Free-breathing myocardial T2* mapping using GRE-EPI and automatic Non-rigid motion correction
Background: Measurement of myocardial T2* is becoming widely used in the assessment of patients at risk for cardiac iron overload. The conventional breath-hold, ECG-triggered, segmented, multi-echo gradient echo (MGRE) sequence used for myocardial T2* quantification is very sensitive to respiratory motion and may not be feasible in patients who are unable to breath-hold. We propose a free-breathing myocardial T2* mapping approach that combines a single-shot gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GRE-EPI) sequence for T2*-weighted image acquisition with automatic non-rigid motion correction (MOCO) of respiratory motion between ...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - December 23, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Ning JinJuliana da SilveiraMarie-Pierre JollyDavid FirminGeorge MathewNathan LambaSharath SubramanianDudley PennellSubha RamanOrlando Simonetti Source Type: research

Mapping tissue inhomogeneity in acute myocarditis: a novel analytical approach to quantitative myocardial edema imaging by T2-mapping
Conclusions: The proposed cut-off values for maxT2 and madSD in the setting of ACM allow edema detection with high sensitivity and specificity and therefore have the potential to overcome the hurdles of T2-mapping for its integration into clinical routine. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - December 23, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Bettina BaeßlerFrank SchaarschmidtAnastasia DickChristian StehningBernhard SchnackenburgGuido MichelsDavid MaintzAlexander Bunck Source Type: research

Feasibility and safety of adenosine cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients with MR conditional pacemaker systems at 1.5 Tesla
Background: Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) with adenosine stress is a valuable diagnostic tool in coronary artery disease (CAD). However, despite the development of MR conditional pacemakers CMR is not yet established in clinical routine for pacemaker patients with known or suspected CAD. A possible reason is that adenosine stress perfusion for ischemia detection in CMR has not been studied in patients with cardiac conduction disease requiring pacemaker therapy. Other than under resting conditions it is unclear whether MR safe pacing modes (paused pacing or asynchronous mode) can be applied safely because the effe...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - December 22, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Oliver Klein-WieleMarietta GarmerRhyan UrbienMartin BuschKaffer KaraSerban MateiescuDietrich GrönemeyerMichael Schulte-HermesMarc GarbrechtBirgit Hailer Source Type: research

Positive contrast spiral imaging for visualization of commercial nitinol guidewires with reduced heating
Conclusions: The ability to use commercial metallic guidewires safely during CMR-guided catheterization could potentially expedite clinical translation of these methods. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - December 22, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Adrienne Campbell-WashburnToby RogersBurcu BasarMerdim SonmezOzgur KocaturkRobert LedermanMichael HansenAnthony Faranesh Source Type: research

Detection of elevated right ventricular extracellular volume in pulmonary hypertension using Accelerated and Navigator-Gated Look-Locker Imaging for Cardiac T1 Estimation (ANGIE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance
Background: Assessment of diffuse right ventricular (RV) fibrosis is of particular interest in pulmonary hypertension (PH) and heart failure (HF). Current cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 mapping techniques such as Modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) imaging have limited resolution, but accelerated and navigator-gated Look-Locker imaging for cardiac T1 estimation (ANGIE) is a novel CMR sequence with spatial resolution suitable for T1 mapping of the RV. We tested the hypothesis that patients with PH would have significantly more RV fibrosis detected with MRI ANGIE compared with normal volunteers and pa...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - December 21, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Bhairav MehtaDaniel AugerJorge GonzalezVirginia WorkmanXiao ChenKelvin ChowClaire StumpSula MazimbaJamie KennedyElizabeth GayMichael SalernoChristopher KramerFrederick EpsteinKenneth Bilchick Source Type: research

Left ventricular fluid kinetic energy time curves in heart failure from cardiovascular magnetic resonance 4D flow data
Background: Measurement of intracardiac kinetic energy (KE) provides new insights into cardiac hemodynamics and may improve assessment and understanding of heart failure. We therefore aimed to investigate left ventricular (LV) KE time curves in patients with heart failure and in controls. Methods: Patients with heart failure (n = 29, NYHA class I-IV) and controls (n = 12) underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) including 4D flow. The vortex-ring boundary was computed using Lagrangian coherent structures. The LV endocardium and vortex-ring were manually delineated and KE was calculated ...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - December 20, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Mikael KanskiPer ArvidssonJohannes TögerRasmus BorgquistEinar HeibergMarcus CarlssonHåkan Arheden Source Type: research

