Rapid and longer-term effects of selective breeding for voluntary exercise behavior on skeletal morphology in house mice.
We examined the appendicular skeleton of house mice from four replicate High Runner (HR) lines bred for physical activity on wheels and four non-selected Control (C) lines. HR mice reached apparent selection limits between generations 17 and 27, running ~3-fold more than C. Studies at generations 11, 16, and 21 found that HR mice had evolved thicker hindlimb bones, heavier feet, and larger articular surface areas of the knee and hip joint. Based on biomechanical theory, any or all of these evolved differences may be beneficial for endurance running. Here, we studied mice from generation 68, plus a limited sample from gener...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - October 21, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Castro AA, Rabitoy H, Claghorn GC, Garland T Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolution in the Japanese smelt Hypomesus nipponensis (McAllister, 1963).
Abstract Vision plays a crucial role in the life of the vast majority of vertebrate species. The spatial arrangement of retinal ganglion cells has been reported to be related to a species' visual behavior. There are many studies focusing on the ganglion cell topography in bony fish species. However, there are still large gaps in our knowledge on the subject. We studied the topography of retinal ganglion cells (GCs) in the Japanese smelt Hypomesus nipponensis, a highly visual teleostean fish with a complex life cycle. DAPI labeling was used to visualize cell nuclei in the ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers. T...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - October 20, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Pushchin I, Kondrashev S, Kamenev Y Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Ontogenetic allometry and scaling in catarrhine crania.
Abstract In studies of ontogenetic allometry, ontogenetic scaling has often been invoked to explain cranial morphological differences between smaller and larger forms of closely related taxa. These scaled variants in shape have been hypothesized to be the result of the extension or truncation of common growth allometries. In this scenario, change in size is the determining factor, perhaps under direct selection, and changes in cranial shapes are byproducts, not under direct selection themselves. However, many of these conclusions are based on studies that used bivariate generalizations of shape. Even among multiva...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - October 20, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Simons EA, Frost SR Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Cortical parameters predict bone strength at the tibial diaphysis, but are underestimated by HR-pQCT and μCT compared to histomorphometry.
This study evaluated the capability of several high-resolution imaging techniques to capture cortical bone morphology and assessed the correlation with the bone's mechanical properties. The microstructural properties (cortical thickness [Ct.Th], porosity [Ct.Po], area [Ct.Ar]) of 11 female tibial diaphysis (40-90 years) were evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), high-resolution peripheral-quantitative-computed-tomography (HR-pQCT), micro-CT (μCT) and histomorphometry. Stiffness and maximal torque to failure were determined by mechanical testing. T-Scores determined by DXA ranged from 0.6 to -5.6 and ...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - October 20, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Schmidutz F, Milz S, Schiuma D, Richards RG, Windolf M, Sprecher CM Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Myological reconstruction of the pelvic girdle and hind limb of the giant titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur Dreadnoughtus schrani.
In this study, we reconstruct the pelvic girdle and hind limb musculature of the giant titanosaurian sauropod Dreadnoughtus schrani based on observations of osteological correlates and Extant Phylogenetic Bracket comparisons. Recovered fossils of Dreadnoughtus exhibit remarkably well-preserved, well-developed, and extensive muscle scars. Furthermore, this taxon is significantly larger bodied than any titanosaurian for which a myological reconstruction has previously been performed, rendering this contribution highly informative for the group. All 20 of the muscles investigated in this study are sufficiently well supported ...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - October 20, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Voegele KK, Ullmann PV, Lamanna MC, Lacovara KJ Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Major gaps in human evidence for structure and function of the vasa vasora limit our understanding of the link with atherosclerosis.
Abstract Atherosclerosis is the major pathology causing death in the developed world and, although risk factor modification has improved outcomes over the last decade, there is no cure. The role of the vasa vasora (VV) in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic plaque is unclear but must relate to the predictability of diseased sites in the arterial tree. VV are small vessels found on major arteries and veins which supply nutrients and oxygen to the vessel wall itself while removing waste. Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the anatomy and function of the VV as well as their significance in vascular...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - October 20, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Sophie Zhao B, Belhoul-Fakir H, Jansen S, Hamzah J, Mishani S, Lawrence Brown M Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Imaging of muscle activity-induced morphometric changes in fibril network of myofascia by two-photon microscopy.
