Monitoring of endogenous nitric oxide exhaled by pig lungs during ex-vivo lung perfusion
In the context of organ shortage for transplantation, new criteria for better organ evaluation should be investigated. Ex-vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) allows extra-corporal lung re-conditioning and evaluation, under controlled parameters of the organ reperfusion and mechanical ventilation. This work reports on the interest of exhaled gas analysis during the EVLP procedure. After a 1 h cold ischemia, the endogenous gas production by an isolated lung of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide is simultaneously monitored in real time. The exhaled gas is analysed with two very sensitive and selective laser spectrometers developed...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - February 12, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Thibaut Chollier, Lucile Richard, Daniele Romanini, Ang élique Brouta, Jean-Luc Martin, Cécile Moro, Raphaël Briot and Irène Ventrillard Source Type: research

Real-time breath ammonia measurement using a novel cuprous bromide sensor device in patients with chronic liver disease: a feasibility and pilot study
We developed a small portable sensor device using a p-type semiconductor cuprous bromide (CuBr) thin film to measure breath ammonia in real time with highsensitivity and selectivity. Breath ammonia is reportedly associated with chronic liver disease (CLD). We aimed to assess the practical utility of the novel CuBr sensor device for exhaled breath ammonia and the correlation between breath and blood ammonia in CLD patients. This was a feasibility and pilot clinical study of 21 CLD patients and 18 healthy volunteers. Breath ammonia was directly and quickly measured using the novel CuBr sensor device and compared with b...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - February 2, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jinya Ishida, Tsunekazu Oikawa, Chika Nakagawa, Keiko Takano, Kouki Fujioka, Yoshio Kikuchi, Osamu Tsuboi, Kaoru Ueda, Masanori Nakano, Chisato Saeki, Yuichi Torisu, Yuichi Ikeda, Masayuki Saruta and Akihito Tsubota Source Type: research

Influence of coexistence of mild OSA on airway mucus hypersecretion in patients with COPD
The coexistence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can cause multiple system damage, and the main physiological mechanisms are continuous hypoxia and intermittent hypoxia (IH). Airway mucus hypersecretion is an important clinical feature of COPD, which can cause a progressive decline of lung function, acute COPD aggravation, and disease progression. The purpose of our study is to determine the influence of the coexistence of mild OSA on airway mucus hypersecretion. Clinical data and airway epithelial samples of 36 subjects were collected. The average fluorescence intensi...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - February 2, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Nansheng Wan, Xin Tang, Hui Ding, Yuxia Yan, Yan Zhuang, Chao Qi, Qianqian Chen, Wei Xie, Jing Zhang, Yan Wang, Maoli Liang, Wen Ning and Jie Cao Source Type: research

A system for contact free energy expenditure assessment under free-living conditions: monitoring metabolism for weight loss using carbon dioxide emission
Weight disorders are strikingly prevalent globally and can contribute to a wide array of potentially fatal diseases spanning from type II diabetes to coronary heart disease. These disorders have a common cause: poor calorie balance. Since energy expenditure (EE) (kcal d −1 ) constitutes one half of the calorie balance equation (the other half being food intake), its measurement could be of great value to those suffering from weight disorders. A technique for contact free assessment of EE is presented, which only relies on CO 2 concentration monitoring within a sealed office space, and assessment of carbon dioxi...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - January 23, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mark Sprowls, Shaun Victor, Michael Serhan, Hugo Destaillats, Courtney Wheatley-Guy, Bruce Johnson, Doina Kulick and Erica Forzani Source Type: research

Oxygen-18 and carbon-13 isotopes in eCO 2 and erythrocytes carbonic anhydrase activity of Finnish prediabetic population
Complex human physiological processes create the stable isotopic composition of exhaled carbon dioxide (eCO 2 ), measurable with noninvasive breath tests. Recently, isotope-selective breath tests utilizing natural fluctuation in 18 O/ 16 O isotope ratio in eCO 2 have been proposed for screening prediabetic (PD) individuals. It has been suggested that 18 O/ 16 O fractionation patterns reflect shifts in the activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme involved in the metabolic changes in the PD state. To evaluate the applicability of the breath sampling method in Finnish PD individuals, breath delta values (BDVs, &pe...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - January 23, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Anna K årlund, Teemu Kääriäinen, Vili M Kostamo, Tarja Kokkola, Marjukka Kolehmainen, Timo A Lakka, Jussi Pihlajamäki and Albert Manninen Source Type: research

