The neuroprotective effect of melatonin on the hippocampus exposed to diclofenac sodium during the prenatal period
Publication date: Available online 30 May 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Süleyman Kaplan, Elfide Gizem Kıvrak Melatonin (Mel) has strong antioxidant properties since it is a direct scavenger of oxygen-based free radicals and related species. The main aim of this study is to show whether the effects of Mel can prevent the potential adverse effects of diclofenac sodium (DS), used as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) during the prenatal period, on the newborn experimental rat brain tissues using stereological methods Twenty-four male 12-week old Wistar albi...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - May 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Electric injury-induced Purkinje cell apoptosis in rat cerebellum: Histological and immunohistochemical stud” [J. Chem. Neuroanat., 81 (2017) 87–96]
Publication date: July 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 82 Author(s): Samah Kandeel, Naema Mahmoud Elhosary, Mona Mohamed Abo El-Noor, Mohamed Balaha (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - May 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the brain of the viviparous fish Gambusia affinis
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Shilpa K. Bhat, C.B. Ganesh Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the common precursor enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of catecholaminergic neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine. In this investigation, the neuroanatomical distribution of TH-immunoreactivity was studied in the brain of the female mosquitofish Gambusia affinis. Numerous intensely stained TH-immunoreactive (ir) neurons were scattered in the olfactory bulb with their fibres extending towards the medial olfactory tract, whereas few telencephalic TH-ir ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - May 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Berberine confers neuroprotection in coping with focal cerebral ischemia by targeting inflammatory cytokines
Conclusions These findings confirm the validity of berberine as a potent anti-inflammatory agent in treatment of ischemic stroke. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - May 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prenatal exposure to low-dose diclofenac sodium does not affect total neuron numbers in spinal segment T13 in rats
In conclusion, our results indicated that prenatal exposure to DS has no effect on the total number of motor neuron of the offspring rats. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - May 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pax6 interacts with Iba1 and shows age-associated alterations in brain of aging mice
This report describes evaluation of expression, co-localization and interactions of Pax6 with Ionized binding protein1 (Iba1) in brain of aging mice by Immunohistochemistry, Chromatin Immuno-precipitation (ChIP) and Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP), respectively. The co-localization of Pax6 with Iba1 was observed in the cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, midbrain and olfactory lobe. The Pax6 and Iba1 also interact physically. The age-dependent alteration in their expression and co-localization were also observed in mice. Results indicate Pax6-dependent activities of Iba1 in the remodelling of microglia during immunolo...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - May 3, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Localization of zinc transporters in the spinal cord of cynomolgus monkey
Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Ni Zong, Shi-Xin Ma, Zhan-You Wang Zinc is abundant in the spinal cord, where it participates in several physiological and pathophysiological processes, including neurotransmission, spinal cord injury, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, the mechanisms underlying zinc homeostasis in the spinal cord are largely unknown. Zinc transporters (ZnTs) are responsible for transporting zinc from the cytoplasm to the extracellular space or to intracellular compartments. In the present study, we examined the distribution of ZnT...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - April 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The immunohistochemical distribution of the GABAA receptor α1, α2, α3, β2/3 and γ2 subunits in the human thalamus
Publication date: Available online 23 April 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): H.J. Waldvogel, M. Munkle, W. van Roon-Mom, H. Mohler, R.L.M. Faull The GABAA receptor is the most abundant inhibitory receptor in the human brain and is assembled from a variety of different subunit subtypes which determines their pharmacology and physiology. To determine which GABAA receptor subunit proteins are found in the human thalamus we investigated the distribution of five major GABAA receptor subunits α1, α2, α3, β2,3 and γ2 using immunohistochemical techniques. The α1-, β2,...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - April 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The role of low level laser therapy on neuropathic pain relief and interleukin-6 expression following spinal cord injury; an experimental study
Conclusion Findings show that long periods of LLLT have better effects in improving the complication of SCI. In summation, since LLLT does not cause the side effects of MPSS, long-term use of LLLT may be a proper alternative for MPSS in decreasing post SCI side effects. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - April 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Molecular phenotyping of transient postnatal tyrosine hydroxylase neurons in the rat bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.
