A Novel Approach to Dysmorphology to Enhance the Phenotypic Classification of Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Study to Explore Early Development.
Abstract The presence of multiple dysmorphic features in some children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) might identify distinct ASD phenotypes and serve as potential markers for understanding causes and prognoses. To evaluate dysmorphology in ASD, children aged 3-6 years with ASD and non-ASD population controls (POP) from the Study to Explore Early Development were evaluated using a novel, systematic dysmorphology review approach. Separate analyses were conducted for non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic children. In each racial/ethnic group, ~ 17% of ASD cases were Dysmorphic compare...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shapira SK, Tian LH, Aylsworth AS, Elias ER, Hoover-Fong JE, Meeks NJL, Souders MC, Tsai AC, Zackai EH, Alexander AA, Yeargin-Allsopp M, Schieve LA Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Family Sexuality Communication for Adolescent Girls on the Autism Spectrum.
The objective of this study was to describe family sexuality communication for adolescent girls with autism. Participants were 141 parents of autistic daughters who completed an online survey about sexuality development. Most parents relied on discussion alone rather than visual supports or skills-based teaching techniques. Intellectual functioning, child age, race/ethnicity, and whether youth expressed sexual interest in others affected family sexuality communication. We discuss how most parents covered important basics, but many did not cover more nuanced relationship or sexual health topics during family sexuality commu...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Holmes LG, Strassberg DS, Himle MB Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Language Performance in Preschool-Aged Boys with Nonsyndromic Autism Spectrum Disorder or Fragile X Syndrome.
Abstract In the present study, language performance on standardized assessments (e.g., overall verbal performance, receptive and expressive vocabulary) and spontaneous language produced in play was compared between preschool-aged boys with autism spectrum disorder (nASD, n = 25) and boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS, n = 16). At the group-level, we observed weaknesses in the language skills of boys with nASD relative to those with FXS (e.g., when considering raw score performance, standard score performance relative to nonverbal cognitive skills, frequency of talk in play), after contro...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Thurman AJ, Hoyos Alvarez C Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Recovery from Autism after Successful Surgery for a Benign Brain Tumor Associated with Epilepsy.
Abstract PMID: 30783900 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders)
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hrdlicka M, Kudr M, Krsek P, Tichy M, Kyncl M, Zamecnik J, Mohaplova M, Dudova I Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Network Analysis of Behaviors in the Depression and Autism Realms: Inter-Relationships and Clinical Implications.
Abstract Depression-, anxiety-, OCD- and autism-related behaviors were assessed in 118 high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and in 2016 controls. The ASD group had a higher rate of clinical depression and markedly higher "insomnia" and "restlessness" scores. Network analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis in the ASD group revealed that depression and anxiety items clustered together, but separately from autism-related items. Compared to controls, "insomnia" and "restlessness" items in the ASD network of depression items were much more central ...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Montazeri F, de Bildt A, Dekker V, Anderson GM Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Visual Search Performance Does Not Relate to Autistic Traits in the General Population.
, Falck-Ytter T Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is commonly conceived as the extreme end of a continuum. Research suggests that autistic individuals outperform typically developing controls in visual search. Thus, enhanced visual search may represent an adaptive trait associated with ASD. Here, using a large general population sample (N = 608, aged 9-14 years), we tested if higher levels of autistic traits are associated with enhanced visual search. Visual search was evaluated using both manual responses and eye movements, and autistic traits were measured using the Social Responsiveness...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: López Pérez D, Kennedy DP, Tomalski P, Bölte S, D'Onofrio B, Falck-Ytter T Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

A Randomised Controlled Feasibility Trial of Immersive Virtual Reality Treatment with Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Specific Phobias in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
We examined the feasibility and acceptability of using an immersive virtual reality environment (VRE) alongside cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for young people with autism experiencing specific phobia. Thirty-two participants were randomised to treatment or control. Treatment involved one session introducing CBT techniques and four VRE sessions, delivered by local clinical therapists. Change in target behaviour was independently rated. Two weeks after treatment, four treatment participants (25%) and no control participants were responders; at 6 months after treatment, six (38%) treatment and no control participants...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Maskey M, Rodgers J, Grahame V, Glod M, Honey E, Kinnear J, Labus M, Milne J, Minos D, McConachie H, Parr JR Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

The Role of Sensory Features in Mediating Associations Between Autism Symptoms and Anxiety in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract To investigate possible correlates of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) in young males with ASD, a test of the mediation effects of sensory features (SF) upon the association between ASD symptoms and GAD was conducted with 150 males aged 6 to 18 years. GAD data were obtained from parents of the boys and from the boys themselves; SF and ASD data were obtained from parents. Symptoms of ASD were found to influence elevated levels of parent-rated GAD indirectly through greater levels of sensory avoiding, and auditory-specific sensory behaviours correlated with parent-rated anxiety more strongly than oth...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bitsika V, Arnold WA, Sharpley CF Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Success Factors Enabling Employment for Adults on the Autism Spectrum from Employers' Perspective.
