Breath-based non-invasive diagnosis of Alzheimer ’s disease: a pilot study
Early detection of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) will help researchers to better understand the disease and develop improved treatments. Recent developments have thus focused on identifying biomarkers for mild cognitive impairment due to AD (MCI) and AD during the preclinical phase. The aim of this pilot study is to determine whether exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can be used as a non-invasive method to distinguish controls from MCI, controls from AD and to determine whether there are differences between MCI and AD. The study used gas chromatography —ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) techniques. C...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - February 14, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Akira Tiele, Alfian Wicaksono, Emma Daulton, Emmanuel Ifeachor, Victoria Eyre, Sophie Clarke, Leanne Timings, Stephen Pearson, James A Covington and Xinzhong Li Source Type: research

Association between increased breath hydrogen methane concentration and prevalence of glucose intolerance in acute pancreatitis
Pancreatic damage, in the form of pancreatitis, intestinal bacteria and glucose imbalance could be interrelated. The aim of this study was to investigate the breath hydrogen (H 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ), which can indicate small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) status, and assess the link between SIBO and glucose tolerance in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). This prospective study enrolled 75 patients who were admitted for AP. A glucose breath test (GBT) which detects breath hydrogen H 2 and CH 4 for SIBO with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for 120 min was simultaneously performed to determine SIBO a...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - February 14, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dae Bum Kim, Chang-Nyol Paik, Ji Min Lee and Yeon-Ji Kim Source Type: research

Studies pertaining to the monitoring of volatile halogenated anaesthetics in breath by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry
Post-operative isoflurane has been observed to be present in the end-tidal breath of patients who have undergone major surgery, for several weeks after the surgical procedures. A major new non-controlled, non-randomized, and open-label approved study will recruit patients undergoing various surgeries under different inhalation anaesthetics, with two key objectives, namely (1) to record the washout characteristics following surgery, and (2) to investigate the influence of a patient ’s health and the duration and type of surgery on elimination. In preparation for this breath study using proton transfer reaction t...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - February 14, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Michaela Mal ásková, David Olivenza-León, Prema D Chellayah, Judith Martini, Wolfgang Lederer, Veronika Ruzsanyi, Karl Unterkofler, Paweł Mochalski, Tilmann D Märk, Peter Watts and Chris A Mayhew Source Type: research

Does exposure to inflammatory particles modify the pattern of anion in exhaled breath condensate?
Exposure to environmental and occupational particulate matter (PM) induces health effects on the cardio-pulmonary system. In addition, associations between exposure to PM and metabolic syndromes like diabetes mellitus or obesity are now emerging in the literature. Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is an appealing non-invasive technique to sample pulmonary fluids. This hypothesis-generating study aims to (1) validate an ion chromatography method allowing the robust determination of different metabolism-related molecules (lactate, formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, pyruvate, nitrite, nitrate) in EBC; (...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - February 14, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: J-J Sauvain, J-L Edm é, P Wild, G Suarez, O M P A Bezerra, A Talvani, E Algranti, A P S Carneiro, N Chérot-Kornobis, A Sobaszek and S Hulo Source Type: research

Repeatability and variation of the flow independent nitric oxide parameters
Introduction: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (F E NO) is a non-invasive marker of airway inflammation. Measuring F E NO at several flow rates enables the calculation of flow independent NO-parameters (alveolar NO concentration (C A NO), bronchial flux of NO (J aw NO), bronchial mucosal NO concentration (C aw NO) and bronchial wall NO diffusion capacity (D aw NO)) that are capable of partitioning the source and release mechanism of NO from the lower respiratory tract. However, the current literature on repeatability and normal variation of the NO-parameters is deficient, and this information is needed to develop the ...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - January 29, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tuomas Karvonen and Lauri Lehtim äki Source Type: research

Reply to Comment on ‘Volatile biomarker in breath predicts lung cancer and pulmonary nodules’
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Source: Journal of Breath Research - January 24, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Michael Phillips, Thomas L Bauer and Harvey I Pass Source Type: research

Comment on ‘volatile biomarker in breath predicts lung cancer and pulmonary nodules’
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Source: Journal of Breath Research - January 24, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: A S Modak, V Ruzsanyi, P Mochalski and C A Mayhew Source Type: research