Exhaled breath condensate in acute pulmonary embolism; a porcine study of effect of condensing temperature and feasibility of protein analysis by mass spectrometry
The search for diagnostic biomarkers for pulmonary embolism (PE) has mainly been focused on blood samples. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a possible source for biomarkers specific for chronic lung diseases and cancer, yet no previous studies have investigated the potential of EBC for diagnosis of PE. The protein content in the EBC is very low, and efficient condensing of the EBC is important in order to obtain high quality samples for protein analysis. We investigated if advanced proteomic techniques in a porcine model of acute intermediate-high-risk PE was feasible using two different condensing temperatures for...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - January 23, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Inger Lise Gade, Jacob Gammelgaard Schultz, Lasse J ørgensen Cehofski, Benedict Kjærgaard, Marianne Tang Severinsen, Bodil Steen Rasmussen, Henrik Vorum, Bent Honoré and Søren Risom Kristensen Source Type: research

The comparison of two exhaled nitric oxide analyzers: NIOX VERO and SUNVOU-CA2122
As a marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) was widely used in clinical practice. NIOX VERO (VERO) and SUNVOU-CA2122 (CA2122) are two commonly used eNO analyzers in China. However, what's the difference and agreement between the two devices and whether the two types of devices can be replaced by each other in the application of common respiratory diseases have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare the two types of devices and to evaluate the difference between them in clinical use and whether they could be replaced. FeNO levels in 244 respiratory patie...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - January 23, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Wei Lei, Fei Li, Xiao-miao Tang, Shuang Bian, Jia-jia Wang and Jian-an Huang Source Type: research

Associations between sleep duration, lung function, FeNO and blood eosinophils among current asthmatics (NHANES 2007 –12)
Short sleep duration potentially affects the risk of developing asthma and asthmatic exacerbation. Our aim is to determine the associations between sleep duration with asthmatic phenotypes, fraction of exhaled NO (FeNO), blood eosinophils, and lung function among current asthmatics. A total of 558 individuals from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2007 –2012 were included in this study. Self-reported sleep duration was divided into three groups: short ( ≤ 6 h), healthy (7 –8 h) and long ( ≥ 9 h). By using a multivariate generalized additive model with binomial or Poisson re...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - January 23, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Zhigang Hu, Haoyu Zhang, Ke Hu and Xinyu Song Source Type: research

Detecting multiple sclerosis via breath analysis using an eNose, a pilot study
In the present study we investigated whether multiple sclerosis (MS) can be detected via exhaled breath analysis using an electronic nose (eNose). The Aeonose TM (an eNose, The eNose Company, Zutphen, the Netherlands) is a diagnostic test device to detect patterns of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath. We evaluated whether the Aeonose TM can make a distinction between the breath patterns of patients with MS and healthy control subjects. In this mono-center, prospective, non-invasive study, 124 subjects with a confirmed diagnosis of MS and 129 control subjects each breathed into the Aeonose TM for 5 min. Exh...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - January 12, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: A R Ettema, M W P M Lenders, J Vliegen, A Slettenaar, M C Tjepkema-Cloostermans and C C de Vos Source Type: research

Nucleic acid detection and quantitative analysis of influenza virus using exhaled breath condensate
Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is increasingly being used as a non-invasive method for disease diagnosis and environmental exposure assessment. We previously detected the nucleic acids of bacterial pathogens in EBC. Influenza viruses can be transmitted through aerosols during coughing and exhaling. Existing detection methods for influenza have various limitations. The EBC collection method is convenient, non-invasive, and reduces the risk of exposure. We investigated the detection of influenza virus in EBC using a sensitive nucleic acid testing method and performed quantitative analysis to evaluate the present and c...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - January 12, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Xiaoguang Li, Minfei Wang, Jing Chen, Fei Lin and Wei Wang Source Type: research

Volatile organic compounds in a headspace sampling system and asthmatics sputum samples
This study aimed to characterise the background signal generated from a headspace sampling system in a clinical site, to evaluate intra- and inter-day variation of background VOC and to understand the impact of a sample itself upon commonly reported background VOC using sputum headspace samples from severe asthmatics. The headspace, in absence of a biological sample, was collected hourly from 11am to 3pm within a day (time of clinical samples acquisition), and from Monday to Friday in a week, and analysed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Chemometric analysis identified 1120 feat...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - January 12, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rosa Peltrini, Rebecca L Cordell, Wadah Ibrahim, Michael J Wilde, Dahlia Salman, Amisha Singapuri, Beverley Hargadon, Christopher E Brightling, C L Paul Thomas, Paul S Monks, Salman Siddiqui and on behalf of the EMBER consortium Source Type: research

A review of the efficacy of a low-cost cancer screening test using cancer sniffing canines
One of the most powerful tools in fighting cancer is early detection, as it has been strongly linked to greater chances of cancer survival. However, traditional cancer screening tests can cost hundreds if not thousands of dollars and are therefore not an affordable option for many marginalized populations. From a public health perspective, it is vital to research the use of inexpensive cancer detection so that low-resourced patients have greater access to affordable cancer screening. Numerous studies dating from the early 2000s to recent years have shown extensive evidence that the exceptional olfactory system of can...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - January 12, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Srikar S Muppidi, Rishi Katragadda, Julia Lega, Taqiyya Alford, Carolyn B Aidman and Charles Moore Source Type: research