Abstract Employment outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are poor and there is limited understanding on how best to support individuals with ASD in the workplace. Stakeholders involved in the employment of adults with ASD, including employers and employment service providers have unique insights into the factors influencing employment for this population. Organisational and individual factors facilitating successful employment for adults with ASD across Australia and Sweden were explored, including the supports and strategies underpinning employment success from an employers' perspective. T...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Dreaver J, Thompson C, Girdler S, Adolfsson M, Black MH, Falkmer M Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

A Comparison of Video Prompting to Least-to-Most Prompting among Children with Autism and Intellectual Disability.
Abstract Students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) may experience challenges when learning tasks that are complex and require numerous steps. This difficulty can lead to employment issues for this population of learners. Therefore, researchers have explored methods to teach employment-related tasks to students with ASD and ID. Two such procedures are video prompting (VP) and least-to-most prompting. These procedures are frequently combined as an intervention package to boost student responding. The purpose of this study was to explore which of these interventions was more effect...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Aljehany MS, Bennett KD Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

A Quantitative Sensory Testing Approach to Pain in Autism Spectrum Disorders.
Abstract Sensory abnormalities in autism has been noted clinically, with pain insensitivity as a specified diagnostic criterion. However, there is limited research using psychophysically robust techniques. Thirteen adults with ASD and 13 matched controls completed an established quantitative sensory testing (QST) battery, supplemented with measures of pain tolerance and central modulation. The ASD group showed higher thresholds for light touch detection and mechanical pain. Notably, the ASD group had a greater range of extreme scores (the number of z-scores outside of the 95% CI > 2), dynamic mech...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Vaughan S, McGlone F, Poole H, Moore DJ Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Healthcare Providers' Experiences with Autism: A Scoping Review.
Abstract Gaps in research knowledge exist regarding patient-provider interactions with individuals with autism in healthcare settings. To address this, a scoping review was conducted focusing on the experiences of healthcare professionals working with individuals with autism. A systematic search and screen of the literature resulted in 27 relevant studies. Six key themes were found across these 27 studies including (1) complexity beyond usual role, (2) limited knowledge and resources, (3) training/prior experience, (4) communication and collaboration, (5) need for information and training, and (6) need for care co...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Morris R, Greenblatt A, Saini M Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Impaired Recognition of Negative Facial Expressions is Partly Related to Facial Perception Deficits in Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract Accumulating studies have reported facial emotion recognition or facial perception impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To clarify the specificity of the emotion recognition impairment, this study examined the relationships between facial emotion recognition and facial perception abilities in ASD. Twenty-two adolescents with high-functioning ASD (20 males) and 22 typically developing (TD) adolescents (16 males) aged 11-18 years undertook a facial emotion labeling task and a facial perception test. We found that adolescents with ASD had deficits in recognizing negative facial expressions, wh...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yeung MK, Lee TL, Chan AS Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial of an Enhanced Pivotal Response Treatment Approach for Young Children with Autism: The PRISM Model.