Publication date: Available online 15 April 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): David A. Carter The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a complex integrative centre in the forebrain, composed of multiple sub-nuclei, each with discrete populations of neurons. Progress in understanding BNST function, both in the adult and during postnatal maturation, is dependent upon a more complete characterization of neuronal phenotypes in the BNST. The aim of the current study was to define the molecular phenotype of one postnatal BNST neuronal population, in order to identify molecular factors that may und...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - April 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Regional distribution of cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic neurons in the brain of two carnivore species: the feliform banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) and the caniform domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo)
Publication date: Available online 14 April 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Sashrika Pillay, Adhil Bhagwandin, Mads F. Bertelsen, Nina Patzke, Gerhard Engler, Andreas K. Engel, Paul R. Manger The nuclear organization of the cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic neurons in the brains of two species of carnivore, the banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) and domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo), is presented. The banded mongoose belongs to the feliform suborder and the domestic ferret to the caniform suborder, having last shared a common ancestor approximately 53 million years ago;...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - April 15, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The error of Broca: From the traditional localizationist concept to a connectomal anatomy of human brain
Publication date: Available online 14 April 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Hugues Duffau Neurology, especially aphasiology, was mainly built on behavioral-structural correlations (“lesion method”). In this setting, Broca's area has been considered as the “speech area”; moreover, this observation led to localizationism. However, advances in brain mapping techniques, as functional neuroimaging and direct electrical stimulation in patients undergoing awake surgery for gliomas, has resulted in a paradigmatic shift regarding models of neural architecture. In fact, the brain is o...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - April 15, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural-derived estradiol regulates brain plasticity
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Iñigo Azcoitia, Maria Angeles Arevalo, Luis M. Garcia-Segura In addition to be an ovarian hormone, estradiol is a neurosteroid synthesized by neural cells. The brain is a steroidogenic tissue that metabolizes testosterone to estradiol. The last step in the synthesis of estradiol is catalyzed by the enzyme aromatase, which is widely expressed in the brain of male and female animals and humans. Studies that have manipulated the expression or the activity of aromatase have revealed that brain-derived estradiol acts as a...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - April 14, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Metabolic syndrome causes recognition impairments and reduced hippocampal neuronal plasticity in rats
In this study, we evaluate the MS effect on the neuronal morphology of the hippocampus. Our results demonstrate that 90days of a high-calorie diet alters the metabolic energy markers causing the MS and causes memory impairments, evaluated by the recognition of novel objects test (NORT). In addition, MS animals showed significant differences in dendritic order, total dendritic length and density of dendritic spines in CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampal area, compared with rats fed with a normocaloric diet (vehicle group). Furthermore, the immunoreactivity to synaptophysin (Syp) decreased in the hippocamp...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in neurological diseases
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Murat Terzi, Gamze Altun, Sedat Şen, Adem Kocaman, Arife Ahsen Kaplan, Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Süleyman Kaplan Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been in use for many years and constitute a large part of prescriptions issued in daily practice. Although NSAIDs are used for many diseases in neurology, they have also been tested as a new therapeutic option for various other diseases. While their effects on headache and cerebrovascular diseases are well known, little is known about their impact on neurod...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Morphological and Morphometrical Maturation of Ventral Cochlear Nucleus in Human Foetus
This study concluded that morphological and functional maturation of the human cochlear nuclei occurs simultaneously during mid-gestation which represents the critical period of development and continues up to term. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chronic methamphetamine exposure significantly decreases microglia activation in the arcuate nucleus
Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Steven A. Lloyd, Beau Corkill, Matthew C. Bruster, Rick L. Roberts, Ryan A. Shanks Methamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant drug and its use and abuse necessitates a better understanding of its neurobiobehavioral effects. The acute effects of binge dosing of methamphetamine on the neurons in the CNS are well studied. However, the long-term effects of chronic, low-dose methamphetamine are less well characterized, especially in other cell types and areas outside of the major dopamine pathways. Mice were administered 5mg/...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Electric injury-induced Purkinje cell apoptosis in rat cerebellum: Histological and Immunohistochemical study
Conclusion Apoptosis and loss of Purkinje cells were involved in the pathogenesis of immediate and long term effect of electrical injury on Purkinje cells, which will be an aid to the forensic pathologist to determine the cause of death and residual damage as well as disability after electric shock. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - March 1, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The distribution of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) in the medulla oblongata, spinal cord, cranial and spinal nerves of frog, Microhyla ornata
In this study, we report its unusual localization in the medulla oblongata, spinal cord, cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and ganglions of the frog, Microhyla ornata. In the rhombencephalon, at the level of facial and vagus nerves, the NADPH-d labeling was noted in the nucleus of the abducent and facial nerves, dorsal nucleus of the vestibulocochlear nerve, the nucleus of hypoglossus nerve, dorsal and lateral column nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the dorsal field of spinal grey, the lateral and medial motor fields of spinal grey and radix ventralis and dorsalis (2–10). Many ependymal cells around the linin...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - February 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Aqueous Extract of Launaea Acanthodes Induces Glutamate Uptake and GABA Release in Astrocyte Cell Culture via a ROS Scavenging Mediated Process
Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Hamid Kasnavi Yazdi, Mohammad Fazilati, Raheleh Rahbarian, Gholamhossein Riazi, Habibollah Nazem Launaea Acanthodes is extensively used in the semiarid region of Iran for treatment of seizure. However, the underlying mechanism has not been studied well. In our previous study we showed that Launaea Acanthodes extract could effectively stimulate GABA release from PC12 cell culture. The critical role of astrocytes in epileptic brain in regulation of neurotransmitter balance in central nervous system encouraged us to investi...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - February 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Metabolic syndrome causes rec ognition memory impairments and reduced the hippocampal neuronal plasticity in rats
In this study, we evaluate the MS effect on the neuronal morphology of the hippocampus by a regional segregation approach. Our results demonstrate that 90days of a high-calorie diet altered metabolic energy markers and caused memory impairments, as evaluated by the recognition of novel objects test (NORT). In addition, MS animals showed significant differences in dendritic order, total dendritic length and density of dendritic spines in CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampal area compared to control fed rats. Furthermore, the immunoreactivity to synaptophysin (Syp) decreased in the hippocampus of MS animals com...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - February 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Role for the Serotonin Reuptake Transporter in the Brain and Intestinal Features of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Developmental Antidepressant Exposure
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Kara Gross Margolis Many disease conditions considered CNS-predominant harbor significant intestinal comorbidities. Serotonin (5-HT) and the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) have increasingly been shown to play important roles in both brain and intestinal development and long-term function. 5-HT and SERT may thus modulate critical functions in the development and perpetuation of brain-gut axis disease. We discuss the potential roles of 5-HT and SERT in the brain and intestinal manifestations of autism spectrum disor...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - February 15, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Amelioration of cerebellar dysfunction in rats following postnatal ethanol exposure using low-intensity pulsed ultrasound
Conclusion This study showed that exposure to LIPUS can affect the number of granular cells and thickness of the cell layer within the cerebellar cortex in neonatal rats. LIPUS also could attenuate ethanol toxicity effects on the cerebellum. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - February 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The use of diclofenac sodium in urological practice: A structural and neurochemical based review
Publication date: Available online 6 February 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Mahmut Ulubay, Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Arife Ahsen Kaplan, Mustafa Kemal Atilla Diclofenac sodium (DS) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with antipyretic and analgesic effects. It is mainly found in the form of sodium salt. The mechanism of action of DS operates by way of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition. The physiological effect of this substance derives from a decrease in prostaglandin production. DS is a benzeneacetic acid derivative with anti-inflammatory properties. As a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - February 6, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurochemical organization and morphology of the sleep related nuclei in the brain of the Arabian oryx, Oryx leucoryx
