Associated Factors of Self-injury Among Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Community and Residential Treatment Setting.
Abstract Self-injurious behavior (SIB) occurs in up to 50% of individuals with autism. As one of the most serious conditions in individuals with developmental disabilities, SIB affects the individual and his or her family in multiple contexts. A systematic analysis of factors most commonly associated with SIB could inform the development of individualized intervention strategies. The current study examined factors related to SIB in an analysis of client records of 145 children with autism in a comprehensive care center. Predictor variables included age, gender, the Adaptive Behavior Composite, sensory processing, ...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Flowers J, Lantz J, Hamlin T, Simeonsson RJ Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Definitions of Nonverbal and Minimally Verbal in Research for Autism: A Systematic Review of the Literature.
Abstract This systematic review examined definitions of "nonverbal" or "minimally verbal" and assessment measures used to evaluate communication in intervention studies focusing on improving expressive verbal communication in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We reviewed sample size, number of participants, participant age, and male/female representation. Our analysis yielded relatively few studies with non/minimally verbal children with ASD focusing on verbal expressive communication. Further, we found large inconsistencies in measures used, definitions of "nonverbal" and...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Koegel LK, Bryan KM, Su PL, Vaidya M, Camarata S Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Behaviors Interfering with Audiometry Associated with Eventual Diagnosis of Autism.
Abstract Children referred for audiology evaluation due to speech and language delays represent a neurodevelopmentally high-risk group. The audiology evaluation is a behaviorally-challenging encounter early in the diagnostic process. We assessed interfering behaviors (IB) that complicated completion of audiometry as predictors of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis. This retrospective cohort study using the Military Health System electronic medical record included 296 children aged 18 to 71 months. Children who displayed IB had increased odds of receiving an ASD diagnosis compared to those who did not (O...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Meagher SP, Carlson BL, Elrod MG Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Health Disparities Among Sexual and Gender Minorities with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract We explored the health and health care experiences of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ+) using data from a national, internet-based survey of adults with disabilities supplemented by focused interviews. LGBTQ+ respondents had significantly higher rates of mental illness, poor physical health days per month, and smoking compared to straight, cisgender respondents with ASD. LGBTQ+ respondents also reported much higher rates of unmet health care need, inadequate insurance provider networks, and rates of being refused services by a...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hall JP, Batza K, Streed CG, Boyd BA, Kurth NK Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

An Acoustic Characterization of Prosodic Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorder and First-Degree Relatives.
This study examined prosody through characterization of acoustic properties of the speech of individuals with ASD and their parents, during narration. A subset of utterances were low-pass filtered and rated for differences in intonation, speech rate, and rhythm. Listener ratings were minimally related to acoustic measures, underscoring the complexity of atypical prosody in ASD. Acoustic analyses revealed greater utterance-final fundamental frequency excursion size and slower speech rate in the ASD group. Slower speech rate was also evident in the ASD parent group, particularly parents with the broad autism phenotype. Overl...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Patel SP, Nayar K, Martin GE, Franich K, Crawford S, Diehl JJ, Losh M Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Brief Report: Autistic Adults Assign Less Weight to Affective Cues When Judging Others' Ambiguous Emotional States.
Abstract Understanding other people's emotional states involves integrating multiple sources of information, such as someone's smile (affective cue) with our knowledge that they have passed an exam (situational cue). We explored whether autistic adults display differences in how they integrate these cues by showing participants videos of students receiving their exams results. Our results suggest autistic adults generally perform as neurotypical participants when identifying and integrating affective and situational cues. It was only in certain unfamiliar and ambiguous social situations that autistic adults assign...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Forbes PAG, Hamilton AFC Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Family Sexuality Communication: Parent Report for Autistic Young Adults Versus a Comparison Group.
This study characterized family sexuality communication for autistic adults (age 18-30) without intellectual disability (n = 117) versus a neurotypical comparison group (n = 319). Parent-reported number of sexuality topics covered did not significantly differ by gender or autism/comparison group. Parents of autistic adults who covered few or no topics (31%) reported higher religiosity, lower comfort and self-efficacy, and were less likely to say that the adult expressed attraction or desire for relationships. Parents of autistic adults were more likely than comparison parents to perceive their y...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Graham Holmes L, Strassberg DS, Himle MB Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Adult Manifestation of Milder Forms of Autism Spectrum Disorder; Autistic and Non-autistic Psychopathology.