Abstract The symptoms of autism spectrum disorder are conceptualized to alter the quality of parent-children interactions, exposure to social learning exchanges, and ultimately the course of child development. There is evidence that modifying the procedures of Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) to explicitly target social motivation enhances child engagement and parent-child synchrony in moment-by-moment exchanges. However, it is unclear if these within session improvements ultimately yield favorable developmental outcomes over time. The current investigation presents feasibility, utility, and preliminary effic...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Vernon TW, Holden AN, Barrett AC, Bradshaw J, Ko JA, McGarry ES, Horowitz EJ, Tagavi DM, German TC Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Brief Report: Evaluating College Students' Perceptions of a Child Displaying Stereotypic Behaviors: Do Changes in Stereotypy Levels Affect Ratings?
Abstract One reason for treating stereotypic behavior is that it may negatively impact how others perceive the individual displaying the behavior, thus impeding social interactions; however, few studies have directly evaluated this possibility. As a first step toward testing this position, participants (college students) in Study 1 watched 5-min video clips of a child engaging in hand/finger motor stereotypy at varying levels (0%, 17%, 37%, and 40% of the time) while sound was muted. Following each video, participants completed a questionnaire to evaluate their perception of the child. In Study 2, additional parti...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Coon JC, Rapp JT Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Insomnia Severity in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder is Associated with sensory Hyper-Reactivity and Social Skill Impairment.
Abstract Insomnia is a common source of distress in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Two characteristics of ASD could be relevant to insomnia complaints by hampering the entrainment of a circadian sleep-wake rhythm. First, sensory hyper-reactivity could lead to bright light avoidance and thus affect photoperiodic input to the circadian system. Second, impaired social skills complicate the establishment of a social interactions and thus affect scheduled social-behavioral input to the circadian system. We investigated the association of insomnia severity with sensory reactivity and social skills in 631 ad...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hohn VD, de Veld DMJ, Mataw KJS, van Someren EJW, Begeer S Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

ASD Screening with the Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 in the Study to Explore Early Development.
Abstract We analyzed CBCL/1½-5 Pervasive Developmental Problems (DSM-PDP) scores in 3- to 5-year-olds from the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a multi-site case control study, with the objective to discriminate children with ASD (N = 656) from children with Developmental Delay (DD) (N = 646), children with Developmental Delay (DD) plus ASD features (DD-AF) (N = 284), and population controls (POP) (N = 827). ASD diagnosis was confirmed with the ADOS and ADI-R. With a cut-point of T ≥ 65, sensitivity was 80% for ASD, with spec...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Levy SE, Rescorla LA, Chittams JL, Kral TJ, Moody EJ, Pandey J, Pinto-Martin JA, Pomykacz AT, Ramirez A, Reyes N, Rosenberg CR, Schieve L, Thompson A, Young L, Zhang J, Wiggins L Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Criminal Behavior and School Discipline in Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth with Autism.
The objective was to delineate the prevalence of criminal behavior and school discipline in juvenile justice-involved youth (JJY) with autism. A sample of 143 JJY with autism was matched to comparison groups of JJY without a special education classification, JJY with learning disabilities, and JJY with other special educational needs (N = 572). Results showed that JJY with autism committed significantly fewer property crimes. With regard to school discipline, JJY with autism were least likely to receive policy violations, out-of-school suspensions, and in-school suspensions. Finally, regardless of special educati...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Slaughter AM, Hein S, Hong JH, Mire SS, Grigorenko EL Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

What Drives Detection and Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder? Looking Under the Hood of a Multi-stage Screening Process in Early Intervention.
Abstract U.S. guidelines for detecting autism emphasize screening and also incorporate clinical judgment. However, most research focuses on the former. Among 1,654 children participating in a multi-stage screening protocol for autism, we used mixed methods to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of a clinical decision rule that encouraged further assessment based not only on positive screening results, but also on parent or provider concern, and (2) the influence of shared decision-making on screening administration. Referrals based on concern alone were cost-effective in the current study, and reported concerns were s...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sheldrick RC, Frenette E, Vera JD, Mackie TI, Martinez-Pedraza F, Hoch N, Eisenhower A, Fettig A, Carter AS Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

EEG Abnormalities as a Neurophysiological Biomarker of Severity in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Cohort Study.
