Can social behaviour drive accessory olfactory bulb asymmetries? Sister species of caviomorph rodents as a case in point.
zis J Abstract In mammals, the accessory olfactory or vomeronasal system exhibits a wide variety of anatomical arrangements. In caviomorph rodents, the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) exhibits a dichotomic conformation, in which two subdomains, the anterior (aAOB) and the posterior (pAOB), can be readily distinguished. Interestingly, different species of this group exhibit bias of different sign between the AOB subdomains (aAOB larger than pAOB or vice versa). Such species-specific biases have been related with contrasting differences in the habitat of the different species (e.g. arid vs. humid environments). Aimin...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - December 4, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Fernández-Aburto P, Delgado SE, Sobrero R, Mpodozis J Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Age-related changes of tendon fibril micro-morphology and gene expression.
Abstract Aging is hypothesized to be associated with changes in tendon matrix composition which may lead to alteration of tendon material properties and hence propensity to injury. Altered gene expression may offer insights into disease pathophysiology and thus open new perspectives toward designing pathophysiology-driven therapeutics. Therefore, the current study aimed at identifying naturally occurring differences in tendon micro-morphology and gene expression of newborn, young and old horses. Age-related differences in the distribution pattern of tendon fibril thickness and in the expression of the tendon relev...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - December 3, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Ribitsch I, Gueltekin S, Keith MF, Minichmair K, Peham C, Jenner F, Egerbacher M Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Comparative skeletal anatomy of neonatal ursids and the extreme altriciality of the giant panda.
Abstract Mammalian neonates are born at a wide range of maturity levels. Altricial newborns are born with limited sensory agency and require extensive parental care. In contrast, precocial neonates are relatively mature physically and often capable of independent function shortly after birth. In extant mammals, placental newborns vary from altricial to precocial, while marsupials and monotremes are all extremely altricial at birth. Bears (family Ursidae) have one of the lowest neonatal-maternal mass ratios in placental mammals, and are thought to also have the most altricial placental newborns. In particular, gian...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - December 2, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Li P, Smith KK Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Morphological variability in unrepaired bilateral clefts with and without cleft palate evaluated with geometric morphometrics.
Abstract In subjects with orofacial clefts, there is an unresolved controversy on the effect of congenital maxillary growth deficiency vs. the effect of surgical intervention on the outcome of treatment. Intrinsic growth impairment in subjects with orofacial clefts can be studied by comparing facial morphology of subjects with untreated cleft and unaffected individuals of the same ethnic background. Bilateral cleft lip and palate is the most severe and least prevalent form of the orofacial cleft. The aim of this study was to compare facial morphology in subjects with unrepaired complete bilateral clefts and unaffe...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - December 2, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Latif A, Kuijpers MAR, Rachwalski M, Latief BS, Kuijpers-Jagtman AM, Fudalej PS Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Anatomical Society Winter Meeting. Anatomies in the Virtual Realm, 17-19 December 2018.
Authors: PMID: 31782529 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Anatomy)
Source: Journal of Anatomy - November 29, 2019 Category: Anatomy Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Savannah roars: The vocal anatomy and the impressive rutting calls of male impala (Aepyceros melampus) - highlighting the acoustic correlates of a mobile larynx.
g K Abstract A retractable larynx and adaptations of the vocal folds in the males of several polygynous ruminants serve for the production of rutting calls that acoustically announce larger than actual body size to both rival males and potential female mates. Here, such features of the vocal tract and of the sound source are documented in another species. We investigated the vocal anatomy and laryngeal mobility including its acoustical effects during the rutting vocal display of free-ranging male impala (Aepyceros melampus melampus) in Namibia. Male impala produced bouts of rutting calls (consisting of oral roars ...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - November 28, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Frey R, Volodin IA, Volodina EV, Efremova KO, Menges V, Portas R, Melzheimer J, Fritsch G, Gerlach C, von Dörnberg K Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Re: Examining the contribution of surrounding intact skin during cutaneous healing.
