In vitro activity of ferroquine against artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT)-resistant Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Cambodia
ConclusionsFerroquine exerts promising efficacy against ACT-resistant isolates. WhereasPfpm2 amplification was associated with the highest parasite tolerance to ferroquine, the susceptibility range observed was in accordance with those measured in ACT resistance-free areas. This enables consideration of ferroquine as a relevant therapeutic option against ACT-resistant malaria. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - September 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Systemic pharmacokinetics and safety of high doses of nebulized colistimethate sodium in critically ill patients with hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia
AbstractObjectivesTo assess the pharmacokinetics of formed colistin in plasma and the safety of two different high doses of colistimethate sodium administered via nebulization in critically ill surgical patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).Patients and methodsFormed colistin plasma concentrations were measured in critically ill surgical patients with pneumonia treated with two different doses of nebulized colistimethate sodium (3  MIU/8 h versus 5 MIU/8 h). Adverse events possibly related to nebulized colistimethate sodium were recorded.Results...
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - September 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The 2019 Garrod Lecture: MDR efflux in Gram-negative bacteria —how understanding resistance led to a new tool for drug discovery
AbstractThe AcrAB-TolC MDR efflux system confers intrinsic MDR and overproduction confers clinically relevant resistance to some antibiotics active against Gram-negative bacteria. The system is made up of three components, namely AcrA, AcrB and TolC, otherwise known as the AcrAB-TolC tripartite system. Inactivation or deletion of a gene encoding one of the constituent proteins, or substitution of a single amino acid in the efflux pump component AcrB that results in loss of efflux function, confers increased antibiotic susceptibility. Clinically relevant resistance can be mediated by a mutation inacrB that changes the way A...
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - September 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

‘Antibiotic footprint’ as a communication tool to aid reduction of antibiotic consumption—authors’ response
Sir, (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - September 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effectiveness of extended- versus normal-release nitrofurantoin for cystitis: an instrumental variable analysis
ConclusionsIn patients with cystitis in pregnancy, NF100 was associated with a lower incidence of late clinical failure compared with NF50. We found no differences in clinical failure between NF50 and NF100 for uncomplicated and complicated cystitis. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Incidence and risk factors for liver enzyme elevation among naive HIV-1-infected patients receiving ART in the ICONA cohort
ConclusionsIn our study, INSTI use almost halved the risk of LEE compared with other regimens. This finding could be particularly important for choosing ART in patients with risk factors for liver toxicity such as HCV and HBV coinfections. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 27, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy: updated recommendations from the UK
AbstractOutpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) offers safe, effective and patient-centred care for adults and children. The OPAT UK good practice recommendations for adults and children have recently been updated through a process of literature review, expert consensus and extensive stakeholder consultation. Here we discuss the key changes in the updated recommendations in the context of recent developments, including novel antimicrobial agents and delivery devices, the place of oral antimicrobials as an alternative to intravenous therapy, new OPAT service models and the broader antimicrobial stewardship agenda...
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella quasipneumoniae define the population structure of blaKPC-2Klebsiella: a 5 year retrospective genomic study in Singapore
ConclusionsResults suggest that dissemination ofblaKPC-2 is driven by NTEKPC in non-ST258 isolates. The detection ofblaKPC-2K. pneumoniae serotypes K1/K2 carrying virulence factors, albeit in low numbers, reflects the worrisome convergence of carbapenem resistance and hypervirulence inK. pneumoniae. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A novel plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance determinant (mcr-1.8) in Escherichia coli recovered from broiler chickens in Brunei Darussalam
Sir, (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antibiotic choice in UK general practice: rates and drivers of potentially inappropriate antibiotic prescribing
ConclusionsAntibiotic prescribing did not always align with prescribing guidelines, especially for URTIs and otitis externa. Future interventions might target optimizing amoxicillin use in primary care. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Association between Pseudomonas aeruginosa O-antigen serotypes, resistance profiles and high-risk clones: results from a Spanish nationwide survey
ConclusionsO4 serotype is linked to the MDR/XDR profile of widespread ST175 (typically only susceptible to colistin, amikacin and the novel combinations ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam) and therefore, after local validation, its detection in the microbiology laboratory might be useful for guiding semi-empirical antipseudomonal therapies and infection control measures in Spanish hospitals. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Intervention planning for Antibiotic Review Kit (ARK): a digital and behavioural intervention to safely review and reduce antibiotic prescriptions in acute and general medicine