Abstract To date, the phenotypic significance of EEG abnormalities in patients with ASD is unclear. In a population affected by ASD we aimed to evaluate: the phenotypic characteristics; the prevalence of EEG abnormalities; the potential correlations between EEG abnormalities and behavioral and cognitive variables. Sixty-nine patients with ASD underwent cognitive or developmental testing, language assessment, and adaptive behavior skills evaluation as well as sleep/wake EEG recording. EEG abnormalities were found in 39.13% of patients. EEG abnormalities correlated with autism severity, hyperactivity, anger outburst...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nicotera AG, Hagerman RJ, Catania MV, Buono S, Di Nuovo S, Liprino EM, Stracuzzi E, Giusto S, Di Vita G, Musumeci SA Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Brief Report: Acoustic Evidence for Increased Articulatory Stability in the Speech of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
This study provides a detailed acoustic characterization of the specificities of speech in individuals with ASD using an extensive sample of speech data, from the production of narratives and from spontaneous conversation. Syllable-level analyses (30,843 tokens in total) were performed on audio recordings from two sub-tasks of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule from 20 adults with ASD and 20 pairwise matched neuro-typical adults, providing acoustic measures of fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer and the first three formants. The results suggest that participants with ASD display a greater articulatory stability ...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - February 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kissine M, Geelhand P Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Mental Health and Coping in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Singapore: An Examination of Gender Role in Caring.
This study involved 97 fathers and 106 mothers of children with ASD completing self-report questionnaires. MANOVA revealed mothers experienced significantly higher stress levels than fathers. Stress was a significant predictor of depression for fathers but not for mothers. Regression analyses found use of active avoidance coping moderated the relationship between stress and depression in both parents. Implications of these findings on intervention are discussed. PMID: 30706349 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders)
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ang KQP, Loh PR Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Psychotropic Medication Use for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder who Receive Services and Supports Through Adult Developmental Disability Services in the United States.
Abstract Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have higher rates of co-occurring diagnoses and use of psychotropic medication prescriptions than people with other developmental disabilities. Few studies have examined these trends in samples of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) with and without ASD. Using a random sample of 11,947 adult IDD service users from 25 states, co-occurring diagnoses and psychotropic medication use were compared for those with and without ASD. Regardless of diagnosis, individuals with ASD had higher percentages of psychotropic medication use. Controlli...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Esler A, Hewitt A, Hall-Lande J, Pettingell SL, Houseworth J Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Fifteen-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study of Adult Outcomes of Autism Spectrum Disorders Among Children Attending Centers in Five Regional Departments in France: The EpiTED Cohort.
Abstract There is limited data on long-term outcome of ASD with co-occurring intellectual disabilities (ID) and challenging behaviours in France. The EpiTED period cohort is a 15 years longitudinal study of the developmental trajectories of 281 children initially recruited at mean age of 5 years. Two contrasted developmental trajectories were identified. Low cognitive level, absence of language, and higher ASD scores at baseline were predictive of low growth at follow-up. As adults the participants were predisposed to persistent co-occurring challenging behaviours as well as underlying ID impacting their...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Baghdadli A, Rattaz C, Michelon C, Pernon E, Munir K Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Design and Development for Individuals with ASD: Fostering Multidisciplinary Approaches Through Personas.
Abstract Developing technologies to support individuals with ASD is a growing field of research facing numerous challenges. First, while the individual with ASD is central, the motivations of others, such as parents, are often taken as the motivations of the individual. Second, the desirable cross-disciplinary pollination for improved intervention can often face difficulties due to a lack of a common language among disciplines. Thirdly, the literature often lacks enough information to allow a clear understanding of the targeted contexts and goals not enabling an assessment of outcomes and building on past advances...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Silva S, Teixeira A Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Treatment Utilization Trajectories among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Differences by Race-Ethnicity and Neighborhood.