PMID: 31762022 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Anatomy)
Source: Journal of Anatomy - November 24, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Aljghami ME, Amini-Nik S Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
A transmural gradient of myocardial remodeling in early-stage heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in the pig.
In conclusion, cardiomyocyte changes due to DOCA were similar in subepicardial, midmyocardial and subendocardial regions but DOCA-induced changes in the interstitium appeared to be more pronounced in the subendocardial ventricular wall layers. This suggests a pivotal role of the subendocardial interstitium in the pathogenesis of HFpEF. PMID: 31749243 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Anatomy)
Source: Journal of Anatomy - November 21, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Mühlfeld C, Rajces A, Manninger M, Alogna A, Wierich MC, Scherr D, Post H, Schipke J Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
The anatomical basis for transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation.
Abstract The array of end organ innervations of the vagus nerve, coupled with increased basic science evidence, has led to vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) being explored as a management option in a number of clinical disorders, such as heart failure, migraine and inflammatory bowel disease. Both invasive (surgically implanted) and non-invasive (transcutaneous) techniques of VNS exist. Transcutaneous VNS (tVNS) delivery systems rely on the cutaneous distribution of vagal afferents, either at the external ear (auricular branch of the vagus nerve) or at the neck (cervical branch of the vagus nerve), thus obviating the ...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - November 19, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Butt MF, Albusoda A, Farmer AD, Aziz Q Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Ontogenetic changes to bone microstructure in an archaeologically derived sample of human ribs.
Abstract There is considerable variation in the gross morphology and tissue properties among the bones of human infants, children, adolescents, and adults. Using 18 known-age individuals (nfemale = 8, nmale = 9, nunknown = 1; birth to 21 years old), from a well-documented cemetery collection, Spitalfields Christ Church, London, UK, this study explores growth-related changes in cortical and trabecular bone microstructure. Micro-CT scans of mid-shaft middle thoracic ribs are used for quantitative analysis. Results are then compared to previously quantified conventional hist...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - November 15, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Beresheim AC, Pfeiffer S, Grynpas M Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Appendicular morphology and locomotor performance of two morphotypes of continental anoles: Anolis heterodermus and Anolis tolimensis.
rez A Abstract Anolis lizards have been a model of study in ecomorphology in the Caribbean islands because species with the same type of microhabitat share similar morphological features. But despite their great diversity, little is known about continental species. We analyzed the relationship between the anatomical characteristics of the appendicular skeleton and the locomotor performance of two Anolis species found in Colombia that have different use of habitat. Anolis heterodermus, a strictly arboreal species, was compared with Anolis tolimensis, which inhabits the lower strata of vegetation. These two species ...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - November 14, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Ríos-Orjuela JC, Camacho-Bastidas JS, Jerez A Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Characterisation of the developing heart in a pressure overloaded model utilising RNA sequencing to direct functional analysis.
Abstract Cardiogenesis is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors, with blood flow playing a critical role in cardiac remodelling. Perturbation of any of these factors could lead to abnormal heart development and hence the formation of congenital heart defects. Although abnormal blood flow has been associated with a number of heart defects, the effects of abnormal pressure load on the developing heart gene expression profile have to date not clearly been defined. To determine the heart transcriptional response to haemodynamic alteration during development, outflow tract (OFT) banding was employed in t...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - November 14, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Parnall M, Perdios C, Pang KL, Rochette S, Loughna S Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Baby steps towards linking calcaneal trabecular bone ontogeny and the development of bipedal human gait.