ConclusionsThe key output of this research is a digital and behavioural intervention targeting important barriers to stopping antibiotics at review (seehttp://bsac-vle.com/ark-the-antibiotic-review-kit/ andhttp://antibioticreviewkit.org.uk/). ARK will be evaluated in a feasibility study and, if successful, a stepped-wedge cluster-randomized controlled trial at acute hospitals across the NHS. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Activity of imipenem/relebactam against carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae with high colistin resistance
ConclusionsImipenem/relebactam was the most potent agent tested against CPE in this study and may be a useful addition to the antimicrobial armamentarium to treat infections caused by these pathogens. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Tenofovir DF/emtricitabine/rilpivirine as HIV post-exposure prophylaxis: results from a multicentre prospective study —authors’ response
Sir, (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Genomic investigation of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from Gambian women and newborns following an oral dose of intra-partum azithromycin
ConclusionsOur data reveal in this Gambian population the presence of a dominant clone ofS. aureus harbouring plasmid-encoded azithromycin resistance, which was acquired by participants in both arms of the study. Understanding these resistance dynamics is crucial to defining the public health drug resistance impacts of azithromycin prophylaxis given during labour in Africa. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Cationic cell-penetrating peptide is bactericidal against Neisseria gonorrhoeae
ConclusionsBased on these promising results, future studies will focus on testing of CPP in the presence of other types of host cells and exploration of structural modifications of the CPP that could decrease its susceptibility to proteolysis and increase its potency. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Efficacy of a ciprofloxacin/amikacin combination against planktonic and biofilm cultures of susceptible and low-level resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa
ConclusionsThe ciprofloxacin/amikacin combination prevented the emergence of resistant mutants in low-level resistant strains in planktonic cultures. Biofilm persister cells were not eradicated, either with monotherapy or with the combination. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam in Escherichia coli resulting from extensive IS26-associated gene amplification of blaTEM-1
ConclusionsIS26-associated amplification ofblaTEM can cause resistance to P/BLI combinations. This adaptive mechanism of resistance may be overlooked if simple methods of genotypic prediction (e.g. gene presence/absence) are used to predict antimicrobial susceptibility from sequencing data. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Durability of antimicrobial activity of antibiotic-impregnated external ventricular drains: a prospective study
AbstractBackgroundAntibiotic-impregnated external ventricular drains (AI-EVDs) have a debated efficacy in clinical studies.ObjectivesOur aim was to assess the durability of antimicrobial activity of AI-EVDs used in clinical settings.MethodsFrom April 2017 to January 2018, all consecutive AI-EVDs (Bactiseal ™) inserted in adult patients were prospectively included. After removal, each AI-EVD was cultured and assessed for antimicrobial activity on both internal and external sides of AI-EVDs. Catheters were each challenged with a singleStaphylococcus strain [MSSA, MRSA or methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus epidermidis ...
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Towards endemicity: large-scale expansion of the NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 lineage in Poland, 2015 –16
Conclusions TheK. pneumoniae ST11 NDM-1 outbreak has dramatically expanded in Poland since 2012, which may bring about a countrywide endemic situation in the near future. In addition, the so-far limitedK. pneumoniae ST147 NDM-1 outbreak plus multiple NDM imports from different countries were observed in 2015 –16. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Development of quality indicators for the management of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia
ConclusionsA set of 25 QIs for the management of SAB for hospitalized patients was developed by using a RAND-modified Delphi procedure among international experts. These QIs can measure the quality of various aspects of SAB management. This information can be fed back to the relevant stakeholders in order to identify improvement targets and optimize care. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 8, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Matched-paired analysis of patients treated for invasive mucormycosis: standard treatment versus posaconazole new formulations (MoveOn)
ConclusionsPosaconazole new formulations were effective in terms of treatment response and associated mortality of IM. While posaconazole new formulations may be an alternative for treatment of IM, the limited sample size of our study calls for a cautious interpretation of these observations. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 8, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Use of darunavir in HIV-1-infected individuals in routine clinical practice from 2012 to 2016 in France