Portable exhaled breath condensate metabolomics for daily monitoring of adolescent asthma
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Source: Journal of Breath Research - January 23, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Alexander J Schmidt, Eva Borras, Anh P Nguyen, Danny Yeap, Nicholas J Kenyon and Cristina E Davis Source Type: research

Clinical precision, accuracy, number and durations of exhalations for a novel electrochemical monitor for exhaled nitric oxide
Background: Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a validated marker of eosinophilic inflammation. Fenom Pro TM is a novel FDA-cleared monitor for FeNO. The American Thoracic Guidelines from 2005 recommend at least 6 s exhalation for adults and in some cases up to 10 s, and 4 s for children, and that the average of the first two valid exhalations is taken as the FeNO value. Methods: Clinical precision, 6 versus 10 s exhalations, the first versus the average of the first two valid exhalation methods comparison were evaluated for Fenom Pro TM , as well as a methods comparison to the NIOX VERO ® monitor. Results: The inten...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - December 31, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Philip E Silkoff, Brian Awabdy, Mark Sarno, Solomon Ssenyange, Vivek Balsubramanyam and Ryan Leard Source Type: research

On-line profiling of volatile compounds produced in vitro by pathogenic oral bacteria
In this study, we have performed in vitro headspace measurements on four important oral pathogens ( P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, P. intermedia and P. nigrescens ) using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS). Some of the most abundant compounds produced by the bacteria include hydrogen sulphide, methanethiol, acetone, dimethylsulphide, isoprene, cyclopentanone and indole as tentatively assigned from the mass spectra. Several other abundant mass signals were recorded but the assignment of these is less certain. Some of the bacterial species can be separated from each oth... (Source: Jo...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - December 16, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kajsa Roslund, Markku Lehto, Pirkko Pussinen, Per-Henrik Groop, Lauri Halonen and Markus Mets älä Source Type: research

Characterization of standardized breath sampling for off-line field use
Due to several sources of potential variability associated with exhaled breath bag sampling procedures for off-line analysis, the Respiration Collector for in vitro Analysis (ReCIVA) sampler was developed. Although designed to improve upon several pitfalls of sampling with exhaled breath bags, the ReCIVA remains a minimally studied research tool. In this manuscript, several attributes of the ReCIVA sampler are investigated among three individual tests, such as background contamination, control software version, performance of different adsorbent tubes, duplicate sample production, and comparison to exhaled breath bag...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - December 16, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sean W Harshman, Rhonda L Pitsch, Christina N Davidson, Alexander M Scott, Elizabeth M Hill, Zachary K Smith, Kraig E Strayer, Nicole M Schaeublin, Taylor L Wiens, Michael C Brothers, Grant M Slusher, Megan L Steele, Brian A Geier, Maomian Fan, Leslie A D Source Type: research

A simple method to reduce halitosis; tongue scraping with probiotics
Objective: We aimed to assess the effects of probiotic implantation to the dorsum of the tongue against halitosis. Materials and methods : 100 participants were randomly divided into three groups as tongue back scraping (TS), probiotic implantation to the dorsum of the tongue (PB) and mouthwash alone as the control group (MW). Measurements were taken before the treatment, after the first month of treatment and one month after the cessation of treatment. Results : Halimeter, winkel and woodlight scores were evaluated initially, in the first month and after the cessation of the treatment. All of MW measurements showed ...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - December 4, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Berk Gurpinar, G üven Yildirim, Tolgar Lütfi Kumral, Muhammed Fatih Akgun, Hüseyin Sari, Belgin Tutar and Yavuz Uyar Source Type: research

How do cancer-sniffing dogs sort biological samples? Exploring case-control samples with non-targeted LC-Orbitrap, GC-MS, and immunochemistry methods
Early identification of disease onset is regarded as an important factor for successful medical intervention. However, cancer and other long-term latency diseases are rare and may take years to manifest clinically. As such, there are no gold standards with which to immediately validate proposed preclinical screening methodologies. There is evidence that dogs can sort samples reproducibly into yes/no categories based on case-control training, but the basis of their decisions is unknown. Because dogs are sniffing air, the distinguishing chemicals must be either in the gas-phase or attached to aerosols and/or airborne p...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - November 19, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Joachim D Pleil, M Ariel Geer Wallace, James McCord, Michael C Madden, Jon Sobus and Glenn Ferguson Source Type: research