Non-invasive measurement using cardiovascular magnetic resonance of changes in pulmonary artery stiffness with exercise
Background: Exercise stress tests are commonly used in clinical settings to monitor the functional state of the heart and vasculature. Large artery stiffness is one measure of arterial function that can be quantified noninvasively during exercise stress. Changes in proximal pulmonary artery stiffness are especially relevant to the progression of pulmonary hypertension (PH), since pulmonary artery (PA) stiffness is the best current predictor of mortality from right ventricular failure. Methods: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) was used to investigate the effect of exercise stress on PA pulse wave velocity (PWV) and r...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - December 13, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Omid ForouzanJared WarczytowaOliver WiebenChristopher FrançoisNaomi Chesler Source Type: research

Quantitative three-dimensional myocardial perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance with accurate two-dimensional arterial input function assessment
Conclusion: Interleaving 2D imaging for arterial input function assessment enables robust quantitative 3D myocardial perfusion imaging at high CA dose. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - December 4, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Lukas WissmannMarkus NiemannAlexander GotschyRobert MankaSebastian Kozerke Source Type: research

Contrast-free detection of myocardial fibrosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients with diffusion-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance
BackgroundsPrevious studies have shown that diffusion-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance (DW-CMR) is highly sensitive to replacement fibrosis of chronic myocardial infarction. Despite this sensitivity to myocardial infarction, DW-CMR has not been established as a method to detect diffuse myocardial fibrosis. We propose the application of a recently developed DW-CMR technique to detect diffuse myocardial fibrosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients and compare its performance with established CMR techniques. Methods: HCM patients (N = 23) were recruited and scanned with the following protocol...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - December 2, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Christopher NguyenMinjie LuZhaoyang FanXiaoming BiPeter KellmanShihua ZhaoDebiao Li Source Type: research

Distal coronary embolization following acute myocardial infarction increases early infarct size and late left ventricular wall thinning in a porcine model
Background: Distal coronary embolization (DCE) of thrombotic material occurs frequently during percutaneous interventions for acute myocardial infarction and can alter coronary flow grades. The significance of DCE on infarct size and myocardial function remains unsettled. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of DCE sufficient to cause no-reflow on infarct size, cardiac function and ventricular remodeling in a porcine acute myocardial infarction model.Methods and resultsFemale Yorkshire pigs underwent 60 min balloon occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by reperfusion an...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - December 1, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Reuben ThomasSang Yup LimBeiping QiangAzriel OsherovNilesh GhugreHossein NoyanXiuling QiRafael WolffMichelle Ladouceur-WodzakThomas BerkJagdish ButanyMansoor HusainGraham WrightBradley Strauss Source Type: research

Segmented nitinol guidewires with stiffness-matched connectors for cardiovascular magnetic resonance catheterization: preserved mechanical performance and freedom from heating
Conclusions: We describe a simple and intrinsically safe design of a metallic guidewire for CMR cardiovascular catheterization. The guidewire exhibits negligible heating at high flip angles in conformance with regulatory guidelines, yet mechanically resembles a high-performance commercial guidewire. Iron oxide markers along the length of the guidewire impart passive visibility during real-time CMR. Clinical translation is imminent. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - November 30, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Burcu BasarToby RogersKanishka RatnayakaAdrienne Campbell-WashburnJonathan MazalWilliam SchenkeMerdim SonmezAnthony FaraneshRobert LedermanOzgur Kocaturk Source Type: research

Parallel simulations for QUAntifying RElaxation magnetic resonance constants (SQUAREMR): an example towards accurate MOLLI T1 measurements
Conclusions: SQUAREMR enables quantification of T1 data obtained by existing clinical pulse sequences. SQUAREMR allows for correction of quantitative CMR data that have already been acquired whereas it is expected that SQUAREMR may improve data consistency and advance quantitative MR across imaging centers, vendors and experimental configurations. While this study is focused on a MOLLI-based T1-mapping technique, it could however be extended in other types of quantitative MRI throughout the body. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - November 26, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Christos XanthisSebastian BidhultGeorge KantasisEinar HeibergHåkan ArhedenAnthony Aletras Source Type: research

Prognostic utility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance upright maximal treadmill exercise testing
Conclusions: In patients with or suspected of coronary arteriosclerosis and appropriate indication for imaging to supplement ST segment analysis during upright treadmill exercise, the presence of inducible LVWMA during treadmill exercise stress CMR supplements ST segment monitoring and helps identify those at risk of the future combined endpoints of myocardial infarction, cardiac death, and unstable angina warranting hospitalization. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - November 25, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Bunyapon SukpraphruteBrandon DraftsPairoj RerkpattanapipatTimothy MorganPaul KirkmanWilliam NtimCraig HamiltonRobert CockrumW. Hundley Source Type: research

