Active metronomic vinorelbine schedules decrease plasma interleukin-2 levels in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma.
In conclusion, our study confirmed the activity of mVNR in an immunocompetent model of lung carcinoma and suggest multiple mechanisms of action, including the modulation of IL-2 levels. PMID: 32930084 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - September 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Infective endocarditis by Acinetobacter species: a systematic review.
Authors: Ioannou P, Mavrikaki V, Kofteridis DP Abstract A. baumannii - A. calcoaceticus complex infections are increasingly frequent, especially in intensive care units. Such infections are associated with a mortality that can be as high as 62%. On the other hand, infective endocarditis (IE) is an uncommon disease with notable morbidity and mortality. Even though IE is rarely caused by Acinetobacter species, these infections can be particularly problematic due to increasing antimicrobial resistance. The purpose of this study was to systemically review all published cases of IE by Acinetobacter species in the litera...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - September 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Community-acquired pneumonia: aetiology, antibiotic resistance and prospects of phage therapy.
Authors: Sheam MM, Syed SB, Nain Z, Tang SS, Paul DK, Ahmed KR, Biswas SK Abstract Bacteria are the most common aetiological agents of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and use a variety of mechanisms to evade the host immune system. With the emerging antibiotic resistance, CAP-causing bacteria have now become resistant to most antibiotics. Consequently, significant morbimortality is attributed to CAP despite their varying rates depending on the clinical setting in which the patients being treated. Therefore, there is a pressing need for a safe and effective alternative or supplement to conventional antibiotics. B...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - August 23, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Prevalence of leukoencephalopathy and its potential cognitive sequelae in cancer patients.
Authors: Schroyen G, Meylaers M, Deprez S, Blommaert J, Smeets A, Jacobs S, Sunaert S, Sleurs C, Uyttebroeck A Abstract Due to the rising use of chemotherapy treatment in cancer patients and growing survival rates, therapy-induced neurotoxic side effects are increasingly reported. Given the ambiguity about the prevalence and severity of leukoencephalopathy, one of such toxic side effects, in non-central nervous system (CNS) cancer patients, we performed a systematic literature search using the PubMed/Medline database to summarize existing literature regarding leukoencephalopathy epidemiology in non-CNS cancer patie...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - August 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Optimization of tigecycline dosage regimen for different infections in the patients with hepatic or renal impairment.
The objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative fraction of response (CFR) of various tigecycline dosing regimens in patients with hepatic or renal impairment. METHODS: Monte Carlo simulations were performed using pharmacokinetic parameters and microbiological data to evaluate various tigecycline regimens in patients with hepatic or renal impairment. RESULTS: For HAP and cIAI, the regimen of 25 mg q12h achieved CFR values of>90% in Child-Pugh C patients against Gram-positive bacteria and partial Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca). However, dose increases of tige...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - August 13, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Gram-negative bacteria as causative agents of ventilator-associated pneumonia and their respective resistance mechanisms.
Authors: Bandić-Pavlović D, Zah-Bogović T, Žižek M, Bielen L, Bratić V, Hrabač P, Slačanac D, Mihaljević S, Bedenić B Abstract Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious and common complication in patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) and contributes to mortality. Multidrug Gram-negative bacteria such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae are frequently associated with VAP in ICU. A prospective study was set up in three ICUs of the University Hospital Center Zagreb and one ICU in General Hospital Pula from September 2017 to March 2018. Antibiotic su...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - August 1, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Optimal vancomycin dose in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection, antimicrobial stewardship initiative.
Authors: Ereshefsky BJ, Alrahmany D, El Nekidy WS, Pontiggia L, Ghazi IM Abstract C. difficile infections (CDI) are increasingly recognized as a leading cause of infectious diarrhea, with increasing morbidity and mortality. Treatment primarily centers around oral vancomycin treatment. A wide range of dosing regimens exist in clinical practice, with little evidence to help distinguish the therapeutic benefit between them. This is a retrospective cohort study conducted at an academic medical center that enrolled adult patients admitted with CDI. The primary outcome was a composite of complete or partial cure at the e...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - July 29, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

A snapshot survey of antimicrobial susceptibility among respiratory Staphylococcus aureus isolates: focus on ceftaroline.