Monitoring peppermint washout in the breath metabolome by secondary electrospray ionization-high resolution mass spectrometry
In this study, a secondary electrospray ionization-high resolution mass spectrometer (SESI-HRMS) system was employed to profile the real-time exhaled metabolome of ten subjects who had ingested a peppermint oil capsule. In total, six time points were sampled during the experiment. Using an untargeted way of profiling breath metabolome, 2333 m/z unique metabolite features were determined in positive mode, and 1322 in negative mode. To benchmark the performance of the SESI-HRMS setup, several additional checks were done, including determination of the technical variation, the biological variation of one subject within ...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - January 12, 2021 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jiayi Lan, Amanda Gisler, Tobias Bruderer, Pablo Sinues and Renato Zenobi Source Type: research

Soluble interleukin-2 receptor in exhaled breath condensate in pulmonary sarcoidosis: a cross-sectional pilot study
Introduction . Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology with a variable clinical course and prognosis. There is an urgent need to identify new and novel biomarkers to help differentiate between clinical phenotypes and guide clinical decisions with respect to commencing and monitoring treatment. Across the spectrum of respiratory disease there has been a growing interest in the role of breath-based biomarkers given their non-invasive nature and ability to repeat sampling with ease for serial monitoring. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL2R) in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum correlates wit...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - December 18, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dayle L Terrington, Jee Whang Kim, Garth Ravenhill, Jonathan Tang, Isabelle Piec, Stephen J Fowler, William Fraser and Andrew M Wilson Source Type: research

Breath isoprene excretion during rest and low-intensity cycling exercise is associated with skeletal muscle mass in healthy human subjects
The physiological roles of isoprene, which is one of the many endogenous volatile organic compounds contained in exhaled breath, are not well understood. In recent years, exhaled isoprene has been associated with the skeletal muscle. Some studies have suggested that the skeletal muscle produces and/or stores some of the isoprene. However, the evidence supporting this association remains sparse and inconclusive. Furthermore, aging may affect breath isoprene response because of changes in the skeletal muscle quantity and quality. Therefore, we investigated the association between the breath isoprene excretion ( ##IMG##...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - December 8, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Amane Hori, Kenichi Suijo, Takaharu Kondo and Norio Hotta Source Type: research

Nitric oxide's physiologic effects and potential as a therapeutic agent against COVID-19
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for COVID-19 pneumonia, a pandemic that precipitates huge pressures on the world's social and economic systems. Disease severity varies among individuals. SARS-CoV-2 infection can be associated with e.g. flu-like symptoms, dyspnoea, severe interstitial pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiorgan dysfunction, and generalized coagulopathy. Nitric oxide (NO), is a small signal molecule that impacts pleiotropic functions in human physiology, which can be involved in the significant effects of COVID-19 infection. NO is a neurotr...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - December 5, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Fabio Luigi Massimo Ricciardolo, Francesca Bertolini, Vitina Carriero and Marieann H ögman Source Type: research

Nitric oxide ’s physiologic effects and potential as a therapeutic agent against COVID-19
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for COVID-19 pneumonia, a pandemic that precipitates huge pressures on the world ’s social and economic systems. Disease severity varies among individuals. SARS-CoV-2 infection can be associated with e.g. flu-like symptoms, dyspnoea, severe interstitial pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiorgan dysfunction, and generalized coagulopathy. Nitric oxide (NO), is a small signal molecule that impacts pleiotropic functions in human physiology, which can be involved in the significant effects of COVID-19 infection. NO is a ...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - December 5, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Fabio Luigi Massimo Ricciardolo, Francesca Bertolini, Vitina Carriero and Marieann H ögman Source Type: research

Differentiating cancer types using a urine test for volatile organic compounds
Background. In the human body, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are produced by different tissues then secreted in different body fluids and subsequently excreted. Here we explore a non-invasive method for the detection of liver, prostate and bladder cancers. Methods. We recruited 140 cases. There were 31 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), 62 prostate carcinomas, 29 bladder carcinomas and 18 non-cancer cases. Male to female ratio was 5:1 and mean age was 72 years. Urinary VOCs were detected by applying solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique. Results. The sensitivity for detection of HCC with normal alpha fetopro...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - December 3, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ayman S Bannaga, Frank Kvasnik, Krishna Persaud and Ramesh P Arasaradnam Source Type: research

