Astegolimab (anti-ST2) efficacy and safety in adults with severe asthma: a randomized clinical trial
Capsule Summary: Astegolimab targeting of the IL-33/ST2 pathway reduces asthma exacerbations in severe asthma patients, highlighting the importance of IL-33 in driving non-Type 2-mediated pathways of inflammation. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 16, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Steven G. Kelsen, Ioana O. Agache, Weily Soong, Elliot Israel, Geoffrey L. Chupp, Dorothy S. Cheung, Wiebke Theess, Xiaoying Yang, Tracy L. Staton, David F. Choy, Alice Fong, Ajit Dash, Michael Dolton, Rajita Pappu, Christopher E. Brightling Source Type: research

Multisystem Inflammation and Susceptibility to Viral infections in Human ZNFX1 Deficiency
The recognition of viral nucleic acids is one of the primary triggers for a type I interferon-mediated antiviral immune response. Inborn errors of type I interferon immunity can be associated with increased inflammation and/or increased susceptibility to viral infections, as a result of dysbalanced interferon production. NFX1-type zinc-finger-containing 1 (ZNFX1) is an interferon-stimulated double-strand RNA sensor that restricts the replication of RNA viruses in mice. ZNFX1 ’s role in the human immune response is not known. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 16, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Stefano Vavassori, Janet Chou, Laura Eva Faletti, Veronika Haunerdinger, Lennart Opitz, Pascal Joset, Christopher J. Fraser, Seraina Prader, Xianfei Gao, Luise A. Schuch, Matias Wagner, Julia Hoefele, Maria Elena Maccari, Ying Zhu, George Elakis, Michael Source Type: research

Neonatal Mast Cells and Transplacental IgE Transfer: A Mechanism of Disease Inheritance or of Passive Infant Barrier Defense?
(Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 15, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Daniel F. Dwyer, Joshua A. Boyce Source Type: research

Small intestinal immunopathology and GI-associated antibody formation in hereditary alpha-tryptasemia
Individuals with H αT have increased numbers of activated mast cells in the small intestine, accelerated intestinal epithelial cell pyroptosis, expanded class-switched memory B cells, and increased GI-associated antigen-directed antibody production. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 15, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Liza Konnikova, Tanya O. Robinson, Anna H. Owings, James F. Shirley, Elisabeth Davis, Ying Tang, Sarah Wall, Jian Li, Mohammad H. Hasan, Raad Z. Gharaibeh, Lybil B. Mendoza Alvarez, Lisa K. Ryan, Andria Doty, Jack F. Chovanec, Michael P. O ’Connell, Dia Source Type: research

Metabolome and lipidome derangements during a severe mast cell activation event in a patient with indolent systemic mastocytosis
Capsule summary: Extensive mast cell activation leads to severe endothelial dysfunction with depletion of important amino acids in the nitric oxide signaling pathway and many lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) variants with histamine possibly as the key driving force behind the severe clinical symptoms. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 14, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Thomas Boehm, Robin Ristl, Saijo Joseph, Karin Petroczi, Kristaps Klavins, Peter Valent, Bernd Jilma Source Type: research

Molecular diagnosis of childhood immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy and enteropathy, and implications for clinical management
Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy or enteropathy in many pediatric patients results from a mutation with severe clinical effect. Identification of these causal mutations enables treatment based on genotype, supporting a genetics-first approach to diagnosis. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 14, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Sarah K. Baxter, Tom Walsh, Silvia Casadei, Mary M. Eckert, Eric J. Allenspach, David Hagin, Gesmar Segundo, Ming K. Lee, Suleyman Gulsuner, Brian H. Shirts, Kathleen E. Sullivan, Michael D. Keller, Troy R. Torgerson, Mary-Claire King Source Type: research

A population-based study on associations of stool microbiota with atopic diseases in school-age children
Stool microbiota was associated with inhalant allergy in school-aged children, and less prominent with other atopic diseases, suggesting a limited role of gut microbiota on atopic diseases at school age. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 13, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Chen Hu, Evelien R. van Meel, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Robert Kraaij, Monica Barroso, Jessica Kiefte-de Jong, Djawad Radjabzadeh, Suzanne G.M.A. Pasmans, Nicolette W. de Jong, Johan C. de Jongste, Henriette A. Moll, Tamar Nijsten, Fernando Rivadeneira, Luba Source Type: research