Authors: Oliveira DS, Carniel E, Perez LRR PMID: 32715970 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - July 29, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Compliance with South Africa's Antimicrobial Resistance National Strategy Framework: are we there yet?
CONCLUSION: Although some facilities complied well with the Framework, overall compliance was sub-optimal. With the introduction of universal healthcare in South Africa, coupled with growing AMR rates, ongoing initiatives to actively implement the Framework should be targeted at non-compliant facilities. PMID: 32693710 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - July 24, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

A systematic review of implications, mechanisms, and stability of in  vivo emergent resistance to colistin and tigecycline in Acinetobacter baumannii.
A systematic review of implications, mechanisms, and stability of in vivo emergent resistance to colistin and tigecycline in Acinetobacter baumannii. J Chemother. 2020 Jul 17;:1-11 Authors: Karakonstantis S Abstract The potential of A. baumannii for acquired resistance to last resort antibiotics (colistin and tigecycline) during treatment has important clinical implications, especially when dealing with patients failing to improve despite treatment with an active antimicrobial. However, the relevant literature remains scattered. Therefore, a systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Scopus. Se...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - July 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Management of antibiotic-resistant Helicobacter pylori infection: current perspective in Iran.
Authors: Alihosseini S, Ghotaslou R, Heravi FS, Ahmadian Z, Leylabadlo HE Abstract Helicobacter pylori is a common gastric bacterial pathogen implicated in the pathogenesis of many digestive tract disorders. H. pylori infection prevalence has been reported alarmingly in Iran. A plethora of studies have been conducted to evaluate the efficiency of first-line and second-line eradication attempts in patients diagnosed with H. pylori infections in Iran. The present study, was evaluated the efficacy of first-line and second-line therapy in H. pylori infections in Iran. We aimed to consider the literature review of the v...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - July 15, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Correction.
Authors: PMID: 32650707 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - July 13, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

The role of PK/PD-based strategies to preserve new molecules against multi-drug resistant gram-negative strains.
Authors: Adembri C, Cappellini I, Novelli A PMID: 32628094 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - July 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Docetaxel-induced acute myositis: a case report with review of literature.
Authors: Wongsaengsak S, Quirch M, Ball S, Sultan A, Jahan N, Elmassry M, Rehman S Abstract Docetaxel is an anti-microtubule agent and a highly effective treatment of locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer. There are several adverse effects associated with docetaxel, such as myelosuppression, peripheral neuropathy, fluid retention, and asthenia. One of the most well-known side-effects of this medication is mild to moderate myalgia. Here, we report a case of a 49-year-old female with stage 3 breast cancers who developed severe acute myositis following docetaxel use. The mechanism of docetaxel-induced myositis...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - July 5, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Roseomonas species infections in humans: a systematic review.
Authors: Ioannou P, Mavrikaki V, Kofteridis DP Abstract Roseomonas species have been recognized to cause infections in immunocompromised individuals. The purpose of this study was to systemically review all published cases of Roseomonas infections in humans and describe the epidemiology, microbiology, antimicrobial susceptibility, treatment and outcomes of these infections in humans. We performed a systematic review of PubMed (through 20th Octrober 2019) for studies providing epidemiological, clinical, microbiological as well as treatment data and outcomes of Roseomonas species infections. A total of 37 studies, co...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - July 5, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Dissemination of VIM-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated with high-risk clone ST654 in a tertiary and quaternary hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
Authors: Al-Zahrani IA, Al-Ahmadi BM Abstract To the best of our knowledge, no molecular surveillance that has been conducted to identify the most common clones of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) in western Saudi Arabia. Therefore, this study aimed to identify genetic diversity and the most common CRPA clones in this region. Thirty-five CRPA isolates were collected from a tertiary and quaternary hospital in Makkah. blaVIM was the most common carbapenemase-encoding gene (11 CRPA isolates), while blaGES was reported in only three isolates. CRPA isolates were subjected to multi- locus sequence typin...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - July 2, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Species distribution and antifungal susceptibilities of bloodstream Candida isolates: a nine-years single center survey.