Abstract We compared the presence of autistic and comorbid psychopathology and functional impairments in young adults who received a clinical diagnosis of Pervasive Developmental Disorders Not Otherwise Specified or Asperger's Disorder during childhood to that of a referred comparison group. While the Autism Spectrum Disorder group on average scored higher on a dimensional ASD self- and other-report measure than clinical controls, the majority did not exceed the ASD cutoff according to the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Part of the individuals with an ASD diagnosis in their youth no longer show behaviors ...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Horwitz EH, Schoevers RA, Greaves-Lord K, de Bildt A, Hartman CA Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

How are Autistic People Perceived? A Reply to Chown, Hughes and Baker-Rogers (2019).
PMID: 32052318 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders)
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sheppard E, Mitchell P, Alkhaldi RS Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Can We Play Together? A Closer Look at the Peers of a Peer-Mediated Intervention to Improve Play in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract Peer-mediated interventions (PMIs) are often used to support children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to develop social skills. However, more investigation is needed to better understand the role of peers as both intervention recipients and models. Sixty-five typically developing peers who participated in a PMI for children with ASD were investigated using a randomised control trial. Play sessions of the dyads were scored using the Test of Playfulness. Results showed a significant moderate intervention effect for the peers from pre- to post-intervention; outcomes for children with ASD were not influen...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kent C, Cordier R, Joosten A, Wilkes-Gillan S, Bundy A Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Pain Modulation Mechanisms in ASD Adults.
ré C Abstract We tested endogenous pain modulation mechanisms in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Nineteen ASD adults without intellectual disabilities were included, matched with 19 healthy volunteers on the basis of sex and chronological age. An experimental pain model was used to measure excitatory and inhibitory pain mechanisms in a single session. Statistical analyses indicated that endogenous pain modulation mechanisms in ASD group did not differ significantly from those of healthy adults. The pain scores were very disparate in ASD group with a greater range of extreme scores than in contr...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Dubois A, Boudjarane M, Le Fur-Bonnabesse A, Dion A, L'heveder G, Quinio B, Walter M, Marchand S, Bodéré C Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Self-reported Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and Anxiety Among Greek School-Age Siblings of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in Relation to Parental Mental Health and Social Support.
Abstract Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and anxiety were measured in 233 school-age siblings of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and siblings of Typically Developing (TD) children in Greece. The aim of the study was to investigate for any association between siblings' HRQOL or anxiety and parental mental health, perceived social support as well as major demographic factors. It was found that the disability group (ASD-sibs) showed elevated anxiety levels and poorer HRQOL than controls. In hierarchical multiple regression models, the anxiety of ASD-sibs was significantly associated with paren...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Koukouriki E, Soulis SG Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Trajectories of Change in the Behavioral and Health Phenotype of Adolescents and Adults with Fragile X Syndrome and Intellectual Disability: Longitudinal Trends Over a Decade.
This study examined trajectories of daily living skills, behavior problems, body mass index (BMI), and health conditions spanning nearly a decade in adolescents and adults with fragile X syndrome (N = 134; age range at study end = 19-49 years), examining influences of sex and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed early increases in daily living skills, with decreases at older ages. Behavior problems became less severe over time, with some increases at older ages. Individuals gained weight and had increasing health problems over time. Fewer ASD sympto...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Usher LV, DaWalt LS, Hong J, Greenberg JS, Mailick MR Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

No Differences in Code-Related Emergent Literacy Skills in Well-Matched 4-Year-Old Children With and Without ASD.
This study used data from a prospective community-based sample and compared the code-related emergent literacy skills (phonological awareness and letter knowledge) of 4-year-old children with ASD (n = 36) to their peers without ASD (n = 36), matched for age, gender, socio-economic status, language ability, and nonverbal cognition. We also compared groups on parent-reported home literacy measures, including the amount of time their child enjoyed being read to. There were no significant group differences in emergent literacy, indicating that an ASD diagnosis was not related to children's emergent ...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Westerveld MF, Paynter J, Brignell A, Reilly S Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Symbolic Understanding and Word-Picture-Referent Mapping from iPads in Autism Spectrum Condition: The Roles of Iconicity and Engagement.
Abstract We investigated symbolic understanding, word-picture-referent mapping, and engagement in children with autism spectrum condition (ASC) and ability-matched typically developing children. Participants viewed coloured pictorial symbols of a novel object (given a novel name) on an iPad in one of three conditions: static 2D images and either automatically or manually rotating images (providing a three-dimensional context). We found no significant difference in word-picture-referent mapping between groups and conditions, however, children who manually rotated the picture had greater on-screen looking time compa...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Wainwright BR, Allen ML, Cain K Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Perspectives of Former Students with ASD from Australia and New Zealand on Their University Experience.
