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - May 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis and its dose appropriateness among paediatric patients in a Nigerian teaching hospital.
Authors: Oshikoya KA, Ogunyinka IA, Adamaigbo C, Olowo-Okere A Abstract Surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP) prevents incision site infection. We assessed SAP compliance with existing international guidelines, evaluated the appropriateness of the antimicrobial doses, and determined the risk factors for antimicrobial under-dosing. A retrospective chart review was performed for patients who under-went surgery and administered antimicrobial prophylaxis. Compliance with SAP guidelines was evaluated. Antimicrobial doses were categorized as under-, normal-, or over-dose. Of the 303 surgical patients, 97.7% received S...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - May 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

In vitro activity of the ketolide cethromycin in multidrug-resistant clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and international reference strains.
In conclusion, the cross-resistance with azithromycin indicates that cethromycin may not be considered for empirical first-line monotherapy of gonorrhoea. However, cethromycin might be valuable in combination antimicrobial therapy and for second-line therapy e.g. for cases with ceftriaxone resistance or allergy. PMID: 31106713 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - May 22, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Activity of tedizolid against gram-positive clinical isolates causing infections in Europe and surrounding areas (2014-2015).
Authors: Pfaller MA, Sader HS, Shortridge D, Castanheira M, Flamm RK, Mendes RE Abstract Activities of tedizolid and comparators were evaluated against gram-positive isolates responsible for skin and skin structure infections, pneumonia, and bloodstream infections. Non-duplicate gram-positive isolates (8011) were collected from 20 European countries/regions. Tedizolid (0.12 mg/L) showed similar results of minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 50% of organisms (MIC50) regardless of pathogen/group or infection type, except for coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterococcus faecalis...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - May 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

2-(4-methoxyphenylthio)-5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone induces apoptosis via ROS-mediated MAPK and STAT3 signaling pathway in human gastric cancer cells.
In this study, to reduce side effects and improve therapeutic efficacy, a novel 1,4-naphthoquinone derivative-2-(4-methoxyphenylthio)-5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (MPTDMNQ) was synthesized. We investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of MPTDMNQ on cell viability, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in human gastric cancer cells. Our results showed that MPTDMNQ decreased cell viability in nine human gastric cancer cell lines. MPTDMNQ significantly induced apoptosis accompanied by the accumulation of ROS in GC cells. However, pre-treatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) att...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - May 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

A time-to-event analysis describing virologic response in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.
In conclusion, a cohort of patients with low probability of achieving SVR can be identified. This project identifies patients with a low risk of responding to PEG-IFN alfa-2a and ribavirin combination. PMID: 31070545 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - May 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Treating children with tuberculosis: new weapons for an old enemy.
Authors: Matucci T, Galli L, de Martino M, Chiappini E Abstract Tuberculosis has risen to worldwide attention due to its widespread diffusion and overall impact on health and life expectancy. Despite being historically neglected, children require a different approach and management from adults. From the treatment of drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis to extensively drug-resistant strains, and extrapulmonary disease, therapies in children require revision and a more children-oriented approach. We therefore exposed the main critical points and differences between treatment in adults and children and the possible...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - May 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Molecular and genetic characterization of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in Venezuela.
This study provides new information about the epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in clinical setting in Venezuela. PMID: 31046636 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - May 4, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Quorum sensing pathways in Gram-positive and -negative bacteria: potential of their interruption in abating drug resistance.
Authors: Haque S, Yadav DK, Bisht SC, Yadav N, Singh V, Dubey KK, Jawed A, Wahid M, Dar SA Abstract Quorum sensing (QS) is an inter-cell communication between bacterial populations through release of tiny diffusible compounds as signalling agents, called auto-inducers, abetting bacteria to track population density. QS allows bacterial population to perform collectively in coordination to wide phenotypes like alterations in expression of virulence genes to achieve advancement over their competitors, drug resistance and biofilm formation. Several classes of autoinducers have been described that are involved in bacter...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - April 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Cefpodoxime proxetil as a therapeutic option in switching therapy for infective endocarditis in children: case reports and literature review.
We present two cases of IE in children caused by uncommon pathogenic bacteria (Abiotrophia defectiva and Haemophilus parainfluenzae) successfully treated with oral third-generation cephalosporin - cefpodoxime proxetil after initial intravenous therapy. This paper provides observations on different therapeutic approach for IE in children as well as another potential use of cefpodoxime proxetil. PMID: 31007148 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - April 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

