ILC3-derived acetylcholine promotes protease-driven allergic lung pathology
Initiation of allergic airway pathology often depends on the protease activity of the inhaled allergen. Previous studies have shown that IL-17 –driven neutrophil and eosinophil responses can promote allergic pathology1 and are associated with an initial epithelial release of IL-23, which is accepted as important in promoting TH17 and group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3) responses. ILC3s are a developmentally and phenotypically diverse inn ate lymphoid cell (ILC) subset that includes natural killer (NK) cell receptor (NCR)-positive and NCR-negative populations (NCR+ ILC3s and NCR– ILC3s) as well as CCR6+ lymphoid...
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 15, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Matthew Darby, Luke B. Roberts, Claire Mackowiak, Alisha Chetty, Sasha Tinelli, Corinna Schnoeller, Valerie Quesniaux, Sylvie Berrard, Dieudonn ée Togbe, Murray E. Selkirk, Bernhard Ryffel, William G.C. Horsnell Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Human basophils release the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 following stimulation with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone
CAPSULE SUMMARYWe identified a highly novel anti-inflammatory role for basophils through the actions of α-MSH which induces IL-10 release in these cells, thereby potentially limiting Th2 type immune responses. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 14, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Svea Kleiner, Urda R üdrich, Manuela Gehring, Karin Loser, Britta Eiz-Vesper, Gaetan A. Noubissi Nzeteu, Nikolaos Patsinakidis, N. Helge Meyer, Bernhard F. Gibbs, Ulrike Raap Source Type: research

The molecular features of normal and atopic dermatitis skin in infants, children, adolescents and adults
Capsule Summary: Skin profiling portrays the molecular abnormalities of different pediatric atopic dermatitis age-groups throughout maturation, with a shared Th2/Th22-skewing, relative increase of the Th17 pathway in infants and adults, and a Th1-polarization only in adult patients. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 13, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yael Renert-Yuval, Ester Del Duca, Ana B. Pavel, Milie Fang, Rachel Lefferdink, Jianni Wu, Aisleen Diaz, Yeriel D. Estrada, Talia Canter, Ning Zhang, Annette Wagner, Sarah Chamlin, James G. Krueger, Emma Guttman-Yassky, Amy S. Paller Source Type: research

A tribute to eosinophils from a comparative and evolutionary perspective
Eosinophils have distinctive morphological and biochemical features differentiating them from other granulocytes. Fig 1 shows eosinophils in vertebrates across taxa from an evolutionary perspective, demonstrating an appreciation of their morphological diversity despite a number of conserved features that define the lineage. The presence of “eosinophilic” or acidophilic blood cells/hemocytes has been recognized as well in various invertebrate species, but it is still unknown whether these are evolutionary precursors to eosinophils in vertebrates. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 12, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Nicole I. Stacy, Steven J. Ackerman Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Clinical Olfactory Working Group Consensus Statement on the Treatment of Post Infectious Olfactory Dysfunction
This article summarises the evidence and provides expert consensus on how to apply this in practice. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 12, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Alfred B. Addison, Billy Wong, Tanzime Ahmed, Alberto Macchi, Iordanis Konstantinidis, Caroline Huart, Johannes Frasnelli, Alexander W. Fjaeldstad, Vijay R. Ramakrishnan, Philippe Rombaux, Katherine L. Whitcroft, Eric H. Holbrook, Sophia C. Poletti, Julie Source Type: research

Clinical and histopathological predictors of therapeutic response to bronchial thermoplasty in severe refractory asthma
Capsule SummaryAtopic severe asthmatics with T2-type inflammation are more susceptible to benefit from BT treatment, which results in decreased systemic and mucosal inflammation and increased epithelial MUC5AC and anti-viral interferons ’ expression. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 12, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Maha Zohra Ladjemi, Leonarda Di Candia, Nicolas Heddebaut, Camille Techoueyres, Eloise Airaud, David Soussan, Marie-Christine Dombret, Fatima Hamidi, No ëlline Guillou, Pierre Mordant, Yves Castier, Séverine Létuvé, Camille Taillé, Michel Aubier, Mar Source Type: research