In conclusion, with the exception of C. tropicalis, the isolation of a non-susceptible Candida strains against azoles, echinocandins and amphotericin B was a rare event. PMID: 32580685 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - June 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Epidemiology, prevalence and risk factors for infections in burn patients: results from a regional burn centre's analysis.
Authors: Corcione S, Pensa A, Castiglione A, Lupia T, Bortolaso B, Romeo MR, Stella M, Rosa FG Abstract Burn patients are at high risk of infections due to severe impairment of immunity and loss of skin barrier function. We aimed to describe the epidemiology, incidence and risk factors for infection in a cohort of burns patients. Two hundred patients were retrospectively enrolled and subdivided into infected (N = 81) and uninfected groups (N = 119). The cumulative prevalence of infections was 27% on day 7 and 43.8% on day 28. Skin and soft tissue infections (32%) were the most frequent. ...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - June 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Bacteremia with Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in a 4 month old pediatric oncology patient.
We describe a case of S. pseudintermedius bacteremia in a 4 month old pediatric oncology patient with clear evidence of transmission from the family pet. PMID: 32538712 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - June 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Negative impact of high body mass index on cetuximab-mediated cellular cytotoxicity against human colon carcinoma cells.
This study assessed the relationship between the ability of Natural Killer (NK) cells to activate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against human HT29 colorectal cancer cells exposed to cetuximab and the body mass index of the human subjects from whom the NK cells had been obtained. NK cells obtained from 73 human donors were co-incubated with HT-29 human colon cancer cells in the presence or absence of cetuximab. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity was assessed by measuring LDH release. A significant negative correlation was observed between body mass index and cetuximab-induced antibody-dependent cellular cyt...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - June 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Lopinavir/ritonavir as a third agent in the antiviral regimen for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Authors: Panagopoulos P, Petrakis V, Panopoulou M, Trypsianis G, Penlioglou T, Pnevmatikos I, Papazoglou D Abstract Corona Virus Disease (CoVID-19) is an emerging public health problem rapidly spread globally. New treatment options for patients with severe symptoms and ways of reducing transmission in the community are taken into consideration. A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Infectious Diseases of Alexandroupolis (Greece) including 16 patients with CoVID-19. They were classified into two groups, A and B. Group A received lopinavir/ritonavir as a third agent in the antiviral regimen, while ...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - June 13, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Hypocrellin B triggered sonodynamic therapy reverses multidrug resistance of doxorubicin-resistant SGC7901/ADR cells via down-regulation of P-gp expression.
In this study, we sought to determine the anti-MDR effects of a traditional chinese herb, Hypocrellin B (HB)-mediated sonodynamic therapy (HB-SDT) on human gastric multidrug resistance cancer SGC-7901cell/ADR cells and its underlying mechanisms. HB-SDT can synergistically increase the cytotoxicity of DOX on SGC-7901cell/ADR cells in which the mechanism is related to significant promotion of apoptosis, ROS level and drop of MMP in the resistant cells after combining treatment of DOX and HB-SDT. Meanwhile, western blotting assays display the expression of apoptosis related proteins Bax and Bcl-2 changed markedly after the co...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - June 13, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Circulating tumour cells as prognosis predictive markers of neoadjuvant chemotherapy-treated breast cancer patients.
In this study, we detected and measured the count of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in breast cancer (BC) patients who were treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in order to assess the clinical validity of CTCs. A total of 96 patients with locally advanced BC and who were treated by NAC were enrolled in this study. The CTC count in the peripheral blood was estimated by negative enrichment-fluorescence in situ hybridization before and after NAC. The clinicopathological data of the patients were recorded. CTCs were detected in 59 of the 96 patients with BC before NAC. Particularly, the detection rate of CTCs was signifi...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - June 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury following colistin treatment in critically-ill patients: may glucocorticoids protect?
