Efflux pump inhibitor CCCP to rescue colistin susceptibility in mcr-1 plasmid-mediated colistin-resistant strains and Gram-negative bacteria
AbstractObjectivesEfflux in bacteria is a ubiquitous mechanism associated with resistance to antimicrobials agents. Efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) have been developed to inhibit efflux mechanisms and could be a good alternative to reverse colistin resistance, but only CCCP has shown good activity. The aim of our study was to identify CCCP activity in a collection of 93 Gram-negative bacteria with known and unknown colistin resistance mechanisms including isolates withmcr-1 plasmid-mediated colistin resistance.MethodsColistin MIC was evaluated with and without CCCP and the fold decrease of colistin MIC was calculated for eac...
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Plasma cystatin C as a marker for estimated glomerular filtration rate assessment in HIV-1-infected patients treated with dolutegravir-based ART
AbstractObjectivesInhibition of the organic cation transporter-2 renal tubule transporter by dolutegravir leads to serum creatinine increase. Serum cystatin C is a non-organic cation transporter-2-dependent marker, possibly enabling glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation under dolutegravir. Our goal was to evaluate the changes in creatinine- and cystatin C-based estimated GFR values before and after dolutegravir initiation.MethodsCreatinine and cystatin measurements were carried out on frozen plasma samples from HIV-1-infected patients, before and after dolutegravir initiation, between October 2016 and March 2017 at P...
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 24, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Increased antibiotic resistance exhibited by the biofilm of Vibrio cholerae O139
AbstractBackgroundVibrio cholerae, the aetiological agent of the deadly diarrhoeal disease cholera, is known to form biofilm. The antibiotic susceptibility status of biofilm ofV. cholerae O139, an important epidemic strain in India and other countries, has not previously been studied in detail.MethodsAntibiotic susceptibility status of planktonic and biofilm cultures ofV. cholerae O139 was evaluated by determining MIC, MBC and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) values of five different classes of antibiotics using established methods. Effects of antibiotic treatment on planktonic and biofilm cultures were ana...
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 24, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Increased activity of linezolid in combination with rifampicin in a murine pneumonia model due to MRSA
This study aimed to compare the efficacy of the linezolid/rifampicin combination in a murine pneumonia model caused bycfr-positive andcfr-negative clinical MRSA strains.MethodsSynergistic activity between linezolid and rifampicin was evaluated by chequerboard and time –kill assays. Pharmacokinetic profiles in plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) as well as the therapeutic efficacy of linezolid alone and in combination with rifampicin were investigated in a murine pneumonia model. TheEmax Hill equation was used to model the dose –response relationship.ResultsIncreased susceptibility of the study MRSA strains...
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Insights about minority HIV-1 strains in transmitted drug resistance mutation dynamics and disease progression
AbstractObjectivesThe presence of minority transmitted drug resistance mutations was assessed using ultra-deep sequencing and correlated with disease progression among recently HIV-1-infected individuals from Brazil.MethodsSamples at baseline during recent infection and 1  year after the establishment of the infection were analysed. Viral RNA and proviral DNA from 25 individuals were subjected to ultra-deep sequencing of the reverse transcriptase and protease regions of HIV-1.ResultsViral strains carrying transmitted drug resistance mutations were detected in 9 out of the 25 patients, for all major antiretroviral cl...
