Identification of profiles of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath by means of an electronic nose as a proposal for a screening method for breast cancer: a case-control study
The objective of the present study was to identify volatile prints from exhaled breath, termed breath-print, from breast cancer (BC) patients and healthy women by means of an electronic nose and to evaluate its potential use as a screening method. A cross-sectional study was performed on 443 exhaled breath samples from women, of whom 262 had been diagnosed with BC by biopsy and 181 were healthy women (control group). Breath-print analysis was performed utilizing the Cyranose 320 electronic nose. Group data were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA), canonical discriminant analysis (CDA), and support vector ...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - September 21, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lorena D íaz de León-Martínez, Maribel Rodríguez-Aguilar, Patricia Gorocica-Rosete, Carlos Alberto Domínguez-Reyes, Verónica Martínez-Bustos, Juan Alberto Tenorio-Torres, Omar Ornelas-Rebolledo, José Alfonso Cruz-Ramos, Berenice Balderas-Segura an Source Type: research

High intestinal hydrogen production in runners after intake of fructose solution
Fructose intake is associated with increased consumption of processed foods, specifically in the context of nutritional supplements. To assess gastrointestinal symptoms and hydrogen production after the ingestion of a fructose solution in runners, healthy and sick persons. Hydrogen test (H2 test) was performed after the intake a solution with 50 g fructose along with the application of a questionnaire to evaluate the gastrointestinal symptoms during the H2 test in three groups: Athletes group (AG); control group (CG) with healthy subjects; and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease group (NAFLDG). Statistical analysis was...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - August 13, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Juliana M F Sicchieri, Gabriele Junqueira, Camila Sanches Manca, Anderson Marliere Navarro and Ricardo Brandt de Oliveira Source Type: research

Accurate real-time F E NO expirograms using complementary optical sensors
In this study we report on a novel method for accurate, highly time-resolved, real time detection of F E NO at the mouth. The experimental arrangement is based on a combination of optical sensors for the determination of the temporal profile of exhaled NO and CO 2 concentrations. Breath CO 2 and exhalation flow are measured at the mouth using diode laser absorption spectroscopy (at 2 μ m) and differential pressure sensing, respectively. NO is determined in a sidestream configuration using a quantum cascade laser based, cavity-enhanced absorption cell (at 5.2 μ m) which simultaneously measures sidestream CO 2 ....
Source: Journal of Breath Research - August 13, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lorenzo S Petralia, Anisha Bahl, Rob Peverall, Graham Richmond, John H Couper, Gus Hancock, Peter A Robbins and Grant A D Ritchie Source Type: research

A benchmarking protocol for breath analysis: the peppermint experiment
Sampling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has shown promise for detection of a range of diseases but results have proved hard to replicate due to a lack of standardization. In this work we introduce the ‘Peppermint Initiative’. The initiative seeks to disseminate a standardized experiment that allows comparison of breath sampling and data analysis methods. Further, it seeks to share a set of benchmark values for the measurement of VOCs in breath. Pilot data are presented to illustrate the standardized approach to the interpretation of results obtained from the Peppermint experiment. This pilot study w...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - August 9, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ben Henderson, Dorota M Ruszkiewicz, Max Wilkinson, Jonathan D Beauchamp, Simona M Cristescu, Stephen J Fowler, Dahlia Salman, Fabio Di Francesco, Gudrun Koppen, Jens Langej ürgen, Olaf Holz, Andria Hadjithekli, Sergi Moreno, Michele Pedrotti, Pablo Sinu Source Type: research

Breath diagnostics in the era of SARS-CoV-2 —clinical and research arena
The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has transformed not just healthcare, but also economic systems on a global scale. Despite significant efforts to contain the infection, it continues to spread. Stringent infection control measures have been taken to minimise the transmission between individuals and healthcare workers, especially those undertaking aerosol generating medical procedures. The uncertainties surrounding infection transmission through breath tests in particular, and to some extent faecal testing, will invariably cause concerns amongst both the patients and healthcare workers. It is therefore pertinen...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - August 9, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: S Chandrapalan, K Persaud and R P Arasaradnam Source Type: research

Relevance between clinical status and exhaled molecules related to neutrophilic inflammation in pediatric cystic fibrosis
Introduction: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized with chronic inflammation with neutrophil and related cytokines in airway secretions. We aimed to measure the levels of neutrophil related inflammatory markers as nitric oxide, IL-8, IL-17, leukotriene B4 and neutrophil elastase as well as e-cadherin in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and to determine their relation with clinical findings. Methods: We consecutively enrolled cystic fibrosis patients into our clinics between the age of six and eighteen years who could cooperate for exhaled breath condensate to this case-control study (n  = 30). The age and ...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - July 28, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: E Toprak Kan ık, O Yilmaz, E Ozdogru, H Alper, C Ulman, A Kanık, Y Simsek and H Yuksel Source Type: research