Abstract The university experience of students with ASD was explored through a qualitative study of 11 former university students and six significant others from Australia and New Zealand. A range of key issues were identified including difficulties encountered when studying, reasons for completion and non-completion, supports used, and coping strategies used by the participants. Many switched to part-time to manage their poor mental health and/or executive function and most had slow rates of progress. Also, some felt they had made poor discipline choices. The participants offered suggestions for future students a...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anderson AH, Stephenson J, Carter M Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Parent-Reported Rates and Clinical Correlates of Suicidality in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Longitudinal Study.
This study investigated rates of suicidal ideation (SI) and suicidal and/or self-injurious behaviour (SSIB) reported by parents on the Child Behavior Checklist for 178 children with ASD over four annual assessments (ages 7-11 years). Analyses examined the frequency and persistence of SI and SSIB, and the association of SI and SSIB at any time point with child characteristics and internalizing and externalizing problems at age 7. SI occurred in 9.6% of children and was associated with fewer ASD symptoms and better adaptive functioning at age 7. SSIB occurred in 14.6% and was associated with poorer adaptive functioning ...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hunsche MC, Saqui S, Mirenda P, Zaidman-Zait A, Bennett T, Duku E, Elsabbagh M, Georgiades S, Smith IM, Szatmari P, Ungar WJ, Vaillancourt T, Waddell C, Zwaigenbaum L, Kerns CM Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Maternal Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders in Offspring: A Meta-analysis.
This study assessed the relationships between maternal systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in offspring. Seven observational studies, including 25,005 ASD cases and 4,543,321 participants, were included for meta-analysis. Pooled results by using random-effects models suggested that maternal RA was associated with an increased risk for ASDs [odds ratio (OR) 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-1.67], while maternal SLE was associated with an increased risk for ASDs only in western population (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.02-3.57). Further study is warranted t...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Zhu Z, Tang S, Deng X, Wang Y Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Evaluating the Role of Autistic Traits, Social Anxiety, and Social Network Changes During Transition to First Year of University in Typically Developing Students and Students on the Autism Spectrum.
Abstract This is the first longitudinal study to quantitatively evaluate changes in social network structure (SNS) and perceived social support (PSS) amongst first-year students on the autism spectrum (n = 21) and typically developing (TD; n = 182) students transitioning to university. The relative impact of changes in SNS/PSS, students' social anxiety and autistic traits, on first-year university transition outcomes were also examined. Both groups gained friends over time who provided better support quantity and quality during first year of university. Social anxiety showed long-term d...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lei J, Brosnan M, Ashwin C, Russell A Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Light-Adapted Electroretinogram Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract Light-adapted (LA) electroretinograms (ERGs) from 90 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), mean age (13.0 ± 4.2), were compared to 87 control subjects, mean age (13.8 ± 4.8). LA-ERGs were produced by a random series of nine different Troland based, full-field flash strengths and the ISCEV standard flash at 2/s on a 30 cd m-2 white background. A random effects mixed model analysis showed the ASD group had smaller b- and a-wave amplitudes at high flash strengths (p 
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Constable PA, Ritvo ER, Ritvo AR, Lee IO, McNair ML, Stahl D, Sowden J, Quinn S, Skuse DH, Thompson DA, McPartland JC Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Impact of Selective Eating on Social Domains Among Transition-Age Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Qualitative Study.
The objective of this qualitative study was to explore the impact of selective eating on key social domains-with family, peers, and in other social situations-of transition-age autistic youth who self-identified as being food selective. Interviews were conducted with 20 autistic youth ages 18-23 years. Data were analyzed using descriptive and thematic coding. Participants had developed a range of strategies to cope with their food selectivity, and although some expressed concerns, they did not feel that it had a major impact on social situations. A responsive approach to supporting such youth would likely involve...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Folta SC, Curtin C, Must A, Pehrson A, Ryan K, Bandini L Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Predicting the Outcomes of Parents of Transition-Age Youth or Young Adults with ASD.
