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Association of Autism with Maternal Infections, Perinatal and Other Risk Factors: A Case-Control Study.
Abstract This case-control study explores the association between pregnancy/birth complications and other factors with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Lebanese subjects aged 2-18 years. Researchers interviewed 136 ASD cases from the American University of Beirut Medical Center Special Kids Clinic, and 178 controls selected by systematic digit dialing in the Greater-Beirut area. Male gender (Adjusted Odds Ratio [95% CI]: 3.9 [2.2-7.0]); postpartum feeding difficulties (2.5 [1.2-5.4]); maternal infections/complications during pregnancy (2.9 [1.5-5.5], 2.1 [1.1-3.9]); consanguinity (2.5 [1.0-6.0]); family hist...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Guisso DR, Saadeh FS, Saab D, El Deek J, Chamseddine S, El Hassan HA, Majari G, Boustany RM Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Profiles and Correlates of Parent-Child Agreement on Social Anxiety Symptoms in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
This study characterized patterns and correlates of parent-youth agreement on social anxiety in youth with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants (279 verbally-fluent youth aged 8-16 years, NASD = 144, NTD = 135) completed the SASC-R. Youth with ASD exhibited higher social anxiety across informants. While TD youth endorsed higher anxiety than did parents, self- and parent-reports did not differ in youth with ASD. For children with ASD, higher parent-youth agreement was associated with lower lifetime ASD symptoms and higher adaptive skills. For TD youth, agreement on high a...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Burrows CA, Usher LV, Becker-Haimes EM, McMahon CM, Mundy PC, Jensen-Doss A, Henderson HA Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Social Affect and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors Measured on the ADOS-2 and Maternal Stress.
This study investigated categories of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition and their association with maternal stress. Social affect and restricted and repetitive behaviors were compared with levels of maternal stress, measured by the Parenting Stress Index, in 102 children with ASD ages 2-12 years of age. Results indicated that social affect and restricted and repetitive behaviors were associated with the mother's stress regarding acceptability of the child's condition. Additionally, restricted and repetitive behaviors were significantly related...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Schutte C, Richardson W, Devlin M, Hill J, Ghossainy M, Hewitson L Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Associations Between Resilience and the Well-Being of Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Other Developmental Disabilities.
Abstract There is variability in the extent to which mothers are affected by the behavior problems of their children with developmental disabilities (DD). We explore whether maternal resilience functions as a protective or compensatory factor. In Studies 1 and 2, using moderated multiple regression models, we found evidence that maternal resilience functioned as a compensatory factor-having a significant independent main effect relationship with well-being outcomes in mothers of children with DD and autism spectrum disorder. However, there was no longitudinal association between resilience and maternal well-being ...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Halstead E, Ekas N, Hastings RP, Griffith GM Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Amor and Social Stigma: ASD Beliefs Among Immigrant Mexican Parents.
This study examined cultural beliefs about ASD and its causes among Mexican-heritage families. In focus group interviews, we asked 25 immigrant parents of children with ASD to identify words they associated with ASD and its causes. Participants free-listed, ranked, and justified their responses. Mixed methods analyses utilized saliency scores to calculate responses. Deductive interview analyses justified participants' responses. Salient responses for ASD perceptions included specific characteristics about the child (e.g., loving) and perceptions about lack of resources. Salient responses for ASD causes were vaccines, genet...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Cohen SR, Miguel J Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Social Support as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship Between Parenting Stress and Life Satisfaction Among the Chinese Parents of Children with ASD.
Abstract Although numerous studies have demonstrated that social support affects a range of life experiences, few have examined its moderating and mediating effects. In the current study, 479 Chinese parents of children with ASD (aged 3-18 years) completed the surveys assessing parenting stress, social support and life satisfaction. Results indicated that parenting stress, social support and life satisfaction were significantly related. Moreover, social support both mediated and moderated the influence of parenting stress on life satisfaction. These findings imply that parenting stress and social support are ...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lu MH, Wang GH, Lei H, Shi ML, Zhu R, Jiang F Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Effectiveness of a Multisystem Aquatic Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Abstract Aquatic therapy improves motor skills of persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), but its usefulness for treating functional difficulties needs to be verified yet. We tested effectiveness of a multisystem aquatic therapy on behavioural, emotional, social and swimming skills of children with ASD. Multisystem aquatic therapy was divided in three phases (emotional adaptation, swimming adaptation and social integration) implemented in a 10-months-programme. At post-treatment, the aquatic therapy group showed significant improvements relative to controls on functional adaptation (Vineland Adaptive Behavio...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Caputo G, Ippolito G, Mazzotta M, Sentenza L, Muzio MR, Salzano S, Conson M Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults: Consequences for Primary Caregivers Compared to Schizophrenia and Depression.