Recognition of breathprints of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using the Aeonose ® electronic nose
Objectives: There is a high unmet need in a non-invasive screening of lung cancer (LC). We conducted this single-center trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the electronic nose Aeonose ® in LC recognition. Materials and Methods: Exhaled volatile organic compound (VOC) signatures were collected by Aeonose ® in 42 incident and 78 prevalent LC patients, of them 29 LC patients in complete remission (LC CR), 33 healthy controls (HC) and 23 COPD patients. By dichotomous comparison of VOC ’s between incident LC and HC, a discriminating algorithm was established and also applied to LC CR and COPD subjects. Ar...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - July 23, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ekaterina Krauss, Jana Haberer, Guillermo Barreto, Maria Degen, Werner Seeger and Andreas Guenther Source Type: research

Effects of high relative humidity and dry purging on VOCs obtained during breath sampling on common sorbent tubes
Offline breath analysis by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) requires the use of sorbent traps to concentrate and store volatile compounds. The selection of which sorbent to use and best practices for managing high relative humidity are important considerations to allow for reproducible, untargeted, biomarker discovery in water saturated breath samples. This work aims to assess three commonly used sorbent materials for their use in breath volatile sampling and determine how the high relative humidity inherent in such samples effects the capture of volatile compounds of interest. Tenax...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - July 20, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Maxim Wilkinson, Iain R White, Royston Goodacre, Tamara Nijsen and Stephen J Fowler Source Type: research

Real-time breath analysis of exhaled compounds upon peppermint oil ingestion by secondary electrospray ionization-high resolution mass spectrometry: technical aspects
Breath analysis by secondary electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (SESI-HRMS) has potential for clinical diagnosis and drug monitoring. However, there is still a lack of benchmarking data that shows the capability of this technique and allows comparability with other breath analysis techniques. In this regard, the goal of this study was the identification of volatile compounds upon ingestion of a specific peppermint oil capsule to get benchmark data for real-time breath analysis with SESI-HRMS. This was done in the framework of a consortium set up by the International Association of Breath Resear...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - July 20, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Amanda Gisler, Jiayi Lan, Kapil Dev Singh, Jakob Usemann, Urs Frey, Renato Zenobi and Pablo Sinues Source Type: research

A spate of bad breath: report from the International Conference on Oral Malodour 2019
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Source: Journal of Breath Research - July 20, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Saliha Saad and Jonathan Beauchamp Source Type: research

Breath carbonyl levels in a human population of seven hundred participants
In this study, we collected breath samples from 692 participants and quantified C 4 –C 10 straight chain aldehyde levels. C 9 aldehyde was the most abundant in breath, followed by C 6 . C 4 and C 5 appear to have bimodal distributions. Post hoc , we mined our dataset for other breath carbonyls captured by our assay, which involves elution of breath samples onto a solid phase extraction c... (Source: Journal of Breath Research)
Source: Journal of Breath Research - July 20, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mitchell M McCartney, Carina J Thompson, Lauren R Klein, Josephine H Ngo, Jacqueline D Seibel, Fauna Fabia, Leslie A Simms, Eva Borras, Brian S Young, Juven Lara, Michael W Turnlund, Anh P Nguyen, Nicholas J Kenyon and Cristina E Davis Source Type: research

Exhaled volatile organic compounds analysis by e-nose can detect idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
The current diagnostic work-up and monitoring of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is often invasive and time consuming. Breath analysis by e-nose technology has shown potential in the diagnosis of numerous respiratory diseases. In this pilot study, we investigated whether exhaled breath analysis by an e-nose could discriminate among patients with IPF, healthy controls and COPD. Second, we verified whether these classification could be repeated in a set of newly recruited patients as external validation. Third, we evaluated any significant relationships between exhaled VOCs and Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) i...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - July 20, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Silvano Dragonieri, Giulia Scioscia, Vitaliano Nicola Quaranta, Pierluigi Carratu, Maria Pia Venuti, Michele Falcone, Giovanna Elisiana Carpagnano, Maria Pia Foschino Barbaro, Onofrio Resta and Donato Lacedonia Source Type: research