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 19, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Plasma and CSF pharmacokinetics of meropenem in neonates and young infants: results from the NeoMero studies
ConclusionsSimulations showed that longer infusions increase plasma PTA but decrease CSF PTA. CSF penetration is worsened with long infusions so increasing dose frequency to achieve therapeutic targets should be considered. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 19, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Emergency department visits during outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy: a retrospective cohort study
ConclusionsCompared with patients without, patients with prior ED visit have a 2.3-fold higher hazard of an ED visit within 30  days of OPAT initiation. Visits for worsening infection are much more likely to result in hospitalization than those for vascular access complications. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 18, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Systemic inflammation markers after simplification to atazanavir/ritonavir plus lamivudine in virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients: ATLAS-M substudy
ConclusionsSimplification with atazanavir/ritonavir plus lamivudine does not affect plasma markers of systemic inflammation in virologically suppressed patients. The association between these findings and clinical outcomes requires further evaluation. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 17, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Novel plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-7.1 in Klebsiella pneumoniae
ConclusionsWe identified a novel plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene namedmcr-7.1 inK. pneumoniae in China. The prevalence ofmcr-7.1 in various species of human and animal origin needs to be investigated immediately. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 17, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A retrospective study on mcr-1 in clinical Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in China from 2007 to 2016
We examined 39 (0.62%) clinical isolates ofmcr-1-positiveE. coli andK. pneumoniae over a 10  year period. Resistance to antimicrobial agents was significantly more severe inmcr-1-positive isolates thanmcr-1-negative isolates, particularly piperacillin (P  = 0.008), amikacin (P  
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 17, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Atazanavir/ritonavir with lamivudine as maintenance therapy in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients: 96 week outcomes of a randomized trial
ConclusionsIn this randomized study, a treatment switch to atazanavir/ritonavir  + lamivudine was superior over the continuation of atazanavir/ritonavir + 2NRTI in virologically suppressed patients, with a sustained benefit in terms of improved renal function and bone mineral density. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 12, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Genomic context of resistance genes within a French clinical MDR Proteus mirabilis: identification of the novel genomic resistance island GIPmi1
ConclusionsThe finding of the new genomic island GIPmi1 belonging to the same superfamily of genomic islands as SGI1/SGI2/PGI1/AGI1 and of the integrative conjugative element ICEPmiFra1 (SXT/R391 family) suggested that these genetic elements might be key mediators of resistance gene acquisition inP. mirabilis. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 12, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

In vitro activity of imipenem/relebactam against Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens isolated in 17 European countries: 2015 SMART surveillance programme
ConclusionsRelebactam restored susceptibility to imipenem for the majority of imipenem-non-susceptible isolates ofP. aeruginosa andK. pneumoniae tested as well as some isolates of imipenem-non-susceptibleEnterobacter spp. Based on our results, imipenem/relebactam appears to be a promising therapeutic option for treating patients with infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 11, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Two new Salmonella genomic islands 1 from Proteus mirabilis and description of blaCTX-M-15 on a variant (SGI1-K7)
ConclusionsThis study confirmed the great plasticity of the MDR region of SGI1 and its potential key role for the dissemination of clinically significant antibiotic resistance among Enterobacteriaceae. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 11, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-5 in porcine Aeromonas hydrophila
ConclusionsTo the best of our knowledge, this is the first identification of the novel colistin resistance genemcr-5 in anA. hydrophila isolate from the faeces of a backyard pig.mcr-5 is expected to be able to disseminate among different bacterial species and genera. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 11, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antibiotic pressure on the acquisition and loss of antibiotic resistance genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae
ConclusionsTo the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report a carbapenem-resistant HMVK. pneumoniae strain in the USA. Ultimately, this case demonstrates the role of antibiotic pressure in the acquisition and loss of important genetic elements. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 10, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Analysis of Escherichia coli STs and resistance mechanisms in sewage from Islamabad, Pakistan indicates a difference in E. coli carriage types between South Asia and Europe
AbstractObjectivesTo discover theEscherichia coli STs and associated resistance mechanisms in the community in Islamabad, Pakistan by analysis ofE. coli isolates in sewage.MethodsOne hundred and tenE. coli were isolated from sewage across the city of Islamabad without antibiotic bias and confirmed asE. coli by MALDI-TOF MS. Isolates were characterized byfumC/fimH (CH) typing and core-genome MLST. Resistance mechanisms, virulence genes, phylotypes and plasmid incompatibility types were determined in a subset of isolates byin silico analysis. The genomic position ofblaCTX-M-15 was determined using S1-PFGE, probing and Nanopo...