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Joshua G. Davimes, Abdulaziz N. Alagaili, Nigel C. Bennett, Osama B. Mohammed, Adhil Bhagwandin, Paul R. Manger, Nadine Gravett The Arabian oryx, Oryx leucoryx, is a member of the superorder Cetartiodactyla and is native to the Arabian Desert. The desert environment can be considered extreme in which to sleep, as the ranges of temperatures experienced are beyond what most mammals encounter. The current study describes the nuclear organization and neuronal morphology of the systems that have been implicated in sleep contro...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - February 4, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Possible promoting effects of melatonin, leptin and alcar on regeneration of the sciatic nerve
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Mehmet Emin Onger, Suleyman Kaplan, Ömür Gülsüm Deniz, Gamze Altun, Berrin Zuhal Altunkaynak, Kemal Balcı, Stefania Raimondo, Stefano Geuna Peripheral nerve injury is a widespread and disabling condition that can impair the individual’s daily life. Studies involving medications that may positively affect peripheral nerve regeneration are rare. The aim of this study was to investigate new treatments after peripheral nerve injury using various neuroprotectants, melatonin, alcar and leptin, in the ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - February 4, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Atypical dopamine efflux caused by 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) via the human dopamine transporter
In this study, we demonstrate for the first time, a new mode of action of MDPV, namely its ability to promote DAT-mediated DA efflux. Using single cell amperometric assays, we determined that low concentrations of MDPV (1nM) can cause reverse transport of DA via DAT. Notably, administration of MDPV leads to hyperlocomotion in Drosophila melanogaster. These data describe further how MDPV acts at the DAT possibly paving the way for novel treatment strategies for individuals who abuse bath salts. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - February 4, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Exercise increases leptin levels correlated with IGF-1 in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of adolescent male and female rats
In this study, we investigated the effects of regular aerobic exercise on leptin, leptin receptor expression levels in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Additionally, we investigated the correlation of IGF-1 levels with leptin and leptin receptor expression. During the experiment, exercise group was run on a treadmill for 30minutes per session at a speed of 8m/min and 0degrees slope, five times a week for 6 weeks. Leptin, leptin expression, IGF-1 levels and cell numbers increased in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of exercise groups. Blood leptin levels increased in female rats in exercise group; whereas it did not chan...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - February 4, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

VEGF alleviates ALS-CSF induced cytoplasmic accumulations of TDP-43 and FUS/TLS in NSC-34 cells
Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Shubham Shantanu, K. Vijayalakshmi, S. Shruthi, B.K. Chandrasekhar Sagar, T.N. Sathyaprabha, A. Nalini, Trichur R. Raju, Phalguni Anand Alladi Cytoplasmic mislocalisation and aggregation of TDP-43 and FUS/TLS proteins in spinal motor neurons contribute to the pathogenesis of the highly fatal disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We investigated the neuroprotective effect of VEGF on expression of these proteins in the motor neuronal cell line NSC-34 modelled to reminisce sporadic form of ALS. We studied the express...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - February 3, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The rat vomeronasal organ is a vitamin D target
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): A. Rodewald, V.M. Gebhart, H. Oehring, G.F. Jirikowski We studied the expression of vitamin D receptor and of vitamin D binding protein in the rat vomeronasal organ. With immunofluorescence, in situ hybridization and with reverse transcriptase PCR we found both proteins in sensory as well as in non-sensory cells. Sensory neurons contained immunoreactivity for vitamin D3 receptor in nuclei, in portions of the cytoplasm, and in apical dendrites and their microvilli. Vitamin D binding protein was observed in sensory neuron a...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - February 1, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Day/night expression of MT1 and MT2 receptors in hypothalamic nuclei of the primate Sapajus apella
This study aimed to investigate the expression of MT1 and MT2 receptors proteins in four hypothalamic nuclei, i.e., SCN, supraoptic (SON), paraventricular (PVN) and anteroventral periventricular nuclei (AVPV), of the diurnal primate Sapajus apella using immunohistochemistry. Since these areas are involved in the expression of biological rhythms, they are candidates to have variations in their neurochemistry, so the MT1 and MT2 expression has been analyzed at a point in light and another in the dark phase. Both receptors were found to have day/night differences in the four hypothalamic nuclei with an apparent inverse expres...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - February 1, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Evaluation of Motor Neuron Differentiation Potential of Human Umbilical Cord Blood- derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, in vitro