Burden of preschool wheeze and progression to asthma in the UK: population-based cohort 2007 to 2017
Capsule summary: Approximately 8% of UK preschool children have wheeze requiring healthcare attendance. Around half develop asthma - a novel and significant risk factor was the first wheeze episode, leading to healthcare attendance, occurred in rhinovirus season. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 12, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Chloe I. Bloom, Courtney Franklin, Andrew Bush, Sejal Saglani, Jennifer Quint Source Type: research

Fc εR1 expressing nociceptors trigger allergic airway inflammation
Capsule summaryAirway-innervating vagal nociceptor neurons sense invading allergens, which, in turn, drives TH2 cells polarization. Fc εR1γ+ neurons, therefore, constitute a novel target to prevent the development of allergy. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 12, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Theo Crosson, Jo-Chiao Wang, Benjamin Doyle, Hannah Merrison, Mohammad Balood, Alexandre Parrin, Maud Pascal, Barbara C. Mindt, Corey R. Seehus, Alp Ozcan, Xuan Huang, Elise Semenara, Nicole YY. Lai, Abdelilah Majdoubi, Raja-Elie E. Abdulnour, Trevor Rajc Source Type: research

Component-resolved diagnostics in pet allergy: current perspectives and future directions
Furry mammals kept as pets are important allergen sources. The prevalence of sensitization to dander from various animals appears to be increasing worldwide. Several mammalian allergens from diverse species and distinct protein families have been characterized, and some are available for component-resolved diagnostics (CRD). This review presents an overview of mammalian aeroallergens with a focus on cat, dog, and horse allergens. The potential of CRD in fine-tuning the diagnostic work-up following traditional methods based on whole allergen extracts and allergen immunotherapy is discussed. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 10, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ann-Marie M. Schoos, Bright I. Nwaru, Magnus P. Borres Source Type: research

GM-CSF instigates a dendritic cell - T cell inflammatory circuit that drives chronic asthma development
Neutrophils are associated with severe chronic disease in asthma and GM-CSF is required for their accumulation in the inflamed lung by promoting lung dendritic cell dependent induction of Th2/Th17 cell immunity (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 10, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Samuel Philip Nobs, Lea Pohlmeier, Fengqi Li, Merve Kayhan, Burkhard Becher, Manfred Kopf Source Type: research

Unconjugated bilirubin is associated with protection from early-life wheeze and childhood asthma
Unconjugated bilirubin and its related metabolites exhibited a protective association with early life wheeze and asthma, and was negatively correlated with lipid mediators, suggesting potential pathways through which bilirubin protects against early-life wheeze and asthma. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 9, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kedir N. Turi, Christopher McKennan, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Brittney Snyder, Christine M. Seroogy, Robert F. Lemanske, Edward Zoratti, Suzanne Havstad, Carole Ober, Susan Lynch, Kathyrn McCauley, Chang Yu, Daniel J. Jackson, James E. Gern, Tina V. Hartert, EC Source Type: research