This study used the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire to explore the level of consequences of 104 caregivers involved with adults with High Functioning ASD (HF-ASD) and compared these with the consequences reported by caregivers of patients suffering from depression and schizophrenia. Caregivers involved with adults with an HF-ASD experience overall consequences comparable to those involved with patients with depression or schizophrenia. Worrying was the most reported consequence. More tension was experienced by the caregivers of ASD patients, especially by spouses. More care and attention for spouses of adults with an ...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Grootscholten IAC, van Wijngaarden B, Kan CC Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Brief Report: Caregiver Strategy Implementation-Advancing Spoken Communication in Children Who are Minimally Verbal.
Abstract Research has demonstrated that caregivers' use of intervention strategies can support their children's social engagement and communication. However, it is not clear to what degree caregivers must master the strategies to effectively support gains in social communication, specifically, core challenges such as joint attention language (comments). Twenty-two minimally verbal school-age children with autism received a social communication intervention with caregiver coaching. Through 10 min caregiver-child play interactions at eight time points, significant increase were found in children's spontaneous l...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shire SY, Shih W, Kasari C Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Protective Factors Against Distress for Caregivers of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract Caregivers of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often experience elevated distress. The current study examined potential protective factors against caregiver distress when child externalizing and internalizing behaviors are present: family resources, perceived social support, parenting efficacy, knowledge of ASD, and the agreement between actual and perceived knowledge of ASD. Caregivers of a child with ASD completed an online questionnaire. Results demonstrated main effects for externalizing behavior, family resources, and perceived social support. Significant interactions were found among pare...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lindsey RA, Barry TD Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Acceptance or Despair? Maternal Adjustment to Having a Child Diagnosed with Autism.
Abstract Psychological adjustment to having one's child diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder has important implications for a parent's mental health. In a longitudinal study, we examined the association between maternal adjustment to the diagnosis and measures of distress and well-being in 90 mothers of children with autism (baseline and 18 months). We used a novel 30-item scale "Adjustment to the Diagnosis of Autism." Factor analysis identified three dimensions of adjustment: acceptance, self-blame, and despair. Acceptance appeared to be a protective response, as it was associated with lower depre...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Da Paz NS, Siegel B, Coccia MA, Epel ES Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Autism Spectrum Symptomatology Among Children with Duplication 7q11.23 Syndrome.
Abstract Gold-standard diagnostic assessments of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology were conducted on 63 children (mean CA: 8.81 years) with 7q11.23 duplication syndrome, one of the copy number variants identified by Sanders et al. (Neuron 70:863-885, 2011a) as associated with ASD. ASD classification rate was 39.6% for the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and 25.4% for the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2 (ADOS-2). Based on these assessments combined with clinical judgment, 19.0% of children were diagnosed with ASD. Reasons for these discrepancies are discussed, as are differences in rat...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Klein-Tasman BP, Mervis CB Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

An Evaluation of Behavioral Skills Training for Teaching Caregivers How to Support Social Skill Development in Their Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract Limited research has explored how to best train caregivers to support their child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) despite caregivers being well suited to promote generalization and maintenance of their child's skills in the natural environment. Children with ASD have been shown to benefit from social skill training, which is not always conducted in the natural context. This research examined the efficacy of behavioral skills training (BST) with, and without in situ training (IST), for teaching caregivers how to also use BST to support their child's context-specific social skills. Although caregivers m...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hassan M, Simpson A, Danaher K, Haesen J, Makela T, Thomson K Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Subgrouping Autism Based on Symptom Severity Leads to Differences in the Degree of Convergence Between Core Feature Domains.