Correlations between exhaled nitric oxide, rs28364072 polymorphism of FCER2 gene, asthma control, and inhaled corticosteroid responsiveness in children with asthma
This study aimed to describe the clinical and biological characteristics, and its correlation with polymorphism of rs28364072 in FCER2 of asthmatic children. This work aimed to study the correlation between fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FE NO ) level and rs28364072 polymorphism of FCER2 gene with ICS responsiveness and disease control in children with asthma. This study was a prospective and descriptive study. All clinical characteristics, FE NO , blood eosinophil counts (BEC), skin prick test (SPT), total IgE, asthma control test, and FCER2 gene polymorphism were performed for each patient. One h...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - November 20, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: S Duong-Quy, H Le-Thi-Minh, H Nguyen-Thi-Bich, H Pham-Thu, V T Thom, N Pham-Thi-Hong, H Duong-Thi-Ly, B Nguyen-Huy, X Ngo-Minh, T Nguyen-Thi-Dieu and T J Craig Source Type: research

Exhaled breath condensate biomarkers in critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients
Pneumonia is a significant risk for critically ill, mechanically ventilated (CIMV) patients. Diagnosis of pneumonia generally requires a combination of clinician-guided diagnoses and clinical scoring systems. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) can be safely collected non-invasively from CIMV patients. Hundreds of biomarkers in EBC are associated with acute disease states, including pneumonia. We evaluated cytokines in EBC from CIMV patients and hypothesized that these biomarkers would correlate with disease severity in pneumonia, sepsis, and death. EBC IL-2 levels were associated with chest radiograph severity scores (o...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - November 12, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Michael D Davis, Brett R Winters, Michael C Madden, Joachim D Pleil, Curtis N Sessler, M Ariel Geer Wallace, Cavin K Ward-Caviness and Alison J Montpetit Source Type: research

Extended nitric oxide analysis in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, with or without associated asthma
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a complex inflammatory disease highly impacting patient ’s quality of life, and associated with lower airway inflammation often evolving into asthma. Exhaled nitric oxide (FE NO ) is a non-invasive tool to assess Type 2 airway inflammation and its extended analysis allows to differentiate between alveolar concentration (CalvNO) and bronchial output (JawNO). It is also possible to assess the sino-nasal production of nitric oxide (nNO). We studied extended nitric oxide production in patients with CRSwNP with or without associated asthma. Consecutive adult patie...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - November 5, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Giovanni Paoletti, Giulio Melone, Giuseppe Guida, Francesca Pirola, Luca Malvezzi, Corrado Pelaia, Alessia Mariani, Francesca Racca, Giacomo Malipiero, Sebastian Ferri, Francesca Puggioni, Giuseppe Spriano, Giorgio Walter Canonica and Enrico Heffler Source Type: research

Smoking regular and low-nicotine cigarettes results in comparable levels of volatile organic compounds in blood and exhaled breath
In this study VOCs levels in headspace of blood and exhaled breath, in the mainstream smoke of three types of cigarettes of one brand varying in declared tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide (TNCO) yields are investigated. The objective was to identify whether VOC levels correlate with TNCO yields of cigarettes smoked according to ISO 3308. Our data show that smoking regular and low-TNCO cigarettes result in comparable levels of VOCs in blood and exhaled breath. Hence, declared TNCO-yields as determined with the ISO 3308 machine smoking protocol are irrelevant for predicting VOC exposure upon human smoking. Venous blood...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - November 5, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Charlotte G G M Pauwels, Kim F H Hintzen, Reinskje Talhout, Hans W J M Cremers, Jeroen L A Pennings, Agnieszka Smolinska, Antoon Opperhuizen, Frederik J Van Schooten and Agnes W Boots Source Type: research

Onset of action of inhaled glucocorticoids on bronchial and alveolar nitric oxide output
Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (F E NO) is a marker of airway inflammation. Measuring F E NO at multiple flow rates enables calculation of NO parameters: bronchial NO output ( J aw NO), bronchial wall ( C aw NO) and alveolar ( C A NO) NO concentrations, and bronchial diffusion factor of NO ( D aw NO). F E NO is known to rapidly reduce after the commencement of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment. However, little is known on the effect of ICS on the other NO parameters. We assessed (1) the onset of action of ICS treatment on the NO parameters and (2) whether the changes in bronchial NO output are due to changes in...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - November 5, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tuomas Karvonen, Anna Sepponen-Lavikko, Kati Holm, R üdiger Schultz, Eeva Moilanen and Lauri Lehtimäki Source Type: research

Breath acetone change during aerobic exercise is moderated by cardiorespiratory fitness
Exhaled breath acetone (BrAce) was investigated during and after submaximal aerobic exercise as a volatile biomarker for metabolic responsiveness in high and lower-fit individuals in a prospective cohort pilot-study. Twenty healthy adults (19 –39 years) with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2peak ), determined by spiroergometry, were recruited. BrAce was repeatedly measured by proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS) during 40 –55 min submaximal cycling exercise and a post-exercise period of 180 min. Activity of ketone and fat metabolism during and after exer...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 31, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Karsten K önigstein, Sebastian Abegg, Andrea N Schorn, Ines C Weber, Nina Derron, Andreas Krebs, Philipp A Gerber, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss and Andreas T Güntner Source Type: research