Is the “probable” category required in the diagnosis of ABPA?
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) lacks a commonly accepted diagnostic standard. The study by Asano et  al1 is an excellent attempt to refine the existing criteria. They provide a new standard, which outperforms the current benchmarks (Rosenberg-Patterson and International Society for Human and Animal Mycology [ISHAM] ABPA Working Group criteria). Interestingly, we have also recently evaluated the e xisting criteria and proposed certain modifications using latent class analysis.2 Although there are several common features to the modified ISHAM criteria and the criteria by Asano et al, there are key d...
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 5, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Valliappan Muthu, Ritesh Agarwal Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply
Muthu and Agarwal1 offered interesting insights in their correspondence regarding our article on the diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis/mycosis (ABPA/ABPM)2 and their recent proposal of a modification to the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) Working Group criteria for the diagnosis of ABPA with asthma.3 (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 5, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tsuyoshi Oguma, Koichiro Asano Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Corrigenda
With regard to the article in the October 2019 issue entitled “The amino acid sensor general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) controls TH9 cells and allergic airway inflammation” (J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019;144:1091-1105), the authors report that the name of the second author was misspelled and should be corrected. The correct spelling of the second auth or’s name should be Yanan Xu, not Yana Xu. The authors regret the error. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Current insights into the genetics of food allergy
Food allergy (FA), a growing public health burden in the United States, and familial aggregation studies support strong roles for both genes and environment in FA risk. Deepening our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms driving FAs is paramount to improving its prevention, diagnosis, and clinical management. In this review, we document lessons learned from the genetics of FA that have aided our understanding of these mechanisms. Although current genetic association studies suffer from low power, heterogeneity in definition of FA, and difficulty in our ability to truly disentangle FA from food sensitizatio...
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kanika Kanchan, Selene Clay, Haritz Irizar, Supinda Bunyavanich, Rasika A. Mathias Tags: Reviews and feature article Source Type: research

Corrigenda
With regard to the article in the September 2020 issue entitled ‘‘Efficacy and safety of omalizumab in nasal polyposis: 2 randomized phase 3 trials’’ (J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020;146:595-605), the authors report an error in the second paragraph of the Study design and patient population section under Methods. The sentence beginning “Patients aged 18-7 5 years…” incorrectly lists a weight of 30-50 kg. This should read 30-150 kg. The authors regret this error. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

News Beyond Our Pages
Bronchial thermoplasty is an endoscopic intervention wherein controlled thermal energy is applied to the walls of the bronchial airways to impact on airway remodeling including reduction of smooth muscle mass. Goorsenberg et al (Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020 Jul 28; https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201911-2298oc) performed a randomized controlled trial to examine whether the resulting reduced airway smooth muscle (ASM) would improve asthma control. Bronchial thermoplasty decreased ASM mass and improved asthma symptom control and quality of life. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Marc E. Rothenberg, Jean Bousquet Tags: News beyond our pages Source Type: research

Integrating oral immunotherapy into clinical practice
In 2020, the first food allergy treatment, an oral immunotherapy (OIT) product for peanut allergy, was approved by the Food and Drug Administration, and a peanut epicutaneous immunotherapy patch was under review. As food allergy therapies become available and widespread, allergy offices will need to adjust practices to be able to offer their patients these new treatments. OIT is an intensive therapy that requires commitment from patients and their families, and open communication with the practice is paramount. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Stephanie A. Leonard, Susan Laubach, Julie Wang Tags: Reviews and feature article Source Type: research

Integrating oral immunotherapy into clinical practice
(Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Continuing Medical Education examination Source Type: research

The Editors ’ Choice
Severe asthma is a multifaceted disease that manifests in multiple clinical manifestations. It represents an unmet clinical challenge due to difficulty in appropriate diagnosis and/or treatment. In this issue, Abdel-Aziz et  al (p 123) investigated whether unsupervised clustering of the sputum microbiome profiles in the U-BIOPRED study, measured by 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) amplicon sequencing and shotgun metagenomics, could identify clinically relevant clusters (phenotypes) in patients with severe asthma. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zuhair K. Ballas, Associate Editors of the JACI Tags: The Editors ’ choice Source Type: research

Cover 1
(Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Brief Overview of This Month's JACI
(Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Information for Readers
(Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

News & Notes
COVID-19 has changed the way we run a practice, conduct research, and obtain education. The AAAAI has compiled this guide to our free COVID-19 educational offerings to help you broaden your knowledge on topics related to the pandemic. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Reader service Source Type: research