This study demonstrates that three different regions of the calcaneus develop into distinct adult morphologies through varying developmental trajectories. These results are similar to previous reports of ontogeny in human long bones and are suggestive of a relationship between the mechanical environment and trabecular bone architecture in the human calcaneus during growth. However, controlled experiments combined with more detailed biomechanical models of gait maturation are necessary to establish skeletal markers linking growth to loading. This has the potential to be a novel source of information for understanding loadin...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - November 14, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Saers JPP, Ryan TM, Stock JT Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Development and growth of the pectoral girdle and fin skeleton in the extant coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae.
bin M Abstract The monobasal pectoral fins of living coelacanths and lungfishes are homologous to the forelimbs of tetrapods and are thus critical to investigate the origin thereof. However, it remains unclear whether the similarity in the asymmetrical endoskeletal arrangement of the pectoral fins of coelacanths reflects the evolution of the pectoral appendages in sarcopterygians. Here, we describe for the first time the development of the pectoral fin and shoulder girdle in the extant coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae, based on the tomographic acquisition of a growth series. The pectoral girdle and pectoral fin endo...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - November 12, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Mansuit R, Clément G, Herrel A, Dutel H, Tafforeau P, Santin MD, Herbin M Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Bone foramen dimensions and blood flow calculation: best practices.
This study provides details of microphotographic and micro-computerized tomographic methods, and introduces a new alternative method, which uses impression material to measure foramen dimensions. The three methods are compared and the results indicate that all of them are capable of obtaining precise and accurate foramen dimension values, although they all have limitations. A microphotograph of the external opening is suggested to be the standard method because of its ease of use, but the alternative methods provide more detailed information on foramen shape. If the foramen is mainly occupied by one artery, blood flow rate...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - November 12, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Hu Q, Nelson TJ, Seymour RS Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Can skeletal surface area predict in vivo foot surface area?
Abstract The surface area of feet in contact with the ground is a key morphological feature that influences animal locomotion. Underfoot pressures (and consequently stresses experienced by the foot), as well as stability of an animal during locomotion, depend on the size and shape of this area. Here we tested whether the area of a skeletal foot could predict in vivo soft tissue foot surface area. Computed tomography scans of 29 extant tetrapods (covering mammals, reptiles, birds and amphibians) were used to produce models of both the soft tissues and the bones of their feet. Soft tissue models were oriented to a h...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - November 12, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Strickson EC, Hutchinson JR, Wilkinson DM, Falkingham PL Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Integration of skeletal traits in some passerines: impact (or the lack thereof) of body mass, phylogeny, diet and habitat.
Abstract Morphological integration of the bird skeleton is of great interest because it relates to issues of specialization, plasticity, and rate of evolutionary transformations of a skeleton as a whole and its anatomical regions. Despite growing interest, the integration and modularity of the skeleton of birds, in general, remain little studied. We evaluated the change of relative sizes and integration of shapes of skull, sternum and pelvis, and factors that influence the covariation of these regions among passerines. Results of both standard and phylogenetic reduced major axis showed that the relative lengths of...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - November 12, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Shatkovska OV, Ghazali M Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
The distribution and density of monocarboxylate transporter 2 in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of wild-type mice.
Abstract Monocarboxylates cannot cross the blood-brain barrier freely to participate in brain energy metabolism. Specific monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) are needed to cross cellular membranes. Monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) is a major monocarboxylate transporter encoded by the SLC16A7 gene. Recent studies reported that neurodegenerative diseases of the CNS, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), were related to energy metabolic impairment. MCT2 also plays an important role in energy metabolism in the CNS. To provide experimental evidence for future research on the role of MCT2 in...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - November 11, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Pang R, Wang X, Du Z, Pei F, Li Z, Sun L, Wang S, Peng Y, Lu X, Gao X, Chang C Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Blood flow rate and wall shear stress in seven major cephalic arteries of humans.
Abstract Blood flow rate ( Q ˙ ) in relation to arterial lumen radius (ri ) is commonly modelled according to theoretical equations and paradigms, including Murray's Law ( Q ˙ ∝ r i 3 ) and da Vinci's Rule ( Q ˙ ∝ r i 2 ). Wall shear stress (τ) is independent of ri with Murray's Law (τ ∝ r i 0 ) and decreases with da Vinci's Rule (τ ∝ r i - 1 ). These paradigms are tested empirically with a meta-analysis of the relationships between Q ˙ and ri in seven major arteries of the human cephalic circulation from 19 imaging studies in which both variables were pre...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - November 11, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Seymour RS, Hu Q, Snelling EP Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
The range of atlanto-occipital joint motion in cetaceans reflects their feeding behavior.