We examined standardized parent ratings of symptoms from three domains (social, communication, repetitive behaviors) in large samples of typically developing children, children with ASD, and ASD subgroups. Our results suggest that the most evidence for divergence lies in typically developing children and lower severity ASD cases, while more evidence for convergence is found in a subset of cases with more severe impairment on any core feature. These results highlight the importance of subgrouping ASD given the degree of phenotypic heterogeneity present across the autism spectrum. PMID: 29307039 [PubMed - as supplied by...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Whitten A, Unruh KE, Shafer RL, Bodfish JW Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Parental Broad Autism Phenotype and the Language Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract Father-child and mother-child interactions were examined in order to investigate concurrent associations between three characteristics of parental broad autism phenotype (i.e., aloofness, rigidity, pragmatic language deficits), parental verbal responsiveness, and language skills of children with ASD. Results for mothers indicated that aloofness and rigidity were negatively associated with both child-initiated engagement and child language skills. Maternal aloofness was also negatively correlated with verbal responsiveness to their children, but rigidity was not. Results suggest that the association betwee...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Flippin M, Watson LR Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

An Initial Psychometric Evaluation of the Joint Attention Protocol.
Abstract The goal of this paper is to examine the psychometric properties of a live-coded behavioral measure of joint attention, the Attention-Following and Initiating Joint Attention Protocol (JA Protocol), in order to assist researchers and clinicians in identifying when this measure may meet their joint attention assessment needs. Data from 260 children with autism spectrum disorder, developmental delay, or typical development between the ages of 2 and 12 years were used to evaluate this measure using quality standards for measurement. Overall, the JA Protocol demonstrated good psychometric properties. Rec...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nowell SW, Watson LR, Faldowski RA, Baranek GT Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Psychometric Properties of the Spanish Version of the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire: Strengths, Weaknesses, and Future Improvements.
ute;vez AF, Sayans-Jiménez P Abstract The Broad autism phenotype (BAP) refers to a set of subclinical behavioural characteristics qualitatively similar to those presented in Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The BAP questionnaire (BAPQ) has been widely used to assess the BAP both in relatives of ASD people and within the general population. The current study presents the first Spanish version of the BAPQ (BAPQ-SP) and analyses its psychometric properties, including validity evidences based on the BAPQ scores relationship with other variables. Our results only support the use of the Aloof and Rigid sub-scale...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 27, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Godoy-Giménez M, González-Rodríguez A, Cañadas F, Estévez AF, Sayans-Jiménez P Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Examining the Links Between Challenging Behaviors in Youth with ASD and Parental Stress, Mental Health, and Involvement: Applying an Adaptation of the Family Stress Model to Families of Youth with ASD.
This study illustrates the importance of considering the entire family system in research on youth with ASD. PMID: 29275509 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders)
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Schiltz HK, McVey AJ, Magnus B, Dolan BK, Willar KS, Pleiss S, Karst J, Carson AM, Caiozzo C, Vogt E, Van Hecke AV Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Selective Impairment of Basic Emotion Recognition in People with Autism: Discrimination Thresholds for Recognition of Facial Expressions of Varying Intensities.
Abstract Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by early onset qualitative impairments in reciprocal social development. However, whether individuals with ASD exhibit impaired recognition of facial expressions corresponding to basic emotions is debatable. To investigate subtle deficits in facial emotion recognition, we asked 14 children diagnosed with high-functioning autism (HFA)/AS and 17 typically developing peers to complete a new highly sensitive test of facial emotion recognition. The test stimuli comprised faces expressing increasing degrees of emotional intensity that slowly changed from a neutr...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Song Y, Hakoda Y Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

The Effects of a Peer-Delivered Social Skills Intervention for Adults with Comorbid Down Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract Deficits in social skills are often exhibited in individuals with comorbid Down syndrome (DS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and there is a paucity of research to help guide intervention for this population. In the present study, a multiple probe study across behaviors, replicated across participants, assessed the effectiveness of peer-delivered simultaneous prompting in teaching socials skills to adults with DS-ASD using visual analysis techniques and Tau-U statistics to measure effect. Peer-mediators with DS and intellectual disability (ID) delivered simultaneous prompting sessions reliably (i.e.,&...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Davis MAC, Spriggs A, Rodgers A, Campbell J Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Advantages and Challenges of a Home- and Clinic-Based Model of Behavioral Intervention for Individuals Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract Researchers have demonstrated that comprehensive behavioral intervention can result in significant improvements in the lives of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; e.g.; Lovaas, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 55(1):3-9, 1987; McEachin et al., American Journal of Mental Retardation 97(4):359-372, 1993). This intervention has occurred in a variety of settings (e.g., school, home, and clinic). Even though procedures based upon the principles of applied behavior analysis (ABA) can be implemented across a variety of settings, there is often confusion about the differences a...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Leaf JB, Leaf R, McEachin J, Cihon JH, Ferguson JL Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Brief Report: Improving Social Outcomes for Students with Autism at Recess Through Peer-Mediated Pivotal Response Training.