Breath analysis for detection of viral infection, the current position of the field
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of rapid, cost effective, accurate, and non-invasive testing for viral infections. Volatile compounds (VCs) have been suggested for several decades as fulfilling these criteria. However currently very little work has been done in trying to diagnose viral infections using VCs. Much of the work carried out to date involves the differentiation of bacterial and viral sources of infection and often the detection of bacterial and viral co-infection. However, this has usually been done in vitro and very little work has involved the use of human participants. Viruses hijac...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - July 20, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Oliver Gould, Norman Ratcliffe, Ewelina Kr ól and Ben de Lacy Costello Source Type: research

The scent of COVID-19: viral (semi-)volatiles as fast diagnostic biomarkers?
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Source: Journal of Breath Research - July 20, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kevin Lamote, Eline Janssens, Eline Schillebeeckx, Therese S Lapperre, Benedicte Y De Winter and Jan P van Meerbeeck Source Type: research

Electronic nose in discrimination of children with uncontrolled asthma
Measuring biomarkers (e.g. volatile organic compounds [VOCs]) in exhaled breath is an attractive approach to monitor airway inflammation in asthma and other lung diseases. Olfactive technology by electronic nose (e-Nose) has been applied to identify VOCs in exhaled breath. We compared e-Nose respiratory patterns in a pediatric cohort with asthma classificate children with different asthma control. This cross-sectional study involved 38 children: 28 with asthma and 10 healthy controls . The asthmatic patients were categorized as having controlled (AC), partially controlled (APC) or uncontrolled asthma (ANC) based on l...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - July 20, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Laura Tenero, Marco Sandri, Michele Piazza, Giulia Paiola, Marco Zaffanello and Giorgio Piacentini Source Type: research

Detection of the effects of triclosan (TCS) on the metabolism of VOCs in HepG2 cells by SPI-TOFMS
In this study, HepG2 cells were cultured in TCS-containing medium for 2 h, and the emitted VOCs in the headspace of the culture flask were detected using a single photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry instrument. The control group and the TCS-treated group could be well separated by differential VOC profiles, which were rel... (Source: Journal of Breath Research)
Source: Journal of Breath Research - July 20, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jiyang Zhang, WeiWei Yao, Siyan Wang, Man Li, Guobin Tan, Jing An, Li Xu, Junguo Dong and Ping Cheng Source Type: research

Driving progress in exhaled breath biomarkers: Breath Biopsy Conference 2019
November 2019 saw Cambridge, UK play host to the second Breath Biopsy Conference, a community-focused event aimed at sharing and supporting advancements in the collection and analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath. The event expanded upon the previous year ’s format, spanning two days and concluding with an expert panel discussion. Presentations covered detection, monitoring and precision medicine studies examining diseases including asthma, cirrhosis, cancer and tuberculosis. The meeting attracted representatives from diverse backgrounds, such as metabolomics, artificial intelligence, clinica...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - July 12, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jonathan Lawson, Billy Boyle and Jonathan Beauchamp Source Type: research

Oral health and halitosis among type 1 diabetic and healthy children
In this study the oral health status of children with and without type 1 diabetes were evaluated by using different indices (dmft/DMFT, International Caries Detection and Assessment System(ICDAS) II, pufa, gingival and periodontal indices). Halitosis was determined by organoleptic assessment and sulfur monitoring. Results. One hundred children with the age range between 6 –13 years, 50 type 1 diabetics (24 boys,26 girls) with mean age (±sd) of 10.3 ± 2.1 years and 50 healthy (30 boys, 20 girls) with mean age (±sd) of 9.9 ± 1.5 years, participated in the study. The median values of dm...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - July 2, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tayyibe Aslihan Iscan, Cansu Ozsin-Ozler, Tulin Ileri-Keceli, Bahar Guciz-Dogan, Ayfer Alikasifoglu and Meryem Uzamis-Tekcicek Source Type: research

Effects of academic stress on the levels of oral volatile sulfur compounds, halitosis-related bacteria and stress biomarkers of healthy female undergraduate students
To investigate whether academic stress changes the salivary microbiota and its relationship with salivary parameters, evaluating the effects on the production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in healthy women. Fifty-five women who were enrolled in a four-year Dentistry course were assessed for academic stress by the questionnaire Maslach Burnout Inventory —Student Survey and were then classified into ‘Not Stressed’ and ‘Stressed’ groups. Cortisol and alpha-amylase (AA) were measured as physiological stress biomarkers. Oral Chroma ™ gas chromatograph was used to measure concentra...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - July 2, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Patricia Oliveira De Lima, Bruno Dias Nani, Gustavo Satollo Rolim, Francisco Carlos Groppo, Michelle Franz-Montan, Antonio Bento Alves De Moraes, Karina Cogo-M üller and Fernanda Klein Marcondes Source Type: research