Abstract The transition outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their families are less than desirable. A survey of parent stressors, resources, coping/appraisals, and adaptation to transition was completed by 226 parents. The mediating mechanisms between stressors and parent outcomes were identified. At the indicator level, three stressors (i.e., autism severity, mental health crisis/challenging behaviors, and filial obligation), four resources (i.e., general social support, transition planning quality, parent-teacher alliance, and parenting efficacy), and three coping styles (i.e., probl...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 6, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Wong V, McGrew J, Ruble L Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

"In Their Own Time": Parents Gently Push Their Autistic Youth Towards Independent Community Mobility and Participation.
"In Their Own Time": Parents Gently Push Their Autistic Youth Towards Independent Community Mobility and Participation. J Autism Dev Disord. 2020 Feb 05;: Authors: Kersten M, Coxon K, Lee H, Wilson NJ Abstract Autistic adults have decreased independence in community mobility and driving, which is associated with decreased participation in work, education and community participation. This is the first exploration of the development of community mobility, driving and participation skills over adolescence and emerging adulthood. Interviews with 15 mothers of autistic youth, capable of inde...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kersten M, Coxon K, Lee H, Wilson NJ Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Intelligent Robotic Response to Joint Attention Intervention System.
This study reports a randomized controlled trial to investigate a robot-mediated response to joint attention intervention in a small (23 recruited; 20 completed) group of young children (average age = 2.54 years) with ASD. Small and nonsignificant group differences were observed regarding improvements in response to joint attention skills within and beyond the intervention. The sample showed tremendous individual variability in response to the system. Results highlight the current challenges related to developing pragmatic, beneficial, and generalizable robotic intervention systems for the targeted popul...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Zheng Z, Nie G, Swanson A, Weitlauf A, Warren Z, Sarkar N Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Concurrent Validity of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT): Socio-cognitive and Verbal Skills in 18-Month-Old Infants.
Abstract The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) is a screening questionnaire for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Previous findings have confirmed the M-CHAT's sensitivity and specificity across several cultures, yet few studies have considered M-CHAT scores as a distributed trait in a sample of typical infants. The current study examined how the M-CHAT predicts concurrent word learning (experiment 1) as well as socio-emotional understanding (experiment 2) in 18-month-old infants. Results demonstrated that the number of items endorsed on the M-CHAT negatively correlated with the proportion of t...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ruel A, Chiarella SS, Crivello C, Poulin-Dubois D Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Drug Studies on Rett Syndrome: From Bench to Bedside.
Abstract Drug studies on Rett syndrome (RTT) have drastically increased over the past few decades. This review aims to provide master data on bench-to-bedside drug studies involving RTT. A comprehensive literature review was performed by searching in PUBMED, MEDLINE and Google Scholar, international, national and regional clinical trial registries and pharmaceutical companies using the keywords "Rett syndrome treatment and/or drug or compound or molecule". Seventy drugs were investigated in non-clinical (N = 65 animal/cell line-based studies; N = 5 iPSC-based study) and clinic...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gomathi M, Padmapriya S, Balachandar V Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Dental Caries Status in Autistic Children: A Meta-analysis.
The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the dental health status of children with ASD in terms of decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) and decayed, missing, and filled deciduous teeth (dmft). PubMed, Embase, psycINFO, and Cochrane library were searched for studies published until September 2018. A random-effects model was applied to estimate the pooled results.Nine studies comprising 532 children with ASD and 622 controls were included. No significant differences between children with ASD and controls were observed for DMFT and dmft in the world. Subgroup analyses revealed that child...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Zhang Y, Lin L, Liu J, Shi L, Lu J Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

P. Thomas: I See Things Differently: A First Look at Autism : B.E.S Publishing, New York, 2014, 32 pp., ISBN 978-1-4380-0479-2, $6.79 (Paperback).
PMID: 32006271 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders)
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kuvish Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms are Associated with Connectivity Between Large-Scale Neural Networks and Brain Regions Involved in Social Processing.