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 10, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

CoERG11 A395T mutation confers azole resistance in Candida orthopsilosis clinical isolates
ConclusionsTo the best of our knowledge, these findings provide the first evidence that the CoErg11 Y132F substitution confers multi-azole resistance inC. orthopsilosis. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 9, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Low prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance detected by a dried blood spot (DBS)-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) method in newly diagnosed individuals in Cameroon in the years 2015 –16
ConclusionsThe prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance is currently low in the study sites in Cameroon. Evidence of some risky sexual behaviours depicts a public health problem with possible implications for the prevention of new HIV-1 infections. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

ZAAPS programme results for 2016: an activity and spectrum analysis of linezolid using clinical isolates from medical centres in 42 countries
ConclusionsThese results document the continued long-termin vitro potency of linezolid. Alterations in the 23S rRNA and/or L3/L4 proteins remain the main oxazolidinone resistance mechanisms inE. faecium and CoNS, whereasoptrA emerged as the sole mechanism inE. faecalis. Surveillance and infection control will be important strategies to detectoptrA and prevent it from disseminating. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 6, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Temocillin against Enterobacteriaceae isolates from community-acquired urinary tract infections: low rate of resistance and good accuracy of routine susceptibility testing methods
AbstractBackgroundTemocillin is an old ‘revived’ antibiotic that may play an important role in the treatment of febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Data regarding its activity against current Enterobacteriaceae isolates as well as the performance of routine susceptibility testing methods are, however, scarce.ObjectivesTo determine the MICs of temocillin for Enterobacteriaceae strains reflecting the current epidemiology and to analyse the accuracy of three commercial methods.MethodsEnterobacteriaceae isolates causing community-acquired UTI were prospectively collected from September 2015 to January 2017 in tw...
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 6, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

In vitro activity of ceftaroline against clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates collected during a national survey conducted in Belgian hospitals
J Antimicrob Chemother 2017;72:56 –9 (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 5, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Defensive medicine among antibiotic stewards: the international ESCMID AntibioLegalMap survey
ConclusionsA significant proportion of specialists in ID and CM reported some form of defensive behaviour in prescribing or advising to prescribe antibiotics. Defensive medicine should be considered when implementing antibiotic stewardship programmes. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 4, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Impact of intensification with raltegravir on HIV-1-infected individuals receiving monotherapy with boosted PIs
ConclusionsIntensification of PI/r monotherapy with raltegravir revealed persistent low-level viral replication and reduced residual viraemia in some patients during long-term PI/r monotherapy. The concomitant change in T cell phenotype suggests an association between active viral production and T cell activation. These results contribute to understanding the lower efficacy rates of PI/r monotherapies compared with triple therapies in clinical trials. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 4, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Limitations of ceftriaxone compared with cefazolin against MSSA: an integrated pharmacodynamic analysis
ConclusionsGiven the limited activity of ceftriaxone againstS. aureus, particularly for serious infections when bacterial kill is desired, the convenience of once-daily dosing should be weighed against the risks of using an overly broad, suboptimal therapy. Cefazolin warrants further consideration, particularly as optimal pharmacodynamics against MSSA may be achieved with twice-daily dosing in most patients. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 4, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

First nationwide antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance for Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Brazil, 2015 –16
ConclusionsThis study describes the first national surveillance of gonococcal AMR in Brazil, which was quality assured according to WHO standards. The high resistance to ciprofloxacin (which promptly informed a revision of the Brazilian sexually transmitted infection treatment guideline), emerging resistance to azithromycin and decreasing susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins necessitate continuous surveillance of gonococcal AMR and ideally treatment failures, and increased awareness when prescribing treatment in Brazil. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 4, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Characterization of poxtA, a novel phenicol –oxazolidinone–tetracycline resistance gene from an MRSA of clinical origin