Abstract Myofascia, deep fascia enveloping skeletal muscles, consists of abundant collagen and elastin fibres that play a key role in the transmission of muscular forces. However, understanding of biomechanical dynamics in myofascia remains very limited due to less quantitative and relevant approaches for in vivo examination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the myofascial fibril structure by means of a quantitative approach using two-photon microscopy (TPM) imaging in combination with intravital staining of Evans blue dye (EBD), a far-red fluorescence dye, which potentially labels elastin. With focus on ...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - October 19, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Chaweewannakorn C, Harada T, Nyasha MR, Koide M, Shikama Y, Hagiwara Y, Sasaki K, Kanzaki M, Tsuchiya M Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Characteristics of aquaporin 1, 3, and 5 expression during early murine salivary gland development.
;o SV Abstract Aquaporins (AQPs) are essential to coordinate the transit of water and ions through the cell membrane. In salivary glands (SGs), AQPs have been associated with saliva formation, facilitating water absorption through the epithelium during the formation of hypotonic saliva, which is then secreted into the oral cavity. Different members of the AQP family have been suggested to play distinct roles during embryonic development, highlighted by their specific expression patterns. Here, we have investigated the expression patterns of AQP-1, AQP-3 and AQP-5 by immunofluorescence at key stages of salivary gla...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - October 19, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: de Paula F, Tucker AS, Teshima THN, de Souza MM, Coutinho-Camillo CM, Nico MMS, Lourenço SV Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

AC joint osteoarthritis: The role of genetics. An MRI evaluation of asymptomatic elderly twins.
CONCLUSIONS: The role of genetics on ACJO accounts for only 20%; a specific anatomical configuration of the articular surfaces only partially acts on the development of joint osteoarthritis. Environmental factors have the greatest impact. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV. PMID: 33073352 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Anatomy)
Source: Journal of Anatomy - October 19, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Candela V, Villani C, Standoli JP, Scacchi M, Gumina S Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Structural remodeling of the lumbar multifidus, thoracolumbar fascia and lateral abdominal wall perimuscular connective tissues: A search for its potential determinants.
uss R Abstract Recently remodeling of lumbar soft tissues has received increased research attention. However, the major determinants that influence remodeling need to be elucidated in order to understand the impact of different rehabilitation modalities on tissue remodeling. The main aim of this study was to explore the between-subject variance of different measures of lumbar soft tissues quantified with rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI). RUSI measures (n = 8) were collected from 30 subjects without and 34 patients with LBP: (1) lumbar multifidus (LM) echogenicity (fatty infiltration/fibrosis) at ...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - October 18, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Larivière C, Henry SM, Preuss R Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Ultrastructural evidence for telocytes in equine tendon.
era C Abstract The three-dimensional ultrastructure of the tendon is complex. Two main cell types are classically supported: elongated tenocytes and ovoid tenoblasts. The existence of resident stem/progenitor cells in human and equine tendons has been demonstrated, but their location and relationship to tenoblasts and tenocytes remain unclear. Hence, in this work, we carried out an ultrastructural study of the equine superficial digital flexor tendon. Although the fine structure of tendons has been previously studied using electron microscopy, the presence of telocytes, a specific type of interstitial cell, has no...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - October 18, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Luesma MJ, Cantarero I, Sánchez-Cano AI, Rodellar C, Junquera C Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Microarchitecture of cetacean vertebral trabecular bone among swimming modes and diving behaviors.
In this study, we categorized 10 species of cetaceans (Families Delphinidae and Kogiidae) into functional groups determined by swimming patterns (rigid vs. flexible torso) and diving behavior (shallow vs. deep). Here, we quantify vertebral trabecular microarchitecture (a) among functional groups (rigid-torso shallow diver (RS), rigid-torso deep diver (RD), and flexible-torso deep diver (FD)), and (b) among vertebral column regions (posterior thoracic, lumbar, caudal peduncle, and fluke insertion). We microCT scanned vertebral bodies, from which 1-5 volumes of interest were selected to quantify bone volume fraction (BV/TV),...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - October 14, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Ingle DN, Porter ME Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Histological and molecular characterization of the growing nasal septum in mice.