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Behnam Yousefi, Davood Sanooghi, Faezeh Faghihi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei Many people suffer from spinal cord injuries annually. These deficits usually threaten the quality of life of patients. As a postpartum medically waste product, human Umbilical Cord Blood (UCB) is a rich source of stem cells with self- renewal properties and neural differentiation capacity which made it useful in regenerative medicine. Since there is no report on potential of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells into motor neuro...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - January 31, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Palmitoylation mechanisms in dopamine transporter regulation
Publication date: Available online 20 January 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Danielle E. Rastedt, Roxanne A. Vaughan, James D. Foster The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) plays a key role in several biological processes including reward, mood, motor activity and attention. Synaptic DA homeostasis is controlled by the dopamine transporter (DAT) which transports extracellular DA into the presynaptic neuron after release and regulates its availability to receptors. Many neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Parkinson disease and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are ass...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - January 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

New isatin derivative inhibits neurodegeneration by restoring insulin signaling in brain
The objective of this study was to evaluate mechanistic effect of isatin derivative URM-II-81, an anti-glycation agent for improvement of insulin action in brain and inhibition of neurodegenration. Methylglyoxal induced stress was inhibited by treatment with URM-II-81. Also, Ser473 and Ser9 phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β respectively were restored by URM-II-81. Effect of URM-II-81 on axonal integrity was studied by differentiating Neuro2A using retinoic acid. URM-II-81 restored axonal length in MGO treated cells. Its effects were also studied in high fat and low dose streptozotocin induced diabetic mice where it re...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - January 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Notochord isolation using laser capture microdissection
Conclusion LCM is a fast and precise method to isolate notochord and the quality and yield RNA extracted from this tissue is sufficient for qPCR analysis. Therefore early embryo notochord isolated by LCM is suggested to be the gold standard for future research in chordoma development, classification and diagnosis. (Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy)
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ca2+ dependent surface trafficking of norepinephrine transporters depends on threonine 30 and Ca2+ calmodulin kinases
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Uhna Sung, Francesca Binda, Valentina Savchenko, William A. Owens, Lynette C. Daws The antidepressant-sensitive norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) inactivates NE released during central and peripheral neuronal activity by transport into presynaptic cells. Altered NE clearance due to dysfunction of NET has been associated with the development of mental illness and cardiovascular diseases. NET activity in vivo is influenced by stress, neuronal activity, hormones and drugs. We investigated the mechanisms of Ca2+ regulati...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A preliminary investigation of phoshodiesterase 7 inhibitor VP3.15 as therapeutic agent for the treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice
We examined neuropathology of spinal cord, ex vivo lymphocyte proliferation by [3H]-thymidine incorporation, TNFα by ELISA and cAMP-PDE mRNAs expression by in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH) in spinal cord of EAE mice treated with both PDE7 inhibitors. Treatment of EAE mice with the novel PDE7i, VP3.15 showed more efficacy in reducing clinical signs at 10mgkg−1 than the other PDE7i, BRL50481 and similar to fingolimod. VP3.15 acts on peripheral lymphocytes inhibiting their proliferation and TNFα secretion in a dose-dependent manner. PDE7i treatment alters the levels of PDE4B and PDE7 mRNA expressi...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 20, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Unbiased estimation of cell number using the automatic optical fractionator
Publication date: Available online 14 December 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Peter R. Mouton, Hady Ahmady Phoulady, Dmitry Goldgof, Lawrence O. Hall, Marcia Gordon, David Morgan A novel stereology approach, the automatic optical fractionator, is presented for obtaining unbiased and efficient estimates of the number of cells in tissue sections. Used in combination with existing segmentation algorithms and ordinary immunostaining methods, automatic estimates of cell number are obtainable from extended depth of field images built from three-dimensional volumes of tissue (disector stacks). The automa...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 15, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Expression of glial CBP in steroid mediated neuroprotection in male and female zebra finches