T1 at 1.5T and 3T compared with conventional T2* at 1.5T for cardiac siderosis
Background: Myocardial black blood (BB) T2* relaxometry at 1.5T provides robust, reproducible and calibrated non-invasive assessment of cardiac iron burden. In vitro data has shown that like T2*, novel native Modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery (MOLLI) T1 shortens with increasing tissue iron. The relative merits of T1 and T2* are largely unexplored. We compared the established 1.5T BB T2* technique against native T1 values at 1.5T and 3T in iron overload patients and in normal volunteers. Methods: A total of 73 subjects (42 male) were recruited, comprising 20 healthy volunteers (controls) and 53 patients (thalassemia m...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - November 24, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Mohammed AlamDominique AugerGillian SmithTaigang HeVassilis VassiliouA. BaksiRick WagePeter DrivasYanqiu FengDavid FirminDudley Pennell Source Type: research

Breath-hold imaging of the coronary arteries using Quiescent-Interval Slice-Selective (QISS) magnetic resonance angiography: pilot study at 1.5 Tesla and 3 Tesla
Conclusions: Breath-hold QISS is a simple, versatile, and time-efficient method for coronary MRA that provides excellent image quality at both 1.5 and 3 Tesla. Image quality exceeded that of free-breathing, navigator-gated 3D MRA in a much shorter scan time. QISS also allowed rapid multi-slice bright-blood, diastolic phase imaging of the heart, which may have complementary value to multi-phase cine imaging. We conclude that, with further clinical validation, QISS might provide an efficient alternative to commonly used free-breathing coronary MRA techniques. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - November 23, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Robert EdelmanS. GiriA. PursnaniM. BotelhoW. LiI. Koktzoglou Source Type: research

Patients with exercise-associated ventricular ectopy present evidence of myocarditis
We examined 162 consecutive patients presenting palpitations and documented exercise-induced premature ventricular beats (PVBs) but no history or evidence of structural heart disease. Results were compared with 70 controls matched for gender and age. ECG-triggered, T2-weighted, fast spin echo triple inversion recovery sequences and late gadolinium enhancement were obtained as well as LV function and dimensions. Results: Structural anomalies in the myocardium and/or pericardium were present in 85 % of patients with exercise-induced PVBs. We observed a significant difference between patients with PVBs and controls in la...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - November 21, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Michael JeserichBela MerkelyManfred OlschewskiSimone KimmelGabor PavlikChristoph Bode Source Type: research

Review of Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 2014
There were 102 articles published in the Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (JCMR) in 2014, which is a 6 % decrease on the 109 articles published in 2013. The quality of the submissions continues to increase. The 2013 JCMR Impact Factor (which is published in June 2014) fell to 4.72 from 5.11 for 2012 (as published in June 2013). The 2013 impact factor means that the JCMR papers that were published in 2011 and 2012 were cited on average 4.72 times in 2013. The impact factor undergoes natural variation according to citation rates of papers in the 2 years following publication, and is significantly influe...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - November 20, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: D. PennellA. BaksiS. PrasadC. RaphaelP. KilnerR. MohiaddinF. AlpenduradaS. Babu-NarayanJ. SchneiderD. Firmin Source Type: research

Unrecognized myocardial infarctions assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance are associated with the severity of the stenosis in the supplying coronary artery
Background: A previous study has shown an increased prevalence of late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance (LGE CMR) detected unrecognized myocardial infarction (UMI) with increasing extent and severity of coronary artery disease. However, the coronary artery disease was evaluated on a patient level assuming normal coronary anatomy. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of UMI identified by LGE CMR imaging in patients with stable angina pectoris and no known previous myocardial infarction; and to investigate whether presence of UMI is associated with stenotic lesio...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - November 19, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Per HammarAnna NordenskjöldBertil LindahlOlov DuvernoyHåkan AhlströmLars JohanssonNermin HadziosmanovicTomas Bjerner Source Type: research