Continuing Medical Education Calendar
The following activities offer AMA PRA Category 1 Credit ™ and meet the American Board of Allergy and Immunology (ABAI) requirements for Part II or Part IV Maintenance of Certification (MOC): (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Elevated NK-cell transcriptional signature and dysbalance of resting and activated NK cells in atopic dermatitis
Altered quantities, activity, and composition of natural killer (NK) cells in blood as well as expression changes of genes involved in NK-cell function in skin lesions of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) were recently reported. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - December 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lena M öbus, Elke Rodriguez, Inken Harder, Agatha Schwarz, Ulrike Wehkamp, Dora Stölzl, Nicole Boraczynski, Sascha Gerdes, Thomas Litman, Andreas Kleinheinz, Susanne Abraham, Annice Heratizadeh, Christiane Handrick, Eva Haufe, Jochen Schmitt, Thomas Wer Tags: Brief report Source Type: research

Inhaled corticosteroids and angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 in COPD
Finney et  al1 elegantly showed in mice that inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) down-regulated the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 entry receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) via suppression of type 1 interferon. It was also found that in 36 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary dis ease (COPD), the use of ICS was associated with reduced expression of ACE2 compared with non-ICS users, whereas ACE2 expression is increased in cultured bronchial epithelial cells from patients with COPD and in turn suppressed by fluticasone propionate. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - December 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Brian Lipworth, Rory Chan, Chris Kuo Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply
We thank Lipworth et  al1 for their correspondence regarding our article recently published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.2 We agree that it is currently unclear whether inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) imparts an overall protective or detrimental effe ct on susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Theoretically, any potentially beneficial effects of ICS related to COVID-19, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 attenuation and/or suppression of inflammation, could be offset by detrimental effects. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - December 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hugo Farne, Aran Singanayagam Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply
We thank the authors of the correspondence for their interest and comments.1 (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - December 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tetsuhiro Sakihara, Kenta Otsuji, Yohei Arakaki, Kazuya Hamada, Shiro Sugiura, Komei Ito Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Does giving infant formula to prevent cow ’s milk allergy hinder breast-feeding?
We read with interest the article by Sakihara et  al,1 which argued that daily consumption of at least 10 mL of cow’s milk–based infant formula (CMF) between the ages of 1 and 2 months prevents infant milk allergy without competing with breast-feeding. However, we are concerned that this regimen might discourage breast-feeding and harm breast -fed infants. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - December 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Keiko Nanishi, Hiroko Hongo, Kanae Tada Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Mutation in kars: a novel mechanism for severe anaphylaxis
Capsule summary: Mutation in KARS leads to an increase in MITF activity and mast cell release of proinflammatory mediators. Dysregulation of the KARS-MITF pathway can be an underlying mechanism resulting in anaphylaxis. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - December 29, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Pau Rib ó, Yanru Guo, Juan Aranda, Erola Ainsua-Enrich, Arnau Navinés-Ferrer, Mario Guerrero, Mariona Pascal, Cinthia de la Cruz, Modesto Orozco, Rosa Muñoz-Cano, Margarita Martin Source Type: research

COPD-Associated miR-145-5p is Downregulated in Early Decline FEV1 Trajectories in Childhood Asthma
Capsule Summary: Childhood levels of miR-145-5p are an important factor in the development of early decline of lung function, which lead to COPD. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - December 29, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Anshul Tiwari, Jiang Li, Alvin T. Kho, Maoyun Sun, Quan Lu, Scott T. Weiss, Kelan G. Tantisira, Michael J. McGeachie Source Type: research

Deletion of IL-4R α signalling on B cells limits hyperresponsiveness depending on antigen-load.
B cells expressing high level IL-4R α are important in class switching to IgE in GC. Targeting IL-4Rα signalling on B cells has clinical benefit in allergic asthma even in high IgE setting. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - December 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Sabelo Hadebe, Jermaine Khumalo, Sandisiwe Mangali, Nontobeko Mthembu, Hlumani Ndlovu, Martyna Scibiorek, Amkele Ngomti, Frank Kirstein, Frank Brombacher Source Type: research