Adsorption kinetics feature extraction from breathprint obtained by graphene based sensors for diabetes diagnosis
The correlation between blood glucose and breath acetone suggested by several studies has spurred the research community to develop an electronic (e-nose) for diabetes diagnosis. Herein, we have validated the in-house graphene based sensors with known acetone concentration. The sensor performances such as sensitivity, selectivity and stability (SSS) suggested their potential use in acquiring breath print. The 10% higher mean saturation voltage for 30 diabetic subjects ensured a discrimination accuracy of 65% with a positive correlation ( r = 0.88) between biochemically measured and non-invasively estimated (glycated ...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 31, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ramji Kalidoss, Snekhalatha Umapathy, Radhakrishnan Kothalam and Uthvag Sakthivelu Source Type: research

The correlation between breath acetone and blood betahydroxybutyrate in individuals with type 1 diabetes
Ketone testing is an important element of the self-management of illness in type 1 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to see if a breath test for acetone could be used to predict quantitatively the levels of the ketone betahydroxybutyrate in the blood of those with type 1 diabetes, and thus be used as an alternative to capillary testing for ketones. Simultaneous capillary ketones and breath acetone were measured in 72 individuals with type 1 diabetes attending a diabetes clinic and on 9 individuals admitted to hospital with diabetic ketoacidosis. Capillary blood measurements ranged from 0.1 mmol l −1 (t...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 29, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gus Hancock, Shrinivas Sharma, Martin Galpin, Daniel Lunn, Clare Megson, Rob Peverall, Graham Richmond, Grant A D Ritchie and Katharine R Owen Source Type: research

Changes in volatile organic compounds provoked by lipopolysaccharide- or alpha toxin-induced inflammation in ventilated rats
Inflammation may alter volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath. We therefore used ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) to evaluate exhaled breath components in two non-infectious inflammatory models. Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized and ventilated for 24 h. Five treatments were randomly assigned: (1) lipopolysaccharide low dose [5 mg/kg]; (2) lipopolysaccharide high dose [10 mg/kg]; (3) alpha toxin low dose [40 µ g/kg]; (4) alpha toxin high dose [80 µ g/kg]; and, (5) NaCl 0.9% as control group. Gas was sampled from the expiratory line of the ventilator every 20 min and analyzed with...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 23, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dominik Lorenz, Felix Maurer, Dietmar Philipp, Fr éderic Albrecht, Tobias Hüppe, Daniel I Sessler, Beate Wolf, Thomas Volk, Sascha Kreuer and Tobias Fink Source Type: research

Breath markers for therapeutic radiation
This study evaluated changes in exhaled breath volatile organic compounds (VOC) associated with radiotherapy with thermal desorption gas chromatography mass-spectrometry followed by data processing and multivariate statistical analysis. Further the feasibility of adopting gas chromatography ion mobility spectrometry for radiotherapy point-of-care breath was assessed. A total of 62 participants provided 240 end-tidal 1 dm 3 breath samples before radiotherapy and at 1, 3, and 6 h post-exposure, that were analysed by thermal-desorption/gas-chromatography/quadrupole mass-spectrometry. Data were registered by retention-i...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 23, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dahlia Salman, Michael Eddleston, Kareen Darnley, William H Nailon, Duncan B McLaren, Andria Hadjithelki, Dorota Ruszkiewicz, Jens Langejuergen, Yaser Alkhalifa, Iain Phillips and C L Paul Thomas Source Type: research

Rapid non-invasive detection of Influenza-A-infection by multicapillary column coupled ion mobility spectrometry
Infectious pathogens are a global issue. Global air travel offers an easy and fast opportunity not only for people but also for infectious diseases to spread around the world within a few days. Also, large public events facilitate increasing infection numbers. Therefore, rapid on-site screening for infected people is urgently needed. Due to the small size and easy handling, ion mobility spectrometry coupled with a multicapillary column (MCC-IMS) is a very promising, sensitive method for the on-site identification of infectious pathogens based on scents, representing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The purpose of t...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 21, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Claus Steppert, Isabel Steppert, Thomas Bollinger and William Sterlacci Source Type: research

Breath testing for intra-abdominal infection: appendicitis, a preliminary study
In the current pilot study we aimed to determine whether breath analysis could be used to help recognise intra-abdominal infection, using acute appendicitis as an exemplar condition. Our study included 53 patients (aged 18 –88 years) divided into three groups: appendix group, 26 (13 male) patients suffering from acute appendicitis; control group 20 (seven male) patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery; normal group, seven patients who were clinically diagnosed with appendicitis, but whose appendix was normal on histological examination. Samples of breath were analysed using ion molecule reaction mass spec...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 21, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: B T Andrews, P Das, W Denzer, G A Ritchie, R Peverall, A M Hamade and G Hancock Source Type: research