Real-time selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry to assess short- and long-term variability in oral and nasal breath
This study focuses on the comparison of oral and nasal breathing, and on the variability of volatile metabolites over the short and long term. Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) was used for online analysis of selected volatile metabolites in oral and nasal breath of 10 healthy individuals five times in one day (short-term) and six times spread over three weeks (long-term), resulting in nearly 100 breath samplings. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess short- and long-term biological variability. Additionally, the composition of ambient air was analyzed at different sampling...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - July 2, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: G Slingers, R Goossens, H Janssens, M Spruyt, E Goelen, Eede M Vanden, M Raes and G Koppen Source Type: research

EBC metabolomics for asthma severity
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with diverse severity and represents a considerable socio-economic burden. Exhaled Breath Condensate (EBC) is a biofluid directly obtained from the airway lining fluid non-invasively. We attempted to discriminate severe from mild-to-moderate asthma using EBC metabolomics based on both NMR and UHPLC-MS techniques. 36 patients were included in this study (15 patients with severe and 21 with mild-to-moderate asthma). EBC was collected and analyzed using both NMR and UHPLC-MS techniques for possible metabolites. Using PLS and oPLS analysis for the UHPLC-MS data, no metabolite was found t...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - July 2, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: P Ntontsi, V Ntzoumanika, S Loukides, D Benaki, E Gkikas, E Mikros and P Bakakos Source Type: research

Evaluation of a standardized collection device for exhaled breath sampling onto thermal desorption tubes
The Respiration Collector for In Vitro Analysis (ReCIVA) sampler, marketed by Owlstone Medical, provides a step forward in exhaled breath sampling through active sampling directly onto thermal desorption (TD) tubes. Although an improvement to the issues surrounding breath bag sampling, the ReCIVA device, first released in 2015, is a relatively new research and clinical tool that requires further exploration. Here, data are presented comparing two distinct ReCIVA devices. The results, comparing ReCIVA serial numbers #33 and #65, demonstrate that overall statistically insignificant results are obtained via targeted iso...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - May 26, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sean W Harshman, Rhonda L Pitsch, Christina N Davidson, Erica M Lee, Alexander M Scott, Elizabeth M Hill, Paras Mainali, Zachary E Brooks, Kraig E Strayer, Nicole M Schaeublin, Taylor L Wiens, Michael C Brothers, Leslie A Drummond, Dirk P Yamamoto and Jen Source Type: research

Comparison of volatile organic compound profiles in exhaled breath versus plasma headspace in different diseases
In this study we investigated the relationship between 22 VOC's detected in exhaled breath and plasma headspace using a selected ion flow tube mass spectrometer (SYFT-MS). We compared pairs of exhaled breath and plasma samples from patients with pulmonary hypertension inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and IBD patients after J-pouch surgery (pouch group). Half of the measured VOC's from exhaled breath were significantly associated with the VOC's from plasma headspace. Interestingly, six breath VOC's (trimethyl amine (FDR p = 0.02), hydrogen sulfide (FDR p = 7.64 × (Source: Journal of Breath Research)
Source: Journal of Breath Research - May 26, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: David Grove, Galen Miller-Atkins, Celia Melillo, Florian Rieder, Satya Kurada, Daniel M Rotroff, Adriano R Tonelli and Raed A Dweik Source Type: research

A mechanistic study and review of volatile products from peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids: an aid to understanding the origins of volatile organic compounds from the human body
The assessment of volatile compounds (VOCs) for disease diagnosis is a growing area of research. There is a need to provide hard evidence i.e. biochemical routes, to justify putative VOC biomarkers, as in many cases this remains uncertain, which weakens their authenticity. Recently reports of volatile hydrocarbons and or aldehydes in bodily fluids and breath have been attributed to oxidative stress, although as discussed here, fewer compounds have been reported than expected from a mechanistic examination. Oxidative stress can result from many disease states which produce inflammation, and a better understanding of t...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - May 26, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Norman Ratcliffe, Tom Wieczorek, Natalia Drabi ńska, Oliver Gould, Alan Osborne and Ben De Lacy Costello Source Type: research