Combined exposure to heavy metals in PM2.5 and pediatric asthma
Combined exposure to Pb, As, Cd, and Hg during early and late gestational weeks was associated with the incidence of pediatric asthma. The vulnerable time window may be within early and late gestational weeks. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - December 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Chia-Yun Hsieh, Chau-Ren Jung, Chuan-Yao Lin, Bing-Fang Hwang Source Type: research

Peanut protein acts as a Th2 adjuvant by inducing RALDH2 in human antigen-presenting cells
Peanut protein induces expression and activity of RALDH2 in human antigen-presenting cells via TLR2, and retinoic acid produced by these cells promotes Th2 differentiation and gut-homing of na ïve Th cells. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - December 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Bert Ruiter, Neal P. Smith, Elizabeth Fleming, Sarita U. Patil, Barry K. Hurlburt, Soheila J. Maleki, Wayne G. Shreffler Source Type: research

NLRP1 variant M1184V decreases inflammasome activation in the context of DPP9 inhibition and asthma severity
Capsule Summary: Genetic deletion of Nlrp1 in mice and the M1184V variant in humans both exacerbate asthmatic pathology, consistent with the mechanism of activation being related to DPP9 inhibition. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - December 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jonas Moecking, Pawat Laohamonthonkul, Katelyn Chalker, Marquitta J. White, Cassandra R. Harapas, Chien-Hsiung Yu, Sophia Davidson, Katja Hrovat Schaale, Donglei Hu, Celeste Eng, Scott Huntsman, Dale J. Calleja, Jay C. Horvat, Phil M. Hansbro, Robert J.J. Source Type: research

2020: The year in review
(Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - December 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zuhair K. Ballas Source Type: research

Two patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis caused by TRAF3IP2 deficiency
We show that complete loss of TRAF3IP2 protein in humans does not impact B cell survival but manifests as an inborn error of IL-17 immunity leading to chronic mucocutaneous. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - December 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Samantha Shafer, Yikun Yao, William Comrie, Sarah Cook, Yu Zhang, G özde Yesil, Elif Karakoç-Aydiner, Safa Baris, Haluk Cokugras, Sezin Aydemir, Ayca Kiykim, Ahmet Ozen, Michael Lenardo Source Type: research

Tick peptides evoke itch by activating MrgprC11/X1 to sensitize TRPV1 in pruriceptors
Anti-histamine treatment does not improve the itching symptoms of patients bitten by ticks. Tick salivary peptides induce itch via the MrgprC11/X1-TRPV1 signaling pathway, providing potential drug targets for treatment of the disease. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - December 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Xueke Li, Haifeng Yang, Yuewen Han, Shijin Yin, Bingzheng Shen, Yingliang Wu, Wenxin Li, Zhijian Cao Source Type: research

Eicosanoid relay: epithelial and mast cell transmetabolism in AERD
(Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - December 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Daniel F. Dwyer Source Type: research

The Microbial Origins of Food Allergy
Food allergy (FA) is a significant public health issue, propelled by its rapidly increasing prevalence. Its sharp rise into prominence has focused attention on causative environmental factors and their interplay with the immune system in disease pathogenesis. In that regard, there is now substantial evidence that alterations in the gut microbiome early in life shape the host gut mucosal immunity and may play a critical role in the development of FA. These changes may impact key steps in the development of the infant gut microbiome, including its shaping by maternal factors and upon the introduction of solid food (the weani...
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - December 18, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Rima Rachid, Emmanuel Stephen-Victor, Talal A. Chatila Source Type: research