In this study, we examined 56 extant cetacean skeletal specimens from 30 species in 25 genera and nine families in order to investigate the relationships between anatomical traits and feeding behavior. Our results suggest that the range of dorso-ventral motion allowed by the atlanto-occipital joint (ROM) depends on prey habitat and the feeding technique of cetaceans. Cetaceans feeding on benthic/demersal prey had a relatively large ROM compared with those feeding on pelagic prey. In addition, ROM was largest in raptorial feeders, intermediate in suction feeders, and smallest in ram-filter feeders. Among raptorial feeders, ...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - November 8, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Okamura T, Fujiwara SI Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Characterization of afferent corpuscular sensors of the human palmaris brevis muscle.
Abstract The palmaris brevis muscle contains numerous muscle spindles to control changes of the muscle length but is devoid of tendon-associated neuronal elements (e.g. Golgi tendon organs or Ruffini-like corpuscles) controlling changes in muscle strength. Pacinian bodies, frequently seen in the palm of the hand, show no direct association to the muscle bundles. The observed innervation pattern of the palmaris brevis muscle points to a specific type of neuronal regulation, present in skeletal muscles with no skeletal connection. PMID: 31696933 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Anatomy)
Source: Journal of Anatomy - November 7, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Bramke S, May CA Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Cranial growth in isolated sagittal craniosynostosis compared with normal growth in the first 6 months of age.
Cranial growth in isolated sagittal craniosynostosis compared with normal growth in the first 6 months of age. J Anat. 2019 Nov 06;: Authors: Mercan E, Hopper RA, Maga AM Abstract Sagittal craniosynostosis (SCS), the most common type of premature perinatal cranial suture fusion, results in abnormal head shape that requires extensive surgery to correct. It is important to find objective and repeatable measures of severity and surgical outcome to examine the effect of timing and technique on different SCS surgeries. The purpose of this study was to develop statistical models of infant (0-6 mon...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - November 6, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Mercan E, Hopper RA, Maga AM Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Contrast-enhanced XROMM reveals in vivo soft tissue interactions in the hip of Alligator mississippiensis.
Abstract Extant archosaurs exhibit highly divergent articular soft tissue anatomies between avian and crocodilian lineages. However, the general lack of understanding of the dynamic interactions among archosaur joint soft tissues has hampered further inferences about the function and evolution of these joints. Here we use contrast-enhanced computed tomography to generate 3D surface models of the pelvis, femora, and hip joint soft tissues in an extant archosaur, the American alligator. The hip joints were then animated using marker-based X-Ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology (XROMM) to visualize soft tissue art...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - November 6, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Tsai HP, Turner ML, Manafzadeh AR, Gatesy SM Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
The mental artery: anatomical study and literature review.
Abstract The mental artery is a terminal branch of the inferior alveolar artery arising from the maxillary artery. It often communicates with the submental and inferior labial arteries branching off the facial artery. To our knowledge, few reports have described its anatomy and clinical significance in detail. The aim of this paper was to clarify the anatomy of the mental artery. Ten sides from five embalmed Caucasian cadaveric heads were used. The facial artery was identified at the point passing through a notch for the facial vessels and was traced medially. The mental artery and its anastomoses with other arter...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - November 6, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Kikuta S, Iwanaga J, Kusukawa J, Tubbs RS Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Tenocytes form a 3-D network and are connected via nanotubes.
Abstract Cells use different cell adhesion and communication structures to promote tissue development, maintenance of tissue integrity as well as repair and regenerative processes. Another recently discovered way of information exchange is long-distance thin cellular processes called nanotubes (NTs), mainly studied in vitro. Information on the existence and relevance of NTs in vivo is sparse. Building on two references which hint at the potential existence of longitudinally directed cell processes resembling NTs, we investigated tendons from young (3 weeks) and adult (9 weeks, 4 and 8 months) Fisher...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 30, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Egerbacher M, Gabner S, Battisti S, Handschuh S Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Comparative forelimb myology and muscular architecture of a juvenile Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).