In this study, we describe growth, molecular, and cellular characteristics of the nasal septum with reference to hyaline cartilage differentiation. The nasal septum grows asynchronous across its length with phases of rapid growth interrupted by more stagnant growth. Growth appears to be driven predominantly by acquisition of chondrocyte hypertrophy. Similarly, cellular differentiation is asynchronous, and differentiation observed in the anterior part precedes posterior differentiation. Overall, the nasal septum is structurally and molecularly heterogeneous. Early and extensive chondrocyte hypertrophy but no ossification is...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - October 12, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Baddam P, Kung T, Adesida AB, Graf D Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Vertebral pneumaticity of the North American therizinosaur Nothronychus.
Abstract Nothronychus was a large, derived therizinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Utah and New Mexico. The genus is known from elements that have been referred to single individuals. Therizinosaurs were unusual maniraptoran theropods close to the origin of birds. The axial skeleton is extensively pneumatized, but CT scans reveal an apneumatic synsacrum. Inferred air sacs invade the basicranium, the presacral vertebrae, and the proximal caudal vertebrae, but bypassed the sacrum resulting in a caudosacral hiatus similar to some sauropods and reflecting the development of multiple diverticula from the abdominal a...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - October 12, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Smith DK, Sanders RK, Wolfe DG Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Development and evolution of the notarium in Pterosauria.
MB Abstract The notarium is the structure formed by fusion of the dorsal vertebrae which occurred independently in pterosaurs and birds. This ankylosis usually involves two to six elements and in many cases, also includes the last cervical vertebra. Fusion can occur in different degrees, uniting the vertebral centra, the neural spines, the transverse processes, the ventral processes, or a combination of these sites. A detailed assessment of the fusion process of pterosaur dorsal vertebrae is still lacking. Here we identify the fusion sequence of pterosaur notarial elements, demonstrating the order of ossification...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - October 7, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Aires AS, Reichert LM, Müller RT, Pinheiro FL, Andrade MB Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Morphometry of the kangaroo spine and its comparison with human spinal data.
Abstract The upright posture of the kangaroo suggests that the spine of the kangaroo could be a possible substitute model for biomechanical studies of the human spine. A prerequisite for this should be the agreement of anatomy in humans and kangaroos. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anatomical parameters of the kangaroo spine from C4 to S4 and compare them with existing anatomical data of the human spine. Eight complete spines of the red giant kangaroo were obtained and 21 anatomical parameters were measured from the vertebral bodies, spinal canal, endplate, pedicles, intervertebral discs, transve...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - October 6, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Wilke HJ, Betz VM, Kienle A Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

The forearm and hand musculature of semi-terrestrial rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and arboreal gibbons (fam. Hylobatidae). Part II. Quantitative analysis.
This study indicates that the overall configuration of the arm and hand musculature of these primates is very similar but there are some apparent differences in relative size which can be linked to differences in forelimb function and which might be related to their specific locomotor behaviour. In macaques, there is a large development of wrist deviators, wrist and digital flexors, and m. triceps brachii, as these muscles are important during the different phases of palmi- and digitigrade quadrupedal walking to stabilize the wrist and elbow. In addition, their m. flexor carpi ulnaris is the most important contributor to t...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - October 3, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Vanhoof MJM, van Leeuwen T, Galletta L, Vereecke EE Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

MicroRNAs regulate distal region of mandibular development through Hh signaling.
Abstract Mandibular anomalies are often seen in various congenital diseases, indicating that mandibular development is under strict molecular control. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in mandibular development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding small single-stranded RNAs that play a critical role in regulating the level of gene expression. We found that the mesenchymal conditional deletion of miRNAs arising from a lack of Dicer (an essential molecule for miRNA processing, Dicerfl / fl ;Wnt1Cre), led to an abnormal groove formation at the distal end of developing mandibles. At...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - October 3, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Trakanant S, Nihara J, Nagai T, Kawasaki M, Kawasaki K, Ishida Y, Meguro F, Kudo T, Yamada A, Maeda T, Saito I, Ohazama A Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Damage to the human lumbar cartilage endplate and its clinical implications.