Topical review on monitoring tetrahydrocannabinol in breath
Legalization of cannabis for recreational use has compelled governments to seek new tools to accurately monitor Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and understand its effect on impairment. Various methods have been employed to measure Δ9-THC, and its respective metabolites, in different biological matrices. Recently, breath analysis has gained interest as a non-invasive method for the detection of chemicals that are either produced as part of biological processes or are absorbed from the environment. Existing breath analyzers function by analyzing previously collected samples or by direct real-time ana...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - May 12, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hamed Mirzaei, Allen O ’Brien, Nishat Tasnim, Adithya Ravishankara, Hamed Tahmooressi and Mina Hoorfar Source Type: research

Cavity ringdown spectroscopy of nitric oxide in the ultraviolet region for human breath test
We report the spectrum of nitric oxide (NO) in the ultraviolet (UV) (225.4 –227.0 nm) region based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS). A cavity ringdown system, which consisted of a tunable UV laser source and a vacuum-pumped ringdown cavity, was constructed to measure NO at room temperature and atmospheric or reduced pressure. The measured spectra were validated using LIFBase simulations. The absorption cross-section of NO at the strongest absorption peak at 226.255 nm was measured to be 7.64 × 10 −18 cm 2 molecule −1 . Using the measured mirror reflectivity of 99.55% at 226.255 nm, the d...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - April 30, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yukai Ai, Jing Li, Qingyuan Li, Meixiu Sun, Yingxin Li and Chuji Wang Source Type: research

The scientific rationale for the use of simple masks or improvised facial coverings to trap exhaled aerosols and possibly reduce the breathborne spread of COVID-19
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Source: Journal of Breath Research - April 29, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Joachim D Pleil, Jonathan D Beauchamp, Terence H Risby and Raed A Dweik Source Type: research

Correlation between breath ammonia and blood urea nitrogen levels in chronic kidney disease and dialysis patients
Previous studies have shown that breath ammonia (breath-NH 3 ) concentration is associated with blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. However, interindividual variations in breath-NH 3 concentrations were observed. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the effect of oral cavity conditions on breath-NH 3 concentration and to validate whether the measurement of breath-NH 3 concentration is feasible in clinical settings. A total of 125 individuals, including patients with stage 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD3 –5), those on dialysis, and healthy participants, were recruited. A nanostructured sensor was used to de...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - April 27, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chang-Chiang Chen, Ju-Chun Hsieh, Cheng-Han Chao, Wei-Shun Yang, Hui-Teng Cheng, Chieh-Kai Chan, Chia-Jung Lu, Hsin-Fei Meng and Hsiao-Wen Zan Source Type: research

Breath analysis in detecting epilepsy
The aim of this proof of concept study is to investigate if an electronic nose (eNose) is able to make a distinction between breath profiles of diagnosed epilepsy patients and epilepsy-free control subjects. An eNose is a non-invasive device, with a working mechanism that is based on the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath. These VOCs interact with the sensors of the eNose, and the eNose has to be trained to distinguish between breath patterns from patients with a specific disease and control subjects without that disease. During the measurement participants were asked to breathe through t...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - April 14, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dieuwke van Dartel, H Jurgen Schelhaas, Albert J Colon, Kuan H Kho and Cecile C de Vos Source Type: research

Concordance in molecular genetic analysis of tumour tissue, plasma, and exhaled breath condensate samples from lung cancer patients
Aim. Lung adenocarcinoma is characterized by poor prognosis and short survival rates. Therefore, tools to identify the tumoural molecular structure and guide effective diagnosis and therapy decisions are essential. Surgical biopsies are highly invasive and not conducive for patient follow-up. To better understand disease prognosis, novel non-invasive analytic methods are needed. The aim of the present study is to identify the genetic mutations in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, plasma, and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples by next-generation sequencing and evaluate their utility in the diagnosis...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - April 14, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Asl ı Tetik Vardarli, Levent Pelit, Ceyda Aldag, Korcan Korba, Caglar Celebi, Tugberk Nail Dizdas, Umut Can Uzun, Eda Tayfur, Ayca Aykut, Haydar Soydaner Karakus, Ertan Baysal, Ozlem Goksel, Fusun Pelit, Femin Yalcin, Fatma Nil Ertas, Yasemin Basbinar, A Source Type: research