Abstract Health coverage of early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for children with autism spectrum disorder is expanding. Yet there is no longitudinal research on patterns of or inequities in utilization of EIBI. We integrated state administrative records with Medicaid and Census data for children enrolled in an EIBI Medicaid waiver (N = 730) to identify and describe the type and prevalence of treatment utilization trajectories, and to examine the association between trajectory types and (a) child race-ethnicity and (b) neighborhood racial composition, poverty, affluence, and urbanicity. We...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yingling ME, Bell BA, Hock RM Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Group-Based Social Skills Training with Play for Children on the Autism Spectrum.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of an 8-week SST intervention with a play component (unstructured versus semi-structured) for children with ASD across a range of social, behavioural and emotional measures. Forty-five children aged 8-12 years (M = 10.16, SD = 1.26) were assigned to one of three groups: (a) SST with unstructured play; (b) SST with semi-structured play; and (c) waitlist control. Compared to a waitlist control group, children who participated in the SST intervention showed significant gains in social skills and social competence over time. PMID: 30701435 [PubMed - a...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chester M, Richdale AL, McGillivray J Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Age of Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nepal.
Abstract The current study investigated the age of diagnosis (AoD) of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Nepal by using de-identified data on 246 children with a diagnosis of ASD registered at AutismCare Nepal Society from 2010 to 2015. The mean AoD in children was 58 months (range 14-187 months). Majority of children were male (76%), lived in the Kathmandu valley (75%), and were from upper caste groups (62%). The mean diagnostic age of ASD in Nepal is much later than the age at which a reliable diagnosis is possible, indicating the need to reduce the gap between the age at which it is possible to diagnose ASD, and...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shrestha R, Dissanayake C, Barbaro J Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Brief Report: Evaluation of the Short Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Q-CHAT-10) as a Brief Screen for Autism Spectrum Disorder in a High-Risk Sibling Cohort.
This study examined the potential of the short form of the Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Q-CHAT-10) to identify autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in a high-risk sibling cohort. High-risk (HR; siblings of children diagnosed with ASD) and low-risk (LR; no family history of ASD) toddlers were assessed prospectively at 18 and 24 months of age using the Q-CHAT-10 and underwent blind diagnostic assessment for ASD at 36 months of age. The results indicated that at 18 and 24 months, total score differentiated between HR toddlers subsequently diagnosed with ASD from other HR and LR toddlers. The sensiti...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Raza S, Zwaigenbaum L, Sacrey LR, Bryson S, Brian J, Smith IM, Reid K, Roberts W, Szatmari P, Vaillancourt T, Roncadin C, Garon N Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

The Role of Choice and Control in the Impact of Autism Waiver Services on Family Quality of Life and Child Progress.
This study replicated and expanded prior research using propensity score matching of 460 families. Results support prior findings that HCBS waivers have a positive impact on FQoL and aspects of child progress. This study also found that having choices in the selection of services and service providers, as well as control over day-to-day provision of services, strengthened both the child and family impacts of the Waiver services. In addition, the study provides preliminary evidence for psychometric properties of a quick and inexpensive parent-report of ASD severity. PMID: 30689081 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (S...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eskow KG, Chasson GS, Summers JA Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

"I Would Like for My Child to be Happy with His Life": Parental Hopes for Their Children with ASD Across the Lifespan.
"I Would Like for My Child to be Happy with His Life": Parental Hopes for Their Children with ASD Across the Lifespan. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019 Jan 28;: Authors: Finke EH, Kremkow JMD, Drager KDR, Murillo A, Richardson L, Serpentine EC Abstract The purpose of this project was to understand the hopes of parents with children with ASD. Particularly understudied are the hopes parents have for long-term outcomes for their child. A cross-sectional focus group design was used and six focus groups were completed. These groups included parents of (1) preschool aged children who were recently diagno...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Finke EH, Kremkow JMD, Drager KDR, Murillo A, Richardson L, Serpentine EC Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Course and Predictors of Sleep and Co-occurring Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract The chronicity of sleep disturbance and its relation to co-occurring symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not well understood. The current study examined longitudinal relations among sleep and co-occurring symptoms in a large well-characterized sample of 437 children with ASD assessed at baseline and follow-up (M = 3.8 years later). Twenty-three percent experienced worsening sleep problems over time, while 31.5% showed improvement. Path analysis indicated that sleep problems at baseline predicted later development of ADHD symptoms in younger children and somatic ...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mazurek MO, Dovgan K, Neumeyer AM, Malow BA Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Stop Making Noise! Auditory Sensitivity in Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis: Physiological Habituation and Subjective Detection Thresholds.
