Recent advances and optimal management of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-positive early-stage breast cancer.
Authors: Batoo S, Bayraktar S, Al-Hattab E, Basu S, Okuno S, Glück S Abstract With the introduction of anthracycline-based regimens, 5-year survival rates have significantly improved in patients with early-stage breast cancer. With the addition of trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), improvements in overall survival have been observed among patients with advanced HER2-positive disease. Subsequently, lapatinib, an orally bioavailable small molecule dual HER2- and EGFR/HER1-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor, received Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - January 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

Protective potentials of Annona muricata fruit pulp on etoposide-induced gastrointestinal toxicity in Wistar rats.
Authors: Nayak S, Rao GM, Marathe A, Vyshnavi M Abstract BACKGROUND: Mucositis, one of the devastating consequences of chemotherapy and also limits the efficacy of the treatment. At present, there are no antimucositic agents without side effects. Hence, there is a need for better adjuvant therapy using plant or food sources. Here, we have made an attempt to study the effect of Annona muricata (AM) fruit pulp on etoposide-induced mucositis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted at Central Research Laboratory, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. The effect of AM fruit pulp (100 mg and 200 mg/kg body wei...
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - December 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

Programmed death-ligand 1 signaling pathway involves in bladder cancer growth and progression.
This study design involves experimental in vivo and in vivo study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A role of PD-L1 signaling pathway inhibition for bladder cancer growth was assessed in humanized immunodeficient animals carried main molecular subtypes of bladder carcinoma patient-derived xenografts and provided with selective anti-PD-L1 treatment; bladder cancer cells invasiveness was evaluated in mixed RT112/84 cells + CD4+ cells culture incubated with PD-L1 blocker durvalumab. We used two-tailed Student's t-test to explore differences between main and control subgroups. Significance of intergroup comparison was measured with o...
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - August 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

Assessment and clinicopathological correlation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Authors: Das AK, Baishya N, Sarma A, Kataki AC, Rai AK, Kalita CR Abstract INTRODUCTION: Nasopharyngeal cancer is not a common disease in most parts of the world. In India also, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is not a common cancer, except for the Northeastern region of the country. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in the tumor cells is related to tumor invasion and metastasis. The aim of the present study is to analyze the expression of MMP9 in NPC and evaluate its prognostic implications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 32 histologically confirmed tissue samples of NPC were examined by immuno...
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - June 5, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

Immunotherapy in breast cancer.
Authors: Bayraktar S, Batoo S, Okuno S, Glück S Abstract The idea of using the immune system to fight cancer is over 100 years old. A new molecular approach led to a better understanding of the immune system. Checkpoint regulation, understanding the roles of Tregs, Th1, and Th2, development of Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells, as well as regulation of dendritic cells and macrophages, are just a few examples of our understating that has also led to the discovery of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and modulators. This led the Nobel Prize committee in 2018, to award Dr. James P. Allison the Nobel Prize...
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - June 5, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

Molecular pathways of oral cancer that predict prognosis and survival: A systematic review.
The objective of this literature review is to evaluate the current research on molecular pathways and genes involved in oral cancer. Articles on the genes involved in oral cancer pathways were evaluated to identify potential biomarkers that can predict survival. In total, 36 articles were retrieved from internet databases, including EBSCO Host, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct, using the keywords "biomarker of oral cancer," "pathways of oral cancer," "genes involved in oral cancer," and "oral cancer pathways." A total of 36 studies related to OSCC were chosen. Most of the s...
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - February 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

A novel cancer syndrome caused by KCNQ1-deficiency in the golden Syrian hamster.
CONCLUSIONS: None of the hamsters in our colony that were wild-type or heterozygous for KCNQ1 mutations developed cancers indicating that the cancer phenotype is linked to KCNQ1-deficiency. This study is also the first evidence linking KCNQ1-deficiency to blood cancers. PMID: 30450013 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis)
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - November 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

A case-control study on the association of abdominal obesity and hypercholesterolemia with the risk of colorectal cancer.
CONCLUSION: Improving abdominal obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and low HDL may be a clinically relevant strategy to reduce the risk of CRC among Malaysians. PMID: 30294246 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis)
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - October 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

Role of aberrant glycosylation enzymes in oral cancer progression.
CONCLUSION: The increased levels of enzymes correlated with tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis in oral cancer patients. The alterations in glycosyltransferases/glycosidases thus support the view of glycosylation as a hallmark of cancer. PMID: 30294247 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis)
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - October 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