Publication date: January 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 79 Author(s): Molly Klores, John T. Moon, Kelli A. Duncan Under neurodegenerative conditions, reactive astrocytes upregulate both aromatase (estrogen synthase) as well as estrogen and androgen receptors. This increased steroidogenic signal promotes neuroprotection and repair by promoting neurogenesis and decreasing cell death, but also by modulating the release of inflammatory molecules. Thus, endocrine – immune cross-talk is an essential component of estrogen mediated neuroprotection following brain injury. However, the exact mechanisms ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 13, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mucuna pruriens reduces inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in Parkinsonian Mice Model
Publication date: Available online 2 December 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Satyndra Kumar Yadav, Sachchida Nand Rai, Surya Pratap Singh Parkinson’s disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative disease found in aged peoples. Plentiful studies are being conducted to find a suitable and effective cure for this disease giving special impetus on use of herbal plants. The study aimed at investigating the effect of ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens (Mp) on level of nitric oxide (NO) in paraquat (PQ) induced Parkinson’s disease (PD) mouse model and its subsequent contribution to li...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - December 3, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Both secreted and the cellular levels of BDNF attenuated due to Tau Hyperphosphorylation in Primary Cultures of Cortical Neurons
In this study, we investigated the effects of OKA induced tau hyperphosphorylation on secreted and cellular levels of BDNF in primary cortical neurons that were treated with 25nM OKA. Tau phosphorylation at threonine 231 (Thr231) sites was assessed by Western blot using antibodies against phospho-Thr231. Non-phosphorylated tau protein was detected with the Tau-1 antibody. Levels of BDNF secreted to the culture medium were determined by ELISA at the 8th and 24th hours of treatment. Cellular localization and protein expression of BDNF and tau were assessed by immunofluorescent labeling and fluorescent intensity measurements ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - November 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tolerance of hyperammonemia in brain of Heteropneustes fossilis is supported by glutamate-glutamine cycle
This report presents analysis of molecular switches associated with tolerance to hyperammonemia in Heteropneustes fossilis because it tolerates about 100-fold more ammonia than mammals. Brains of Heteropneustes fossilis exposed to 100mM ammonium chloride were dissected after Zero hour as control, 16hrs and 20hrs exposure. The status of neuron and glia were analysed by Golgi staining, Luxol Fast Blue, and Nissl’s staining. The expression patterns of genes associated to homeostasis of neuron and glia, management of oxidative stress and inflammation, ammonia metabolism and brain derived neurotrophic factor were analysed...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - November 29, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cocaine- and amphetamine –regulated transcript peptide and calcium binding proteins immunoreactivity in the superficial layers of the superior colliculus in the guinea pig: Implications for visual sensory processing
Publication date: Available online 28 November 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Janusz Najdzion The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution and colocalization of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) and three calcium-binding proteins (calbindin, calretinin and parvalbumin) in the superficial layers of the superior colliculus (SCs) in the guinea pig. The CART immunoreactivity was observed exclusively in the solitary fibers and neuropil, which formed various CART-ir tiers, that corresponded partially or entirely to anatomically defined layers of the SCs. The C...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - November 28, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Title: Expression of glial CBP in steroid mediated neuroprotection in male and female zebra finches
Publication date: January 2017 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 79 Author(s): Molly Klores, John T. Moon, Kelli A. Duncan Under neurodegenerative conditions, reactive astrocytes upregulate both aromatase (estrogen synthase) as well as estrogen and androgen receptors. This increased steroidogenic signal promotes neuroprotection and repair by promoting neurogenesis and decreasing cell death, but also by modulating the release of inflammatory molecules. Thus, endocrine – immune cross-talk is an essential component of estrogen mediated neuroprotection following brain injury. However, the exact mechanisms ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - November 22, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Vestibular cerebellum of thick-toed geckos (Chondrodactylus turnery GRAY, 1864) and C57/BL6N mice after the long-term space flight on the biosatellite BION-M1.