Commercial immunoglobulin products contain cross-reactive but not neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2
We examined whether commercial prepandemic intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) contains cross-reactive antibodies that could bind and neutralize SARS-CoV-2. The receptor-binding domain (RBD), contained within the S1 subunit of the coronavirus spike protein, mediates viral entry by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor on host cells. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - December 17, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Terrie S. Ahn, Brandon Han, Paul Krogstad, Chantana Bun, Lisa A. Kohn, Maria I. Garcia-Lloret, Robert Damoiseaux, Manish J. Butte Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Defective STING expression potentiates IL-13 signaling in epithelial cells in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps
Capsule summary: Downregulated STING expression caused by type 2 cytokines impairs type I interferon production but exaggerates eosinophilic inflammation in CRSwNP. STING functions as a suppressor of IL-13 signaling in airway epithelial cells. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - December 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hai Wang, Dan-Qing Hu, Qiao Xiao, Yi-Bo Liu, Jia Song, Yuxia Liang, Jian-Wen Ruan, Zhe-Zheng Wang, Jing-Xian Li, Li Pan, Meng-Chen Wang, Ming Zeng, Li-Li Shi, Kai Xu, Qin Ning, Guohua Zhen, Di Yu, De-Yun Wang, Sally E. Wenzel, Zheng Liu Source Type: research

JAK1/2 inhibition impairs the development and function of inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells in atopic dermatitis.
CAPSULE SUMMARY: JAK inhibitors show improvement of AD with favourable safety profile. However, the mechanistic role of JAK in inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells (IDEC) remains unclear. We demonstrate that JAK1/2 inhibition impairs generation and function of IDEC. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - December 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Anna Sophie Klaeschen, Tim Joachim N ümm, Nadine Herrmann, Nicole Leib, Laura Maintz, Takashi Sakai, Joerg Wenzel, Thomas Bieber Source Type: research

Interrupting reactivation of immunological memory diverts the allergic response and prevents anaphylaxis
CAPSULE SUMMARY: In peanut-allergic human PBMCs and in peanut-allergic mice, we demonstrate that IL-4R α blockade inhibits IgE recall responses, prevents anaphylaxis, skews away from a Th2-dominant cytokine signature, and may facilitate long-lasting suppression of IgE production. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - December 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kelly Bruton, Paul Spill, Shabana Vohra, Owen Baribeau, Saba Manzoor, Siyon Gadkar, Malcolm Davidson, Tina D. Walker, Joshua F.E. Koenig, Yosef Ellenbogen, Alexandra Florescu, Jianping Wen, Derek K. Chu, Susan Waserman, Rodrigo Jim énez-Saiz, Slava Epelm Source Type: research

Shared DNA methylation signatures in childhood allergy: the MeDALL study
Capsule Summary: This large-scale epigenome-wide meta-analysis identified 21 CpG sites in whole blood to be consistently associated with childhood allergic disease and implicates shared epigenetic mechanisms of asthma, rhinitis and eczema. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - December 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Cheng-Jian Xu, Olena Gruzieva, Cancan Qi, Ana Esplugues, Ulrike Gehring, Anna Bergstr öm, Dan Mason, Leda Chatzi, Daniela Porta, Karin C. Lodrup Carlsen, Nour Baïz, Anne-Marie Madore, Harri Alenius, Bianca van Rijkom, Soesma A. Jankipersadsing, Pieter v Source Type: research

Developing and evaluating a pediatric asthma severity computable phenotype derived from electronic health records
We present a pragmatic approach to use electronic health record (EHR) data to classify pediatric asthma severity. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - December 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Komal Peer, William G. Adams, Aaron Legler, Megan Sandel, Jonathan I. Levy, Ren ée Boynton-Jarrett, Chanmin Kim, Jessica H. Leibler, M. Patricia Fabian Source Type: research

HSCT is effective in patients with PSTPIP1-associated myeloid-related proteinemia inflammatory (PAMI) syndrome.
Capsule summary: In some patients with PAMI syndrome, no complete response to anti-cytokine and immunosuppressive therapy of on-going autoinflammation and cytopenias could be achieved. Allogeneic HSCT in these patients provided cure for disease symptoms. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - December 14, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Alexandra Laberko, Vasiliy Burlakov, Sarah Maier, Mario Abinun, Roderick Skinner, Anna Kozlova, Deepti Suri, Kai Lehmberg, Ingo M üller, Dmitry Balashov, Galina Novichkova, Dirk Holzinger, Andrew R. Gennery, Anna Shcherbina Source Type: research