Oncogenic and tumor suppressive roles of special AT-rich sequence-binding protein.
Authors: Chen QY, Costa M Abstract In recent years, research efforts have been centered on the functional roles of special AT-rich sequence-binding protein (SATB2) in cancer development. Existing studies differ in the types of tumor tissues and cell lines used, resulting in mixed results, which hinder the clear understanding of whether SATB2 acts as a tumor suppressor or promoter. Literature search for this review consisted of a basic search on PubMed using keywords "SATB2" and "special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2." Each article was then selected for further examination based on relevance...
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - August 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

Genetic inhibition of autophagy in a transgenic mouse model of anal cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: These results provide the first conclusive evidence for the distinct role of autophagy in anal carcinogenesis, and suggest that autophagy is a plausible target for therapies aimed at reducing anal dysplasia and anal cancer development. PMID: 30123096 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis)
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - August 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

Evidence-based approaches to reduce cancer health disparities: Discover, develop, deliver, and disseminate.
This article summarizes the approaches to fundamental, translational, clinical, and public health issues in cancer health disparities discussed at the conference. PMID: 29643743 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis)
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - April 14, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

The impact of gender, race, socioeconomic status, and treatment on outcomes in esophageal cancer: A population-based analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Race is not an independent risk factor for OS in our population-based analysis of EC cases. Rather, observed differences in OS by race/ethnicity result from differences in cancer histology, SES, surgery, and gender. Our findings support further health disparities research for this disease. PMID: 28974922 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis)
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - October 6, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

Review of hepatocellular carcinoma: Epidemiology, etiology, and carcinogenesis.
Authors: Ghouri YA, Mian I, Rowe JH Abstract Since the 1970s, the epidemic of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has spread beyond the Eastern Asian predominance and has been increasing in Northern hemisphere, especially in the United States (US) and Western Europe. It occurs more commonly in males in the fourth and fifth decades of life. Among all cancers, HCC is one of the fastest growing causes of death in the US and poses a significant economic burden on healthcare. Chronic liver disease due to hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus and alcohol accounts for the majority of HCC cases. Incidence of nonalcoholic fatty...
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - July 12, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

Role of matrix metalloproteinase 13 gene expression in the evaluation of radiation response in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Authors: Singh SS, Bhatt MLB, Kushwaha VS, Singh A, Kumar R, Gupta R, Parmar D Abstract BACKGROUND: Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) is a member of collagenase family and it is involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix and basement membrane protein. It is thought to be associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. Elevated MMP13 expression has been found in carcinoma of the breast, urinary bladder, head and neck and others. It is observed that MMP13 gene is also correlated with radiation response in OSCC (Oral squamous cell carcinoma) cell line based study. The present study correlates the MMP13 expre...
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - July 12, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

The well-accepted notion that gene amplification contributes to increased expression still remains, after all these years, a reasonable but unproven assumption.
Authors: Jia Y, Chen L, Jia Q, Dou X, Xu N, Liao DJ Abstract "Gene amplification causes overexpression" is a longstanding and well-accepted concept in cancer genetics. However, raking the whole literature, we find only statistical analyses showing a positive correlation between gene copy number and expression level, but do not find convincing experimental corroboration for this notion, for most of the amplified oncogenes in cancers. Since an association does not need to be an actual causal relation, in our opinion, this widespread notion still remains a reasonable but unproven assumption awaiting experime...
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - June 16, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

Antiangiogenic mechanisms and factors in breast cancer treatment.
Authors: Castañeda-Gill JM, Vishwanatha JK Abstract Breast cancer is known to metastasize in its latter stages of existence. The different angiogenic mechanisms and factors that allow for its progression are reviewed in this article. Understanding these mechanisms and factors will allow researchers to design drugs to inhibit angiogenic behaviors and control the rate of tumor growth. PMID: 27013929 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis)
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - March 27, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

Diagnostic utility of serum and pleural fluid carcinoembryonic antigen, and cytokeratin 19 fragments in patients with effusion from nonsmall cell lung cancer.
Authors: Sharma SK, Bhat S, Chandel V, Sharma M, Sharma P, Gupta S, Sharma S, Bhat AA Abstract AIMS: To assess the diagnostic value of CEA and CYFRA 21-1 (cytokeratin 19 fragments) in serum and pleural fluid in non small cell lung cancer with malignant pleural effusion (MPE). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Two subsets of patients were recruited with lymphocytic exudative effusion, one subset constituted diagnosed patients of NSCLC with malignant pleural effusion and the other subset of constituted with Tubercular pleural effusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CYFRA 21-1 and CEA levels were measured using Electrochemilumisc...
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - February 25, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