Relationships among bronchodilator reversibility, the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide, and the parameters of the forced oscillation technique in adult asthma treated with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2 agonists combination
In bronchial asthma, both airway inflammation and reversible airway narrowing require assessment and treatment. These two pathologies are treated primarily with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting β2 agonists (LABA), respectively. Therefore, ICS-LABA combinations are widely used to treat asthma. Airway inflammation and reversible airway narrowing are assessed primarily with fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and bronchodilator reversibility (BDR). The forced oscillation technique (FOT) has recently attracted attention as a method for assessing obstructive respiratory disturbance. However, little i...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - March 30, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kohei Nishida, Takahiro Tsuburai, Yuko Komase, Hajime Tsuruoka, Baku Oyama, Hiromi Muraoka, Ayano Tsukune Usuba, Naoya Hida, Takeo Inoue and Masamichi Mineshita Source Type: research

Study of the beneficial role of exhaled nitric oxide in combination with GINA guidelines for titration of inhaled corticosteroids in children with asthma
This study aimed to evaluate the beneficial role of FE NO in combination with GINA (Global Initiative for Asthma) guidelines for titration of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in asthmatic children. Methods. It was a prospective and descriptive study. Uncontrolled asthmatic children were randomized to two groups: group 1 (followed GINA guidelines) or group 2 (followed GINA guidelines  + FE NO modification for ICS titration). The two groups were followed-up for 12 months. Results. The mean age of the patients in the study was 10  ± 4 years for group 1 (n  = 116) and 11 ±&nb...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - March 27, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: H Dinh-Thi-Dieu, A Vo-Thi-Kim, H Tran-Van, T Tang-Thi-Thao and S Duong-Quy Source Type: research

A pilot study: effect of erythrocyte lifespan determined by a modified carbon monoxide breath test on glycosylated hemoglobin interpretation
In this study, we recruited 120 patients with diabetes mellitus and 85 nondiabetic controls. The HbA1c and the RBC lifespan were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and the advanced carbon monoxide breath detection method, respectively. Potential correlations of gender and age with HbA1c were analyzed and a receiver operator characteristic curve was generated to get the HbA1c cut-off for every RBC lifespan group. It was confirmed that HbA1c has no correlation with gender or age. The correlation formula between the HbA1c diagnostic criteria and RBC lifespan was derived to correct the HbA1c diagnostic cr...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - March 27, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hong-Wei Chu, Yong-Jian Ma and Zhen-He Huang Source Type: research

Implementation of quality controls is essential to prevent batch effects in breathomics data and allow for cross-study comparisons
This study applies within-study batch-effect-correction approaches to correct for cross-study batch effects; suggestions are made that may help prevent the introduction of cross-study variations. Three batch-effect-correction algorithms were investigated: zero-centering, combat, and the analysis of covarian... (Source: Journal of Breath Research)
Source: Journal of Breath Research - March 19, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Georgios Stavropoulos, Daisy M A E Jonkers, Zlatan Mujagic, Ger H Koek, Ad A M Masclee, Marieke J Pierik, Jan W Dallinga, Frederik-Jan Van Schooten and Agnieszka Smolinska Source Type: research

Two-step investigation of lung cancer detection by sniffer dogs
In this study, we sought to test two hypotheses: firstly, if dogs can be trained to perceive LC-related VOCs in human urine, a substrate which is not influenced by the carrier materials and may thus be a good candidate for large-number screening; and secondly, whether trained dogs retain their perfor... (Source: Journal of Breath Research)
Source: Journal of Breath Research - March 11, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Silvia Michela Mazzola, Federica Pirrone, Giulia Sedda, Roberto Gasparri, Rosalia Romano, Lorenzo Spaggiari and Albertini Mariangela Source Type: research

Effect of inhaled acetone concentrations on exhaled breath acetone concentrations at rest and during exercise
Real-time measurements of the differences in inhaled and exhaled, unlabeled and fully deuterated acetone concentration levels, at rest and during exercise, have been conducted using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. A novel approach to continuously differentiate between the inhaled and exhaled breath acetone concentration signals is used. This leads to unprecedented fine grained data of inhaled and exhaled concentrations. The experimental results obtained are compared with those predicted using a simple three compartment model that theoretically describes the influence of inhaled concentrations on exhaled b...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - March 4, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Clemens Ager, Pawel Mochalski, Julian King, Chris A Mayhew and Karl Unterkofler Source Type: research

Detection of type2 biomarkers for response in COPD
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous inflammatory lung disease. It is important to identify patients who would respond to anti-inflammatory treatment. This prospective study aims to determine how inflammatory biomarkers could be used to predict the potential effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in terms of symptoms and lung function. We evaluated the levels of blood eosinophils, exhaled nitric oxide fraction at a flow rate of 50 ml s −1 (FeNO), alveolar nitric oxide concentration (Calv), immunoglobulin E and atopy in 43 patients with symptomatic COPD and correlated these expression...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - February 25, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yoshikazu Yamaji, Keiji Oishi, Kazuki Hamada, Yuichi Ohteru, Ayumi Chikumoto, Keita Murakawa, Kazuki Matsuda, Ryo Suetake, Yoriyuki Murata, Kosuke Ito, Maki Asami-Noyama, Nobutaka Edakuni, Tsunahiko Hirano and Kazuto Matsunaga Source Type: research