In conclusion, we presented a new classification of human lumbar micro-damaged CEPs. Furthermore, we verify disc degeneration, innervation, and discogenic pain in micro-damaged CEPs. PMID: 33011984 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Anatomy)
Source: Journal of Anatomy - October 3, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Huang B, Liu J, Wei X, Li S, Xiang Y, Wu H, Chen J, Zhao F Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Are endocasts reliable proxies for brains? A 3D quantitative comparison of the extant human brain and endocast.
det A Abstract Endocasts (i.e., replicas of the inner surface of the bony braincase) constitute a critical proxy for qualifying and quantifying variations in brain shape and organization in extinct taxa. In the absence of brain tissues preserved in the fossil record, endocasts provide the only direct evidence of brain evolution. However, debates on whether or not information inferred from the study of endocasts reflects brain shape and organization have polarized discussions in paleoneurology since the earliest descriptions of cerebral imprints in fossil hominin crania. By means of imaging techniques (i.e., MRIs a...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 29, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Dumoncel J, Subsol G, Durrleman S, Bertrand A, de Jager E, Oettlé AC, Lockhat Z, Suleman FE, Beaudet A Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Glans clitoris innervation: PIEZO2 and sexual mechanosensitivity.
This study focuses on glans clitoris innervation, with special emphasis on sensory corpuscles and the presence of the mechanotransducer protein PIEZO2 in these structures. Six glans clitoris samples were obtained at autopsy covering an age spectrum between 52 and 83 years old. Several types of nerve terminations including free nerve endings, genital endbulbs as well as Meissner-like corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles, but not Ruffini corpuscles, were found. Although corpuscular morphology in the glans clitoris was subtly different from the cutaneous digital counterparts, their basic composition was comparable for both...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 28, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: García-Mesa Y, Cárcaba L, Coronado C, Cobo R, Martín-Cruces J, García-Piqueras J, Feito J, García-Suárez O, Vega JA Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

A comparative characterization of laryngeal anatomy in the singing mouse.
Abstract Sexual displays are some of the most dramatic and varied behaviors that have been documented. The elaboration of such behaviors often relies on the modification of existing morphology. To understand how display elaboration arises, we analyzed the laryngeal anatomy of three species of mice that vary in the presence and complexity of their vocal displays. Mice and rats have a specialized larynx that enables them to produce both low-frequency "audible" sounds, perhaps using vocal fold vibration, as well as distinct mechanisms that are thought to enable higher frequency sounds, such as vocal membran...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 28, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Smith SK, Burkhard TT, Phelps SM Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Vertebral pneumaticity is correlated with serial variation in vertebral shape in storks.
Abstract Birds and their ornithodiran ancestors are unique among vertebrates in exhibiting air-filled sinuses in their postcranial bones, a phenomenon called postcranial skeletal pneumaticity. The factors that account for serial and interspecific variation in postcranial skeletal pneumaticity are poorly understood, although body size, ecology, and bone biomechanics have all been implicated as influencing the extent to which pneumatizing epithelia invade the skeleton and induce bone resorption. Here, I use high-resolution computed-tomography to holistically quantify vertebral pneumaticity in members of the neognath...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 25, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Moore AJ Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Development of the skin in the eastern quoll (Dasyurus viverrinus) with focus on cutaneous gas exchange in the early postnatal period.
Abstract A morphological and morphometric study of the skin development in the eastern quoll (Dasyurus viverrinus) was conducted to follow the transition from cutaneous to pulmonary gas exchange in this extremely immature marsupial species. Additionally, the development of the cardiac and respiratory system was followed, to evaluate the systemic prerequisites allowing for cutaneous respiration. The skin in the newborn D. viverrinus was very thin (36 ± 3 µm) and undifferentiated (no hair follicles, no sebaceous and perspiratory glands). Numerous superficial cutaneous capillaries were enc...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 24, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Ferner K Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Homology and osteological correlates of pedal muscles among extant sauropsids.