Authors: Heybeli C, Canaslan K, Oktan MA, Yıldız S, Arda HÜ, Çavdar C, Çelik A, Gökmen N, Cömert B Abstract Nephrotoxicity following colistin administration is common and factors alleviating nephrotoxicity are yet to be determined. We retrospectively evaluated outcomes of subjects who were treated with colistin (n = 133) and with antibiotics other than colistin (control, n = 133) in intensive care units. Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurred in 69.2% and 29.3% of patients in colistin and control groups, respectively (p 
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - June 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Effect of unsymmetrical oligo-phenylene-ethynylene OPE3 against multidrug-resistant bacteria in  vitro and in vivo.
Effect of unsymmetrical oligo-phenylene-ethynylene OPE3 against multidrug-resistant bacteria in vitro and in vivo. J Chemother. 2020 May 28;:1-9 Authors: Yuan Q, Wang Y, Yao P, Lv J, Wang Q, Sun F, Feng W Abstract The rapid proliferation of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections has posed the serious health threats. Photodynamic therapy is considered one of the most promising therapeutic strategies for combating bacterial resistance. In the present study, we synthesized an unsymmetrical oligo-p-phenylene ethynylene (OPE), namely OPE3, and investigated its antimicrobial activity agains...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - May 30, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Efficacy and toxicity of adjuvant chemotherapy on colorectal cancer patients: how much influence from the genetics?
Authors: Duran G, Cruz R, Simoes AR, Barros F, Balboa E, Giráldez JM, Bernárdez B, Anido U, Candamio S, López-López R, Carracedo Á, Lamas MJ Abstract We studied the predictive value for response and toxicity of functional polymorphisms in genes involved in the oxaliplatin/fluorouracil pathway in colorectal cancer patients. One hundred and twenty-seven (127) patients were treated with curative intended surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with FOLFOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin) regimen. The median age was 65.53 (27-80) years (66.9% male, 59.1% rectum). The media...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - May 24, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Differential effects of C-reactive protein levels on voriconazole metabolism at three age groups in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.
Authors: Luo X, Li T, Hu L, Liu S, Zhao H, Zhang J, Feng Y, Huang L Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of inflammation on voriconazole (VRCZ) metabolism at three age groups in the allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients of the Chinese population. The study was performed with collecting more than one VRCZ trough concentration and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Longitudinal analysis, correlation and comparative analysis were conducted to evaluate. A total of 104 patients with 386 VRCZ trough concentration and CRP level measured on the same day were collected. For children, CRP lev...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - May 24, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Complete remission of a case of high-grade myxofibrosarcoma with lung metastases after modified MAID regimen chemotherapy.
We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of myxofibrosarcoma successfully treated with mesna, pirarubicin, ifosfamide and dacarbazine (modified MAID) regimen. The patient achieved complete remission evaluated according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST). PMID: 32427061 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - May 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

The efficacy of colistin monotherapy versus combination therapy with other antimicrobials against carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii ST2 isolates.
This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of colistin both alone and in combination with either meropenem or levofloxacin against CRAB clinical isolates. The OXA carbapenemase genes and multilocus sequence typing were detected after 35 CRAB isolates biochemical identification. Then, the minimum inhibitory concentrations, minimum bactericidal concentrations, antibiotic interactions of the test antibiotics, and synergistic effects were determined by the checkerboard method and time-kill assays. The chromosomal gene bla OXA-51-like was detected in all isolates, and bla OXA-23-like and bla OXA-24-like were present in 91.4% ...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - May 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Influence of plasma methotrexate level and MTHFR genotype in Korean paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Authors: Chae H, Kim M, Choi SH, Kim SK, Lee JW, Chung NG, Cho B, Kim Y Abstract Whether plasma MTX concentrations and MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms could be used as a predictor of occurrence of MTX-related toxicities in Korean paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) were assessed. HD-MTX related toxicities, MTHFR polymorphisms and MTX plasma concentrations following 337 HD-MTX cycles to 117 children with ALL on maintenance therapy were analyzed. A significantly higher frequency of hyperbilirubinemia (P = 0.0443) and renal toxicity (P = 0.0107) were ass...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - May 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

A case of spindle cell dominant histiocytic sarcoma showing a complete remission after first-line chemotherapy with doxorubicin and ifosfamide.