Investigation of sweat VOC profiles in assessment of cancer biomarkers using HS-GC-MS
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been studied in biological samples in order to be related to the presence of diseases. Sweat can represent substances existing in blood, has less complex composition (compared with other biological matrices) and can be obtained in a non-invasive way. In this work, sweat patches were collected from healthy controls and volunteers with cancer. Static Headspace was used for VOCs extraction, analysis was performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Principal Components Analysis was used to investigate data distribution. Random Forest was employed to develop classi...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - February 25, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Fernanda Monedeiro, Rodolfo Borges dos Reis, Fernanda Maris Peria, Cl áudia Tarcila Gomes Sares and Bruno Spinosa De Martinis Source Type: research

Association between breath methane concentration and visceral fat area: a population-based cross-sectional study
High visceral fat area (VFA) is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular disease and overall mortality, compared with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Recent reports demonstrate that obesity is related to breath gas, which is produced by the intestinal microflora. However, these studies define obesity using BMI, not VFA. In this population-based cross-sectional study, we investigated the relationship between breath gases (methane and hydrogen) and both VFA and BMI. A total of 1033 participants (62% women; age [mean  ± standard deviation] 54.4 ± 14.9 years) in the 201...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - February 25, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Naoki Ozato, Shinichiro Saito, Tohru Yamaguchi, Mitsuhiro Katashima, Itoyo Tokuda, Kaori Sawada, Yoshihisa Katsuragi, Masanori Kakuta, Seiya Imoto, Kazushige Ihara and Shigeyuki Nakaji Source Type: research

Breath-based non-invasive diagnosis of Alzheimer ’s disease: a pilot study
Early detection of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) will help researchers to better understand the disease and develop improved treatments. Recent developments have thus focused on identifying biomarkers for mild cognitive impairment due to AD (MCI) and AD during the preclinical phase. The aim of this pilot study is to determine whether exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can be used as a non-invasive method to distinguish controls from MCI, controls from AD and to determine whether there are differences between MCI and AD. The study used gas chromatography —ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) techniques. C...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - February 14, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Akira Tiele, Alfian Wicaksono, Emma Daulton, Emmanuel Ifeachor, Victoria Eyre, Sophie Clarke, Leanne Timings, Stephen Pearson, James A Covington and Xinzhong Li Source Type: research

Association between increased breath hydrogen methane concentration and prevalence of glucose intolerance in acute pancreatitis
Pancreatic damage, in the form of pancreatitis, intestinal bacteria and glucose imbalance could be interrelated. The aim of this study was to investigate the breath hydrogen (H 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ), which can indicate small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) status, and assess the link between SIBO and glucose tolerance in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). This prospective study enrolled 75 patients who were admitted for AP. A glucose breath test (GBT) which detects breath hydrogen H 2 and CH 4 for SIBO with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for 120 min was simultaneously performed to determine SIBO a...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - February 14, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dae Bum Kim, Chang-Nyol Paik, Ji Min Lee and Yeon-Ji Kim Source Type: research

Studies pertaining to the monitoring of volatile halogenated anaesthetics in breath by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry
Post-operative isoflurane has been observed to be present in the end-tidal breath of patients who have undergone major surgery, for several weeks after the surgical procedures. A major new non-controlled, non-randomized, and open-label approved study will recruit patients undergoing various surgeries under different inhalation anaesthetics, with two key objectives, namely (1) to record the washout characteristics following surgery, and (2) to investigate the influence of a patient ’s health and the duration and type of surgery on elimination. In preparation for this breath study using proton transfer reaction t...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - February 14, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Michaela Mal ásková, David Olivenza-León, Prema D Chellayah, Judith Martini, Wolfgang Lederer, Veronika Ruzsanyi, Karl Unterkofler, Paweł Mochalski, Tilmann D Märk, Peter Watts and Chris A Mayhew Source Type: research