In vitro study of antimicrobial activity on Klebsiella Pneumoniae biofilms in endotracheal tubes.
In this study, we evaluated the in vitro effects of five antimicrobials against biofilms formed by Klebsiella pneumoniae in ETTs. K. pneumoniae was added to minimal mucin medium prior to inoculation in microtiter plates containing ETT fragments. Biofilm susceptibility was assessed by crystal violet staining. At 24 h, the antimicrobials significantly reduced biofilm formation. At 48 h, all of the antimicrobial agents exhibited significant reductions in biofilm formation, even at concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Tigecycline and fosfomycin showed the greatest inhibition capacity, ...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - April 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Actual body weight-based vancomycin dosing in neonates.
This study aimed to explore vancomycin pharmacokinetics and its covariates in critically ill neonates and to propose an easy applicable dosing nomogram for initial treatment. Individual vancomycin pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated based on therapeutic drug monitoring data using a one-compartmental model. A linear regression model was used for examination of covariates. The mean (SD) volume of distribution (Vd) and clearance (CL) for vancomycin were 0.73 (0.31) L/kg and 0.052 (0.020) L/h/kg, respectively. Vd was related to actual body weight (ABW), gestational and postmenstrual age. CL was also associated with ABW,...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - April 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

GLI inhibitors overcome Erlotinib resistance in human pancreatic cancer cells by modulating E-cadherin.
This study investigated the effect of GLI inhibitors Forskolin (FSK), GANT-61 (GNT), and Arsenic trioxide (ATX) on suppressing the resistance of pancreatic cancer cells to ETB. The effect of GLI inhibitors was evaluated by measuring mRNA expression levels of EMT factors using quantitative RT-PCR. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry were used to assess E-cadherin (E-Cad) and GLI1 protein levels. MTT and apoptosis assays were used to evaluate the synergistic effects for the combination treatment of each GLI inhibitor with ETB. Pancreatic cancer cells PANC-1 treated by GNT showed the highest significant reduction in mRNA l...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - April 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Effect of short-term carbapenem restriction on the incidence of non-pseudomonal multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacilli in an intensive care unit.
This report suggests that short-term carbapenem restriction for 3 months may be an effective strategy for reducing the incidence of non-pseudomonal MDR Gram-negative bacilli. PMID: 30983552 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - April 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Efficacy of tenofovir and entecavir in patients who relapsed after pegylated interferon therapy.
This study aimed to evaluate entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) efficacies in chronic HBV patients, who achieved virological response during Peg-IFN treatment but did not sustain this response and relapsed a year after treatment end. In this study, 74 patients with chronic HBV infection who had virological responses to 180 μg/week Peg-IFNα-2a treatment were included; 38 (20 and 18 HBeAg positive and negative, respectively) of these patients were treated with 245 mg/day TDF, and 36 (20 and 16 HBeAg positive and negative, respectively) were treated with 0.5 mg/day ETV upon r...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - April 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility patterns of candidemia from a tertiary centre in Western Australia.
Authors: Boan P, Gardam D Abstract Candidemia is a common invasive fungal infection with a high mortality rate. We performed a retrospective audit of candidemia at a tertiary centre in Western Australia, 2005-2014. There were 167 episodes of candidemia due to 173 isolates of Candida. Candida albicans (40.5%), Candida glabrata complex (30.6%), Candida parapsilosis complex (14.4%) were the most common species causing candidemia across the study. Of the tested isolates, 17.7% (11/62) were non-susceptible to fluconazole and 13.6% (9/66) non-susceptible to caspofungin. 22.8% (8/35) C. glabrata complex were fluconazole r...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - April 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