Abstract Many students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) struggle to appropriately interact and play with their peers at recess. In this pilot feasibility study, we tested the efficacy of practitioner-implemented, peer-mediated Pivotal Response Training (PRT) with 11 elementary and middle school students with ASD. Participants were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group. We measured outcomes at multiple time points, and analyzed data using multi-level modeling with time nested within student. We demonstrated large and statistically significant increases in peer interaction (d = 1.13). Ap...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 18, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Brock ME, Dueker SA, Barczak MA Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Development of Emotion Self-Regulation Among Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Parents.
Abstract Emotional self-regulation (ESR) challenges are well-documented in the diagnostic profiles of children with Autism; however, less is known about the development of ESR and the role of parents in ESR development for this population. Thirty-seven young children with autism and one of their parents participated in a home-based, observational study exploring the associations between the children's social communication and sensory processing characteristics and their parents' behaviors associated with ESR development. Findings revealed that parent use of physical and language behaviors were associated with chil...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 16, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Laurent AC, Gorman K Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

What Works for College Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
This article reports the results of a systematic review of the emerging research on programs and services designed to meet the needs of students with ASD. For the purposes of this review, only articles that included data on program outcomes were included. A total of eight studies that met this criterion were identified. These studies included three that examined the effects of cognitive-behavioral interventions, three that reported the results of methods to enhance social communication skills, one study of a transition to college program, and one evaluation of a variety of widely used accommodations. This review identifies...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 16, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kuder SJ, Accardo A Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Identifying Autism with a Brief and Low-Cost Screening Instrument-OERA: Construct Validity, Invariance Testing, and Agreement Between Judges.
Abstract Simple and low-cost observational-tools to detect symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are still necessary. The OERA is a new assessment tool to screen children eliciting observable behaviors with no substantial knowledge on ASD required. The sample was 99 children aged 3-10: 76 with ASD and 23 without ASD (11/23 had intellectual disability). The 13 remained items exhibited high interrater agreement and high reliability loaded onto a single latent trait. Such model showed excellent fit indices evaluated via confirmatory factor analysis and no item showed differential function in terms of age/sex/IQ....
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Paula CS, Cunha GR, Bordini D, Brunoni D, Moya AC, Bosa CA, Mari JJ, Cogo-Moreira H Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Validating the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire as a Measure of Parent Perceptions of Autism Spectrum Disorder.
In this study, the factor structure of a version revised for use with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was investigated with a sample of parents (n = 361) whose children have ASD. Subsequently, multidimensional item response theory was used to evaluate item and subscale properties. Results indicated items from five of the seven IPQ-R-ASD scales loaded as expected, though subscales related to control were not distinct. Additionally, parents' response patterns were evaluated and discussed. Use of this measure in ASD-focused research may enhance understanding of how parents' cognitions of their child's ASD impacts...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 14, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mire SS, Tolar TD, Brewton CM, Raff NS, McKee SL Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Bullying and Identity Development: Insights from Autistic and Non-autistic College Students.
Abstract Reduced cognitive empathy may put autistic people at risk for bullying. We compared interpretations of bullying provided by 22 autistic and 15 non-autistic college students. Autistic (and non-autistic) students reported less severe bullying in college relative to earlier in development. Chronic bullying was associated with improvements in self-descriptions and self-acceptance. Autistic students who were chronically bullied were more likely to self-identify as autistic when asked to explain their disability. Autistic and non-autistic students demonstrated similar levels of cognitive empathy, providing no e...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 14, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: DeNigris D, Brooks PJ, Obeid R, Alarcon M, Shane-Simpson C, Gillespie-Lynch K Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Autism and Accommodations in Higher Education: Insights from the Autism Community.
This article builds on the growing body of research on higher education for autistic students by soliciting input from autistic adults on their higher education experiences and suggestions on making these experiences more 'autism-friendly'. Sixty-six individuals participated in a national exploratory survey and thirty-one participated in follow-up, online focus groups. The article reviews the accommodations individuals received and the accommodations they would have liked to receive. Concrete strategies are provided for institutes of higher education to address the social and sensory needs of autistic students, areas many ...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 14, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sarrett JC Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Parents' Use of Complementary Health Approaches for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract Knowledge of why parents use complementary health approaches (CHA) for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited. We conducted a mixed methods study to better understand factors influencing parents' decision to use CHA for ASD. Parent-reported data about CHA use were collected on a probability sample of 352 young children with ASD in Denver, Colorado; Los Angeles, California; or Portland, Oregon. Follow-back interviews were conducted with 31 parents. CHA use was negatively associated with older child age and positively associated with parents' belief ASD has major consequences, living in Por...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 14, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lindly OJ, Thorburn S, Heisler K, Reyes NM, Zuckerman KE Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Perceptions of Physical Activity Participation Among Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Conceptual Model of Conditional Participation.