Abstract The neurobiology of autism spectrum disorder remains poorly understood. The present study addresses this knowledge gap by examining the relationship between functional brain connectivity and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) scores using publicly available data from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) database (N = 107). This relationship was tested across all brain voxels, without a priori assumptions, using a novel statistical approach. ADOS scores were primarily associated with decreased connectivity to right temporoparietal junction, right anterior insula, and left...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Wylie KP, Tregellas JR, Bear JJ, Legget KT Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Altered GABA Concentration in Brain Motor Area Is Associated with the Severity of Motor Disabilities in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract Several motor disabilities accompanied with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are widely known despite limited reports of underlying neural mechanisms. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the motor-related cortical areas modulate several motor performances in healthy participants. We hypothesized that abnormal GABA concentrations in the primary motor area (M1) and supplementary motor area (SMA) associate with different motor difficulties for ASD adolescents/adults. We found that increased GABA concentrations in M1 measured using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy exhibited lower motor performance in tas...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Umesawa Y, Matsushima K, Atsumi T, Kato T, Fukatsu R, Wada M, Ide M Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Associations Between Broader Autism Phenotype and Dietary Intake: A Cross-Sectional Study (Japan Environment & Children's Study).
Associations Between Broader Autism Phenotype and Dietary Intake: A Cross-Sectional Study (Japan Environment & Children's Study). J Autism Dev Disord. 2020 Jan 29;: Authors: Hirokawa K, Kimura T, Ikehara S, Honjo K, Ueda K, Sato T, Iso H, Japan Environment & Children’s Study Group Abstract The purpose of the present study was to investigate associations of dietary intake including vitamin D, folate, and n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in pregnant women with broad autism phenotype (BAP). The Japan Environment and Children's Study is a government-funded birth cohort study. A...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hirokawa K, Kimura T, Ikehara S, Honjo K, Ueda K, Sato T, Iso H, Japan Environment & Children’s Study Group Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Romantic Intimacy in Autism: A Qualitative Analysis.
This study sought to identify enablers and barriers to emotional and physical intimacy for Autistic (n = 31) and non-autistic (n = 26) individuals. All participants completed an online survey including demographic information, the Autism Spectrum Quotient and questions on intimacy which were subject to thematic analysis. Enablers of intimacy for both groups included communication, sharing and similarity, respect and safety for self and other, and working on the relationship. Barriers for both groups included intra- and interpersonal conflicts; autistic people specifically highlighted uncertainty...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sala G, Hooley M, Stokes MA Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Longitudinal Differences in Response to Name Among Infants Developing ASD and Risk for ADHD.
Abstract Diminished response to name, a potential early marker of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), may also indicate risk for other disorders characterized by attention problems, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using a familial risk design, we examined whether response to name ability at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age differed between three 36-month outcome groups: ASD, ADHD Concerns, or a Comparison group. Persistent differences between the ASD and Comparison groups were evident beginning at 12 months; differences between the ADHD Concerns and Comparison groups were eviden...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hatch B, Iosif AM, Chuang A, de la Paz L, Ozonoff S, Miller M Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Visual and Verbal Narrative Comprehension in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An ERP Study.
In conclusion, ASD children face processing deficits in both verbal and visual materials when integrating meaning across information, though such impairments may arise in different parts of the interpretive process, depending on the modality. PMID: 31974801 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders)
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Manfredi M, Cohn N, Sanchez Mello P, Fernandez E, Boggio PS Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

The Utility of the Screening Tool for Autism in 2-Year-Olds in Detecting Autism in Taiwanese Toddlers Who are Less than 24 Months of Age: A Longitudinal Study.
Abstract The present longitudinal study examined the utility of the screening tool for autism in 2-year-olds (STAT) in detecting autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers who are less than 24 months of age. The study sample, which consisted of 119 toddlers with developmental problems, were assessed when they were between 16 and 24 months of age (Time 1) and after a period of 18 months to finalize the diagnosis (Time 2); 57 children had ASD and 62 children had developmental delays. A cutoff score of 2.5 on the STAT yielded an optimal combination of high sensitivity and specificity. The STAT demonstr...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Wu CC, Chu CL, Stewart L, Chiang CH, Hou YM, Liu JH Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Stigma and Forgiveness in Ghanaian Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).
This study explored stigma experiences of mothers of children with ASD and forgiveness as their coping response. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 mothers of children with ASD. Results of this study found several noteworthy themes including, feelings of mother, family/societal reactions, forgiveness factors, and impact of forgiveness. Mothers reported significant stigmatization from families and society. Some expressed their feelings towards themselves, others and God, and finally recounted the use of forgiveness as a coping resource which contributed significantly to their well-being. Findings from this stu...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Oti-Boadi M, Dankyi E, Kwakye-Nuako CO Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Self-reported Suicidality in Male and Female Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Rumination and Self-esteem.