Abstract Auditory sensitivities are common among people with autism spectrum disorder diagnoses (ASD). As underlying factors are unknown, we examined whether ASD adults (NASD = 33; NTypically Developing = 31; 25-45 years; IQ > 70): (1) habituated slower to auditory stimuli; (2) had lower auditory detection thresholds; and (3) whether these mechanisms related to self-reported auditory sensitivities. Two auditory stimuli (tone, siren) were repeated, whilst skin conductance responses were recorded to measure habituation. Detection thresholds were measured by stepwise reduc...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kuiper MWM, Verhoeven EWM, Geurts HM Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

A Strength-Focused Parenting Intervention May Be a Valuable Augmentation to a Depression Prevention Focus for Adolescents with Autism.
Abstract High depression rates for adolescents with autism indicate a need for a comprehensive prevention approach. Parents can promote parent-child factors that buffer adolescents from depression. However, parenting adolescents with autism presents challenges which can diminish parental self-efficacy and mental wellbeing with potential negative sequelae for their adolescents. This proof-of-concept study investigated the value of adding a strength-focused parenting intervention to a depression-prevention intervention for adolescents with autism. A Consensual Qualitative Research framework analysed 15 parents' inte...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shochet IM, Saggers BR, Carrington SB, Orr JA, Wurfl AM, Duncan BM Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Exploring the Sensory Profiles of Children on the Autism Spectrum Using the Short Sensory Profile-2 (SSP-2).
Abstract The aim of this study was to identify sensory subtypes in children on the autism spectrum using the Short Sensory Profile-2 (SSP-2). Caregivers of children on the autism spectrum aged 4-11 years (n = 271) completed the SSP-2. Analysis using Dirichlet process mixture model identified a two-cluster model which provided the best solution to subtype sensory responses. Two distinct subtypes were identified: Uniformly elevated (67%) with high scores across all quadrants and Raised avoiding and sensitivity (33%) with raised scores in the avoiding and sensitivity quadrants. There were no differ...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Simpson K, Adams D, Alston-Knox C, Heussler HS, Keen D Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Informant Discrepancies in the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
This study examined informant discrepancies for parent and teacher adaptive behavior ratings of 103 children, ages 6-12 years, with ASD (without intellectual disability). Scores on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, third edition (Harrison and Oakland, Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, 2015) General Adaptive Composite (GAC) and practical, social, and conceptual domains were examined for mean differences, level of agreement, and moderators of difference scores between informant groups. Teacher scores were significantly higher (indicating better functioning) than parents for the GAC and practical domain. Par...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jordan AK, Thomeer ML, Lopata C, Donnelly JP, Rodgers JD, McDonald CA Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Psychometric Assessments of Three Self-Report Autism Scales (AQ, RBQ-2A, and SQ) for General Adult Populations.
This study assesses the psychometric properties of three self-report measures of autistic-like tendencies in the general adult population: autistic spectrum quotient (AQ), adult repetitive behaviours questionnaire-2 (RBQ-2A), and systemizing quotient (SQ). Three rounds of development and testing using different U.S. and global samples led to three instruments that are psychometrically sound, parsimonious, and generalizable across populations. The resulting AQ-9, consisting of two factors: social communication and attention to detail, now mirrors the current dual diagnostic criteria in the DSM-5. The RBQ-2A-R has now been r...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jia R, Steelman ZR, Jia HH Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Inter-Rater Agreement for the Milestones and Barriers Assessments of the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP).