Does exposure to inflammatory particles modify the pattern of anion in exhaled breath condensate?
Exposure to environmental and occupational particulate matter (PM) induces health effects on the cardio-pulmonary system. In addition, associations between exposure to PM and metabolic syndromes like diabetes mellitus or obesity are now emerging in the literature. Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is an appealing non-invasive technique to sample pulmonary fluids. This hypothesis-generating study aims to (1) validate an ion chromatography method allowing the robust determination of different metabolism-related molecules (lactate, formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, pyruvate, nitrite, nitrate) in EBC; (...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - February 14, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: J-J Sauvain, J-L Edm é, P Wild, G Suarez, O M P A Bezerra, A Talvani, E Algranti, A P S Carneiro, N Chérot-Kornobis, A Sobaszek and S Hulo Source Type: research

Repeatability and variation of the flow independent nitric oxide parameters
Introduction: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (F E NO) is a non-invasive marker of airway inflammation. Measuring F E NO at several flow rates enables the calculation of flow independent NO-parameters (alveolar NO concentration (C A NO), bronchial flux of NO (J aw NO), bronchial mucosal NO concentration (C aw NO) and bronchial wall NO diffusion capacity (D aw NO)) that are capable of partitioning the source and release mechanism of NO from the lower respiratory tract. However, the current literature on repeatability and normal variation of the NO-parameters is deficient, and this information is needed to develop the ...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - January 29, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tuomas Karvonen and Lauri Lehtim äki Source Type: research

Reply to Comment on ‘Volatile biomarker in breath predicts lung cancer and pulmonary nodules’
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Source: Journal of Breath Research - January 24, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Michael Phillips, Thomas L Bauer and Harvey I Pass Source Type: research

Comment on ‘volatile biomarker in breath predicts lung cancer and pulmonary nodules’
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Source: Journal of Breath Research - January 24, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: A S Modak, V Ruzsanyi, P Mochalski and C A Mayhew Source Type: research

Portable exhaled breath condensate metabolomics for daily monitoring of adolescent asthma
Description unavailable (Source: Journal of Breath Research)
Source: Journal of Breath Research - January 23, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Alexander J Schmidt, Eva Borras, Anh P Nguyen, Danny Yeap, Nicholas J Kenyon and Cristina E Davis Source Type: research

Clinical precision, accuracy, number and durations of exhalations for a novel electrochemical monitor for exhaled nitric oxide
Background: Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a validated marker of eosinophilic inflammation. Fenom Pro TM is a novel FDA-cleared monitor for FeNO. The American Thoracic Guidelines from 2005 recommend at least 6 s exhalation for adults and in some cases up to 10 s, and 4 s for children, and that the average of the first two valid exhalations is taken as the FeNO value. Methods: Clinical precision, 6 versus 10 s exhalations, the first versus the average of the first two valid exhalation methods comparison were evaluated for Fenom Pro TM , as well as a methods comparison to the NIOX VERO ® monitor. Results: The inten...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - December 31, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Philip E Silkoff, Brian Awabdy, Mark Sarno, Solomon Ssenyange, Vivek Balsubramanyam and Ryan Leard Source Type: research

On-line profiling of volatile compounds produced in vitro by pathogenic oral bacteria
In this study, we have performed in vitro headspace measurements on four important oral pathogens ( P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, P. intermedia and P. nigrescens ) using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS). Some of the most abundant compounds produced by the bacteria include hydrogen sulphide, methanethiol, acetone, dimethylsulphide, isoprene, cyclopentanone and indole as tentatively assigned from the mass spectra. Several other abundant mass signals were recorded but the assignment of these is less certain. Some of the bacterial species can be separated from each oth... (Source: Jo...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - December 16, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kajsa Roslund, Markku Lehto, Pirkko Pussinen, Per-Henrik Groop, Lauri Halonen and Markus Mets älä Source Type: research

Characterization of standardized breath sampling for off-line field use
Due to several sources of potential variability associated with exhaled breath bag sampling procedures for off-line analysis, the Respiration Collector for in vitro Analysis (ReCIVA) sampler was developed. Although designed to improve upon several pitfalls of sampling with exhaled breath bags, the ReCIVA remains a minimally studied research tool. In this manuscript, several attributes of the ReCIVA sampler are investigated among three individual tests, such as background contamination, control software version, performance of different adsorbent tubes, duplicate sample production, and comparison to exhaled breath bag...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - December 16, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sean W Harshman, Rhonda L Pitsch, Christina N Davidson, Alexander M Scott, Elizabeth M Hill, Zachary K Smith, Kraig E Strayer, Nicole M Schaeublin, Taylor L Wiens, Michael C Brothers, Grant M Slusher, Megan L Steele, Brian A Geier, Maomian Fan, Leslie A D Source Type: research