A novel system for the comprehensive collection of nonvolatile molecules from human exhaled breath
Characterization of nonvolatile molecules in exhaled breath particles can be used for respiratory disease monitoring and diagnosis. Conventional methods for the collection of nonvolatile molecules in breath heavily rely on the physical properties of exhaled breath particles. Strategies taking advantage of their chemical properties have not yet been explored. In the present study, we developed a column system in which the surface chemistry between organic nonvolatile molecules and octadecyl carbon chain was exploited for the comprehensive collection of metabolites, lipids, and proteins. We demonstrated that the collec...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 20, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dapeng Chen, Wayne A Bryden and Michael McLoughlin Source Type: research

A special issue: Flow, pressure, volume and time as dependent variables in breath analysis
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Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 20, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Joachim D Pleil, Jonathan D Beauchamp, Raed A Dweik and Terence H Risby Source Type: research

A short perspective on a COVID-19 clinical study: ‘diagnosis of COVID-19 by RT-PCR using exhale breath condensate samples ’
Diagnosis of SARS-COV-2 infection (COVID-19) is currently based on detection of the viral RNA in nasopharyngeal swab samples by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). However, sampling via nasopharyngeal swabs frequently provokes sneezing or coughing, which results in increased risk of the viral dissemination and environmental contamination. Furthermore, the sensitivity associated with the PCR tests s limited to 60% –70%, which is mainly attributable to technical deficiency in sampling. Given that the disease is transmitted via exhaled aerosol and droplets, and that the exhaled breath condens...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 4, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Makoto Sawano, Kyousuke Takeshita, Hideaki Ohno and Hideaki Oka Source Type: research

Spatial mapping of VOC exhalation by means of bronchoscopic sampling
Breath analysis holds promise for non-invasive in vivo monitoring of disease related processes. However, physiological parameters may considerably affect profiles of exhaled volatile organic substances (VOCs). Volatile substances can be released via alveoli, bronchial mucosa or from the upper airways. The aim of this study was the systematic investigation of the influence of different sampling sites in the respiratory tract on VOC concentration profiles by means of a novel experimental setup. After ethical approval, breath samples were collected from 25 patients undergoing bronchoscopy for endobronchial ultrasound or...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 4, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Patricia Fuchs, Markus Trautner, Radost Sa ß, Svend Kamysek, Wolfram Miekisch, Andrea Bier, Paul Stoll and Jochen K Schubert Source Type: research

Volatile organic compound breath testing detects in-situ squamous cell carcinoma of bronchial and laryngeal regions and shows distinct profiles of each tumour
Volatile organic compound (VOC) breath testing of lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has been widely studied, however little is known regarding VOC profiles of in-situ SCC. A prospective study of VOC in patients with histologically proven SCC, either in-situ or advanced, and controls. Breath samples were analysed using the E-nose Cyranose ® 320 and by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Predictive models were developed using bootstrap forest using all 32 sensors. Data from 55 participants was analysed: 42 SCC cases comprising 20 bronchial (10 in-situ , 10 advanced) and 22 laryngeal (12 in-situ...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 4, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: David Fielding, Gunter Hartel, David Pass, Mark Davis, Michael Brown, Annette Dent, Julienne Agnew, Graeme Dickie, Robert S Ware and Robert Hodge Source Type: research

Impact of breath sampling on exhaled carbon monoxide
The influence of breath sampling on exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) and related pulmonary gas exchange parameters is investigated in a study with 32 healthy non-smokers. Mid-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and well-controlled online sampling is used to precisely measure mouth- and nose-exhaled CO expirograms at exhalation flow rates (EFRs) of 250, 120 and 60 ml s −1 , and for 10 s of breath-holding followed by exhalation at 120 ml s −1 . A trumpet model with axial diffusion is employed to fit simulated exhalation profiles to the experimental expirograms, which provides equilibrium airwa...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 4, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ramin Ghorbani, Anders Blomberg and Florian M Schmidt Source Type: research

Discovery, development and exploitation of steady-state biofilms
Early in vitro biofilm models go back even beyond the invention of the word 'biofilm'. In the dental field, biofilms were simply known as dental plaque and many of the first in vitro models were termed 'artificial mouth microcosm plaques'. The purpose of this review is to highlight important elements of research from over the years regarding in vitro biofilm models, including data from our own laboratories. This helps us to interpret the models and point the way to the future development of biofilm testing. Many hypotheses regarding biofilm phenomena, particularly ecology, metabolism and physiology of volatile sulphu...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 4, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: John Greenman, Keith Hewett and Saliha Saad Source Type: research