Abstract Archosaurs displayed an evolutionary trend toward increasing bipedalism in their evolutionary history, that is, forelimbs tend to be reduced in contrast to the development of hindlimbs becoming major weight-bearing and locomotor appendages. The archosaurian locomotion has been extensively discussed based on their limb morphology because the latter reflects their locomotor modes very well. However, despite some attempts of reconstructing the hindlimb musculature in Archosauria, that of the most distal portion, the pes, has often been neglected. In order to rectify this trend, detailed homologies of pedal m...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 23, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Hattori S, Tsuihiji T Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Comparative osteology of the hynobiid complex Liua-Protohynobius-Pseudohynobius (Amphibia, Urodela): Ⅰ. Cranial anatomy of Pseudohynobius.
Abstract Hynobiidae are a clade of salamanders that diverged early within the crown radiation and that retain a considerable number of features plesiomorphic for the group. Their evolutionary history is informed by a fossil record that extends to the Middle Jurassic Bathonian time. Our understanding of the evolution within the total group of Hynobiidae has benefited considerably from recent discoveries of stem hynobiids but is constrained by inadequate anatomical knowledge of some extant forms. Pseudohynobius is a derived hynobiid clade consisting of five to seven extant species living endemic to southwestern Chin...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 21, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Jia J, Gao KQ, Jiang JP, Bever GS, Xiong R, Wei G Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

A mechanistic approach for the calculation of intervertebral mobility in mammals based on vertebrae osteometry.
Abstract In this paper, we develop and validate an osteometry-based mechanistic approach to calculation of available range of motion (aROM) in presacral intervertebral joints in sagittal bending (SB), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR). Our basic assumption was the existence of a mechanistic interrelation between the geometry of zygapophysial articular facets and aROM. Trigonometric formulae are developed for aROM calculation, of which the general principle is that the angle of rotation is given by the ratio of the arc length of motion to the radius of this arc. We tested a number of alternative formula...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 18, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Belyaev RI, Kuznetsov AN, Prilepskaya NE Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Conference Abstracts: Winter Meeting of the Anatomical Society, Lancaster 2019.
Authors: PMID: 32944933 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Anatomy)
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 16, 2020 Category: Anatomy Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Tissue clearing technique: Recent progress and biomedical applications.
Abstract Organisms are inherently three dimensional, thus comprehensive understanding of the complicated biological system requires analysis of organs or even whole bodies in the context of three dimensions. However, this is a tremendous task since the biological specimens are naturally opaque, a major obstacle in whole-body and whole-organ imaging. Tissue clearing technique provides a prospective solution and has become a powerful tool for three-dimensional imaging and quantification of organisms. Tissue clearing technique aims to make tissue transparent by minimizing light scattering and light absorption, thus a...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 15, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Tian T, Yang Z, Li X Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Fsp1 cardiac embryonic expression delineates atrioventricular endocardial cushion, coronary venous and lymphatic valve development.
te;rez-Pomares JM Abstract Fsp1 (a.k.a S100A4 or Metastatin) is an intracellular and secreted protein widely regarded as a fibroblast marker. Recent studies have nonetheless shown that Fsp1 is also expressed by other cell types, including small subsets of endothelial cells. Since no detailed and systematic description of Fsp1 spatio-temporal expression pattern in cardiac vascular cells is available in the literature, we have used a transgenic murine line (Fsp1-GFP) to study Fsp1 expression in the developing and postnatal cardiac vasculature and endocardium. Our work shows that Fsp1 is expressed in the endocardium ...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 12, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Cano-Ballesteros S, Palmquist-Gomes P, Marín-Sedeño E, Guadix JA, Pérez-Pomares JM Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Effects of ovariectomy on inputs from the medial preoptic area to the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus of young adult rats.
This study analysed the connectivity pattern established between the MPN and the VMH that is involved in the neuronal circuit responsible for female sexual behaviour in control and OVX rats. The data show the changes in the organization of the connections observed in the OVX adult rats that displayed a reduced axonal length for the MPN fibres reaching the VMHvl, suggesting that peripubertal ovarian hormones are relevant to the organization of MPN connections with structures involved in the promotion of female sexual behaviour. PMID: 32914872 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Anatomy)
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 10, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Pereira LDS, Gobbo DR, Ferreira JGP, Horta-Junior JACE, Sá SI, Bittencourt JC Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Recently increased prevalence of the human median artery of the forearm: A microevolutionary change.