Abstract Rumination and low self-esteem are associated with suicidality, and with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, rumination and self-esteem in relation to suicidality in adults with ASD have not been examined. This cross-sectional study (n = 75; 46 males and 29 females) investigates the relation of rumination and self-esteem to the absence/presence of suicidal ideation (SUIC+/-), history of attempted suicide (HAS), and severity of suicidality. Multivariate analysis of variance showed that self-esteem was significantly associated with SUIC+/-, whereas rumination was significantly associated...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Arwert TG, Sizoo BB Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Autistic Traits Do Not Affect Emotional Face Processing in a General Population Sample.
Abstract It has been suggested that atypical emotional face processing strategies observed in autism may extend in milder form to the general population. We investigated the relationship between autistic traits (AT) and gaze behaviour in a neurotypical adult sample. Novel naturalistic videos featuring happy, fearful and neutral faces were first validated in a sample of 22 participants. A separate sample of participants (N = 67) then viewed the three videos in counterbalanced order. Eye-tracking data showed that participants looked longer at emotional than neutral faces, and exploration of facial feat...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Greene CM, Suess E, Kelly Y Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Olfactory Dysfunction in Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Meta-analytic Review of Autism Spectrum Disorders, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.
Abstract Olfactory dysfunction is recognized in neurodevelopmental disorders and may serve as an early indicator of global dysfunction. The present meta-analysis measures olfaction effect sizes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Meta-analysis included 320 ADHD, 346 ASD, and 208 OCD individuals as compared to 910 controls. Olfactory performance deficits were small-to-moderate and heterogeneous (d =  - 0.42, 95% CI =  - 0.59 
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Crow AJD, Janssen JM, Vickers KL, Parish-Morris J, Moberg PJ, Roalf DR Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Feeding Problems, Gastrointestinal Symptoms, Challenging Behavior and Sensory Issues in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract Frequency of feeding problems, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, challenging behavior, sensory problems and comorbid psychopathology were assessed using the following questionnaires: Screening Tool for Feeding Problems for Children, GI Symptoms Inventory, Behavior Problems Inventory Short Form, Short Sensory Profile, and Autism Spectrum Disorder-Comorbidity Child (ASD-CC) in 136 children and adolescents with ASD. Eighty-four percent had food selectivity, followed by food refusal (78.7%), rapid eating (76.5%), chewing problems (60.3%), food stealing (49.3%) and vomiting (19.1%). Higher rates of GI symptoms, ...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Leader G, Tuohy E, Chen JL, Mannion A, Gilroy SP Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Brief Report: Assessment Experiences of Children with Neurogenetic Syndromes: Caregivers' Perceptions and Suggestions for Improvement.
Abstract It is well-recognized that measurement options for diagnosing and monitoring children with neurogenetic syndromes (NGS) associated with moderate to severe intellectual impairment are limited (Berry-Kravis, Dev Med Child Neurol https://doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.13018, 2016), and caregivers experience significant concerns regarding the assessment process. However to date, these concerns have not been summarized into actionable steps for clinicians and test-makers. As such, we used a mixed methods approach to assess caregiver-derived perceptions and suggestions for improving assessments in NGS. Results indicated ...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kelleher B, Halligan T, Garwood T, Howell S, Martin-O'Dell B, Swint A, Shelton LA, Shin J Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Executive Functioning in 60+  Autistic Males: The Discrepancy Between Experienced Challenges and Cognitive Performance.
Executive Functioning in 60+ Autistic Males: The Discrepancy Between Experienced Challenges and Cognitive Performance. J Autism Dev Disord. 2020 Jan 17;: Authors: Geurts HM, Pol SE, Lobbestael J, Simons CJP Abstract As executive functioning (EF) is especially sensitive to age-related cognitive decline, EF was evaluated by using a multi-method assessment. Fifty males (60-85 years) with a late adulthood autism spectrum condition (ASC) diagnosis and 51 non-ASC males (60-83 years) were compared on cognitive tests across EF domains (cognitive flexibility, planning, processing speed, and wo...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Geurts HM, Pol SE, Lobbestael J, Simons CJP Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Cesarean Delivery Under General Anesthesia Causing Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Not Very Likely.
PMID: 31950430 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders)
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Raz A, Lehavi A, Fein S Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Screening for Behavioral Signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder in 9-Month-Old Infant Siblings.
