The Feasibility of EBUS-Guided TBNA Through the Pulmonary Artery in Highly Selected Patients
Conclusions: This multicenter case series suggests that transpulmonary artery needle aspiration guided by EBUS is possible and safe in the hands of experienced interventional pulmonologists. It is important to recognize that this is not an alternative to left VATS or Chamberlain procedure, but a last resort procedure. (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - December 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Original Investigations Source Type: research

Cryobiopsy for Interstitial Lung Diseases
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - December 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Just Because We Can, Does Not Always Mean We Should
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - December 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Transarterial EBUS-TBNA in the Diagnosis of Hilar Lesions
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Online Articles: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Pulmonary Tumor Embolism Diagnosed by Endobronchial Ultrasound
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Online Articles: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Distal Airway Stenting: How Far Is Too Far?
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Online Articles: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Montgomery T-tube Migration: A Rare and Life-threatening Complication
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Online Articles: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Mediastinal Abscess Following Endobronchial Ultrasound Transbronchial Needle Aspiration in a Patient With Sarcoidosis
We report a case a 42-year-old man who had undergone EBUS-TBNA for diagnosis of mediastinal and hilar lymph node enlargement. Sarcoidosis was diagnosed on cytologic examination. Three weeks after the procedure, he developed a mediastinal abscess secondary to EBUS-TBNA. Sarcoidosis may be a risk factor for mediastinal infection complication. A local immune defect related to sarcoidosis may explain this risk. Our case underlines the importance of considering and recognizing this complication, and its possibility should be taken into account when undertaking the procedure for benign disease. (Source: Journal of Bronchology an...
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Vanished: Is This for Real?
We report a case of an early endobronchial squamous cell carcinoma that exhibited complete radiologic and pathologic SR soon after diagnosis. The patient was monitored radiologically and bronchoscopically at regular intervals and to date, the biopsy samples have been negative. Remarkably, SR has been maintained 6 years after diagnosis, without local recurrence or distant metastases. Many hypotheses abound to explain how complete SR was achieved and maintained despite the lack of treatment. (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Fistula of the Stump: A Novel Approach With a “Stapled” Stent
Summary: Postoperative bronchopleural fistulas are serious and uncommon complications after pneumonectomy. Available therapeutic approaches are medical, endoscopic, and/or surgical. A 42-year-old man underwent left pneumonectomy. Three years later he was admitted to an intensive care unit with pneumonia of the remaining lung, severe respiratory insufficiency, and a bronchopleural fistula with an air fluid level filling in the pneumonectomy cavity. A left chest drain was placed, and broad-spectrum antibiotics and mechanical ventilation were administered. Because of the unstable clinical condition, a blind end endobronchial ...
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Tracheostomy Tube Placement: Early and Late Complications
Tracheostomy tube placement is a therapeutic procedure that has gained increased favor over the past decade. Upper airway obstructions, failure to liberate from the ventilator, and debilitating neurological conditions are only a few indications for tracheostomy tube placement. Tracheostomy tubes can be placed either surgically or percutaneously. A percutaneous approach offers fewer surgical site infections and postsurgical bleeding than a surgical approach. A surgical placement posses a lower risk of injury to the posterior tracheal wall and spontaneous decannulation is less common. Late complications of both approaches in...
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

1st Annual Dr. Udaya B.S. Prakash and Dr. Atul C. Mehta Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology and American Association for Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology Editorial Excellence Awards
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Announcements Source Type: research

Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors: Part II. Treatment
Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors that arise from Kulchitzky cells of the bronchial mucosa consist of a spectrum of histologic features leading to a variable prognosis. Although typical carcinoid represents the most benign course, small-cell cancer has the grimmest outcome. Therefore, differentiating the spectrum of neuroendocrine tumors helps one not only to determine the prognosis, but also to guide the treatment options. In this part, we aim to discuss the treatment options in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors except for small-cell lung cancer. (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Transesophageal Bronchoscopic Ultrasound-guided Fine-needle Aspiration (EUS-B-FNA) in a 3-Year-Old Child
Evaluation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy in children is challenging and surgical procedures (mediastinoscopy/thoracotomy) are usually performed wherever tissue sampling is required. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a widely utilized and minimally invasive modality for evaluation of mediastinum (lymphadenopathy, masses, and nodal staging in patients with lung cancer) in adults. Smaller size of pediatric trachea potentially limits the use of EBUS. The EBUS bronchoscope can also be introduced into the esophagus for mediastinal evaluation and sampling, a technique described as tr...
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Diagnosis of Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst by Bronchoscopy
Hydatid cyst is a parasitic infestation caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Lungs are the second most common site of involvement after liver. The diagnosis of complicated pulmonary hydatid cysts may not be easy because hydatid cyst disease mimics tuberculosis, lung cancer, empyema, or abscess. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy can be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of the infestation by visualization of hydatid cyst membrane. Here, we report the case of a 33-year-old woman who presented with hemoptysis and chest discomfort and was diagnosed with a hydatid cyst by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Mediastinitis and Bronchial Perforations Due to Mucormycosis
Diabetes mellitus is the most common predisposing condition for mucormycosis, which is emerging as an important invasive fungal infection worldwide. Isolated mediastinitis is a very rare presentation of mucormycosis. A 57-year-old woman with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus and ketoacidosis presented with septic shock and was subsequently found to have mucor mediastinitis with multiple bronchial perforations. The organism was identified as Rhizopus oryzae with the help of DNA sequencing. (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Black Endobronchial Ultrasound
The infrequent bronchoscopic finding of black airway pigmentation due to a variety of causes has been labeled as “Black Bronchoscopy.” Black bronchioalveolar lavage has been sometimes described in tobacco, marijuana, and crack cocaine smokers. To add to this interesting panorama of bronchoscopic findings, we describe cases of black endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspirates due to metastatic melanoma and anthracotic lymph nodes. (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Endobronchial Involvement in Idiopathic Hypereosinophilic Syndrome
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Images in Interventional Pulmonology Source Type: research

Update in Interventional Pulmonology and Board Review Course
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Announcements Source Type: research

Pulmonary Varices in an Adult
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Images in Interventional Pulmonology Source Type: research

A Novel, Adaptable Laryngeal Mask to Facilitate a Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheostomy: Proof-of-Concept Prototype Demonstration on a Mannequin Model and Cadaver
Conclusions: Initial testing using an ALM during PDT on mannequins and cadavers showed an improvement in airflow and the removal of the bronchoscope from the ETT, respectively. Further studies using the ALM in a patient population compared with standard techniques would be useful. (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Original Investigations Source Type: research

Experimental Pilot Study of a Novel Endobronchial Drug Delivery Catheter
Conclusions: Endobronchial infusion of dye and contrast media by the endobronchial drug delivery catheter showed that the media spread in a dose-dependent manner macroscopically and histologically. Further investigation will be required to assess the catheter as a new tool for localized drug delivery into the airway. (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Original Investigations Source Type: research

Endobronchial Ultrasound–guided Transvascular Needle Aspiration: A Single-Center Experience
Conclusions: From our single-center experience, we conclude that in experienced hands, EBUS-TVNA is feasible, with a high yield, but without complications. Larger prospective trials are warranted to explore its diagnostic potential. (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Original Investigations Source Type: research

A Comparison of Techniques for Optimal Performance of Bronchoalveolar Lavage
Background: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a commonly used diagnostic and research tool. Currently, there is limited evidence regarding standardizing this technique. The type of suction method and number of aliquots used as well as the anatomic lung segment sampled are not standardized nor well studied. Our primary aim was to compare the quantity and quality of BAL specimens using 2 suction methods, hand-held syringe versus wall suction. Our secondary aim was to assess which anatomic lung segment yields the greatest BAL results and how many aliquots are required. Methods: A prospective clinical study was performed in pati...
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Original Investigations Source Type: research