Abstract The median artery has been considered as an embryonic structure, which normally regresses around the 8th week of gestation. However, various prevalences have been reported in adults since the 18th century. Furthermore, in a study by Henneberg and George (1995; Am J Phys Anthropol 96, 329-334), has suggested that increasing prevalence of the median artery during the 20th century was a 'possible secular trend'. The present study, conducted nearly a quarter of a century later, is a continuation of that study. A total of 26 median arteries were found in 78 upper limbs obtained from Australians aged 51 to 101&...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 9, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Lucas T, Kumaratilake J, Henneberg M Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Ultrastructural analysis of different skeletal cell types in mucopolysaccharidosis dogs at the onset of postnatal growth.
The objective of this study was to conduct an ultrastructural examination of how lysosomal storage differentially affects major skeletal cell types in MPS I and VII using naturally occurring canine disease models. We showed that both bone and cartilage cells from MPS I and VII dog vertebrae exhibit significantly elevated storage from early in postnatal life, with storage generally greater in MPS VII than MPS I. Storage was most striking for vertebral osteocytes, occupying more than forty percent of cell area. Secondary to storage, dilation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a marker of ER stress, was observed most ma...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 6, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Jiang Z, Lau YK, Wu M, Casal ML, Smith LJ Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Endocast structures are reliable proxies for the sizes of corresponding regions of the brain in extant birds.
Abstract Endocasts are increasingly relied upon to examine avian brain evolution because they can be used across extant and extinct species. The endocasts of birds appear to be relatively faithful representatives of the external morphology of their brains, but it is unclear how well the size of a surface feature visible on endocasts reflects the volume of the underlying brain region. The optic lobe and the Wulst are two endocast structures that are clearly visible on the external surface of avian endocasts. As they overlie two major visual regions of the brain, the optic tectum and hyperpallium, the surface areas ...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 5, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Early CM, Iwaniuk AN, Ridgely RC, Witmer LM Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Nascent nephrons during human embryonic development: Spatial distribution and relationship with urinary collecting system.
This study investigated the distribution of nascent nephrons and their interrelationship with UCS branches during human embryogenesis. We obtained samples from 31 human embryos between Carnegie stages (CSs) 19 and 23 from the Kyoto Collection at the Congenital Anomaly Research Center of Kyoto University in Japan. Serial histological sections of the metanephros with the UCS were digitalized and computationally reconstructed for morphological and quantitative analyses. The three-dimensional (3D) coordinates for the positions of all UCS branch points, end points, attachment points to nascent nephrons (APs), and renal corpuscl...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 4, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Kitazawa H, Fujii S, Ishiyama H, Matsubayashi J, Ishikawa A, Yamada S, Takakuwa T Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

The claustrum of the sheep and its connections to the visual cortex.
i B Abstract The present study analyses the organization and selected neurochemical features of the claustrum and visual cortex of the sheep, based on the patterns of calcium-binding proteins expression. Connections of the claustrum with the visual cortex have been studied by tractography. Parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-ir) and Calbindin-immunoreactive (CB-ir) cell bodies increased along the rostro-caudal axis of the nucleus. Calretinin (CR)-labeled somata were few and evenly distributed along the rostro-caudal axis. PV and CB distribution in the visual cortex was characterized by larger round and multipolar cells...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 2, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Pirone A, Graïc JM, Grisan E, Cozzi B Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Postnatal ossification sequences in Acrocephalus scirpaceus and Chroicocephalus ridibundus (Aves: Neognathae): The precocial-altricial spectrum and evolution of compound bones in birds.
Abstract Although the development of the avian skeleton has attracted considerable attention, most of the studies have been concentrated on the embryonic period, while studies on the postnatal period are rare. We studied the postnatal development of the skeleton in two phylogenetically distant birds, an altricial passerine Acrocephalus scirpaceus and a semiprecocial charadriiform Chroicocephalus ridibundus. The neonates of the former, despite being altricial, have well-ossified skeleton-the degree of development approaches that of the semiprecocial gull. However, after hatching the limb bones (particularly those o...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 31, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Skawiński T, Borczyk B, Hałupka L Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Anatomy and histology of the foramen of ovarian bursa opening to the peritoneal cavity and its changes in autoimmune disease-prone mice.