ConclusionsDarunavir-containing regimens yielded similarly high rates of viral suppression in PLHIV whether they were ARV naive or ARV experienced switching to darunavir while failing therapy, or of maintaining VS in ARV-experienced PLHIV switching to darunavir while virologically controlled. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Recovery of FRI-5 carbapenemase at a Japanese hospital where FRI-4 carbapenemase was discovered
Sir, (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Time trend of prevalence and susceptibility to nitrofurantoin of urinary MDR Escherichia coli from outpatients
ConclusionsDespite a high prevalence of MDRE. coli in urinary samples from Belgian outpatients, nitrofurantoin could still be recommended as first-line empirical treatment in uncomplicated UTIs. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Clinical impact of rapid susceptibility testing on MHR-SIR directly from blood cultures
ConclusionsThis study showed a significant time saving (17  h) on the appropriateness of antibiotic prescription and demonstrated a significant impact regarding the choice and reduction of the spectrum of antibiotic therapy. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Outcomes by sex following treatment initiation with darunavir/cobicistat in a large Spanish cohort of the CODAR study (GeSIDA 9316)
J Antimicrob Chemother 2019;74:3044 –8 (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Mechanisms and phenotypic consequences of acquisition of tigecycline resistance by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
ConclusionsMutational resistance to tigecycline was easily selected during exposure to this antibiotic. However, the fitness cost may compromise the maintenance ofS. maltophilia tigecycline-resistant populations in the absence of antibiotic. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Successful treatment with cefiderocol for compassionate use in a critically ill patient with XDR Acinetobacter baumannii and KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: a case report
Sir, (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Cushing ’s syndrome due to interaction between ritonavir or cobicistat and corticosteroids: a case–control study in the French Pharmacovigilance Database
ConclusionsAntiretroviral-boosting agents were responsible for one out of four iatrogenic CS cases in a French national database. Prescribers should be aware of the risk of potentially serious DDIs between antiretroviral-boosting agents and corticosteroids, including single-tablet regimens containing cobicistat. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Meta-analysis of the effect of CYP2B6, CYP2A6, UGT2B7 and CAR polymorphisms on efavirenz plasma concentrations
AbstractBackgroundEfavirenz primary metabolism is catalysed by CYP2B6 with minor involvement of CYP2A6. Subsequently, phase I metabolites are conjugated by UGT2B7, and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) has been shown to transcriptionally regulate many relevant enzymes and transporters. Several polymorphisms occurring in the genes coding for these proteins have been shown to impact efavirenz pharmacokinetics in some but not all studies.ObjectivesA meta-analysis was performed to assess the overall effect ofCYP2B6 rs3745274,CYP2A6 (rs28399454, rs8192726 and rs28399433),UGT2B7 (rs28365062 and rs7439366) andNR1I3 (rs230742...
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - August 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Polymyxin resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae: multifaceted mechanisms utilized in the presence and absence of the plasmid-encoded phosphoethanolamine transferase gene mcr-1
ConclusionsThis is the first study demonstrating a unique markerless deletion ofmcr-1 in a clinical polymyxin-resistantK. pneumoniae. The current polymyxin B dosage regimens are suboptimal againstK. pneumoniae, regardless ofmcr, and can lead to the emergence of resistance. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - July 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A single amino acid substitution (H451Y) in Leishmania calcium-dependent kinase SCAMK confers high tolerance and resistance to antimony
ConclusionsThese results establish thatLeishmania SCAMK is a new central hub of antimony ’s mode of action and resistance development, and uncover the importance of drug tolerance mutations in the evolution of parasite drug resistance. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - July 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Emergence of ceftazidime/avibactam resistance in KPC-3-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in vivo
ConclusionsCeftazidime/avibactam is a valuable antibiotic against MDR and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales. Based on time –kill kinetics as well as anin vivo infection model we postulate a combination therapy of ceftazidime/avibactam and imipenem as a strategy to prevent the development of ceftazidime/avibactam resistance in KPC-producing Enterobacteralesin vivo. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - July 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Adaptation of the WHO Essential Medicines List for national antibiotic stewardship policy in England: being AWaRe
ConclusionsWe have adapted the WHO AWaRe index to create a specific index for England. The AWaRe index provides high-level understanding of antibiotic prescribing. Subsequent to this process the England AWaRe index is now embedded into national antibiotic stewardship policy and incentivized quality improvement schemes. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - July 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

How long will treatment guidelines for TB continue to overlook variability in drug exposure?