Relationship of tongue coating microbiome on volatile sulfur compounds in healthy and halitosis adults
This study aims to assess the microbiome variations related to intraoral halitosis and its relationship with volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) among periodontally healthy Chinese adults. Material and methods : Tongue coating samples were collected from 28 periodontally healthy subjects (16 subjects with halitosis and 12 subjects without halitosis) who fulfilled the selection criteria. The organoleptic score (OS) was used to evaluate the halitosis status. The characterization of associated microbial communities was performed using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and metagenomics methods. Results : A wide range of microbia...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - November 19, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Wei Ye, Yu Zhang, Mei He, Ce Zhu and Xi-Ping Feng Source Type: research

Influence of media on the differentiation of Staphylococcus spp. by volatile compounds
Staphylococcus aureus asymptomatically colonizes a third of the world ’s population, and it is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause life threatening diseases. To diagnose S. aureus infections, it is necessary to differentiate S. aureus from the ubiquitous human commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis , which beneficially colonizes the skin of all humans. Efforts are underway to identify volatile biomarkers for diagnosing S. aureus infections, but to date no studies have investigated whether S. aureus and S. epidermidis can be reliably differentiated under a variety of growth conditions. The overall goal of thi...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - November 19, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Carrie L Jenkins and Heather D Bean Source Type: research

Online breath analysis using metal oxide semiconductor sensors (electronic nose) for diagnosis of lung cancer
This study involved 118 individuals: 65 in the lung cancer group (cytologically verified) and 53 in the healthy control group. The exhaled breath samples of the volunteers were analysed using the developed E-nose system. The dataset obtained, consisting of the sensor responses, was pre-processed ... (Source: Journal of Breath Research)
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 22, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Aleksandr Kononov, Boris Korotetsky, Igor Jahatspanian, Anna Gubal, Alexey Vasiliev, Andrey Arsenjev, Andrey Nefedov, Anton Barchuk, Ilya Gorbunov, Kirill Kozyrev, Anna Rassadina, Evgenia Iakovleva, Mika Sillanp ää, Zahra Safaei, Natalya Ivanenko, Nadez Source Type: research

Investigation of paediatric PKU breath malodour, comparing glycomacropeptide with phenylalanine free L-amino acid supplements
In clinical practice, caregivers of children with phenylketonuria (PKU) report that their children have breath malodour. This might be linked to the regular consumption of low phenylalanine (Phe)/Phe-free protein substitutes (PS), which are an essential component of a low-Phe diet. Oral malodour can negatively affect interpersonal communication, lead to bullying, low self-esteem and social isolation. In this longitudinal cross-over study, exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry. 40 children (20 PKU, 20 controls) were recruited. Subjects with PKU took ...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 20, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Akira Tiele, Anne Daly, John Hattersley, Alex Pinto, Sharon Evans, Catherine Ashmore, Anita MacDonald and James A Covington Source Type: research

Breath analysis using a spirometer and volatile organic compound sensor on driving simulator
In this study the correlation between the condition of drivers and their expiration was evaluated by analyzing the exhalation of car drivers in a simulation setting using a spirometer and a volatile organic compound (VOC) gas sensor. Participants wore exhalation masks and their expiration was monitored for fluctuations in breath measurements, including VOC concentration, oxygen intake, carbon dioxide excretion, and respiration rate. Participants used a driving simulator on four different courses of varying difficulty for approximately five min each, with the mean and standard deviation (SD) being calculated for each ...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 20, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Toshio Itoh, Toshihisa Sato, Takafumi Akamatsu and Woosuck Shin Source Type: research

Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions of CHO and T cells correlate to their expansion in bioreactors
Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were measured from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell and T cell bioreactor gas exhaust lines with the goal of non-invasively metabolically profiling the expansion process. Measurements of cellular ‘breath’ were made directly from the gas exhaust lines using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated magnetic stir bars, which underwent subsequent thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD –GC–MS) analysis. Baseline VOC profiles were observed from bioreactors filled with only liquid media. After inoculation, unique VOC profiles correlated to cell...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 20, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mitchell M McCartney, Mei S Yamaguchi, Paul A Bowles, Yarden S Gratch, Rohin K Iyer, Angela L Linderholm, Susan E Ebeler, Nicholas J Kenyon, Michael Schivo, Richart W Harper, Paul Goodwin and Cristina E Davis Source Type: research