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Proshchina Alexandra, Kharlamova Anastasia, Barabanov Valeriy, Gulimova Victoria, Saveliev Sergey The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of long-term space flights on neuronal and glial cells of the vestibular cerebellum of C57/BL6N mice and thick-toed geckos (Chondrodactylus turnery GRAY, 1864). The cerebella from 26 mice and 13 geckos were used in this study. Ten mice and five geckos were flown aboard the BION-M1 biosatellite. The other animals were used as controls. We used immunohistochemical techniques an...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - November 18, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Oleic acid promotes the expression of neural markers in differentiated human endometrial stem cells
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Maryam Ali Mohammadie Kojour, Homa Mohseni Kouchesfehani, Somayeh Ebrahimi Barough, Hanieh Jalali, Mohammah Hosein Karbalaie Ebrahim Variety of neurodegenerative diseases in humans are caused by loss of cells along with loss of function and disability. Cell replacement therapy is a potential strategy to cure neurodegenerative diseases. Mesenchymal stem cells are pluripotent non-hematopoietic cells that can be isolated from numerous tissues. Human endometrial-derived stem cell (hEnSC) are the abundant and easy available s...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - November 16, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Differential regulation of glial reactions in the central facial tract and the facial nucleus after facial neurorrhaphy
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Tzu-Yin Yeh, Shang-Ming Wang, Guo-Fang Tseng, Pei-Hsin Liu We previously reported that perineuronal astrocytic and microglial reactions are drastically upregulated in the facial nucleus after facial axotomy at the brain stem surface or the stylomastoid foramen. Furthermore, periaxonal astrocytic and microglial reactions develop retrogradely in the central facial tract which contains proximal facial axons in the brain stem. Because reconnection of interrupted peripheral nerve by microsurgical suture is a common clinical p...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - November 16, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Immunochemical localization of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in mouse brain
Publication date: Available online 9 November 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Rachel A. Cliburn, Amy R. Dunn, Kristen A. Stout, Carlie A. Hoffman, Kelly M. Lohr, Alison I. Bernstein, Emily J. Winokur, James Burkett, Yvonne Shmitz, William M. Caudle, Gary W. Miller Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2, SLC18A2) is a transmembrane transporter protein that packages dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and histamine into vesicles in preparation for neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic neuron. VMAT2 function and related vesicle dynamics have been linked to susceptibility to oxidative stress...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - November 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Phosphorylation Mechanisms in Dopamine Transporter Regulation
Publication date: Available online 9 November 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): James D. Foster, Roxanne A. Vaughan The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a plasma membrane phosphoprotein that actively translocates extracellular dopamine (DA) into presynaptic neurons. The transporter is the primary mechanism for control of DA levels and subsequent neurotransmission, and is the target for abused and therapeutic drugs that exert their effects by suppressing reuptake. The transport capacity of DAT is acutely regulated by signaling systems and drug exposure, providing neurons the ability to fine-tune DA clear...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - November 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Title: Expression of glial CBP in steroid mediated neuroprotection in male and female zebra finches.
Publication date: Available online 5 November 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Molly Klores, John T. Moona, Kelli A. Duncan Under neurodegenerative conditions, reactive astrocytes upregulate both aromatase (estrogen synthase) as well as estrogen and androgen receptors. This increased steroidogenic signal promotes neuroprotection and repair by promoting neurogenesis and decreasing cell death, but also by modulating the release of inflammatory molecules. Thus, endocrine – immune cross-talk is an essential component of estrogen mediated neuroprotection following brain injury. However, the exact m...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - November 5, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research