Abstract The absence of preserved soft tissues in the fossil record is frequently a hindrance for palaeontologists wishing to investigate morphological shifts in key skeletal systems, such as the limbs. Understanding the soft tissue composition of modern species can aid in understanding changes in musculoskeletal features through evolution, including those pertaining to locomotion. Establishing anatomical differences in soft tissues utilising an extant phylogenetic bracket can, in turn, assist in interpreting morphological changes in hard tissues and modelling musculoskeletal movements during evolutionary transiti...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 13, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: MacLaren JA, McHorse BK Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Quantification of the regional bioarchitecture in the human aorta.
Abstract Regional variance in human aortic bioarchitecture responsible for the elasticity of the vessel is poorly understood. The current study quantifies the elements responsible for aortic compliance, namely, elastin, collagen and smooth muscle cells, using histological and stereological techniques on human tissue with a focus on regional heterogeneity. Using donated cadaveric tissue, a series of samples were excised between the proximal ascending aorta and the distal abdominal aorta, for five cadavers, each of which underwent various staining procedures to enhance specific constituents of the wall. Using polari...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 11, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Concannon J, Dockery P, Black A, Sultan S, Hynes N, McHugh PE, Moerman KM, McGarry JP Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Human placental villi contain stromal macrovesicles associated with networks of stellate cells.
This study uses high-resolution three-dimensional imaging to explore the structural complexity of this region within the placental villi. Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy were used to image the placental villous stroma in three-dimensions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to generate high resolution two-dimensional images. Stereological approaches were used to quantify volumes of stromal constituents. Three-dimensional imaging identified stromal extracellular vesicles, which constituted 3.9% of the villous stromal volume. These stromal extracellular vesicles were ovoid i...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 11, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Palaiologou E, Etter O, Goggin P, Chatelet DS, Johnston DA, Lofthouse EM, Doherty R, Pearson-Farr J, Sengers BG, Torrens C, Cleal JK, Page AM, Lewis RM Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Sympathetic nerve tissue in milky spots of the human greater omentum.
Abstract Omental milky spots (OMSs), small lymphoid structures positioned in the greater omentum, are involved in peritoneal immune homeostasis and the formation of omental metastases. Sympathetic nerve activity is known to regulate immune function in other lymphoid organs (e.g. spleen and lymph nodes) and to create a favourable microenvironment for various tumour types. However, it is still unknown whether OMSs receive sympathetic innervation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish whether OMSs of the adult human greater omentum receive sympathetic innervation. A total of 18 OMSs were isolated from fiv...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 9, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Cleypool CGJ, Schurink B, van der Horst DEM, Bleys RLAW Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
A comparative study on auditory and hyoid bones of Jurassic euharamiyidans and contrasting evidence for mammalian middle ear evolution.
Abstract The holotypes of euharamiyidan Arboroharamiya allinhopsoni and Arboroharamiya jenkinsi preserve the auditory and hyoid bones, respectively. With additional structures revealed by micro-computerized tomography (CT) and X-ray micro-computed laminography (CL), we provide a detailed description of these minuscule bones. The stapes in the two species of Arboroharamiya are similar in having a strong process for insertion of the stapedius muscle. The incus is similar in having an almond-shaped body and a slim short process, in addition to a robust stapedial process with a short lenticular process preserved in A....
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 9, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Meng J, Mao F, Han G, Zheng XT, Wang XL, Wang Y Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Reduction of olfactory and respiratory turbinates in the transition of whales from land to sea: the semiaquatic middle Eocene Aegyptocetus tarfa.