A retrospective study of tunnelled haemodialysis central line-associated bloodstream infections.
Authors: Krishnan A, Irani K, Swaminathan R, Boan P Abstract Infection is a serious complication of tunnelled haemodialysis catheters. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of tunnelled haemodialysis central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) in an Australian centre. We performed a retrospective audit of tunnelled haemodialysis CLABSI from June 2010 to June 2014. From 674 catheter insertions, 70 CLABSI occurred in 55 patients at a rate of 0.95 infections per 1000 catheter days. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (ATSI) compared to non-ATSI had a higher rate of CLABSI (1.70 vs 0.58 CLABSI per 1000 c...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - April 4, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Comparison of pharmaceutical quality of eight generic ganciclovir injections in China and Cymevene.
Authors: Hong C, Wang J Abstract To assess the pharmaceutical quality of eight commercially available generic products of ganciclovir injection produced in China with original brand product (Cymevene, Roche, Switzerland). Tests were performed according to China Pharmacopoeia 2015 and Import Drug Registration Standard introduced by CFDA. Items including characteristics of the packing and reconstituted solution, pH, visible particles, content of active and related substances, sterility and bacterial endotoxin were all carried out based on the standard laboratory operating rules and requirements. Seven of all tested d...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - March 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

The use of oral fosfomycin-trometamol in patients with catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI): new indications for an old antibiotic?
In conclusion, fosfomycin trometamol seems to be a valid treatment option in patients with CAUTIs. PMID: 30843774 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - March 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Scalp infection by Candida Albicans in an immunocompetent patient: a description of a rare case.
We report a case of a scalp infection by C.albicans in a patient without an obvious immunocompromised state. PMID: 30843775 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - March 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Impact of infectious diseases consultation as a part of an antifungal stewardship programme on candidemia outcome in an Italian tertiary-care, University hospital.
Authors: Menichetti F, Bertolino G, Sozio E, Carmignani C, Rosselli Del Turco E, Tagliaferri E, Sbrana F, Ripoli A, Barnini S, Desideri I, Dal Canto L, Tascini C, GISA (Italian Group for Antimicrobial Stewardship) Candidemia Study Group Abstract Candidemia is a major cause of in-hospital mortality. Antifungal stewardship programme (AFSP) providing infectious diseases consultation (IDC) might improve the outcome. We evaluate the impact on candidemia mortality of IDC as part of AFSP restricting the use of all antifungals with exception of fluconazole. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients with documented...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - March 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Assessment of drug-drug interactions between voriconazole and glucocorticoids.
The objective of this study was to characterize the potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between voriconazole and glucocorticoids using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. Voriconazole and glucocorticoids PBPK models were constructed by using physicochemical data and pharmacokinetic parameters in healthy subjects, and verified by comparing the predicted pharmacokinetic parameters with corresponding data acquired from published literatures. The refined PBPK models were employed to predict the potential DDIs between voriconazole and glucocorticoids. The results showed that the maximum plasma concentration...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - March 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Distribution of main Gram-positive pathogens causing bloodstream infections in United States and European hospitals during the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2010-2016): concomitant analysis of oritavancin in vitro activity.
This study updates the distribution and trends of Gram-positive organisms causing bloodstream infections (BSIs) in the United States (US) and Europe during 2010-2016. In vitro activities of oritavancin and comparators were also evaluated. Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were the most common organisms in both regions. The proportion of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) among all isolates declined (from 11.5% to 9.9%) in the US, a trend also noted for methicillin resistance rates within S. aureus (from 45.7% to 41.9%). MRSA rates (4.1% to 4.2%) in Europe remained sta...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - March 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

High prevalence of imipenem-resistant and metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Burns Hospital in Tunisia: detection of a novel class 1 integron.
The objective of the present study was to characterize the metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs), integrons, OprD modifications and virulence factors of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from burn patients and to analyze their genetic relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Sixty-seven P. aeruginosa isolates were recovered from different clinical samples of burn patients hospitalized in the Intensive Care Burn Unit of the Centre de Traumatologie et des Grands Brulés (Ben Arous, Tunisia), and MBLs and alterations in porin OprD were analyzed among imipenem-resistant isolates...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - March 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