Abstract Despite considerable progress in characterizing the early signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), more remains to be learned about how symptoms emerge in the first year of life. Parents with a new baby who already had at least one biological child diagnosed with ASD (high-risk) or no family history of ASD (low-risk) completed two measures when their baby was 9 months of age, the Autism Parent Screen for Infants (APSI) questionnaire and the interview-based Parent Concerns Form. Children underwent a blinded independent diagnostic assessment for ASD at age 3 years. Total scores on the APSI and the...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sacrey LR, Zwaigenbaum L, Bryson S, Brian J, Smith IM, Roberts W, Szatmari P, Vaillancourt T, Roncadin C, Garon N Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Autism Symptoms, Executive Functioning and Academic Progress in Higher Education Students.
Abstract Many students with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) attending higher education drop out prematurely. The predictive value of self-reported daily executive functioning (EF) and (cognitive) performance-based EF (mental flexibility and working memory) for academic progress was evaluated in 54 young adults with ASD (Mage = 22.5, SD = 2.4, 72% male). Regression analyses showed that autism symptom severity explained 12% of variance in academic progress, which was raised to 36% by adding self-reported daily EF, and to 25% by adding performance-based EF. It is suggested that EF is a ca...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Dijkhuis R, de Sonneville L, Ziermans T, Staal W, Swaab H Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

A Comparative Study of Suicidality and Its Association with Emotion Regulation Impairment in Large ASD and US Census-Matched Samples.
Abstract Evidence suggests increased rates of suicidality in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the research has rarely used comparison samples and the role of emotion dysregulation has not been considered. We compared the prevalence of parent-reported suicidality ideation and considered the role of emotion dysregulation in 330 psychiatric inpatient youth with ASD, 1169 community youth with ASD surveyed online, and 1000 youth representative of the US census. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was three and five times higher in the community and inpatient ASD samples, respectively, compared to the general US samp...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Conner CM, Golt J, Righi G, Shaffer R, Siegel M, Mazefsky CA Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Quantifying Caregiver Change Across Early Autism Interventions Using the Measure of NDBI Strategy Implementation: Caregiver Change (MONSI-CC).
This study aimed to provide initial validity and reliability of the Measure of NDBI Strategy Implementation-Caregiver Change (MONSI-CC), a novel measure that captures changes in caregivers' implementation of NDBI strategies during early intervention. The MONSI-CC was applied to 119 observations of 43 caregiver-child dyads of preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The MONSI-CC showed high inter-rater and test-retest reliability and captured significant improvements in caregivers' implementation of NDBI strategies. Significant associations between improvements in caregiver NDBI implementation and improvements in ...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Vibert BA, Dufek S, Klein CB, Choi YB, Winter J, Lord C, Kim SH Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Brief Report: Associations Between Preverbal Social Communication Skills, Language and Symptom Severity in Children with Autism: An Investigation Using the Early Sociocognitive Battery.
Abstract We investigated the early sociocognitive battery (ESB), a novel measure of preverbal social communication skills, in children with autism participating in the Paediatric Autism Communication Trial-Generalised (PACT-G). The associations between ESB scores, language and autism symptoms were assessed in 249 children aged 2-11 years. The results show that ESB subscale scores (social responsiveness, joint attention and symbolic comprehension) were significantly associated with concurrent autism symptoms and receptive and expressive language levels. The pattern of association between the ESB subscale score...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Taylor LJ, Charman T, Howlin P, Slonims V, Green J, PACT-G Consortium Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

The Types and Functions of Social Supports Used by Parents Caring for a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract The challenges faced by parents caring for a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can amplify parenting stress, though the impacts of these challenges can be alleviated by social supports. A sample of 674 parent volunteers completed a survey probing the types of social supports currently being used, what function (i.e., tangible, emotional, financial, informational) they judged them to perform, and how each of the utilised supports reduced parenting stress and was considered helpful. Results indicated that informal social supports and social media were perceived as more helpful than formal supports, ...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shepherd D, Goedeke S, Landon J, Meads J Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Positive Aspects of Emotional Competence in Preventing Internalizing Symptoms in Children with and without Developmental Language Disorder: A Longitudinal Approach.
Abstract In order to better understand protective factors for internalizing problems, this longitudinal study examined positive emotions, emotion awareness and (non-)emotional communication skills in relation to somatic complaints and social anxiety in children with (N = 104) and without (N = 183) Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) using self-reported measures twice with a 9-month interval. Additionally, parents reported on their child's communication problems and emotion communication at Time 1. Most importantly, since we found that increasing levels of emotion awareness related to ...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 6, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Samson AC, van den Bedem NP, Dukes D, Rieffe C Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research