We report the case of a 54-year-old man who presented with low back pain and left hip joint pain. Imaging for the pain revealed multiple lesions in the mediastinum, vertebral bodies, and left ilium. Biopsies of the mediastinal and vertebral lesions yielded a diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma. He received standard chemotherapy for sarcoma with doxorubicin and ifosfamide, as the initial pathological diagnosis was soft tissue sarcoma. This is called AI therapy and commonly used for soft tissue sarcoma. Palliative radiation therapy to the left iliac lesion was added for pain control.Complete remission (CR) was achieved after tw...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - May 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus replication in the presence of high ( ≥32 µg/ml) drug concentration of vancomycin as seen by electron microscopy.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus replication in the presence of high (≥32 µg/ml) drug concentration of vancomycin as seen by electron microscopy. J Chemother. 2020 May 12;:1-9 Authors: Alsaeed A, Wright G, Deneer H, Rubin JE, Sanche SE, Blondeau JM Abstract Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has unfortunately become a common pathogen in many healthcare facilities. In many institutions, vancomycin remains the preferred agent for treating serious MRSA infections including bacteraemia with or without endocarditis. The mutant prevention concentration (MPC) testing ≥10...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - May 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Antibiotic usage in hospitalized patients: a one-day point prevalence study.
This study has evaluated the antibiotic consumption using one-day point prevalence study data collected from different hospitals in Turkey. This research was planned as a multicenter point surveillance study which aimed demonstrating the use of antibiotics among inpatients in Turkey. On the day of surveillance, demographic data from 21,920 inpatients, names of antibiotics used by the inpatients, number of antibiotics approved by infectious disease specialist (IDS), and the length of antibiotic use were recorded. These results showed that 30.3% of patients were using antibiotics and 57.7% of those were IDS-approved. The rat...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - May 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Evaluation of fosfomycin combined with vancomycin against vancomycin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci.
This study provides evidence that fosfomycin combination with vancomycin could be considered as a therapeutic alternative for CoNS infections. It also sheds some light on the possible emergence of the otherwise harmless bacterium S. caseolyticus as a human pathogen. PMID: 32372690 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - May 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Evaluation of the synergy of ceftazidime/avibactam in combination with colistin, doripenem, levofloxacin, tigecycline, and tobramycin against OXA-48 producing Enterobacterales.
This study aims to analyze the effect of ceftazidime/avibactam plus various antibiotics against OXA-48-producing Enterobacterales isolated from Intensive Care Units. Seventy-four non-duplicate OXA-48-producing Enterobacterales isolates were screened for their MICs by the microbroth dilution method. The in-vitro bactericidal and synergistic activities of ceftazidime/avibactam alone or in combination with other antibiotics were determined by time-kill curve assays. According to our results, colistin was the most active drug with higher susceptibility rates in the strains. Colistin, levofloxacin, tobramycin, and doripenem sho...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - May 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Effect of a "handshake" stewardship program versus a formulary restriction policy on High-End antibiotic use, expenditure, antibiotic resistance, and patient outcome.
This study reports the effect of implementing an antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) based on the "handshake" strategy for 2 years on multiple endpoints compared with that in a preceding period when an antimicrobial restriction policy was only applied in the absence of a complete program in a tertiary-care Lebanese hospital. The studied endpoints were broad-spectrum antibiotic consumption, antibiotic expenditure, nosocomial bacteremia incidence rate, and patient outcome.An interrupted time series analysis was undertaken to assess the changes in the trend (ΔT) and level (ΔL) of the aforemention...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - May 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Intravenous isavuconazole can be administered 5 days-a-week. A possibility suggested by a real-life observation.