ConclusionsA novel resistance gene, namedpoxtA, encoding a protein of the antibiotic resistance (ARE) ABC-F lineage, was identified in the genome of an MRSA of clinical origin. PoxtA can confer decreased susceptibility to phenicols, oxazolidinones and tetracyclines and is associated with a putative mobile element that could contribute to its horizontal dissemination. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 4, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Ceragenins are active against drug-resistant Candida auris clinical isolates in planktonic and biofilm forms
ConclusionsCeragenins demonstrated activity againstC. auris, suggesting that these compounds warrant further study to determine whether they can be used for topical applications to skin and mucosal tissues for treatment of infections withC. auris and other fungi. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 4, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effects of isoniazid resistance on TB treatment outcomes under programmatic conditions in a high-TB and -HIV setting: a prospective multicentre study —authors’ response
Sir, (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - April 4, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Dolutegravir-based maintenance monotherapy versus dual therapy with lamivudine: a planned 24 week analysis of the DOLAM randomized clinical trial
ConclusionsIn contrast to dolutegravir/lamivudine, a higher than expected risk of viral failure with development of cross-resistance integrase mutations occurred with dolutegravir maintenance monotherapy. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - March 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Darunavir/ritonavir 600/100 mg once daily: it ’s time for larger non-inferiority randomized trials
Sir, (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - March 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A survey of practice and opinions on the use of topical antibiotics to prevent surgical site infection: more confusion than consensus
ConclusionsThere are diverse opinions and practices among healthcare professionals about the use of topical antibiotics for the prevention of SSI. This considerable, and possibly inappropriate, variation in clinical practice needs to be addressed as part of antibiotic stewardship. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - March 27, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of voriconazole anti-Acanthamoeba polyphaga in vitro activity, rat cornea penetration and efficacy against experimental rat Acanthamoeba keratitis
ConclusionsPresent data underline the need for high-frequency eye-drop instillation regimens for efficient AK therapy. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - March 27, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Differential antiviral activities of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) inhibitors in human airway epithelium
ConclusionsOverall, HuAECs offer a robust and physiologically relevant model to study RSV replication and to assess the efficacy of antiviral compounds. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - March 27, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

New single capsule of bismuth, metronidazole and tetracycline given with omeprazole versus quadruple therapy consisting of bismuth, omeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer patients: a Chinese prospective, randomized, multicentre trial
ConclusionsThe new single-capsule OBMT quadruple therapy is as effective and well tolerated as the widely used OBAC therapy for treatment ofH. pylori in clinical practice in China. In addition, this OBMT therapy largely overcomesH. pylori metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - March 27, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Perceptions and attitudes regarding antibiotic resistance in Germany: a cross-sectoral survey amongst physicians, veterinarians, farmers and the general public
ConclusionsThis study reveals considerable differences in perceptions and attitudes to ABR among the groups investigated. The results can help to tailor future interventions. Furthermore, they promote mutual understanding and thus support the One Health approach. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - March 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

KPC-2 carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa reaching Germany
ConclusionsThe first detection (to the best of our knowledge) of plasmid-encoded KPC-2 inP. aeruginosa in Germany may point to a currently underestimated spread of carbapenemases among clinically relevant Gram-negative bacteria. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we also provide the first report ofblaKPC-2 associated with the IncHI1 plasmid. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - March 24, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Linezolid pharmacokinetics in MDR-TB: a systematic review, meta-analysis and Monte Carlo simulation
AbstractObjectivesThe oxazolidinone linezolid is an effective component of drug-resistant TB treatment, but its use is limited by toxicity and the optimum dose is uncertain. Current strategies are not informed by clinical pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) data; we aimed to address this gap.MethodsWe defined linezolid PK/PD targets for efficacy (fAUC0 –24:MIC>119  mg/L/h) and safety (fCmin
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - March 23, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Oral doxycycline for syphilitic uveitis: a case report highlighting potential efficacy
Sir, (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - March 23, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Week 96 efficacy of lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy in virologically suppressed patients with HIV: a randomized non-inferiority trial (ANRS 140 DREAM)