Myocardial tissue characterization in Chagas’ heart disease by cardiovascular magnetic resonance
Background: Chagas’ heart disease is an important public health problem in South America. Several aspects of the pathogenesis are not fully understood, especially in its subclinical phases. On pathology Chagas’ heart disease is characterized by chronic myocardial inflammation and extensive myocardial fibrosis. The latter has also been demonstrated by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). In three clinical phases of this disease, we sought to investigate the presence of LGE, myocardial increase in signal intensity in T2-weighted images (T2W) and in T1-weighted myocardial e...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - November 18, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Jorge TorreãoBarbara IanniCharles MadyEvandro NaiaCarlos RassiCesar NomuraJosé PargaLuis AvilaJosé RamiresRoberto Kalil-FilhoCarlos Rochitte Source Type: research

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance techniques and findings in children with myocarditis: a multicenter retrospective study
Background: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is increasingly used to diagnose myocarditis in adults but its use in children is not well-established. We sought to describe the presentation, CMR protocol and findings, and outcomes in a multicenter cohort of children with myocarditis. Methods: Thirteen hospitals retrospectively identified patients meeting the following inclusion criteria: 1) diagnosis of myocarditis by the managing physicians, 2) age (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - November 17, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Puja BankaJoshua RobinsonSantosh UppuMatthew HarrisKeren HasbaniWyman LaiMarc RichmondSohrab FratzSupriya JainTiffanie JohnsonShiraz MaskatiaJimmy LuMargaret SamynDavid PattonAndrew Powell Source Type: research

Time course of cardiometabolic alterations in a high fat high sucrose diet mice model and improvement after GLP-1 analog treatment using multimodal cardiovascular magnetic resonance
Background: Cardiovascular complications of obesity and diabetes are major health problems. Assessing their development, their link with ectopic fat deposition and their flexibility with therapeutic intervention is essential. The aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate cardiac alterations and ectopic fat accumulation associated with diet-induced obesity using multimodal cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in mice. The second objective was to monitor cardiac response to exendin-4 (GLP-1 receptor agonist). Methods: Male C57BL6R mice subjected to a high fat (35 %) high sucrose (34 %) (HFHSD) or a standard diet...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - November 6, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Inès AbdesselamPauline PepinoThomas TroalenMichael MaciaPatricia AncelBrice MasiNatacha FournyBénédicte GaboritBenoît GiannesiniFrank KoberAnne DutourMonique Bernard Source Type: research

Impact of arrhythmia on diagnostic performance of adenosine stress CMR in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease
Conclusion: The present data demonstrates good diagnostic performance of adenosine stress CMR for detection of significant coronary stenosis in patients with arrhythmia presenting for work-up of suspected CAD, or work-up of ischemia in known CAD. This holds true for a per patient, as well as for a per coronary territory analysis. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - November 5, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Simon GreulichHannah SteubingStefan BirkmeierStefan GrünKerstin BentzUdo SechtemHeiko Mahrholdt Source Type: research

Fast T2 gradient-spin-echo (T2-GraSE) mapping for myocardial edema quantification: first in vivo validation in a porcine model of ischemia/reperfusion
Conclusions: We present the first in vivo validation of T2-mapping to assess myocardial edema. Given its shorter acquisition time and no requirement for specific software for data acquisition or post-processing, fast T2-GraSE mapping of the myocardium offers an attractive alternative to current CMR sequences for T2 quantification. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - November 4, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Rodrigo Fernández-JiménezJavier Sánchez-GonzálezJaume AgueroMaría del TrigoCarlos Galán-ArriolaValentin FusterBorja Ibáñez Source Type: research

2D cine DENSE with low encoding frequencies accurately quantifies cardiac mechanics with improved image characteristics
Conclusions: For 2D cine DENSE with through-plane dephasing, the encoding frequency can be lowered to 0.04 cycles/mm without compromising the quantification of twist or strain. The amount of wrapping can be reduced with this lower value to greatly simplify the input to unwrapping algorithms. The strain and twist results from studies using different encoding frequencies can be directly compared. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - November 4, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Gregory WehnerJonathan GrabauJonathan SueverChristopher HaggertyLinyuan JingDavid PowellSean HamletMoriel VandsburgerXiaodong ZhongBrandon Fornwalt Source Type: research

Increased pericardial fat accumulation is associated with increased intramyocardial lipid content and duration of highly active antiretroviral therapy exposure in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a 3T cardiovascular magnetic resonance feasibility study
Background: The aim of the current study was to examine whether the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in patients with HIV is associated with changes in pericardial fat and myocardial lipid content measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods: In this prospective case-control study, we compared 27 HIV seropositive (+) male subjects receiving HAART to 22 control male subjects without HIV matched for age, ethnicity and body mass index. All participants underwent CMR imaging for determination of pericardial fat [as volume at the level of the origin of the left main coronary artery (LM) and at...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - October 31, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Mariana Diaz-ZamudioDamini DeyTroy LaBountyMichael NelsonZhaoyang FanLidia SzczepaniakBill HsiehRonak RajaniDaniel BermanDebiao LiRohan DharmakumarW. HardyAntonio Conte Source Type: research