Detecting opioid metabolites in exhaled breath condensate (EBC)
Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection provides a promising matrix for bioanalysis of endogenous biomarkers of health and also for exogenous compounds like drugs. There is little information regarding drugs and their metabolites contained in breath, as well as their pharmacokinetics. In this present work, we use a simple and non-invasive technique to collect EBC from chronic pain patients using different analgesic opioid drugs to manage pain. Six patients received continuous infusion of morphine and hydromorphone intravenously (IV), together with other analgesic drugs (IV and orally). Repeated sampling of serum a...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 2, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Eva Borras, Andy Cheng, Ted Wun, Kristen L Reese, Matthias Frank, Michael Schivo and Cristina E Davis Source Type: research

Breath selection methods for compact mass spectrometry breath analysis
Compact mass spectrometry (CMS) is a versatile and transportable analytical instrument that has the potential to be used in clinical settings to quickly and non-invasively detect a wide range of relevant conditions from breath samples. The purpose of this study is to optimise data preprocessing protocols by three proposed methods of breath sampling, using the CMS. It also lays out a general framework for which data processing methods can be evaluated. Methods. This paper considers data from three previous studies, each using a different breath sampling method. These include a peppermint washout study using continuous...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - September 29, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kerry Rosenthal, Dorota M Ruszkiewicz, Hayden Allen, Martin R Lindley, Matthew A Turner and Eugenie Hunsicker Source Type: research

Factors influencing breath analysis results in patients with diabetes mellitus
Breath analysis is used to detect the composition of exhaled gas. As a quick and non-invasive detection method, breath analysis provides deep insights into the progression of various kinds of diseases, especially those with metabolism disorders. Abundant information on volatile compounds in diabetic patients has been studied in numerous articles in the literature. However, exhaled gas in diabetic patients can be altered by various complications. So far, little attention has been paid to this alteration. In our paper, we found that under air pollution conditions, diabetic patients exhale more nitric oxide. Diabetic pa...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - September 5, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Qing Zhou, Qiannan Wang, Bo Chen, Yi Han, Lei Cheng, Yaqian Shen, Panpan Hao and Zhongwen Zhang Source Type: research

Untargeted metabolomics of the bacterial tongue coating of intra-oral halitosis patients
Intra-oral halitosis (IOH) refers to an unpleasant odor from the oral cavity that is mainly caused by the tongue coating. Although the tongue coating microbiome is thought to play an essential role in IOH, the exact aetiology of IOH remains unclear. Here we investigated and compared the metabolic profiles of the tongue coating microbiomes of patients with IOH versus healthy control. The metabolic profiles were significantly different in IOH patients than in healthy controls. Healthy controls showed higher selenoamino acid and nicotinamide metabolism; these metabolic pathways are mainly involved in maintaining the oxi...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - August 19, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kavitha Seerangaiyan, Mukil Maruthamuthu, Arie Jan van Winkelhoff and Edwin G Winkel Source Type: research

Fraction of air coming from conductive airways has the negative balance in heat dissipation after maximal effort exercise —a physiological basis for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction
Exhaled breath temperature (EBT) has recently been used as a tool to assess the level of inflammation in airways. The newest technology can also assess EBT coming from different fractions of exhaled air (fEBT). We aimed to assess the changes in fEBT after a maximal cardio-pulmonary exercise test in healthy athletes. Forty-four healthy professional athletes (two females) were included. Their mean ( ±SD) age was 22.9 ± 4.8 years. An innovative device (FractAir ® ) was used for fEBT measurement, dividing the exhaled air into three fractions (V1, V2 and V3) coming from different parts of the l...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - August 19, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dimov Petar, Labor Marina and Plavec Davor Source Type: research

Exhaled breath condensate biomarkers for lung cancer
Lung cancer is the main cause of cancer incidence and mortality worldwide and the identification of clinically useful biomarkers for lung cancer detection at both early and metastatic stage is a pressing medical need. Although many improvements have been made in the treatment and in the early screening of this cancer, most diagnosis are made at a late stage, when a lot of genetic and epigenetic changes have occurred. A promising source of biomarkers reflective of the pathogenesis of lung cancer is exhaled breath condensate (EBC), a biological fluid and a natural matrix of the respiratory tract. Molecules such as DNAs...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - August 19, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Annalisa Campanella, Simona De Summa and Stefania Tommasi Source Type: research