In this report it is shown that intravenous formulation of isavuconazole could be administered 5/7 days a week in patients who can not swallow capsules, once the steady state has been stably reached and maintained, thanks to its very long half-life. In this case TDM should be highly recommended. PMID: 32364049 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - May 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Five-year surveillance and correlation of antibiotic consumption and resistance of Gram-negative bacteria at an intensive care unit in Serbia.
Authors: Popović R, Tomić Z, Tomas A, Anđelić N, Vicković S, Jovanović G, Bukumirić D, Horvat O, Sabo A Abstract A surveillance study was performed in an intensive care unit in the largest tertiary health care center in Vojvodina, Serbia from 2014 to 2018. Antibiotic prescription data were collated in the WHO anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC)/defined daily dose (DDD) format, while antibiotic resistance was expressed as incidence density adjusted for total inpatient-days. Individual trends were determined by linear regression, while possible associations between antibiotic prescription and resistance were...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - April 24, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Weight-based vancomycin loading strategy may not improve achievement of optimal vancomycin concentration in patients with preserved renal function.
Authors: Kim SH, Kang CI, Lee SH, Choi JS, Huh K, Cho SY, Chung DR, Park HJ, Lee SY, Kim YJ, Peck KR Abstract We performed a retrospective study to evaluate clinical effectiveness of vancomycin loading strategy and factors associated with achieving optimal Cmin. Patients administered vancomycin for ≥72 h from January to June 2018 were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups: loading (LD) and non-loading (NLD). LD was defined as initial vancomycin dose ≥20 mg/kg and ≥120% of maintenance dose. During study period, 70 and 71 received initial LD (24.2 ± 2.5 mg/...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - April 24, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin as neoadjuvant therapy for stage II-III locally advanced breast cancer.
This study was to compare the efficacy and safety of PLD-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with epirubicin-based treatment for breast cancer. 81 breast cancer patients were enrolled in this retrospective study. The objective response rate (ORR) in the PLD group was 74.1%, the 3-year disease-free survival(DFS) and overall survival(OS) were 81.5% and 88.9%. The PLD group achieved similar efficacy to the EPI group. The PLD group showed a low rate of neutropenia , nausea and vomiting, but a higher rate of mucositis and hand-foot syndrome. In neoadjuvant chemotherapy for invasive breast cancer, PLD provides comparable effica...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - April 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

In vitro synergistic activity of fosfomycin in combination with meropenem, amikacin and colistin against OXA-48 and/or NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Conclusions: The MRP/FOS combination demonstrated synergistic activity against CRKp, especially against the two common enzyme-producing isolates in Turkey (OXA-48 and NDM). PMID: 32228228 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - April 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Caspofungin PK in critically ill patients after the first and fourth doses: suggestions for therapeutic drug monitoring?
We describe caspofungin pharmacokinetics (PK) after the first and fourth doses in 20 critically ill septic patients. Monte Carlo simulation was used to analyze the probability of target attainment (PTA) (AUC/MIC> 865) for Candida spp. Caspofungin concentrations were analyzed by HPLC in plasma and urine. A great variability in PK parameters was observed after both doses. Patients were divided in two groups according to their AUC values (AUC ≤ 75 mg h/L cut-off). In the low-AUC group Cmax, Cmin and AUC were lower, while Vd and Cl were higher than in the high-AUC group (p 
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - March 25, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

First case of Abiotophia defectiva infectious endocarditis treated with a combination of amoxicillin and daptomycin.
We present the case of a 51-year-old man that presented an A. defectiva endocarditis on an aortic bicuspidy. Diagnosis of cirrhosis was made simultaneously, and therefore gentamicin was counter-indicated. A combination of amoxicillin 12 g per day and daptomycin 700 mg (10 mg/kg) was administrated, with resolution of clinical, biological and echographic abnormalities, and no relapse after 1 year. In our experience, amoxicillin with daptomycin could be an alternative in case of A. defectiva IE with counter-indication to aminoglycosides. PMID: 32162586 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Sourc...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - March 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Regulation of Fas in response to bortezomib and epirubicin in colorectal cancer cells.