Abstract Ethmoturbinates, nasoturbinates, and maxilloturbinates are well developed in the narial tract of land-dwelling artiodactyls ancestral to whales, but these are greatly reduced or lost entirely in modern whales. Aegyptocetus tarfa is a semiaquatic protocetid from the middle Eocene of Egypt. Computed axial tomography scans of the skull show that A. tarfa retained all three sets of turbinates like a land mammal. It is intermediate between terrestrial artiodactyls and aquatic whales in reduction of the turbinates. Ethmoturbinates in A. tarfa have 26% of the surface area expected for an artiodactyl. T...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 9, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Peri E, Gingerich PD, Aringhieri G, Bianucci G Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
The development of the osteocranium in the snake Psammophis sibilans (Serpentes: Lamprophiidae).
Abstract Non-avian reptiles are good models to investigate structural and developmental differences between amniotes. Investigations of craniofacial development in a complete series of embryos from oviposition up to hatching are still relatively rare. Consideration of a complete series can reveal developmental events that were previously missed, and thus correct or confirm theories about developmental events. The Egyptian Sand snake, Psammophis sibilans, has been a key species in descriptions of the snake skull development. However, published work was based on a limited sample of specimens collected from the wild....
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 1, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Al Mohammadi AGA, Khannoon ER, Evans SE Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Changes in the macroscopic morphology of hip muscles in low back pain.
Abstract Low back pain is a major health issue affecting the lumbopelvic muscles. Morphological changes in hip muscles, such as alterations in the muscle cross-sectional area and muscle volume, may occur in patients with low back pain. This systematic review was conducted to investigate whether patients with low back pain have macroscopic changes in their hip muscle morphology compared with asymptomatic, healthy individuals, based on current evidence. The electronic databases of PubMed/Medline, Ovid, Scopus, Embase® , and Google Scholar were searched from the inception to August 31, 2018. We only included full...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - September 1, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Pourahmadi M, Asadi M, Dommerholt J, Yeganeh A Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Somato-dendritic morphology and axon origin site specify von Economo neurons as a subclass of modified pyramidal neurons in the human anterior cingulate cortex.
In conclusion, our study provides a foundation for further comprehensive morphological and functional studies on VENs between different species. PMID: 31435943 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Anatomy)
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 24, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Banovac I, Sedmak D, Džaja D, Jalšovec D, Jovanov Milošević N, Rašin MR, Petanjek Z Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Human cerebral cortex development.
eting PMID: 31435944 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Anatomy)
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 24, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Molnár Z, Clowry G, Co-Chairs of the Summer Meeting Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
How to walk carrying a huge egg? Trade-offs between locomotion and reproduction explain the special pelvis and leg anatomy in kiwi (Aves; Apteryx spp.).
How to walk carrying a huge egg? Trade-offs between locomotion and reproduction explain the special pelvis and leg anatomy in kiwi (Aves; Apteryx spp.). J Anat. 2019 Aug 20;: Authors: Abourachid A, Castro I, Provini P Abstract Kiwi (Aves; genus Apteryx) are famous for laying an enormous egg in comparison with their relatively small body size. Considering the peculiar gait of this flightless bird, we suspected the existence of morpho-functional trade-offs between reproduction and locomotion. To understand how structural constraints, imposed by a large egg size, might influence the terrestrial loco...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 20, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Abourachid A, Castro I, Provini P Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolution estimation in the Japanese tree frog Hyla japonica (G ünther, 1859).
Retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolution estimation in the Japanese tree frog Hyla japonica (Günther, 1859). J Anat. 2019 Aug 16;: Authors: Pushchin I Abstract Tree frogs are an interesting and diverse group of frogs. They display a number of unique adaptations to life in the arboreal environment. Vision plays a crucial role in their ecology. The topography of retinal ganglion cells (GCs) is closely related to a species' visual behavior. Despite a large amount of research addressing GC topography in vertebrates, there is scarce data on this subject in tree frogs. I studied the topo...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 16, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Pushchin I Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Early stages of development of the alar fascia (human specimens at 6-12 weeks of development).