Role of genomics in eliminating health disparities.
This article summarizes the basic science, clinical correlates, and public health data presented by the speakers. PMID: 26435701 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis)
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - October 8, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

Molecular pathways to therapeutics: Paradigms and challenges in oncology meeting report: Carcinogenesis 2015.
In this report we have communicated some of the outstanding work done in the areas of cancer therapeutics, biomarkers and prevention and described the salient observations associated with cancer stem cells in disease progression and some of the pathways implicated in tumor progression. PMID: 26085817 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis)
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - June 20, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

Single nucleotide polymorphisms in CRTC1 and BARX1 are associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: This independent and large Dutch case-control study confirms the association of rs10419226 (CRTC1) and rs11789015 (BARX1) with the risk of EAC. These findings suggest a contribution of the patient genetic make-up to the development of EAC and might contribute to gain more insight in the etiology of this cancer. PMID: 26085818 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis)
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - June 20, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

Pancreatic cystic neoplasms: Review of current knowledge, diagnostic challenges, and management options.
Authors: Jana T, Shroff J, Bhutani MS Abstract Pancreatic cystic lesions are being detected with increasing frequency, largely due to advances in cross-sectional imaging. The most common neoplasms include serous cystadenomas, mucinous cystic neoplasms, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, and cystic pancreatic endocrine neoplasms. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) are currently used as imaging modalities. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration has proved to be a useful diagnostic tool, and enables an assessment of tumor marke...
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - April 1, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

Cancer review: Cholangiocarcinoma.
Authors: Ghouri YA, Mian I, Blechacz B Abstract Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the most common biliary tract malignancy. CCA is classified as intrahepatic, perihilar or distal extrahepatic; the individual subtypes differ in their biologic behavior, clinical presentation, and management. Throughout the last decades, CCA incidence rates had significantly increased. In addition to known established risk factors, novel possible risk factors (i.e. obesity, hepatitis C virus) have been identified that are of high importance in developed countries where CCA prevalence rates have been low. CCA tends to develop on the backgrou...
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - March 22, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

Zoledronic acid directly suppresses cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in highly tumorigenic prostate and breast cancers: Retraction.
Authors: Abstract [This retracts the article on p. 1 in vol. 10, PMID: 21297921.]. PMID: 25788867 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis)
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - March 22, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

Gastric cancer review.
Authors: Carcas LP Abstract Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease that continues to have a daunting impact on global health. Despite an overall decline in incidence over the last several decades, gastric cancer remains the fourth most common type of cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. This review aims to discuss the global distribution of the disease and the trend of decreasing incidence of disease, delineate the different pathologic subtypes and their immunohistochemical (IHC) staining patterns and molecular signatures and mutations, explore the role of the pathogen H. pylor...
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - January 20, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

Reducing inequities in colorectal cancer screening in North America.
Authors: Decker KM, Singh H Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in North America. Screening using a fecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy reduces CRC mortality through the detection and treatment of precancerous polyps and early stage CRC. Although CRC screening participation has increased in recent years, large inequities still exist. Minorities, new immigrants, and those with lower levels of education or income are much less likely to be screened. This review provides an overview of the commonly used tests for CRC screening, disparities in CR...
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - December 23, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

The advent of precision therapy in gastrointestinal malignancies: Targeting the human epidermal growth factor receptor family in colorectal and esophagogastric cancer.
Authors: Desautels D, Harlos C, Czaykowski P Abstract Until recently, systemic therapy for gastrointestinal malignancies was restricted to relatively noncancer-specific cytotoxic chemotherapy. Over the last 15 years targeted therapies have become available, most notably bevacizumab in the case of advanced colorectal cancer. Unfortunately, there are no predictive biomarkers to guide the use of this agent. In this review article, we describe the advent of "Precision Medicine" (in part, the use of patient-specific molecular markers to inform treatment) in gastrointestinal cancers: The use of monoclonal antib...
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - December 23, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research

Esophageal cancer: Recent advances in screening, targeted therapy, and management.
Authors: Gaur P, Kim MP, Dunkin BJ Abstract The incidence of esophageal cancer remains on the rise worldwide and despite aggressive research in the field of gastrointestinal oncology, the survival remains poor. Much remains to be defined in esophageal cancer, including the development of an effective screening tool, identifying a good tumor marker for surveillance purposes, ways to target esophageal cancer stem cells as well as circulating tumor cells, and developing minimally invasive protocols to treat early-stage disease. The goal of this chapter is to highlight some of the recent advances and ongoing research i...
Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis - November 19, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Carcinog Source Type: research