In this study, we revealed anatomical and histological characteristics of the ovarian bursa in C57BL/6 N, MRL/MpJ, and MRL/MpJ-Faslpr / lpr mice. All strains had the foramen of ovarian bursa (FOB), with a size of approximately 0.04 to 0.12 cm2 , surrounded by the ligament of ovarian bursa (LOB), which is part of the mesosalpinx. The LOB was partially lined with the cuboidal mesothelial cells and consisted of a thick smooth muscle layer in all strains. In 6-month-old MRL/MpJ-Faslpr / lpr mice, in which the systemic autoimmune abnormality deteriorated and oocyte pick-up function was impaired, the size of the FOB te...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 31, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Hosotani M, Ichii O, Nakamura T, Namba T, Islam MR, Elewa YHA, Watanabe T, Ueda H, Kon Y Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Verification and characterisation of human digital Ruffini's sensory corpuscles.
ía-Piqueras J, Vega JA Abstract Ruffini's corpuscles are present as long fusiform encapsulated sensory structures in different tissues including the skin. Although physiological analyses strongly suggest their existence in glabrous digital skin, such localisation remains unconfirmed. Here, we have investigated the occurrence of typical Ruffini's corpuscles in 372 sections of human digital skin obtained from 186 subjects of both sexes and different ages (19-92 years). S100 protein, neuron-specific enolase and neurofilament proteins were detected, and the basic immunohistochemical profile of these corpus...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 30, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Cobo R, García-Mesa Y, Cárcaba L, Martin-Cruces J, Feito J, García-Suárez O, Cobo J, García-Piqueras J, Vega JA Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Professor David Brynmor Thomas.
PMID: 32851640 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Anatomy)
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 25, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Moxham B Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Accessory bones of the elbow: Prevalence, localization and modified classification.
Kachlík D Abstract Accessory bones in the region of the elbow are rare variants with high clinical significance as they may be confused with avulsion fractures. We investigated their prevalence and performed a statistical analysis to support their congenital origin. Their localization was mapped to show their exact site of occurrence. We evaluated anteroposterior and lateral X-ray images of 2413 elbows in a Central European population from which a group of accessory bony structures was selected. Their character was evaluated, and accessory bones were identified. We used logistic regression to evaluate the ...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 23, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Kunc V, Kunc V, Černý V, Polovinčák M, Kachlík D Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Testing the inhibitory cascade model in the Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain) hominin sample.
inillos M, Martinón-Torres M Abstract The Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos (SH) site has yielded more than 7.500 human fossil remains belonging to a minimum of 29 individuals. Most of these individuals preserve either the complete mandibular molar series or at least the first (M1 ) and second (M2 ) molars. The inhibitory cascade mathematical model was proposed by Kavanagh et al. (Nature, 449, 427-433 [2007]) after their experimental studies on the dental development of murine rodent species. The activator-inhibitor mechanism of this model has shown its ability for predicting evolutionary size patterns ...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 23, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Bermúdez de Castro JM, Modesto-Mata M, Martín-Francés L, García-Campos C, Martínez de Pinillos M, Martinón-Torres M Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Insights into skull evolution in fossorial snakes, as revealed by the cranial morphology of Atractaspis irregularis (Serpentes: Colubroidea).
Abstract Comparative osteological analyses of extant organisms provide key insight into major evolutionary transitions and phylogenetic hypotheses. This is especially true for snakes, given their unique morphology relative to other squamates and the persistent controversy regarding their evolutionary origins. However, the osteology of several major snake groups remains undescribed, thus hindering efforts to accurately reconstruct the phylogeny of snakes. One such group is the Atractaspididae, a family of fossorial colubroids. We herein present the first detailed description of the atractaspidid skull, based on ful...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 19, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Strong CRC, Palci A, Caldwell MW Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Evolution of arboreality and fossoriality in squirrels and aplodontid rodents: Insights from the semicircular canals of fossil rodents.