ConclusionsThese findings suggest the need to revisit current guidelines for the dose of standard of care drugs for TB treatment in adults. The proposed fixed-dose regimen should be considered in future clinical trials. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - July 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Emergence of a hybrid plasmid derived from IncN1-F33:A −:B− and mcr-1-bearing plasmids mediated by IS26
ConclusionsTo our knowledge, this is the first report of the IS26-mediated fusion of an IncN1-F33:A −:B− plasmid and anmcr-1-carrying phage-like plasmid, providing evidence for the important role of IS26 in the recombination of plasmids. The biological advantages of the fusion plasmid indicated that the fusion event presumably plays a potential role in the dissemination ofmcr-1. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - July 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Polyclonal gut colonization with extended-spectrum cephalosporin- and/or colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: a normal status for hotel employees on the island of Zanzibar, Tanzania
ConclusionsWe recorded remarkably high colonization prevalence with ESC-R and/or CST-R Enterobacteriaceae in hotel staff. Further research in the local environment, livestock and food chain is warranted to understand this phenomenon. Moreover, as Zanzibar is a frequent holiday destination, attention should be paid to the risk of international travellers becoming colonized and thereby importing life-threatening pathogens into their low-prevalence countries. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - July 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Anti-fungal activity of a novel triazole, PC1244, against emerging azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus and other species of Aspergillus
ConclusionsPC1244 has the potential to become a novel topical treatment of azole-resistant pulmonary aspergillosis. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - July 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Clinical experience with new formulation SUBA ®-itraconazole for prophylaxis in patients undergoing stem cell transplantation or treatment for haematological malignancies
ConclusionsSUBA®-itraconazole achieved rapid therapeutic trough concentrations, was associated with low rates of IFI and was well tolerated in the study population. This formulation should be considered a realistic and safe first-line agent for the prevention of IFIs in those undergoing HSCT and intermediate/high-risk therapy for haematological malignancies. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - July 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Genetic and pharmacological inactivation of d-alanylation of teichoic acids sensitizes pathogenic enterococci to β-lactams
ConclusionsThe combined results support the potential usefulness of the Dlt system as a target to potentiate antibiotic combination therapies for the treatment of drug-resistant enterococci. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - July 24, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Improved determination of Neisseria gonorrhoeae gyrase A genotype results in clinical specimens
ConclusionsThe ResistancePlus GC (beta) assay showed improvedN. gonorrhoeae gyrA genotype determination compared with a priorgyrA genotypic high-resolution melt assay. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - July 24, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

High colonization rate of a novel carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella lineage among migratory birds at Qinghai Lake, China
ConclusionsThis high frequency of carbapenemase producers in migratory birds is unexpected. These results provide new insight into the spread of antibiotic resistance, and highlight that continued vigilance for MDR carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in migratory birds is urgently needed. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - July 24, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Co-occurrence of mcr-1 and mcr-3 genes in a single Escherichia coli in New Zealand
Sir, (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - July 24, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

CrpP, a passenger or a hidden stowaway in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa genome?
Sir, (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - July 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Optimized meropenem dosage regimens using a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic population approach in patients undergoing continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration with high-adsorbent membrane
ConclusionsWe have constructed a PK model of meropenem in sepsis patients undergoing CVVHDF using the oXiris® membrane. This tool will support physicians when calculating the optimal initial dose. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - July 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A β-lactamase-producing plasmid from Neisseria gonorrhoeae carrying a unique 6 bp deletion in blaTEM-1 encoding a truncated 24 kDa TEM-1 penicillinase that hydrolyses ampicillin slowly
ConclusionsThis unusual PPNG isolate might have been characterized as a non-PPNG owing to its low MIC of penicillin and its very slow hydrolysis of nitrocefin. Given the unusual nature of its TEM-1 β-lactamase, laboratories might consider extending the duration of nitrocefin hydrolysis assays. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - July 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comment on: In vitro activity of seven β-lactams including ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam against Burkholderia cepacia complex, Burkholderia gladioli and other non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli isolated from cystic fibrosis patients
Sir, (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - July 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Assessing the lymphoid tissue bioavailability of antiretrovirals in human primary lymphoid endothelial cells and in mice
ConclusionsARVs displayed distinct HLEC penetration patterns. PK studies of representative ARVs in LT of mice were concordant with HLEC bioavailability. These findings support further development of this approach and its translational predictability in humans. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - July 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comparison of VITEK ® 2, three different gradient strip tests and broth microdilution for detecting vanB-positive Enterococcus faecium isolates with low vancomycin MICs
ConclusionsWe recommend that EUCAST changes the present warning against the general use of MIC strips. When MIC strips are used to either exclude or confirm suspected vancomycin resistance inE. faecium, and a PCR is not available, the macromethod should be employed. For clinically relevant enterococci, where a rapid therapeutic decision is needed, a molecular test (e.g. PCR) should be favoured in order to save time and to further increase sensitivity. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - July 23, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research