Centralized resource for chemicals from the human volatilome in an interactive open-sourced database
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Source: Journal of Breath Research - August 14, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Joachim D Pleil and Antony Williams Source Type: research

Exhaled nitric oxide in pediatric patients with respiratory disease
Measurement of nitric oxide (NO) levels in exhaled air from the upper and lower airways is currently used as a non-invasive marker of inflammation in respiratory diseases. Assessment of NO exhaled from the lower air respiratory tract is considered to be a quick method for confirmation and control of asthma in patients as well as an estimation of treatment efficiency. The main aim of this study was to determine differences between levels of exhaled nitric oxide (fractional exhaled NO; FeNO) in patients with respiratory disease as measured by an electrochemical analyzer. Measurements were taken in 352 pediatric patient...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - July 17, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Marta Rachel, Marek Biesiadecki, David Aebisher and Sabina Galiniak Source Type: research

Use of carbon monoxide breath test to assess red blood cell lifespan in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients
To clarify the role of red blood cell (RBC) lifespan in anemia of multiple myeloma (MM), RBC lifespan was detected in 40 newly diagnosed MM patients by measuring exhaled endogenous carbon monoxide concentration. Mean RBC lifespan was significantly reduced in MM patients (63  ± 23 d) than healthy controls (116  ± 17 d). RBC lifespan in MM patients without anemia (78 ± 21 d) was also significantly lower than for healthy controls. RBC lifespan in MM patients with anemia (52  ± 18 d) was significantly lower than those without. Besides, RBC lifespan in MM ...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - July 17, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yanfang Wang, Zhenhao Zhang, Yan Liu, Hongmei Jing, Xiaoyan Ke and Fei Dong Source Type: research

Proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometric measurements of volatile compounds contained in peppermint oil capsules of relevance to real-time pharmacokinetic breath studies
With the growing interest in the use of breath volatiles in the health sciences, the lack of standardization for the sampling and analysis of exhaled breath is becoming a major issue leading to an absence of conformity, reproducibility and reliability in spectrometric measurements. Through the creation of a worldwide ‘peppermint consortium’, the International Association of Breath Research has set up a task force to deal with this problem. Pharmacokinetic studies are proposed, and a real-time analytical technique that is being used is proton transfer reaction-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS)....
Source: Journal of Breath Research - July 17, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Michaela Mal ásková, Ben Henderson, Prema D Chellayah, Veronika Ruzsanyi, Paweł Mochalski, Simona M Cristescu and Chris A Mayhew Source Type: research

Flow-independent nitric oxide parameters in asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Introduction . Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (F E NO) has been proposed as a non-invasive marker of inflammation in the lungs. Measuring F E NO at several flow rates enables the calculation of flow independent NO-parameters that describe the NO-exchange dynamics of the lungs more precisely. The purpose of this study was to compare the NO-parameters between asthmatics and healthy subjects in a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods . A systematic search was performed in Ovid Medline, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane Library databases. All studies with asthmatic and healthy control groups with at least one N...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - July 17, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tuomas Karvonen and Lauri Lehtim äki Source Type: research

Development of low-cost hybrid multi-walled carbon nanotube-based ammonia gas-sensing strips with an integrated sensor read-out system for clinical breath analyzer applications
This work demonstrates the development of Ag@polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposite-based sensor strips and a suitable integrated electronic read-out system for the measurement of trace-level concentrations of ammonia (NH 3 ). The sensor is optimized under various operating conditions and the resulting sensor exhibited an enhanced response (32% for 2 ppm) with excellent selectivity. Stable performance was observed towards NH 3 in the presence of high concentrations of CO 2 (>40 000 ppm), simulated and real breath samples. A suitable electronic sensor read-out system has also been designed and devel...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - July 16, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sukhananazerin Abdulla, Jayaseelan Dhakshinamoorthy, Vijay Mohan, Dinesh Veeran Ponnuvelu, Venkataraman Krishnan Kallidaikuruchi, Lazar Mathew Thalakkotil and Biji Pullithadathil Source Type: research