Gadolinium free cardiovascular magnetic resonance with 2-point Cine balanced steady state free precession
Background: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) of ventricular structure and function is widely performed using cine balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) MRI. The bSSFP signal of myocardium is weighted by magnetization transfer (MT) and T1/T2-relaxation times. In edematous and fibrotic tissues, increased T2 and reduced MT lead to increased signal intensity on images acquired with high excitation flip angles. We hypothesized that acquisition of two differentially MT-weighted bSSFP images (termed 2-point bSSFP) can identify tissue that would enhance with gadolinium similar to standard of care late gadolinium enh...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - October 29, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Tori StrompSteve LeungKristin AndresLinyuan JingBrandon FornwaltRichard CharnigoVincent SorrellMoriel Vandsburger Source Type: research

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance findings in patients with PRKAG2 gene mutations
Conclusions: PRKAG2 cardiac syndrome may present with eccentric distribution of LVH, involving focal mid-infero-lateral pattern in the early disease stage, and more diffuse pattern but focusing on interventricular septum in advanced cases. In patients at earlier stages of disease, without LGE, T1 values may be reduced, while in the advanced disease stage T1 mapping may result in higher values caused by fibrosis. CMR is a valuable tool in detecting diffuse and focal myocardial abnormalities in PRKAG2 cardiomyopathy. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - October 24, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Pauli PöyhönenAnita HiippalaLaura OllilaTouko KaasalainenHelena HänninenTiina HeliöJonna TallilaCatalina VasilescuSari KivistöTiina OjalaMiia Holmström Source Type: research

Erratum to: Single centre experience of the application of self navigated 3D whole heart cardiovascular magnetic resonance for the assessment of cardiac anatomy in congenital heart disease
No description available (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - October 6, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Pierre MonneyDavide PicciniTobias RutzGabriella VincentiSimone CoppoSimon KoestnerNicole SekarskiStefano Di BernardoJudith BouchardyMatthias StuberJuerg Schwitter Source Type: research

Real-time aortic pulse wave velocity measurement during exercise stress testing
Background: Pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, has been demonstrated to be an independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. This can be derived non-invasively using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Changes in PWV during exercise may reveal further information on vascular pathology. However, most known CMR methods for quantifying PWV are currently unsuitable for exercise stress testing. Methods: A velocity-sensitive real-time acquisition and evaluation (RACE) pulse sequence was adapted to provide interleaved acquisition of two locations in the descending aorta (at the level of th...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - October 5, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Paul RobertsBrett CowanYingmin LiuAaron LinPoul NielsenAndrew TabernerRalph StewartHoi LamAlistair Young Source Type: research

Atlas-based analysis of 4D flow CMR: Automated vessel segmentation and flow quantification
Conclusions: The proposed method allows for automatic analysis of 4D flow CMR data, including vessel segmentation, assessment of flow volumes at locations of interest, and 4D flow visualization. This constitutes an important step towards facilitating the clinical utility of 4D flow CMR. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - October 5, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Mariana BustamanteSven PeterssonJonatan ErikssonUrban AlehagenPetter DyverfeldtCarl-Johan CarlhällTino Ebbers Source Type: research

Validation of high temporal resolution spiral phase velocity mapping of temporal patterns of left and right coronary artery blood flow against Doppler guidewire
Conclusions: High temporal resolution breath-hold spiral phase velocity mapping underestimates absolute values of coronary flow velocity but allows accurate assessment of the temporal patterns of blood flow. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - October 2, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Jennifer KeeganClaire RaphaelKim ParkerRobin SimpsonStephen StrainRanil de SilvaCarlo Di MarioJulian CollinsonRod StablesRicardo WagePeter DrivasMalindie SugathapalaSanjay PrasadDavid Firmin Source Type: research

Saturation pulse design for quantitative myocardial T 1 mapping
Background: Quantitative saturation-recovery based T 1 mapping sequences are less sensitive to systematic errors than the Modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery (MOLLI) technique but require high performance saturation pulses. We propose to optimize adiabatic and pulse train saturation pulses for quantitative T 1 mapping to have (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - October 1, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Kelvin ChowPeter KellmanBruce SpottiswoodeSonia Nielles-VallespinAndrew AraiMichael SalernoRichard Thompson Source Type: research