Authors: Cacan E, Ozmen ZC Abstract Bortezomib is a reversible proteasome inhibitor affects the ubiquitin-proteasome mechanism to kill cancer cells, and inhibition of the proteasome modulates the expression of multiple target genes at the transcriptional level. Epirubicin is known as an anthracycline agent that interferes with DNA and RNA synthesis, and it can be used with other chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of post-surgical breast cancer. Epirubicin may have an anti-tumor effect against broad-spectrum tumor cells. However, it is a non-specific chemotherapeutic agent that can cause high toxicity if not us...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - March 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Alterations in AdeS and AdeR regulatory proteins in 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine responsive colistin resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii.
Authors: Satılmış Ş, Hasdemir U, Aksu B, Altınkanat Gelmez G, Söyletir G Abstract Colistin resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains are of great concern worldwide. However, the role of efflux pumps in colistin resistance needs to be elucidated. We investigated the changes in colistin MICs of 29 colistin resistant A. baumannii isolates in response to resistance-nodulation-division (RND)-type efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) and the alterations in AdeR and AdeS two-component regulatory proteins previously associated with the overproduction of AdeAB. The EPI, 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine (NMP), led to signifi...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - March 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic analysis investigating gentamicin dosing in a major burned patient complicated by septic shock.
Authors: Gatti M Abstract Profound pharmacokinetic alterations involving volume of distribution and clearance may impair the achievement of adequate antimicrobial serum concentrations in major burn patients. Gentamicin pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in a major burn victim with 90% of total body surface area affected and complicated by septic shock due to Serratia marcescens (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] = 2 mg/L). Gentamicin 240 mg was administered as a 30-min intravenous infusion, and plasma samples were obtained at 0-, 0.5-, 1-, 3- and 6-hour time points after the sta...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - March 5, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Persistent infection with Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in an adult oncology patient with transmission from a family dog.
Authors: Blondeau LD, Rubin JE, Deneer H, Kanthan R, Morrison B, Sanche S, Rypien C, Dueck D, Beck G, Blondeau JM Abstract Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a well known commensal organism of dogs but also a canine opportunistic pathogen. Reports of this organism being recovered from specimens from humans might suggest an increase prevalence in human infections and/or improved diagnostic leading to more accurate identification. Here we report a case of persistent S. pseudintermedius infection in an adult female oncology patient including colonization of the tip of an indwelling catheter. Diligence by laboratories ...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - March 5, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Assessment of antimicrobial use and prescribing practices among pediatric inpatients in Zimbabwe.
This study aims to assess antimicrobial consumption in the pediatric department of a tertiary care public hospital in Zimbabwe. Clinical records of pediatric inpatients admitted to Harare Central Hospital over a 3-week period were reviewed prospectively. Antimicrobial consumption was described as days of therapy per 100 inpatient days (DOT/100 PD). Adherence of antimicrobial drug prescriptions to the National Guidelines was also evaluated. A total of 121 (93.1%) children were prescribed at least one antimicrobial out of 130 children admitted. The median age was 14 months (IQR: 3 - 48 months). Ov...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - March 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

The effect of cefoperazone sulbactam and piperacillin tazobactam on mortality in gram-negative nosocomial infections.
According to this study results, CS and TZP have equal effectivity and safety for the empirical treatment of Gram-negative NIs. CS may be an appropriate alternative to TZP for antibiotic cycling or mixing strategy to reduce antibiotic resistance. PMID: 32096456 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - February 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research

Comparison of efficacy and safety for patients with beyond second line treated metastatic colorectal cancer: a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Authors: Cao M, Zhou M, Zhang J Abstract Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) beyond second line treatment have a poor prognosis. Regorafenib, TAS-102, fruquintinib, panitumumab and cetuximab are recommended single-agent chemotherapy regimens for patients exhibiting disease progression, this meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these regimens in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Eight RCTs with 3,832 cancer patients were included. Results showed that there was no significant difference in OS and PFS among the four drugs when comparing all patients or patients who have the KRAS ...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - February 23, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research