Usefulness of Conventional Transbronchial Needle Aspiration for Sampling of Mediastinal Lymph Nodes in Lung Cancer
Conclusion: Conventional TBNA remains a useful method for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer, with a good diagnostic yield in several nodal stations. (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Original Investigations Source Type: research

AABIP 2015 Recipient of the Geoffrey McLennan Memorial Award for Advancements in Interventional Pulmonology
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Announcements Source Type: research

Safety and Clinical Utility of Flexible Bronchoscopic Cryoextraction in Patients With Non-neoplasm Tracheobronchial Obstruction: A Retrospective Chart Review
Conclusions: We conclude that flexible bronchoscopic cryoprobe extraction of blood clots, mucous secretions, plastic bronchitis, and foreign bodies is a safe and effective option. It can be safely performed at the bedside and in many cases eliminates the need for rigid bronchoscopy. (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Original Investigations Source Type: research

Are Inhaled Corticosteroids Safe for Large Airways?: A New Paradigm?
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Pulmonary Lung Cancer Subspecialty Training
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - October 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Pleuroscopic Cryobiopsy: Case Series and Systematic Review
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - July 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Online Articles: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Use of Self-expanding Metallic Airway Stents in Tracheobronchomalacia
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - July 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Online Articles: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Severe Pneumomediastinum Complicating EBUS-TBNA
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - July 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Online Articles: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Endobronchial Watanabe Spigot Placement for a Secondary Pneumothorax
Although bevacizumab has several adverse effects, pneumothorax is rare. This is the first case of initial treatment using an Endobronchial Watanabe Spigot (EWS) for pneumothorax after bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy. A 56-year-old woman with recurrent breast cancer was treated with bevacizumab. Pneumothorax occurred 6 days after the last administration of bevacizumab. The pneumothorax failed to resolve after the chest tube drainage. This was because the bronchopleural fistula formed at the site of the subpleural metastatic lesion. Patient was in need of a surgical repair of the bronchopleural fistula, which could not b...
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - July 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

An Unusual Cause of Respiratory Distress: Solitary Tracheopathia Osteochondoplastica—A Rare Entity
We present the case of a 30-year-old man diagnosed with a solitary TPO. (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - July 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors: Part I. Spectrum and Characteristics of Tumors
Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors arise from Kulchitzky cells of the bronchial mucosa and include typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and small cell lung cancer. These tumors have a variable growth rate that determines their presentation and prognosis. Typical carcinoid has the lowest growth rate and better prognosis; in contrast, small cell lung cancer is an aggressive tumor with a very poor prognosis. Although there are some overlapping histologic features between these tumors, clinical, imaging, and immunohistochemical markers are useful in the differentiation of pulmonary neuroendo...
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - July 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The American Association for Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology 2015 Research Award Recipient
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - July 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Announcement Source Type: research

The Posterior Pericardial Recess: Potential for Confusion at Endobronchial Ultrasound
We report a case where the posterior pericardial recess was seen with EBUS in the lower subcarinal region adjacent to the bronchus intermedius. It can be clearly differentiated from a lymph node or vascular structure due to its hypoechoic appearance and lack of a color Doppler signal. Bronchoscopists should be aware of the potential to image the posterior pericardial recess with EBUS in the subcarinal region, to avoid confusion at the time of endoscopy. (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - July 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