The effect of high-permittivity pads on specific absorption rate in radiofrequency-shimmed dual-transmit cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 3T
Conclusions: The combination of active (dual transmit) and passive (high permittivity pads) RF shimming shows great promise for increasing image quality for cardiac imaging at 3 T. Optimized RF-shim settings result in increased B 1 + homogeneity and reduced SAR with the high permittivity pads: however, there are non-optimal cases in which SAR might be underestimated, and these merit further investigation. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - September 19, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Wyger BrinkJohan van den BrinkAndrew Webb Source Type: research

Vascular and plaque imaging with ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide
Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) has become a primary tool for non-invasive assessment of cardiovascular anatomy, pathology and function. Existing contrast agents have been utilised for the identification of infarction, fibrosis, perfusion deficits and for angiography. Novel ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) contrast agents that are taken up by inflammatory cells can detect cellular inflammation non-invasively using CMR, potentially aiding the diagnosis of inflammatory medical conditions, guiding their treatment and giving insight into their pathophysiology. In this review we describe the ...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - September 18, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Shirjel AlamColin StirratJennifer RichardsSaeed MirsadraeeScott SempleGeorge TsePeter HenriksenDavid Newby Source Type: research

Non-invasive determination by cardiovascular magnetic resonance of right ventricular-vascular coupling in children and adolescents with pulmonary hypertension
Background: Pediatric pulmonary hypertension (PH) remains a disease with high morbidity and mortality in children. Understanding ventricular-vascular coupling, a measure of how well matched the ventricular and vascular function are, may elucidate pathway leading to right heart failure. Ventricular vascular coupling ratio (VVCR), comprised of effective elastance (E a , index of arterial load) and right ventricular maximal end-systolic elastance (E es , index of contractility), is conventionally determined by catheterization. Here, we apply a non-invasive approach to determining VVCR...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - September 16, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Uyen TruongSonali PatelVitaly KheyfetsJamie DunningBrian FonsecaAlex BarkerDunbar IvyRobin ShandasKendall Hunter Source Type: research

Fractal frontiers in cardiovascular magnetic resonance: towards clinical implementation
Many of the structures and parameters that are detected, measured and reported in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) have at least some properties that are fractal, meaning complex and self-similar at different scales. To date however, there has been little use of fractal geometry in CMR; by comparison, many more applications of fractal analysis have been published in MR imaging of the brain.This review explains the fundamental principles of fractal geometry, places the fractal dimension into a meaningful context within the realms of Euclidean and topological space, and defines its role in digital image processing. It...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - September 7, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Gabriella CapturAudrey KarperienChunming LiFilip ZemrakCatalina Tobon-GomezXuexin GaoDavid BluemkePerry ElliottSteffen PetersenJames Moon Source Type: research

Pulmonary artery to aorta ratio for the detection of pulmonary hypertension: cardiovascular magnetic resonance and invasive hemodynamics in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
Background: Previous work indicates that dilatation of the pulmonary artery (PA) itself or in relation to the ascending aorta (PA:Ao ratio) predicts pulmonary hypertension (PH). Whether these results also apply for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is unknown.In the present study we evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic power of PA diameter and PA:Ao ratio on top of right ventricular (RV) size, function, and septomarginal trabeculation (SMT) thickness by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in HFpEF.Methods and Results159 consecutive HFpEF patients were prospectively enrolled. Of these, 111 underw...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - August 30, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Gültekin KarakusAndreas KammerlanderStefan AschauerBeatrice MarzlufCaroline Zotter-TufaroAlina BachmannAleks DegirmenciogluFranz DucaJamil BabayevStefan PfaffenbergerDiana BondermanJulia Mascherbauer Source Type: research

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance predictors of clinical outcome in patients with suspected acute myocarditis
Conclusions: In routine consecutive patients without severe hemodynamic compromise and a CMR-based diagnosis of AM, various CMR parameters such as the presence and extent of myocardial edema and the extent of late gadolinium-enhanced LV myocardial lesions were not predictive of outcome. The only independent CMR predictor of adverse clinical outcome was an initial alteration of LVEF. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - August 29, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Francesca SanguinetiPhilippe GarotMelina ManaDarach O¿h-IciThomas HovasseThierry UnterseehYves LouvardXavier TroussierMarie-Claude MoriceJérôme Garot Source Type: research