Rituximab-induced Hypogammaglobulinemia and Infection Risk in Pediatric Patients
IgG hypogammaglobulinemia was frequent in children receiving rituximab (40%), and was associated with an increased risk of serious infections. Physician-diagnosed PID unmasked by rituximab was found in 4.3% (9/207) of the cohort. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 13, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Roxane Labrosse, Sara Barmettler, Beata Derfalvi, Annaliesse Blincoe, Guilhem Cros, Jonathan Lacombe-Barrios, Julie Barsalou, Nancy Yang, Nora Alrumayyan, Jan Sinclair, Mei-Sing Ong, Carlos A. Camargo, Jolan Walter, Elie Haddad Source Type: research

Use of multiple epinephrine doses in anaphylaxis: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Regulatory bodies recommend all patients at risk of anaphylaxis are prescribed two epinephrine auto ‐injectors, which they should carry at all times. This is in contrast to some guidelines. The proportion of anaphylaxis reactions which are treated with multiple doses of epinephrine has not been systematically evaluated. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 13, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Nandinee Patel, Kok Wee Chong, Alexander Y.G. Yip, Despo Ierodiakonou, Joan Bartra, Robert J. Boyle, Paul J. Turner FRCPCH Source Type: research

IgE auto-antibodies: an innate connection to adaptive immunity
(Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 12, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Xin Huang, Mikael C.I. Karlsson Source Type: research

Potential Mechanisms of Anaphylaxis to COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines
Anaphylaxis to vaccines is historically a rare event. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic drove the need for rapid vaccine production applying a novel antigen delivery system: mRNA vaccines packaged in lipid nanoparticles (LNP). Unexpectedly, public vaccine administration led to a small number of severe allergic reactions with resultant substantial public concern, especially within atopic individuals. We reviewed the constituents of the mRNA LNP vaccine and considered several contributors to these reactions: 1) contact system activation by nucleic acid, 2) complement recognition of the vaccine activating aller...
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 11, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kimberly A. Risma, Kathryn M. Edwards, Donna S. Hummell, Frederic F. Little, Allison E. Norton, Amy Stallings, Robert A. Wood, Joshua Milner Source Type: research

C5aR inhibition of non-immune cells suppresses inflammation and maintains epithelial integrity in SARS-CoV-2-infected primary human airway epithelia
Crucially, we here show for the first time, that targeting anaphylotoxin receptors C3aR and C5aR in highly differentiated, 3D respiratory tissues can prevent intrinsic lung inflammation and tissue damage. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 11, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Wilfried Posch, Jonathan Vosper, Asma Noureen, Viktoria Zaderer, Christina Witting, Giulia Bertacchi, Ronald Gstir, Przemyslaw A. Filipek, G ünther K. Bonn, Lukas A. Huber, Rosa Bellmann-Weiler, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Doris Wilflingseder Source Type: research

Adult Peanut Allergy, What We Know and What We Need to Learn
(Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 4, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Soheila J. Maleki, Suzanne S. Teuber, S. Shahzad Mustafa Source Type: research

Mast Cells to Dendritic Cells: Let IL-13 Shut Your IL-12 Down
(Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 4, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Theoharis C. Theoharides, Pio Conti Source Type: research

Cytokine-specific autoantibodies shape the gut microbiome in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1
Capsule summaryThe gut microbiome in APS-1 patients correlates with gastrointestinal symptoms and cytokine-specific autoantibodies. Administration of L. rhamnosus GG alleviated dysphagia and aerophagia in 5/5 APS-1 patients and balanced abdominal functions in 9/18 patients. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 2, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Anders Ø. Petersen, Martta Jokinen, Damian R. Plichta, Gerhard Liebisch, Wolfram Gronwald, Peter J. Oefner, Hera Vlamakis, Daniel C. Chung, Annamari Ranki, Ramnik J. Xavier Source Type: research

Studies of the Role of Basophils in Aspirin Exacerbated Respiratory Disease Pathogenesis
Capsule Summary: Increased basophil numbers and extent of ongoing degranulation in nasal polyps of patients with AERD compared to CRSwNP may contribute to the exaggerated disease pathogenesis and severity unique to AERD. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 2, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Whitney W. Stevens, Anna G. Staudacher, Kathryn E. Hulse, Julie A. Poposki, Atsushi Kato, Roderick G. Carter, Lydia A. Suh, James E. Norton, Julia H. Huang, Anju T. Peters, Leslie C. Grammer, David B. Conley, Stephanie Shintani-Smith, Bruce K. Tan, Kevin Source Type: research