A Case of Pulmonary Actinomycosis Associated With Aspiration of Cedar Leaves
The aspiration of foreign bodies may induce various infectious diseases, including actinomycosis, and its association with foreign bodies has been reported. We encountered a patient who developed Actinomyces-induced lung abscess associated with aspiration of cedar leaves. The patient was a 56-year-old Japanese woman who aspirated decorative cedar leaves contained in a lunch box while eating a meal, and coughing and bloody phlegm occurred thereafter. A mass was noted in the right lower lobe of the lung on plain chest computed tomography on the first consultation, and granules of Actinomyces were noted on transbronchial lung...
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - July 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Therapeutic Whole-Lung Lavage for Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis: A Procedural Update
We describe the preprocedural evaluation, indications, and anesthetic considerations, along with step-by step technical aspects of the procedure, postoperative recovery, potential complications, and long-term outcomes. (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - July 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: How I Do It Source Type: research

Rare Case: Invasive Pseudomembranous Aspergillus Tracheobronchitis in a Postpartum Patient Presenting With Stridor
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - July 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Images in Interventional Pulmonology Source Type: research

Bronchoscopic Findings in Congenital Isolated Unilateral Pulmonary Vein Atresia in an Adult
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - July 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Images in Interventional Pulmonology Source Type: research

Pleuroscopic Pleurodesis Combined With Tunneled Pleural Catheter for Management of Malignant Pleural Effusion: A Prospective Observational Study
Background: Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is associated with poor prognosis and it often impinges upon quality of life; effective and efficient management is desirable. Combining pleuroscopic pleurodesis (PP) with a tunneled pleural catheter (TPC) could minimize hospitalization, effect rapid pleurodesis in most cases, and allow ongoing control of MPE for those not successfully pleurodesed. Methods: Consecutive patients with pleural effusion associated with malignancy and with documented lung reexpansion after pleural fluid drainage were prospectively enrolled to undergo PP with TPC placement. TPC was drained daily and w...
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - July 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Original Investigations Source Type: research

Bronchoscopist-directed Continuous Propofol Infusion for Targeting Moderate Sedation During Endobronchial Ultrasound Bronchoscopy: A Practical and Effective Protocol
Conclusion: Bronchoscopist-directed continuous propofol infusion is effective and practical for reliably and safely targeting moderate sedation during EBUS bronchoscopy, without sacrificing the breadth and accuracy of the procedure. (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - July 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Original Investigations Source Type: research

Management of Malignant Pleural Effusion: A Cost-Utility Analysis
Conclusions: Tunneled pleural catheter is the most cost-effective therapeutic alternative to RT. This, together with its relative convenience (requiring neither hospitalization nor thoracoscopic procedural skills), makes it an intervention of choice for MPE. (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - July 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Original Investigations Source Type: research

Use of Resector Balloon Desobstruction in Patients With Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Pilot Feasibility Study on a Novel Desobstruction Technique
Conclusion: Satisfactory results were achieved in all patients, warranting study of Karakoca resector balloon desobstruction in larger patient cohorts. (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - July 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Original Investigations Source Type: research

Ultrasound-guided Percutaneous Needle Aspiration by Pulmonologists: A Study of Factors With Impact on Procedural Yield and Complications
Conclusions: US-guided PFNA is a valuable tool for the interventional pulmonologist. Both size and pleural sliding have an impact on diagnostic yield. (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - July 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Original Investigations Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of Transbronchial Needle Aspiration in Diagnosis and Treatment of Mediastinal Bronchogenic Cysts: Systematic Review of Case Reports
Conclusions: Bronchoscopy is a useful tool in the diagnosis of bronchogenic cysts, both for confirmation of the cystic nature of the lesion by EBUS and diagnosis by TBNA (preferably EBUS-guided) of the cyst fluid. Therapeutic aspiration of the cyst may be an alternative to surgery in adults with mediastinal bronchogenic cysts. (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - July 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Original Investigations Source Type: research

Iatrogenic Endobronchial Bleeding: Speed Things Up or Cool It Down?
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - July 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Accredited Interventional Pulmonary Fellowships: The Time is Here
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - July 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

Should All Lung Cancer Patients Requiring Mediastinal Staging With EBUS Undergo PET-CT First?
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology)
Source: Journal of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology - April 1, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Online Articles: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research