Systolic ShMOLLI myocardial T1-mapping for improved robustness to partial-volume effects and applications in tachyarrhythmias
Conclusions: In healthy volunteers, systolic ShMOLLI T1-mapping reduces T1 variability and reports clinically equivalent T1 values to conventional diastolic readout; slightly shorter T1 values in systole are mostly explained by reduced partial-volume effects due to the increase in functional myocardial thickness. In patients with tachyarrhythmia, systolic ShMOLLI T1-mapping is feasible, circumvents mistriggering and produces excellent quality T1 maps. This extends its clinical applicability to challenging rhythms (such as rapid atrial fibrillation) and aids the investigation of thinner myocardial segments. With further val...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - August 28, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Vanessa FerreiraRohan WijesurendraAlexander LiuAndreas GreiserBarbara CasadeiMatthew RobsonStefan NeubauerStefan Piechnik Source Type: research

Left ventricular mechanical dysfunction in diet-induced obese mice is exacerbated during inotropic stress: a cine DENSE cardiovascular magnetic resonance study
Conclusions: Differences in left ventricular mechanics in obese mice are exacerbated under stress conditions. Stress CMR demonstrated a broader array of mechanical dysfunction and revealed these differences at earlier time points. Thus, it may be important to evaluate cardiac function in the setting of obesity under stress conditions to fully elucidate the presence of ventricular dysfunction. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - August 27, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Christopher HaggertyAndrea MattinglySage KramerCassi BinkleyLinyuan JingJonathan SueverDavid PowellRichard CharnigoFrederick EpsteinBrandon Fornwalt Source Type: research

Increased myocardial extracellular volume in active idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome
Conclusions: Patients with active SCLS have significantly higher myocardial ECV than age-matched controls or SCLS patients in remission, which correlated with histopathological findings in one patient. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - August 27, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Andrew ErtelDrew PrattPeter KellmanSteve LeungPatricia BandettiniLauren LongMichael YoungCeleste NelsonAndrew AraiKirk Druey Source Type: research

T1 mapping and T2 mapping at 3T for quantifying the area-at-risk in reperfused STEMI patients
Background: Whether T1-mapping cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can accurately quantify the area-at-risk (AAR) as delineated by T2 mapping and assess myocardial salvage at 3T in reperfused ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients is not known and was investigated in this study. Methods: 18 STEMI patients underwent CMR at 3T (Siemens Bio-graph mMR) at a median of 5 (4–6) days post primary percutaneous coronary intervention using native T1 (MOLLI) and T2 mapping (WIP #699; Siemens Healthcare, UK). Matching short-axis T1 and T2 maps covering the entire left ventricle (LV) were assessed by two i...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - August 12, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Heerajnarain BulluckSteven WhiteStefania RosminiAnish BhuvaThomas TreibelMarianna FontanaAmna Abdel-GadirAnna HerreyCharlotte ManistySimon WanAshley GrovesLeon MenezesJames MoonDerek Hausenloy Source Type: research

Extracellular volume quantification in isolated hypertension - changes at the detectable limits?
Background: Diffuse myocardial fibrosis (DMF) is important in cardiovascular disease, however until recently could only be assessed by invasive biopsy. We hypothesised that DMF measured by T1 mapping is elevated in isolated systemic hypertension. Methods: In a study of well-controlled hypertensive patients from a specialist tertiary centre, 46 hypertensive patients (median age 56, range 21 to 78, 52 % male) and 50 healthy volunteers (median age 45, range 28 to 69, 52 % male) underwent clinical CMR at 1.5 T with T1 mapping (ShMOLLI) using the equilibrium contrast technique for extracellular volume (ECV) quant...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - August 12, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Thomas TreibelFilip ZemrakDaniel SadoSanjay BanypersadSteven WhiteViviana MaestriniAndrea BarisonVimal PatelAnna HerreyCeri DaviesMark CaulfieldSteffen PetersenJames Moon Source Type: research

Two repetition time saturation transfer (TwiST) with spill-over correction to measure creatine kinase reaction rates in human hearts
The objective was to validate TwiST measurements of CK kinetics in healthy subjects and patients with heart failure (HF). Methods: Bloch equation simulations that included the effect of spillover irradiation on PCr were used to derive formulae for T 1 intrinsic and k f measured by both TRiST and TwiST methods. Spillover was quantified from an unsaturated PCr measurement used in the current protocol for determining PCr and ATP concentrations. Cardiac TRiST and TwiST data were acquired at 3 T from 12 healthy and 17 HF patients. R...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - August 8, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Michael SchärRefaat GabrAbdEl-Monem El-SharkawyAngela SteinbergPaul BottomleyRobert Weiss Source Type: research