A case report of a TDM-guided optimization of mitotane for a safe and effective long-term treatment.
In conclusion, the adoption of therapeutic mitotane monitoring allowed the treatment of an AC patient with a reduced, tolerable and effective dose. PMID: 30831058 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - March 6, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Dynamics and management of oral anticoagulant treatment in chronic hepatitis C patients undergoing therapy with direct antiviral agents.
Authors: Vitrone M, Parrella A, Albisinni R, Durante-Mangoni E, Zampino R Abstract Current regimens of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) are effective and safe for chronic hepatitis C (CHC). However, DAA often interfere with concomitant medications. We treated seven CHC patients with DAA who were on chronic anticoagulant treatment with warfarin, and describe the dynamics of prothrombin time, providing novel data, useful for the clinician. PMID: 30784359 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - February 22, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Combination of Coral UTI ScreenTM system, gram-stain and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for diagnosis of urinary tract infections directly from urine samples.
This study proposes an algorithm for microbiological diagnosis of urinary tract infections based on screening by luminometry and Gram-stain, followed by identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Positive urine samples detected with the luminometry screening Coral UTI ScreenTM system underwent Gram staining and identification of the causative organism was performed by MALDI-TOF Microflex LT mass spectrometer (Bruker Daltonics, Germany). Subsequently, the results were compared with those of conventional culture identification using WIDER MIC/id system (Fran...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - February 22, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Calcium Channel Blockers Possibly Delay the Elimination of Plasma Methotrexate in Patients Receiving High-Dose Methotrexate Therapy.
In this study, we investigated the factors that delay elimination of plasma MTX in patients on HD-MTX therapy. Fifteen patients who received HD-MTX therapy (21 cycles) were classified into two groups: delayed elimination of plasma MTX (38.1%, 8/21) and normal elimination of plasma MTX (61.9%, 13/21). Patient characteristics, plasma MTX concentrations, laboratory values, and adverse reactions were compared between the two groups using Fisher's exact test. Univariate analysis showed that co-administration of calcium channel blockers was significantly associated with delayed elimination of plasma MTX (p = 0.042)...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - February 20, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Elastin-Like Polypeptide Delivers a Notch Inhibitory Peptide to Inhibit Tumor Growth in Combination with Paclitaxel.
In this study, we verified that intravenously delivered SynB1-ELP-dnMAML was cleared from circulation under physiological conditions (37 °C) but accumulated at tumors grown in mice at sites to which an externally induced, local heat (40-41 °C) was applied, thereby resulting in greatly reduced tumor growth in animals. Additionally, in combination with Taxol, SynB1-ELP-dnMAML showed more potent tumor growth retardation. PMID: 30773131 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - February 20, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Long-Term Evaluation of Combination Treatment of Single Agent HD-MTX Chemotherapy up to Three Cycles and Moderate Dose Whole Brain Irradiation for Primary CNS Lymphoma.
This study demonstrated the efficacy of HD-MTX prior to WBRT and indicated that three cycles of HD-MTX monotherapy may be sufficient in combination with radiotherapy. PMID: 30773132 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - February 20, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Antibiotic and Anticoagulation Therapy in Lemierre's Syndrome: Case Report and Review.
Authors: Campo F, Fusconi M, Ciotti M, Diso D, Greco A, Cattaneo CG, de Vincentiis M Abstract Lemierre's syndrome is a rare and fatal disease and is also known as the forgotten disease to describe the rarity of this syndrome in the antibiotic era. However, in the last 20 years, the incidence of this disease has been increasing. Authors report a case of Lemierre's syndrome with extensive venous thrombosis involving right internal jugular veins with extension to the sigmoid and lateral sinus and also review the literature on the use of anticoagulant therapy in Lemierre's syndrome. A computerized Medline study was car...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - February 20, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Invasive fungal infection in crtically ill patients: hurdles and next challenges.
Authors: José P, Alvarez-Lerma F, Maseda E, Olaechea P, Pemán J, Soriano C, Zaragoza R Abstract A narrative review from a multidisciplinary task force of experts in critical care medicine and clinical mycology was carried out. The multi drug-resistant species Candida auris has emerged simultaneously on several continents, causing hospital outbreaks, especially in critically ill patients. Although there are not enough data to support the routine use of continuous antibiotic prophylaxis in patients subjected to extracorporeal membrane oxygenator, a clear increase of invasive fungal infection (IFI) has b...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - February 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research