Abstract Adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are less physically active compared to typically developing peers. The reasons for not being physically active are complex and depend on several factors, which have not been comprehensively described from the adolescent's perspective. Therefore, the aim was to describe how adolescents with an ASD perceive, experience and reflect on their participation in physical activity. Interviews with 24 adolescents diagnosed with high-functioning ASD, aged 12-16 years, were analysed with qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. They expressed a variet...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 13, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Arnell S, Jerlinder K, Lundqvist LO Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Brief Report: Factors Associated with Emergency Department Visits for Epilepsy Among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
We examined how demographic and clinical characteristics differ between emergency department (ED) visits for epilepsy (EP cohort) and ED visits for other reasons (non-EP cohort) in children with ASD. The data were drawn from the 2009 and 2010 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. We performed both univariate and multivariate analyses to compare and contrast similarities and differences between EP cohort and non-EP cohort among children with ASD. The results showed ED visits in EP cohort were more likely to occur among adolescents aged 13-17 years, less likely to occur among children with co-occurring psychiatric conditio...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 12, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Zhang W, Baranek G, Boyd B Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of the ACCESS Program: A Group Intervention to Improve Social, Adaptive Functioning, Stress Coping, and Self-Determination Outcomes in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract The purpose of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to investigate the acceptability and efficacy of the Acquiring Career, Coping, Executive control, Social Skills (ACCESS) Program, a group intervention tailored for young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to enhance critical skills and beliefs that promote adult functioning, including social and adaptive skills, self-determination skills, and coping self-efficacy. Forty-four adults with ASD (ages 18-38; 13 females) and their caregivers were randomly assigned to treatment or waitlist control. Compared to controls, adults in treatment signifi...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 12, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Oswald TM, Winder-Patel B, Ruder S, Xing G, Stahmer A, Solomon M Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Emotion Coregulation Processes between Mothers and their Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder: Associations with Children's Maladaptive Behaviors.
Abstract A dyadic microanalysis approach was used to examine emotion coregulation processes in mother-child interactions in relation to children's maladaptive behaviors. Seventy-two mother-child dyads (46 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); 26 neurotypical children) were previously videotaped in a semi-structured play procedure at home and mothers reported on children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Mother-child interactions were reliably coded in 5-second intervals and analyzed using Space State Grid software. Regression analyses supported moderation, whereby greater dyadic flexibility and ...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 12, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Valentovich V, Goldberg WA, Garfin DR, Guo Y Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

An Evaluation of a Social Skills Intervention for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disabilities preparing for Employment in Ireland: A Pilot Study.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Walker social skills curriculum: the ACCESS program and video modeling to increase social communication skills necessary for workplace inclusion. Participants attended two sessions (i.e., 3 h) per week across a period of 20 weeks. A multiple-probe design was used to demonstrate social skills outcomes across three broad curricular areas (i.e., peer-related, adult-related, and self-related social skills). Pre-and post-intervention standardized assessments were also taken. Results showed significant increases in target social skills and a significant decrease in problem ...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Walsh E, Holloway J, Lydon H Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

How do Parents Manage Irritability, Challenging Behaviour, Non-Compliance and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders? A Meta-Synthesis.
ens I Abstract Although there is increasing research interest in the parenting of children with ASD, at present, little is known about everyday strategies used to manage problem behaviour. We conducted a meta-synthesis to explore what strategies parents use to manage irritability, non-compliance, challenging behaviour and anxiety in their children with ASD. Approaches included: (1) accommodating the child; (2) modifying the environment; (3) providing structure, routine and occupation; (4) supervision and monitoring; (5) managing non-compliance with everyday tasks; (6) responding to problem behaviour; (7) managing ...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: O'Nions E, Happé F, Evers K, Boonen H, Noens I Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Broadening the Scope of Peer-Mediated Intervention for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders.