Fast assessment of long axis strain with standard cardiovascular magnetic resonance: a validation study of a novel parameter with reference values
Background: Assessment of longitudinal function with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is limited to measurement of systolic excursion of the mitral annulus (MAPSE) or elaborate strain imaging modalities. The aim of this study was to develop a fast assessable parameter for the measurement of long axis strain (LAS) with CMR. Methods: 40 healthy volunteers and 125 patients with different forms of cardiomyopathy were retrospectively analyzed. Four different approaches for the assessment of LAS with CMR measuring the distance between the LV apex and a line connecting the origins of the mitral valve leaflets in enddiastol...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - August 8, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Johannes RiffelFlorian AndreMalte MaertensFranziska RostMarius KellerSorin GiuscaSebastian SeitzArnt KristenMatthias MüllerEvangelos GiannitsisGrigorios KorosoglouHugo KatusSebastian Buss Source Type: research

Influence of phase correction of late gadolinium enhancement images on scar signal quantification in patients with ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy
Background: Myocardial fibrosis imaging using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has been validated as a quantitative predictive marker for response to medical, surgical, and device therapy. To date, all such studies have examined conventional, non-phase corrected magnitude images.  However, contemporary practice has rapdily adopted phase-corrected image reconstruction. We sought to investigate the existence of any systematic bias between threshold-based scar quantification performed on conventional magnitude inversion recovery (MIR) and matched phase sensitive inversion ...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - August 7, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: John StirratSebastien JoncasMichael SalernoMaria DrangovaJames White Source Type: research

Cardiac T2-mapping using a fast gradient echo spin echo sequence - first in vitro and in vivo experience
Conclusions: The GraSE sequence is a fast and robust sequence, combining advantages of both MESE and T2prep techniques, which promises to enable improved clinical applicability of T2-mapping in the future. Our study revealed significant differences of derived mean T2 values when applying different sequence designs. Therefore, a systematic comparison of different cardiac T2-mapping sequences and the establishment of dedicated reference values should be the goal of future studies. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - August 1, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Bettina BaeßlerFrank SchaarschmidtChristian StehningBernhard SchnackenburgDavid MaintzAlexander Bunck Source Type: research

A review of 3D first-pass, whole-heart, myocardial perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance
A comprehensive review is undertaken of the methods available for 3D whole-heart first-pass perfusion (FPP) and their application to date, with particular focus on possible acceleration techniques. Following a summary of the parameters typically desired of 3D FPP methods, the review explains the mechanisms of key acceleration techniques and their potential use in FPP for attaining 3D acquisitions. The mechanisms include rapid sequences, non-Cartesian k-space trajectories, reduced k-space acquisitions, parallel imaging reconstructions and compressed sensing. An attempt is made to explain, rather than simply state, the varyi...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - August 1, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Merlin FairPeter GatehouseEdward DiBellaDavid Firmin Source Type: research

Estimation of aortic pulse wave transit time in cardiovascular magnetic resonance using complex wavelet cross-spectrum analysis
Background: Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), which substantially increases with arterial stiffness and aging, is a major predictor of cardiovascular mortality. It is commonly estimated using applanation tonometry at carotid and femoral arterial sites (cfPWV). More recently, several cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) studies have focused on the measurement of aortic arch PWV (archPWV). Although the excellent anatomical coverage of CMR offers reliable segmental measurement of arterial length, accurate transit time (TT) determination remains a challenge. Recently, it has been demonstrated that Fourier-based methods were...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - July 30, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Ioannis BargiotasElie MousseauxWen-Chung YuBharath VenkateshEmilie BollacheAlain de CesareJoao LimaAlban RedheuilNadjia Kachenoura Source Type: research

Quantification of LV function and mass by cardiovascular magnetic resonance: multi-center variability and consensus contours
Conclusions: A multi-center consensus dataset was established for the purposes of benchmarking and training. Achieving consensus on contour drawing protocol between centers before analysis, or bias correction after analysis, is required when collating multi-center results. (Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance)
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance - July 28, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Avan SuinesiaputraDavid BluemkeBrett CowanMatthias FriedrichChristopher KramerRaymond KwongSven PleinJeanette Schulz-MengerJos WestenbergAlistair YoungEike Nagel Source Type: research