Crowd monitoring in dairy cattle —real-time VOC profiling by direct mass spectrometry
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from breath, faeces or skin may reflect physiological and pathological processes in vivo . Our setup employs real-time proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS) to explore VOC emissions of dairy cows in stable air under field conditions. Within one herd of 596 cows, seven groups (8 –117 cows per group) were assessed. Groups differed in milk yield and health status (two contained cows with paratuberculosis, a chronic intestinal infection). Each group arrived one after another in the area of air measurement in front of the milking parlour. A c...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - July 10, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Peter Gierschner, Anne K üntzel, Petra Reinhold, Heike Köhler, Jochen K Schubert and Wolfram Miekisch Source Type: research

Feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of an electronic nose in children with asthma and cystic fibrosis
The measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath is a promising tool for diagnosing and monitoring various lung diseases in children. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis is a frequently used standard technique for VOCs analysis. However, as GC-MS is an expensive and time-consuming technique, hand-held devices or electronic noses have been developed. Recently, the Aeonose was introduced as an easy-to-use hand-held eNose capable of point-of-care testing. Although first results using this eNose in adults are promising, studies in children are lacking. We therefore performed a cros...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - May 7, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Michiel A G E Bannier, Kim D G van de Kant, Quirijn J öbsis and Edward Dompeling Source Type: research

Basic characteristics and clinical value of FeNO in smoking asthmatics —a systematic review
Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) reflects eosinophilic airway inflammation and it can be used to diagnose and phenotype asthma and predict treatment responses. However, smoking decreases FeNO and it is not clear if FeNO has clinical value in smoking subjects with asthma. We conducted a systematic review focusing on four basic characteristics and five clinical questions on using FeNO in smokers with asthma. At least two authors independently screened search results, extracted data and assessed the quality of the included studies. Data were synthesised mainly by qualitative methods. Twenty-two studies were includ...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - May 2, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Anneli Ahovuo-Saloranta, P éter Csonka and Lauri Lehtimäki Source Type: research

Repeatability of exhaled breath fingerprint collected by a modern sampling system in asthmatic and healthy children
E-noses provide potential non-invasive metabolic biomarkers for diagnosing and monitoring pulmonary diseases. The primary aim of the present study was to assess the within-day and between-day repeatability of a modern breath sampling system (Pneumopipe ® plus an array of e-nose sensors) in asthmatic and healthy children. The secondary aim was to compare the repeatability of the breath sampling system, spirometry and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). Fifteen children (age 6 –11 years) with asthma and thirty healthy children matched by age and gender (1:2 allocation) were recruited; of them, three healthy children ...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - April 30, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Salvatore Fasola, Giuliana Ferrante, Anna Sabatini, Marco Santonico, Alessandro Zompanti, Simone Grasso, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi and Stefania La Grutta Source Type: research

A comparison of online and offline measurement of exhaled breath for diabetes pre-screening by graphene-based sensor; from powder processing to clinical monitoring prototype
Several breath analysis studies have suggested a correlation between blood glucose (BG) levels and breath acetone, indicating acetone as a primary biomarker in exhaled breath for diabetes diagnosis. Herein, we have (i) fabricated and validated graphene-based chemi-resistive sensors for selective and sensitive detection of acetone, (ii) performed offline breath analysis by a static gas sensing set-up to acquire olfactory signals, and (iii) developed an LED-based portable on/off binary e-nose system for pre-screening diabetes through online analysis. The fabricated sensors showed selective detection for acetone with hi...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - April 30, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ramji Kalidoss and Snekhalatha Umapathy Source Type: research

cfDNA in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and contamination by ambient air: toward volatile biopsies
This study examined whether EBC is an appropriate source of cfDNA using housekeeping-gene-specific primer p... (Source: Journal of Breath Research)
Source: Journal of Breath Research - April 30, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Altug Koc, Tuncay Goksel, Levent Pelit, Korcan Korba, Tugberk N Dizdas, Ertan Baysal, Umut C Uzun, Ozge Ozer Kaya, Berk Ozyilmaz, Yasar B Kutbay, Taha Resid Ozdemir, Ozgur Kirbiyik, Kadri M Erdogan, Merve Saka Guvenc, Gizem Calibasi Kocal and Yasemin Basb Source Type: research

Effect of H 2 O 2 induced oxidative stress (OS) on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and intracellular metabolism in MCF-7 breast cancer cells
In this study, an OS model of MCF-7 cells was constructed through H 2 O 2 -treatment, which for the first time combined volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and intracellular metabolic analysis for a comprehensive and in-depth study of the OS effect on cell metabolism. The VOCs produced by cells in H 2 O 2 -treated groups and control groups were extracted with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Meanwhile, the intracellular metabolites were extracted by methanol and analyzed by GC-MS coupled with silyl-derivatization. The results indicated 15 VOCs and 29 intr...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - April 23, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yuanling Liu, Wenwen Li and Yixiang Duan Source Type: research