Abstract We determined inter-rater agreement for the VB-MAPP, an instrument sometimes used in planning educational goals and evaluating intervention effects for young people with autism. A pair of raters independently rated each of 32 children diagnosed with autism. Intraclass correlation coefficients for the total Milestones and Barrier scores were 0.876 and 0.629, respectively, indicating good and moderate reliability. There was variability in reliability in the different domains of the Milestones Assessment, with most indicating moderate reliability, and most of the individual Barriers Assessment domains indica...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Montallana KL, Gard BM, Lotfizadeh AD, Poling A Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Eye Tracking Effort Expenditure and Autonomic Arousal to Social and Circumscribed Interest Stimuli in Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract The social communicative deficits and repetitive behaviours seen in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) may be affected by altered stimulus salience and reward attribution. The present study used eye tracking and a behavioural measure to index effort expenditure, arousal, and attention, during viewing of images depicting social scenes and subject-specific circumscribed interests in a group of 10 adults with ASD (mean age 25.4 years) and 19 typically-developing controls (mean age 20.7 years) Split-plot and one-way repeated measures ANOVAs were used to explore results. A significant difference between ...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Traynor JM, Gough A, Duku E, Shore DI, Hall GBC Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

A Game-Based Repeated Assessment for Cognitive Monitoring: Initial Usability and Adherence Study in a Summer Camp Setting.
wer J Abstract The current feasibility study examined the adherence, reliability, and assessment potential of an evidence-based game-like mobile Monitoring Tool (Akili Interactive Labs), to monitor 100 participants' cognition for eight sessions at a summer camp for children with special needs. A validated measure of attention was administered at baseline. In the last session, participants completed an exit questionnaire. The Monitoring Tool was found to be enjoyable, and showed a high rate of adherence. No Monitor-related adverse events were reported. Monitor metrics showed good reliability across repeated measure...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Flynn RM, Colón-Acosta N, Zhou J, Bower J Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Public Perception of Autism Treatments: The Role of Credibility and Evidence.
Abstract We explored the influence of credibility and evidence on public perceptions of ASD treatments using survey methodology. Participants (N = 379) read texts about different ASD treatments. The text presentation was based on a 2 × 2 within-subjects factorial design with treatment status [evidence based practices (EBP) vs. non-EBP] and source credibility in the text (credible vs. non-credible) as the independent variables. An instructional manipulation condition served as a between subjects factor. Respondents were more familiar with non-EBPs than EBPs, but viewed EBPs as bein...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Fleury VP, Trevors G, Kendeou P Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Detailed Assessment of Incontinence, Psychological Problems and Parental Stress in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract Incontinence, psychological symptoms, parental stress and psychopathology were examined in 51 children (43 boys, mean age = 9.7 years) presented in an outpatient clinic for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and in 53 matched controls (43 boys, mean age = 10.2 years). All children were clinically assessed for ASD, incontinence and psychopathology according to current guidelines. ASD was confirmed in 37 children and excluded in 14. Enuresis (16.2%) and daytime urinary incontinence (16.2%), but not fecal incontinence (8.2%) were more common in ASD than in controls. Childre...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Niemczyk J, Fischer R, Wagner C, Burau A, Link T, von Gontard A Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Development and Validation of the Ability in Behavior Assessment and Interventions for Teachers Using Delphi Technique and Rasch Analysis.
Abstract Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) and behavior interventions have been effective in the management of challenging behavior among children with developmental disabilities including autism spectrum disorders. Research suggests the need for valid measurement instruments for verifying, calibrating and scoring competence in FBA and behavior interventions. The validation for the Ability in Behaviour Assessment and Interventions for Teachers (ABAIT) adopted the Delphi method for developing consensus followed by the application of Rasch Measurement Model (RMM). RMM among 292 special educators reported appropri...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Dutt A, Tan M, Alagumalai S, Nair R Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Sustained Community Implementation of JASPER Intervention with Toddlers with Autism.
Abstract Intervention research is increasingly conducted in community settings, however it is not clear how well practices are sustained locally or how children progress once external research support is removed. Two school-year cohorts of toddlers with autism (year 1: n = 55, year 2: n = 63) received Joint Attention, Symbolic Play, Engagement, and Regulation (JASPER) intervention from teaching assistants (TAs) with external support in year 1 and local, internal support in year 2. TAs sustained intervention strategies with more modest maintenance of high-level skills. Children in both y...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shire SY, Shih W, Chang YC, Bracaglia S, Kodjoe M, Kasari C Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Understanding the Reasons, Contexts and Costs of Camouflaging for Autistic Adults.