Efficacy of medical treatments for vernal keratoconjunctivitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Capsule SummaryTherapeutic strategy in vernal keratoconjunctivitis is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of 45 studies (1749 patients) summarizing the efficacy of current available drugs. In severe forms, tacrolimus demonstrated similar efficacy compared to cyclosporine. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 2, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: In ès Roumeau, Adrien Coutu, Valentin Navel, Bruno Pereira, Julien S. Baker, Frédéric Chiambaretta, Dominique Bremond-Gignac, Frédéric Dutheil Source Type: research

Mitochondria are involved in bronchial smooth muscle remodeling in severe preschool wheezers
CAPSULE SUMMARY: In severe preschool wheezing children characterized by bronchial smooth muscle remodeling, an altered calcium homeostasis contributes to an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis and mass, leading to a subsequent increase in bronchial smooth muscle cell proliferation. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 2, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Fabien Beaufils, Pauline Esteves, Raphael Enaud, Oph élie Germande, Alexis Celle, Roger Marthan, Thomas Trian, Michael Fayon, Patrick Berger Source Type: research

Targeted inhibition of EPAS1 –driven IL-31 production by a small-molecule compound
Capsule summary: IL-31 is a major pruritogen associated with atopic dermatitis (AD). As IL-31 production critically depends on EPAS1, a small-molecule inhibitor targeting EPAS1 –driven IL-31 production could be a novel drug lead to treat AD-associated itch. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 2, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yasuhisa Kamikaseda, Takehito Uruno, Kazufumi Kunimura, Akihito Harada, Kuniko Saiki, Kounosuke Oisaki, Daiji Sakata, Takeshi Nakahara, Makiko Kido-Nakahara, Motomu Kanai, Seiji Nakamura, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Masutaka Furue, Yoshinori Fukui Source Type: research

Differential Induction of Allergen-specific IgA Responses following Timothy Grass Subcutaneous and Sublingual Immunotherapy
Capsule summary: Local and systemic induction of IgA following SLIT represents a distinct immunologic mechanism compared to SCIT. IgA to grass pollen and IgE and IgG4 to grass pollen components allowed participant stratification according to treatment group and response. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 2, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mohamed H. Shamji, David Larson, Aarif Eifan, Guy W. Scadding, Tielin Qin, Kaitie Lawson, Michelle L. Sever, Ellen Macfarlane, Janice A. Layhadi, Peter A. W ürtzen, Rebecca V. Parkin, Srinath Sanda, Kristina M. Harris, Gerald T. Nepom, Alkis Togias, Step Source Type: research

Corrigenda
In regard to an article in the November issue entitled “Dedicator of cytokinesis protein 2 couples with lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 to regulate expression of CD21 and B-cell differentiation” (J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019;144:1377-90.e4), the authors report an error in Fig 6, panel E. The authors report that, after publication, it was discovere d that the wrong internal control (β-actin) was mistakenly used for Fig 6, E. Upon this realization, the authors repeated the experiment with the correct internal control, and the corrected figure is shown below. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Corrigenda Source Type: research

Retraction notice
to Skin barrier dysfunction measured by transepidermal water loss at 2 days and 2 months predates and predicts atopic dermatitis at 1 year (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Retraction notice Source Type: research

Retraction notice
to Skin barrier impairment at birth predicts food allergy at 2 years of age (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Retraction notice Source Type: research

Corrigenda
In regard to the article that appeared in the December 2020 issue entitled “2020 Focused Updates to the Asthma Management Guidelines: A Report from the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Coordinating Committee Expert Panel Working Group” (J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020;146:1217-70), the authors note an error in Fig 2. The change was the language in Step 3 o f the table and in the note at the bottom of the chart (corrected text: Daily medium dose ICS and PRN SABA). The authors regret the error and confirm that it does not affect the statements and conclusions of the paper. (Source: Journal of All...
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Corrigenda Source Type: research

Non –IgE-mediated anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis is a rapidly evolving, acute, life-threatening reaction that occurs rapidly on contact with a trigger. Anaphylaxis is classically defined as an allergen-driven process that induces specific IgE and the activation of mast cells and basophils through the cross-linking of IgE receptors. However, it is clear that non –IgE-mediated pathways can induce symptoms indistinguishable from those of classic anaphylaxis, and their activation could explain the severity of IgE-mediated anaphylaxis. Indeed, mast cells and basophils can be activated by antibodies against IgE or their receptors, by molecules such as anaphyl...
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Antonella Cianferoni Tags: Reviews and feature article Source Type: research