A short perspective on a COVID-19 clinical study: 'diagnosis of COVID-19 by RT-PCR using exhale breath condensate samples'
Diagnosis of SARS-COV-2 infection (COVID-19) is currently based on detection of the viral RNA in nasopharyngeal swab samples by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). However, sampling via nasopharyngeal swabs frequently provokes sneezing or coughing, which results in increased risk of the viral dissemination and environmental contamination. Furthermore, the sensitivity associated with the PCR tests s limited to 60% –70%, which is mainly attributable to technical deficiency in sampling. Given that the disease is transmitted via exhaled aerosol and droplets, and that the exhaled breath condens...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 4, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Makoto Sawano, Kyousuke Takeshita, Hideaki Ohno and Hideaki Oka Source Type: research

Breath research in times of a global pandemic and beyond: the game changer
In contrast to blood and urine samples, breath is invisible and ubiquitous in the environment. Different precautions are now necessary beyond the usual 'Universal Precautions'. In the era of COVID-19, breath (especially the aerosol fraction) can no longer be considered as harmless in the clinic or laboratory. As Journal of Breath Research is a primary resource for breath-related research, we (the editors) are presently developing safety guidance applicable to all breath research , not just for those projects that involve known COVID-19 infected subjects. We are starting this process by implementing requirements on re...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 4, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Joachim D Pleil, Jonathan D Beauchamp, Raed A Dweik and Terence H Risby Source Type: research

Investigating the relationship between breath aerosol size and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) metabolomic content
Exhaled breath aerosols contain valuable metabolomic content due to gas exchange with blood at the alveolar capillary interface in the lung. Passive and selective filtering of these aerosols and droplets may reduce the amount of saliva contaminants and serve as an aid to enhance targeted metabolomic content when sampled in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). It is currently unknown if breath aerosol size distribution affects the types or abundances of metabolites sampled through EBC. This pilot study uses a previously described hand-held human breath sampler device with varying notch filter geometries to redirect the tr...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - October 4, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Alexander J Schmidt, Eva Borras, Nicholas J Kenyon and Cristina E Davis Source Type: research

Exposure to cough aerosols and development of pulmonary COVID-19
We hypothesized that most patients with severe pulmonary COVID-19 were exposed to cough aerosols. Among patients that were almost 100% certain which person infected them, only 14 out of 38 overall, and 9 out of 25 hospitalized patients requiring supplemental oxygen, were infected by someone who coughed, which did not support our hypothesis. Talking, especially with a loud voice, could be an alternative source generating SARS-CoV-2 aerosols. Further research is needed to determine how SARS-CoV-2 spreads. Avoiding to talk when you are not wearing your mask and not talking with a loud voice, ‘voice etiquette&rsquo...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - September 30, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Koen Vanden Driessche, Jeremy Nestele, Jeroen Grouwels and Els LIM Duval Source Type: research

Headspace analysis of mesothelioma cell lines differentiates biphasic and epithelioid sub-types
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an incurable cancer. MM is often misdiagnosed, with a poor 5-year survival and limited treatment options. The discovery of endogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is required in order to accelerate the development of a breath test as an alternative to conventional MM diagnosis. For the first time, this study used solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify VOCs released directly from the biphasic MM cell line MSTO-211H and the epithelioid MM cell line NCI-H28 as well as the non-malignant mesothelial cell line MET-5A. Multivariate statistical ana...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - September 24, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Liam David Little, Vikki Amanda Carolan, Kathryn Elizabeth Allen, Laura Margaret Cole and Sarah Louise Haywood-Small Source Type: research

Characterization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) non-exchangeable hydrogen functional types and lung function of wildland firefighters
The objective of this study was to identify changes in metabolic profile of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and lung function of firefighters exposed to wildfires smoke. A total of 29 subjects were studied over 16 events; 14 of these subjects provided cross-shift EBC samples. The predominant types of non-exchangeable hydrogen in EBC were saturated oxygenated hydrogen, aliphatic alkyl and allylic. Non-exchangeable allylic and oxygenated hydrogen concentrations decreased in post-exposure EBC samples. Longer exposures were correlated with increased abundance of oxidized carbon in ketones, acids and esters. Post-exposur...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - September 22, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jordan Nelson, Marie-Cecile G Chalbot, Zoran Pavicevic and Ilias G Kavouras Source Type: research

GC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics of plasma and urine to evaluate metabolic changes in prostate cancer
Prostate cancer (CaP) is a common cancer in men. Its late detection and inefficient diagnosis are a challenge for researchers who are currently searching for new cancer-related indicators that would facilitate better detectability of CaP and explain its pathogenesis. In the present preliminary study, endogenous volatile metabolites were detected in plasma and urine samples by using the metabolic fingerprinting approach. The analyses were performed using the GC-QqQ/MS technique in the scan mode. The detected and putatively identified metabolites were statistically analyzed using advanced univariate and multivariate st...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - September 22, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Wiktoria Struck-Lewicka, Renata Wawrzyniak, Ma łgorzata Artymowicz, Marta Kordalewska, Marcin Markuszewski, Marcin Matuszewski, Piotr Gutknecht, Janusz Siebert and Michał Jan Markuszewski Source Type: research