The potential of breath analysis to improve outcome for patients with lung cancer
Lung cancer remains the most common cause of cancer related death in both the UK and USA. Development of diagnostic approaches that have the ability to detect lung cancer early are a research priority with potential to improve survival. Analysis of exhaled breath metabolites, or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is an area of considerable interest as it could fulfil such requirements. Numerous studies have shown that VOC profiles are different in the breath of patients with lung cancer compared to healthy individuals or those with non-malignant lung diseases. This review provides a scientific and clinical assessment ...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - April 23, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: S X Antoniou, E Gaude, M Ruparel, M P van der Schee, S M Janes, R C Rintoul and on behalf of LuCID research group Source Type: research

Diagnosing complex regional pain syndrome using an electronic nose, a pilot study
This study was a feasibility study in which we investigated whether th... (Source: Journal of Breath Research)
Source: Journal of Breath Research - April 15, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: E J Bijl, J G Groeneweg, D W Wesselius, D L Stronks and F J P M Huygen Source Type: research

Identifying stress markers in skin gases by analysing gas collected from subjects undergoing the Trier social stress test and performing statistical analysis
In recent years, there has been great interest in mental health disorders. It is very important for people with mental health disorders to protect themselves from the stressful conditions that can occur as part of daily life before their symptoms become worse. We attempted to identify stress markers in skin gases in order to study the stress condition non-invasively in real time. We investigated changes in the skin gas components relative to the normal skin gas components of the subjects when stress was induced in the subjects using the Trier social stress test method, and we attempted to identify stress markers from...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - April 15, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Masahiko Tsukuda, Yukari Nishiyama, Shikiho Kawai and Yasuaki Okumura Source Type: research

A review of exhaled breath: a key role in lung cancer diagnosis
One of the main causes of the high mortality rate in lung cancer is the late-stage tumor detection. Early diagnosis is therefore essential to increase the chances of obtaining an effective treatment quickly thus increasing the survival rate. Current screening techniques are based on imaging, with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) as the pivotal approach. Even if LDCT has high accuracy, its invasiveness and high false positive rate limit its application to high-risk population screening. A non-invasive, cost-efficient, and easy-to-use test should instead be designed as an alternative. Exhaled breath contains thousan...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - March 31, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Davide Marzorati, Luca Mainardi, Giulia Sedda, Roberto Gasparri, Lorenzo Spaggiari and Pietro Cerveri Source Type: research

Detection of lung cancer with electronic nose and logistic regression analysis
Lung cancer is a very common malignancy with a low five-year survival rate. Artificial olfactory sensor (electronic nose) is a tool that recently has been studied as a probable optimal screening tool for early detection of lung cancer, but still no statistical method has been put forward as the preferable one. The aim of the study was to explore the use of logistic regression analysis (LRA) to analyse patients ’ exhaled breath samples with electronic nose in order to differentiate lung cancer patients (regardless of the stage of the cancer) from patients with other lung diseases and healthy individuals. Patient...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - November 20, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Madara Tirz ïte, Māris Bukovskis, Gunta Strazda, Normunds Jurka and Immanuels Taivans Source Type: research

Beyond monoisotopic accurate mass spectrometry: ancillary techniques for identifying unknown features in non-targeted discovery analysis
High-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) is an important tool for performing non-targeted analysis for investigating complex organic mixtures in human or environmental media. This perspective demonstrates HR-MS compound identification strategies using atom counting, isotope ratios, and fragmentation pattern analysis based on ‘exact’ or ‘accurate’ mass, which allows analytical distinction among mass fragments with the same integer mass, but with different atomic constituents of the original molecules. Herein, HR-MS technology is shown to narrow down the identity of unknown compounds for specif...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - November 15, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Joachim D Pleil, M Ariel Geer Wallace and James McCord Source Type: research