In conclusion, we provide a description of a befriending scheme for individuals with ASD to inspire future research and guidelines on PMI. PMID: 29222613 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders)
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Płatos M, Wojaczek K Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Documenting and Understanding Parent's Intervention Choices for Their Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract Understanding why parents choose some interventions but not others for their child with autism is important for a number of reasons. Estimating the proportion of evidence-based interventions engaged, identifying the agencies influencing parental decisions, and elucidating the barriers or reasons leading to intervention rejection or discontinuation can result in better service provision. New Zealand parents (n = 570) of a child with autism reported what interventions were being engaged, and why some interventions were engaged but not others. Funding was a major determinant of intervention eng...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 6, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shepherd D, Csako R, Landon J, Goedeke S, Ty K Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Abilities to Explicitly and Implicitly Infer Intentions from Actions in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract Previous research suggests that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) might be associated with impairments on implicit but not explicit mentalizing tasks. However, such comparisons are made difficult by the heterogeneity of stimuli and the techniques used to measure mentalizing capabilities. We tested the abilities of 34 individuals (17 with ASD) to derive intentions from others' actions during both explicit and implicit tasks and tracked their eye-movements. Adults with ASD displayed explicit but not implicit mentalizing deficits. Adults with ASD displayed typical fixation patterns during both implicit and expl...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 6, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Cole EJ, Slocombe KE, Barraclough NE Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Brief Report: Factor Analysis of the Brazilian Version of the Adult Autism Spectrum Quotient.
This study examined the factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. This is a self-report questionnaire for continuous and quantitative assessment of autistic spectrum traits in adults. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the five-factor model (social skill, attention switching, attention to detail, communication and imagination) proposed by the original authors, support not being found for this model in our sample. An exploratory factor analysis was then performed that resulted in an alternative three-factor model (social skills, details/patterns and imagination). Confirmatory fact...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 4, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: do Egito JHT, Ferreira GMR, Gonçalves MI, Osório AAC Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

What About the Girls? Sex-Based Differences in Autistic Traits and Adaptive Skills.
This study utilized an age- and IQ-matched sample of school-aged youth (n = 228) diagnosed with ASD to assess sex differences on the ADOS and ADI-R, parent-reported autistic traits, and adaptive skills. Although females and males were rated similarly on gold-standard diagnostic measures overall, females with higher IQs were less likely to meet criteria on the ADI-R. Females were also found to be significantly more impaired on parent reported autistic traits and adaptive skills. Overall, the findings suggest that some autistic females may be missed by current diagnostic procedures. PMID: 29204929 [PubMed ...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 4, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ratto AB, Kenworthy L, Yerys BE, Bascom J, Wieckowski AT, White SW, Wallace GL, Pugliese C, Schultz RT, Ollendick TH, Scarpa A, Seese S, Register-Brown K, Martin A, Anthony LG Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Brief Report: Screening Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder for Anxiety and Depression.
This study provides descriptive data for a cohort of 155 autistic adults (mean age = 27.1 years, SD = 11.9) of average IQ on the short-form version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the Mini Social Phobia Inventory. Also included were 79 non-ASD participants (mean age = 26.2, SD = 10.2) who completed the mini-SPIN. A substantial percentage (39-46%) of autistic adults scored within the 'Moderate' to 'Extremely Severe' range on the DASS-21. The DASS-21 would be a valuable rapid screening device for these comorbid conditions in autistic adults. PMID: 29198...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 2, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nah YH, Brewer N, Young RL, Flower R Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Mismatch Negativity and P3a in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Behavioral Correlates and Clinical Implications.
Abstract In a sample of 37 adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 35 typically-developing controls (TDC), we investigated sensory symptoms by clinical measures, and Mismatch Negativity and P3a component at Fz with the frequency and duration oddball paradigms of event-related potentials. Results showed that compared to TDC, ASD participants reported more sensory symptoms, and presented a shorter P3a peak latency in the duration paradigm, which was correlated with more social awareness deficits. In the frequency paradigm, P3a parameters were correlated with sensation avoiding and attent...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 2, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chien YL, Hsieh MH, Gau SS Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

School Age Outcomes of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Received Community-Based Early Interventions.