Abstract Reconstructing locomotor behaviour for fossil animals is typically done with postcranial elements. However, for species only known from cranial material, locomotor behaviour is difficult to reconstruct. The semicircular canals (SCCs) in the inner ear provide insight into an animal's locomotor agility. A relationship exists between the size of the SCCs relative to body mass and the jerkiness of an animal's locomotion. Additionally, studies have also demonstrated a relationship between SCC orthogonality and angular head velocity. Here, we employ two metrics for reconstructing locomotor agility, radius of cu...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 18, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Bhagat R, Bertrand OC, Silcox MT Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Three-dimensional ultrastructure reconstruction of tendinous components at the bifurcation of the bovine superficial digital flexor tendon using array and STEM tomographies.
In this study, we used array and scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) tomographies to reconstruct the three-dimensional ultrastructure of tenocytes, collagen fibres, collagen fibrils and GAG chains at the bifurcation of the bovine hindlimb superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT). Collagen fibrils comprising a collagen fibre were not aligned uniformly and had at least two running directions. Spindle-shaped tenocytes were arranged along the long axis of a plurality of collagen fibres, where two groups of collagen fibrils with oblique directions to each other exhibited an oblique overlap of the two collagen fibri...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 13, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Takahashi N, Kametani K, Ota R, Tangkawattana P, Iwasaki T, Hasegawa Y, Ueda H, Hosotani M, Watanabe T Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Response to Letter to the Editor by Dr Rios and Dr Cardoso.
D, Bastir M PMID: 32794174 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Anatomy)
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 12, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Sanchis-Gimeno JA, Palancar CA, García-Martínez D, Radovčić D, Bastir M Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

The evolution of the pectoral extrinsic appendicular and infrahyoid musculature in theropods and its functional and behavioral importance.
Abstract Birds have lost and modified the musculature joining the pectoral girdle to the skull and hyoid, called the pectoral extrinsic appendicular and infrahyoid musculature. These muscles include the levator scapulae, sternomandibularis, sternohyoideus, episternocleidomastoideus, trapezius, and omohyoideus. As non-avian theropod dinosaurs are the closest relatives to birds, it is worth investigating what conditions they may have exhibited to learn when and how these muscles were lost or modified. Using extant phylogenetic bracketing, osteological correlates and non-osteological influences of these muscles are i...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 12, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Klingler JJ Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Semimembranosus muscle displacement is associated with movement of the superficial fascia: An in vivo ultrasound investigation.
This study aimed to describe the potential interaction between the Hamstring muscles and the SF. Local movement of the dorsal thigh's soft tissue was imposed making use of myofascial force transmission effects across the knee joint: In eleven healthy individuals (26.8 ± 4.3 years, six males), an isokinetic dynamometer moved the ankle into maximal passive dorsal extension (knee extended). Due to the morphological continuity between the gastrocnemius and the Hamstrings, stretching the calf led to soft tissue displacements in the dorsal thigh. Ultrasound recordings were made to dynamically visualize (a) ...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 12, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Wilke J, Tenberg S Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Anatomical evidence of non-parasympathetic cardiac nitrergic nerve fibres in rat.
In conclusion, an abundant population of nitrergic NS in the nodose ganglion implies that neuronal NO is involved in afferent cardiac innervation. Nevertheless, nNOS-IR neurons identified within vagal nuclei may play a role in the transmission of preganglionic parasympathetic nerve impulses. PMID: 32790077 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Anatomy)
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 12, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Navickaite I, Pauziene N, Pauza DH Tags: J Anat Source Type: research

Body size miniaturization in a lineage of colubrid snakes: Implications for cranial anatomy.
rel A Abstract As body size strongly determines the biology of an organism at all levels, it can be expected that miniaturization comes with substantial structural and functional constraints. Dwarf snakes of the genus Eirenis are derived from big, surface-dwelling ancestors, considered to be similar to those of the sister genus Dolichophis. To better understand the structural implications of miniaturization on the feeding apparatus in Eirenis, the morphology of the cranial musculoskeletal system of Dolichophis schmidti was compared with that of the miniature Eirenis punctatolineatus and E. persicus using high...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 12, 2020 Category: Anatomy Authors: Rajabizadeh M, Adriaens D, De Kegel B, Avcı A, Ilgaz Ç, Herrel A Tags: J Anat Source Type: research