Exhaled human breath analysis in active pulmonary tuberculosis diagnostics by comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and chemometric techniques
In this study, we investigate the possibility of using human breath for the diagnosis of active TB among TB suspect patients, considering also several risk factors for TB for smokers and those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The analysis of exhaled breath, as an alternative to sputum-dependent tests, has the potential to provide a simple, fast, non-invasive, and readily available diagnostic service that could positively change TB detection. A total of 50 individuals from a clinic in South Africa were included in this pilot study. Human breath has been investigated in the setting of active TB using the therma...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - November 5, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Marco Beccaria, Carly Bobak, Boitumelo Maitshotlo, Theodore R Mellors, Giorgia Purcaro, Flavio A Franchina, Christiaan A Rees, Mavra Nasir, Andrew Black and Jane E Hill Source Type: research

Exploring the physiological link of breath N 2 O through nitrification and denitrification processes in human gastric juice
In this report, we provide direct experimental evidence of the aerobic denitrification process in the human gastrointestinal tract by evaluating concentrations of dissolved N 2 O and its precursor nitrite ( ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/1752-7163/13/1/016002/jbraae4e7ieqn1.gif] {${{{\rm{NO}}}_{2}}^{-}$} ) ion in the gastric juice along with exhaled N 2 O concentration using a high-precision laser spectroscopy technique. Moreover, in vitro studies of gastric fluid in patients reveal a new mechanism of nitrification of ammonium ion ( ##IMG## [ht...] {${{{\rm{NH}}}_{4}}^{+}$} (Source: Journal of Breath Research)
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 30, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mithun Pal, Sanchi Maithani, Abhijit Maity, Sujit Chaudhuri and Manik Pradhan Source Type: research

MEMS sensor array-based electronic nose for breath analysis —a simulation study
The paper presents a simulation study of breath analysis based on theoretical models of microelectromechanical structure (MEMS) cantilever sensor array. The purpose of this study is to suggest a methodology for the development of MEMS electronic nose (e-nose) for monitoring disease-specific volatiles in exhaled breath. Oxidative stress and diabetes are taken as case studies for the assessment of e-nose designs. The detection of ethane for general oxidative stress, isoprene for hypoxia, and acetone for diabetes are considered for targeted detection. A number of volatiles concurrently present in the exhaled breath are ...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 30, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Anurag Gupta, T Sonamani Singh and R D S Yadava Source Type: research

Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using volatile biomarkers in culture and exhaled breath
We report two newly discovered volatile biomarkers, not previously associated with M. tuberculosis, that were selected in both our in vitro and in vivo discriminatory biomarker suites: 4-(1,1-dimethylpropyl)phenol and 4-ethyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptane. Additionally, we report the detection of heptanal, a previously identified M. tuberculosis breath biomarker in humans, as an in vitro culture biomarker that was detected in every macaque ... (Source: Journal of Breath Research)
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 30, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Theodore R Mellors, Mavra Nasir, Flavio A Franchina, Agnieszka Smolinska, Lionel Blanchet, JoAnne L Flynn, Jaime Tomko, Melanie O ’Malley, Charles A Scanga, Philana Ling Lin, Jeff Wagner and Jane E Hill Source Type: research

Developments to monitor the exhalome in organ failure in critically ill patients —a look into the future
Critically ill patients typically need some kind of functional organ support or replacement. Cardiopulmonary and renal replacement therapies are well established measures in intensive care units. However, there are also inherent risks associated with these treatments. The appropriate and timely commencement, maintenance and termination of organ replacement procedures currently use weak surrogates as decision support in clinical practice. A more reasonable application of extracorporeal organ support can be expected to potentially lower adverse events and save costs in healthcare systems, if a precise online monitoring...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 30, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tobias H üppe, Thomas Volk and Sascha Kreuer Source Type: research

Methodological considerations for large-scale breath analysis studies: lessons from the U-BIOPRED severe asthma project
In this study we use breath sample data from the recent U-BIOPRED cohort to evaluate and discuss some important methodological considerations such as batch variation and correction, variation between sites, storage and transportation, as well as inter-instrument analytical differences. Based on this we provide a summary of recommended best practices for new large scale multi-site studies. (Source: Journal of Breath Research)
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 30, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Waqar M Ahmed, Paul Brinkman, Hans Weda, Hugo H Knobel, Yun Xu, Tamara M Nijsen, Royston Goodacre, Nicholas Rattray, Teunis J Vink, Marco Santonico, Giorgio Pennazza, Paolo Montuschi, Peter J Sterk, Stephen J Fowler and on behalf of the U-BIOPRED study gr Source Type: research