Abstract Camouflaging entails 'masking' in or 'passing' social situations. Research suggests camouflaging behaviours are common in autistic people, and may negatively impact mental health. To enhance understanding of camouflaging, this study examined reasons, contexts and costs of camouflaging. 262 autistic people completed measures of camouflaging behaviours, camouflaging contexts (e.g. work vs. family), camouflaging reasons (e.g. to make friends) and mental health symptoms. Findings indicated a gender difference in reasons for camouflaging, with autistic women more likely to endorse "conventional" reas...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Cage E, Troxell-Whitman Z Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Gender Differences in Pragmatic Communication in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).
Abstract Possible gender differences in manifestations of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were examined using data on production of narratives. The Expression, Reception and Recall of Narrative Instrument (ERRNI; Bishop, Expression, Reception and Recall of Narrative Instrument, Harcourt assessment, London, 2004) was administered to a sample of matched 8-year-old intellectually able boys and girls with ASD (13M, 13F), who had been selected from a large, longitudinal study. In addition, transcripts of the narratives were analyzed in detail. Significant gender differences were found in narrative production. Girls incl...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Conlon O, Volden J, Smith IM, Duku E, Zwaigenbaum L, Waddell C, Szatmari P, Mirenda P, Vaillancourt T, Bennett T, Georgiades S, Elsabbagh M, Ungar WJ, Pathways in ASD Study Team Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Transactional Relations Between Parenting Stress and Child Autism Symptoms and Behavior Problems.
Abstract Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder report elevated parenting stress. The current study examined bidirectional effects between parenting stress and three domains of child functioning (ASD symptoms, internalizing behavior problems, and externalizing behavior problems) across four time points in 188 families of children with ASD (ages 5-12 years). Mother and father reports of parenting stress and child functioning were used in cross-lag models to examine bidirectional associations between parenting stress and child functioning. Results indicated parent-driven effects for child internalizing be...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rodriguez G, Hartley SL, Bolt D Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Toddler Screening for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic Accuracy.
e;n-Rodero H, Robins DL Abstract Great efforts focus on early detection of autism spectrum disorder, although some scientists and policy-makers have questioned early universal screening. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the different screening tools. Several electronic databases were used to identify published studies. A Bayesian model was used to estimate the screening accuracy. The pooled sensitivity was 0.72 (95% CI 0.61-0.81), and the specificity was 0.98 (95% CI 0.97-0.99). Subgroup analyses to remove heterogeneity indicated sensitivity was 0.77 (95% CI 0.69-0.84), and ...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sánchez-García AB, Galindo-Villardón P, Nieto-Librero AB, Martín-Rodero H, Robins DL Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Cross-Cultural Content Validity of the Autism Program Environment Rating Scale in Sweden.
This study adapted the Autism Program Environment Rating Scale Preschool/Elementary to Swedish community context (APERS-P-SE). Following translation and a multistep modification process, independent experts rated the content validity of the adaptation. Findings indicate high cross-cultural validity of the adapted APERS-P-SE. The cultural adaption process of the APERS-P-SE highlights similarities and differences between the American and Swedish preschool systems and their impact on early ASD intervention. PMID: 30617551 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders)
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bejnö H, Roll-Pettersson L, Klintwall L, Långh U, Odom SL, Bölte S Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research

Not So Fast: Autistic traits and Anxious Apprehension in Real-World Visual Search Scenarios.
Abstract Autistic individuals have shown superior performance in simple, albeit difficult, visual search tasks. We compared eye movements and behavioral markers across two visual search tasks based on real-world scenes in young adults. Context-aided search increased speed and accuracy for all groups. Autistic adults (n = 29) were on average consistently slower and less accurate than a non-anxious neurotypical comparison group (n = 48), but similar to neurotypical adults with elevated anxious apprehension (n = 26). Dimensional analyses suggest that autism traits, not anxiou...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - January 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Russell NCC, Luke SG, Lundwall RA, South M Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research