AbstractBackgroundSparing of antiretroviral drug classes could reduce the toxicity and cost of maintenance treatment for HIV infection.ObjectivesTo evaluate the non-inferiority of efficacy and the safety of lopinavir/ritonavir (r) monotherapy versus a single-tablet regimen of efavirenz, emtricitabine and tenofovir (EFV/FTC/TDF) over 2  years.MethodsAdults on stable ART with plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - March 23, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Intramacrophage Mycobacterium tuberculosis efflux pump gene regulation after rifampicin and verapamil exposure
ConclusionsThe current study demonstrated that rifampicin/verapamil caused down-regulation of several EP genes inMtb inside the macrophage environment.In vivo trials may show that rifampicin/verapamil therapy could be of value in enhancing anti-TB treatment. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - March 22, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Direct detection of carbapenem resistance determinants in clinical specimens using immunochromatographic lateral flow devices
Sir, (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - March 22, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Temocillin dosing in haemodialysis patients based on population pharmacokinetics of total and unbound concentrations and Monte Carlo simulations
ConclusionsCurrently licensed dosage regimen is suboptimal for MICs  >8  mg/L (frequently found in clinical isolates). Model-based simulations allowed suggestion of a new dosage regimen with improved probability of microbiological success, applicability in routine clinical practice and more appropriate for empirical therapy. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - March 22, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Pharmacodynamics of inhaled amikacin (BAY 41-6551) studied in an in vitro pharmacokinetic model of infection
ConclusionsAnfAUC/MIC amikacin target of 50 –80 is appropriate for aerobic Gram-negative bacilli and mean ELF concentrations of BAY 41-6551 would produce a static to −1 log clearance with strains up to 128 mg/L. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - March 19, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antimicrobial activity of ellagic acid against Helicobacter pylori isolates from India and during infections in mice
ConclusionsThe present study paves the way for the preventive and therapeutic use of ellagic acid againstH. pylori infection and, thus, ellagic acid can be considered a promising antibacterial agent againstH. pylori-associated gastroduodenal diseases in humans. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - March 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Species-specific mutation rates for ampC derepression in Enterobacterales with chromosomally encoded inducible AmpC β-lactamase
ConclusionsOur data might help to predict the risk of treatment failure with oxyimino-cephalosporins in infections by different Enterobacterales with inducible AmpC. Moreover, we make a proposal for optimization of the current EUCAST expert rule. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - March 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

In vivo evolution of resistant subpopulations of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae during ceftazidime/avibactam treatment
ConclusionsOur analysis indicates that mixed subpopulations of ceftazidime/avibactam-resistant KPC-Kp emerge after ceftazidime/avibactam treatment. The evolution of different subpopulations that are highly resistant to ceftazidime/avibactam likely contributes to treatment failure, thereby highlighting the need for combination treatment strategies to limit selection of ceftazidime/avibactam-resistant KPC-Kp subpopulations. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - March 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Relentless spread and adaptation of non-typeable vanA vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium: a genome-wide investigation
ConclusionsThese findings confirmed the evolution, emergence and dissemination of non-typeablevanA E. faecium. This study has highlighted the utility of WGS when attempting to describe accurately the hospital-based pathogen epidemiology, which in turn will continue to inform optimal infection control measures necessary to halt the spread of this important nosocomial organism. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - March 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Unexpected synergistic and antagonistic antibiotic activity against Staphylococcus biofilms
ConclusionsThis study found that gentamicin and daptomycin were the only effective single-agent antibiotics against establishedStaphylococcus biofilms. Interestingly the addition of a bacteriostatic antibiotic was found to antagonize the ability of gentamicin to eradicateStaphylococcus biofilms. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - March 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effectiveness of interventions to improve the public ’s antimicrobial resistance awareness and behaviours associated with prudent use of antimicrobials: a systematic review
ConclusionsOur work provides an in-depth examination of the effectiveness of AMR interventions for the public. However, the studies were heterogeneous and the quality of evidence was poor. Well-designed, experimental studies on behavioural outcomes of such interventions are required. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - March 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research