This study suggests that alar fascia development is related to mechanical factors and that the alar fascia permits the sliding of the pharynx and the oesophagus during swallowing. PMID: 31418466 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Anatomy)
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 16, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: López-Fernández P, Murillo-González J, Arráez-Aybar LA, de la Cuadra-Blanco C, Moreno-Borreguero A, Mérida-Velasco JR Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Characteristics of the transverse 2D uniserial arrangement of rows of decussating enamel rods in the inner enamel layer of mouse mandibular incisors.
Abstract The 2D arrangement of rows of enamel rods with alternating (decussating) tilt angles across the thickness of the inner layer in rat and mouse incisor enamel is well known and assumed to occur in a uniform and repetitive pattern. Some irregularities in the arrangement of rows have been reported, but no detailed investigation of row structure across the entire inner enamel layer currently exists. This investigation was undertaken to determine if the global row pattern in mouse mandibular incisor enamel is predominately regular in nature with only occasional anomalies or if rows of enamel rods have more spat...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 11, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Smith CE, Hu Y, Hu JC, Simmer JP Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
A reappraisal and revision of the numbering of the pharyngeal arches.
Abstract The pharyngeal arches are a prominent and significant feature of vertebrate embryos. These are visible as a series of bulges on the lateral surface of the embryonic head. In humans, and other amniotes, there are five pharyngeal arches numbered 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6; note the missing '5'. This is the standard scheme for the numbering of these structures, and it is a feature of modern anatomy textbooks. In this article, we discuss the rationale behind this odd numbering, and consider its origins. One reason given is that there is a transient 5th arch that is never fully realized, while another is that this numbe...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 11, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Graham A, Poopalasundaram S, Shone V, Kiecker C Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Expression of endogenous phospholipase D1, localized in mouse submandibular gland, is greater in females and is suppressed by testosterone.
Abstract To clarify the signal transduction mechanism in the differentiation and secretion of salivary glandular cells, the present study was attempted to examine in the submandibular gland (SMG) of mice, the expression and localization of phospholipase D1 (PLD1), one of the important effector molecules working in response to the activation of intramembranous receptors by first messengers. In immunoblotting analysis, the expression of PLD1 was high at postnatal 4 weeks (P4W) and decreased at P8W, and it was at negligible levels at newborn stage (P0W) and postnatal 2 weeks (P2W). The expression of PLD1 wa...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 11, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Khrongyut S, Polsan Y, Sakaew W, Sawatpanich T, Banno Y, Nozawa Y, Kondo H, Hipkaeo W Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
A comparative multi-site and whole-body assessment of fascia in the horse and dog: a detailed histological investigation.
In conclusion, gross dissection and histology have revealed species variations that are related to the absence or presence of the superficial adipose tissue, the retinacula cutis superficialis, the localization and amount of elastic fibers, as well as the ability to slide and glide between the different layers. Further research is now needed to understand in more detail whether these differences have an influence on the biomechanics, movements and proprioception of these animals. PMID: 31402460 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Anatomy)
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 11, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Ahmed W, Kulikowska M, Ahlmann T, Berg LC, Harrison AP, Elbrønd VS Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Histovariability in human clavicular cortical bone microstructure and its mechanical implications.
We examined Haversian density and collagen fiber orientation, along with cross-sectional geometry, to test whether the clavicle midshaft shows unique adaptation to atypical load-bearing when compared with the sternal (medial) and acromial (lateral) shaft regions. Because fractures are most common at the midshaft, we predicted that the cortical bone structure would show both disparities in Haversian remodeling and nonrandomly oriented collagen fibers in the midshaft compared with the sternal and acromial regions. Human clavicles (n = 16) were sampled via thin-sections at the sternal, middle, and acromial ends of t...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 2, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Crane MA, Kato KM, Patel BA, Huttenlocker AK Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Functional morphology and identity of the thenar pad in the subterranean genus Ctenomys (Rodentia, Caviomorpha).