Exhaled breath analysis using cavity-enhanced optical techniques: a review
Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopies (CEAS) have gained importance in a wide range of applications in molecular spectroscopy. The development of optical sensors based on the CEAS techniques coupled with the continuous wave or pulsed laser sources operating in the mid-infrared or near-infrared spectral regime uniquely offers molecularly selective and ultra-sensitive detection of trace species in complex matrices including exhaled human breath. In this review, we discussed recent applications of CEAS for analyzing trace constituents within the exhaled breath matrix facilitating the non-invasive assessment of human...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - September 22, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gourab D Banik and Boris Mizaikoff Source Type: research

Identification of profiles of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath by means of an electronic nose as a proposal for a screening method for breast cancer: a case-control study
The objective of the present study was to identify volatile prints from exhaled breath, termed breath-print, from breast cancer (BC) patients and healthy women by means of an electronic nose and to evaluate its potential use as a screening method. A cross-sectional study was performed on 443 exhaled breath samples from women, of whom 262 had been diagnosed with BC by biopsy and 181 were healthy women (control group). Breath-print analysis was performed utilizing the Cyranose 320 electronic nose. Group data were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA), canonical discriminant analysis (CDA), and support vector ...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - September 20, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lorena D íaz de León-Martínez, Maribel Rodríguez-Aguilar, Patricia Gorocica-Rosete, Carlos Alberto Domínguez-Reyes, Verónica Martínez-Bustos, Juan Alberto Tenorio-Torres, Omar Ornelas-Rebolledo, José Alfonso Cruz-Ramos, Berenice Balderas-Segura an Source Type: research

High intestinal hydrogen production in runners after intake of fructose solution
Fructose intake is associated with increased consumption of processed foods, specifically in the context of nutritional supplements. To assess gastrointestinal symptoms and hydrogen production after the ingestion of a fructose solution in runners, healthy and sick persons. Hydrogen test (H2 test) was performed after the intake a solution with 50 g fructose along with the application of a questionnaire to evaluate the gastrointestinal symptoms during the H2 test in three groups: Athletes group (AG); control group (CG) with healthy subjects; and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease group (NAFLDG). Statistical analysis was...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - August 12, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Juliana M F Sicchieri, Gabriele Junqueira, Camila Sanches Manca, Anderson Marliere Navarro and Ricardo Brandt de Oliveira Source Type: research

Accurate real-time F E NO expirograms using complementary optical sensors
In this study we report on a novel method for accurate, highly time-resolved, real time detection of F E NO at the mouth. The experimental arrangement is based on a combination of optical sensors for the determination of the temporal profile of exhaled NO and CO 2 concentrations. Breath CO 2 and exhalation flow are measured at the mouth using diode laser absorption spectroscopy (at 2 μ m) and differential pressure sensing, respectively. NO is determined in a sidestream configuration using a quantum cascade laser based, cavity-enhanced absorption cell (at 5.2 μ m) which simultaneously measures sidestream CO 2 ....
Source: Journal of Breath Research - August 12, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lorenzo S Petralia, Anisha Bahl, Rob Peverall, Graham Richmond, John H Couper, Gus Hancock, Peter A Robbins and Grant A D Ritchie Source Type: research

A benchmarking protocol for breath analysis: the peppermint experiment
Sampling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has shown promise for detection of a range of diseases but results have proved hard to replicate due to a lack of standardization. In this work we introduce the ‘Peppermint Initiative’. The initiative seeks to disseminate a standardized experiment that allows comparison of breath sampling and data analysis methods. Further, it seeks to share a set of benchmark values for the measurement of VOCs in breath. Pilot data are presented to illustrate the standardized approach to the interpretation of results obtained from the Peppermint experiment. This pilot study w...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - August 8, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ben Henderson, Dorota M Ruszkiewicz, Max Wilkinson, Jonathan D Beauchamp, Simona M Cristescu, Stephen J Fowler, Dahlia Salman, Fabio Di Francesco, Gudrun Koppen, Jens Langej ürgen, Olaf Holz, Andria Hadjithekli, Sergi Moreno, Michele Pedrotti, Pablo Sinu Source Type: research

Breath diagnostics in the era of SARS-CoV-2 —clinical and research arena
The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has transformed not just healthcare, but also economic systems on a global scale. Despite significant efforts to contain the infection, it continues to spread. Stringent infection control measures have been taken to minimise the transmission between individuals and healthcare workers, especially those undertaking aerosol generating medical procedures. The uncertainties surrounding infection transmission through breath tests in particular, and to some extent faecal testing, will invariably cause concerns amongst both the patients and healthcare workers. It is therefore pertinen...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - August 8, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: S Chandrapalan, K Persaud and R P Arasaradnam Source Type: research