This study followed children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) from early intervention into their early schooling years, when they were aged between 6 and 9 years, on autism symptom severity and cognitive functioning. The children, matched at pre-intervention, were compared on type of community provided service: 31 were in receipt of community-based group Early Start Denver Model and 28 had received other community provisions for ASD. Irrespective of groups, cognitive functioning was found to have significantly improved by school age compared to pre-intervention. Autism symptom severity increased during the same dev...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Vinen Z, Clark M, Paynter J, Dissanayake C Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Choosing an Appropriate Physical Exercise to Reduce Stereotypic Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Non-randomized Crossover Study.
Abstract Considerable evidence has shown that physical exercise could be an effective treatment in reducing stereotypical autism spectrum disorder (ASD) behaviors in children. The present study seeks to examine the underlying mechanism by considering the theoretical operant nature of stereotypy. Children with ASD (n = 30) who exhibited hand-flapping and body-rocking stereotypies were asked to participate in both control (story-time) and experimental (ball-tapping-exercise intervention) conditions. The experimental condition comprised 15 min of ball tapping during which the children were asked to...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tse CYA, Pang CL, Lee PH Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Parent Perceptions of Psychosocial Outcomes of Equine-Assisted Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract This research explored parents' perceptions of the psychosocial outcomes of their children's experience of receiving equine-assisted interventions (EAI). Participants were the parents of six children (aged 3-14) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Five semi-structured interviews were conducted and the transcript data was analysed using Interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four super-ordinate themes emerged from the analysis: (1) child's improved self-concept and enhanced emotional well-being, (2) child's improved self-regulatory ability, (3) social benefits for the child, and (4) unexpected outc...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - December 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tan VX, Simmonds JG Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Comparing Parental Well-Being and Its Determinants Across Three Different Genetic Disorders Causing Intellectual Disability.
Abstract Using the Short Form 12 Health Survey this cross-sectional study examined parental well-being in caregivers of children with one of three genetic disorders associated with intellectual disability; Down syndrome, Rett syndrome and the CDKL5 disorder. Data were sourced from the Western Australian Down Syndrome (n = 291), Australian Rett Syndrome (n = 187) and International CDKL5 Disorder (n = 168) Databases. Among 596 mothers (median age, years 43.7; 24.6-72.2), emotional well-being was poorer than general female populations across age groups. Multivariate linear re...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - November 30, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mori Y, Downs J, Wong K, Heyworth J, Leonard H Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Emotion Regulation Strategies in Preschoolers with Autism: Associations with Parent Quality of Life and Family Functioning.
Abstract Children with autism experience challenges with emotion regulation. It is unclear how children's management of their emotions is associated with their family's quality of life. Forty-three preschoolers with autism and 28 typically developing preschoolers were coded on emotion regulation strategies used during low-level stress tasks. Parents reported on their quality of life and family functioning, and their child's internalizing and externalizing behaviors. More externalizing behaviors across groups and use of two emotion regulation strategies (self-soothing, deep exhalation) in the autism group predicted...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - November 30, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nuske HJ, Hedley D, Tseng CH, Begeer S, Dissanayake C Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Improving Efficiency and Quality of the Children's ASD Diagnostic Pathway: Lessons Learned from Practice.
This study reports statistically significant reductions in waiting times for autism diagnostic assessment following a children's health service improvement programme. The average wait between referral and first appointment reduced from 14.2 to 10.4 weeks (t(21) = 4.3, p 
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - November 30, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rutherford M, Burns M, Gray D, Bremner L, Clegg S, Russell L, Smith C, O'Hare A Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

The Glasgow Sensory Questionnaire: Validation of a French Language Version and Refinement of Sensory Profiles of People with High Autism-Spectrum Quotient.
itz C Abstract Sensory sensitivity peculiarities represent an important characteristic of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). We first validated a French language version of the Glasgow Sensory Questionnaire (GSQ) (Robertson and Simmons in J Autism Dev Disord 43(4):775-784, 2013). The GSQ score was strongly positively correlated with the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) (r = 0.81, p 
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - November 30, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sapey-Triomphe LA, Moulin A, Sonié S, Schmitz C Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Predictors of Satisfaction with Life in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
This study examined the relationships between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, care-related activities, and satisfaction with life (SWL) in 184 parents caring for a child with ASD in New Zealand. The relationships between coping styles and SWL were also examined. The parents' SWL scores indicated they were slightly dissatisfied with their lives. A stepwise linear regression showed three predictors (care-related health problems, carer esteem and financial difficulties) explained 47% of the variance in SWL scores. Several coping styles were associated with lowered SWL, and only emotional support was related to increa...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - November 30, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Landon J, Shepherd D, Goedeke S Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research