In this study, we investigated the functional morphology of the thenar pad through different approaches: musculoskeletal anatomy, histology and functionality. The analysis of radiographs and clarified and double-stained hand samples of Ctenomys talarum and C. australis showed that the thenar pad is supported by a paddle-shaped bone that articulates with a protrusion in the scapholunate bone. This bone, flat and long, continues in a flat cartilaginous structure, with a shape similar to a claw. Dissections showed that the thenar pad has several associated muscles: the m. palmaris longus, the m. abductor pollicis longus, and ...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 2, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Echeverría AI, Abdala V, Longo MV, Vassallo AI Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Allocation trade-offs impact organ size and muscle architecture in an invasive population of Xenopus laevis in Western France.
Abstract Invasive species are a global scourge and often negatively impact native species. Understanding the expansion and dispersal limits of these species is essential. As previous studies have demonstrated increased locomotor performance for populations at the edge of the range of expanding populations, studies of locomotion including the anatomical and physiological traits underlying dispersal capacity are of interest. We focus here on an invasive population of Xenopus laevis introduced in France nearly forty years ago. Previous studies have demonstrated differences in mobility between populations from the cen...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 2, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Padilla P, Courant J, Herrel A Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
What are the most accurate categories for mammal tarsus arrangement? A review with attention to South American Notoungulata and Litopterna.
Abstract The arrangement of the tarsus has been used to differentiate afrotherian and laurasiatherian ungulates for more than a century, and it is often present in morphological matrices that include appendicular features. Traditionally, it has two states: (i) an alternating tarsus, where proximal elements are interlocked with central and distal elements positioned like the bricks of a wall; and (ii) a serial tarsus, where elements are not interlocked. Over the years, these states became synonymous with the presence or absence of an astragalocuboid contact. Within the South American order Notoungulata, a third dis...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 2, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Lorente M Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
A role for gangliosides and β1-integrin in the motility of olfactory ensheathing glia.
A role for gangliosides and β1-integrin in the motility of olfactory ensheathing glia. J Anat. 2019 Aug 02;: Authors: Santos-Silva A, Piña-Rodrigues FM, Mermelstein CDS, Allodi S, Barradas PC, Cavalcante LA Abstract Olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) are found in the olfactory mucosa, nerve and bulb, and provide in vivo ensheathment for the unmyelinated olfactory axons within the central and peripheral nervous system domains. OEG cells are able to migrate long distances within the neuropil of the central nervous system. Because gangliosides such as 9-O-acetyl GD3 have crucial regulatory role...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 2, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Santos-Silva A, Piña-Rodrigues FM, Mermelstein CDS, Allodi S, Barradas PC, Cavalcante LA Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
New insights into the development of the human cerebral cortex.
A, Kriegstein A Abstract The cerebral cortex constitutes more than half the volume of the human brain and is presumed to be responsible for the neuronal computations underlying complex phenomena, such as perception, thought, language, attention, episodic memory and voluntary movement. Rodent models are extremely valuable for the investigation of brain development, but cannot provide insight into aspects that are unique or highly derived in humans. Many human psychiatric and neurological conditions have developmental origins but cannot be studied adequately in animal models. The human cerebral cortex has some uniqu...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 2, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Molnár Z, Clowry GJ, Šestan N, Alzu'bi A, Bakken T, Hevner RF, Hüppi PS, Kostović I, Rakic P, Anton ES, Edwards D, Garcez P, Hoerder-Suabedissen A, Kriegstein A Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Comparative analysis of the shape and size of the middle ear cavity of turtles reveals no correlation with habitat ecology.
Abstract The middle ear of turtles differs from other reptiles in being separated into two distinct compartments. Several ideas have been proposed as to why the middle ear is compartmentalized in turtles, most suggesting a relationship with underwater hearing. Extant turtle species span fully marine to strictly terrestrial habitats, and ecomorphological hypotheses of turtle hearing predict that this should correlate with variation in the structure of the middle ear due to differences in the fluid properties of water and air. We investigate the shape and size of the air-filled middle ear cavity of 56 extant turtles...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 2, 2019 Category: Anatomy Authors: Foth C, Evers SW, Joyce WG, Volpato VS, Benson RBJ Tags: J Anat Source Type: research