Mechanisms of human drug-induced anaphylaxis
Drug-induced anaphylaxis is a hyperacute reaction affecting multiple organs that can be of fatal consequence. Its incidence is increasing, consistent with a global increased sensitization to various allergens and drugs in the population. Few risk factors and mechanisms have been identified from human studies due to the rarity of anaphylactic events and their unpredictability. This systemic reaction is caused by the rapid release of a large range of functionally diverse mediators, including histamine and platelet-activating factor as the main drivers identified. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Pierre Bruhns, Sylvie Chollet-Martin Tags: Reviews and feature article Source Type: research

Non –IgE-mediated anaphylaxis
(Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Reviews and feature article Source Type: research

News Beyond Our Pages
While neutrophils are typically thought to be short-lived upon arrival to target tissues, Ballesteros et al (Cell 2020;183:1282-97.e18; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.10.003) identified that neutrophils instead exhibit significant tissue-specific diversity in both lifetimes and functions. Gene expression and epigenetic analyses revealed distinct tissue-specific subsets of neutrophils with noncanonical functions such as vascular repair and homeostatic hematopoiesis, and neutrophil depletion in vivo impaired angiogenesis and post-irradiation hematopoietic recovery. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Marc E. Rothenberg, Jean Bousquet Source Type: research

The Editors ’ Choice
Some food allergies (peanut, shellfish, and tree nuts) tend to persist for a lifetime in the majority of patients, implying a perpetual risk of accidental allergic reactions that can be life-threatening. Persistence of food allergies is driven by reactivation of immunologic memory, which restores the formation of pathogenic allergen-specific IgE. The precise requirements for the reactivation of memory IgE responses, however, remain poorly defined. In this issue, Bruton et  al (p 1381) assessed the requirement of IL-4Rα signaling for reactivation of allergic memory. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: The Editors ’ Choice Source Type: research

Cover 1
(Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Brief Overview of This Month's JACI
(Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Information for Readers
(Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

News & Notes
The AAAAI ’s Advocacy Committee and Committee on the Underserved are gathering food information among patient advocacy groups and clinical research efforts on growing concerns about food insecurity in food allergy families. If you are aware of efforts in your community to combat this need, or have started t o reach out to your patients’ families about this issue, contact us at advocacy@aaaai.org. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Reader service Source Type: research

Continuing Medical Education Calendar
The following activities offer AMA PRA Category 1 Credit ™ and meet the American Board of Allergy and Immunology (ABAI) requirements for Part II or Part IV Maintenance of Certification (MOC): (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Special Thank-You to Our Reviewers
The Editors wish to acknowledge the contributions of the following colleagues in the field of allergy and immunology who served as reviewers for JACI during 2020. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Multi-dimensional study of the oral microbiome, metabolite, and immunologic environment in peanut allergy
Capsule Summary: Distinct oral microbial, metabolic, and immunologic profiles characterize peanut allergy. Oral Prevotella spp., Veillonella spp. and Neisseria spp. abundances are associated with altered oral short chain fatty acid levels (acetate, butyrate, propionate) and a Th2 cytokine milieu. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - April 1, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hsi-en Ho, Yoojin Chun, Stephanie Jeong, Oranicha Jumreornvong, Scott H. Sicherer, Supinda Bunyavanich Source Type: research

Infant pacifier sanitization and risk of challenge-proven food allergy: A  cohort study
Environmental microbial exposure plays a role in immune system development and susceptibility to food allergy. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - March 30, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Victoria X. Soriano, Jennifer J. Koplin, Mike Forrester, Rachel L. Peters, Martin O ’Hely, Shyamali C. Dharmage, Rosemary Wright, Sarath Ranganathan, David Burgner, Kristie Thompson, Terence Dwyer, Peter Vuillerman, Anne-Louise Ponsonby Source Type: research

The 2021 AAAAI Foundation Faculty Development Awardees
(Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - March 24, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zuhair K. Ballas Source Type: research

Functional and structural analysis of cytokine selective IL6ST defects that cause recessive hyper-IgE syndrome
Capsule summary: We investigate how recessive variants in IL6ST cause selective cytokine signaling defects and cause autosomal recessive hyper-IgE syndrome with immunodeficiency and skeletal abnormalities. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - March 22, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yin-Huai Chen, Diane B. Zastrow, Riley D. Metcalfe, Lisa Gartner, Freia Krause, Craig J. Morton, Shruti Marwaha, Laure Fresard, Yong Huang, Chunli Zhao, Colleen McCormack, David Bick, Elizabeth A. Worthey, Christine M. Eng, Jessica Gold, Undiagnosed Disea Source Type: research

Intranasal levels of lead as an exacerbation factor for allergic rhinitis in humans and mice
An increased nasal level of lead partially derived from pollen may exacerbate allergic rhinitis in humans and mice. Thus, a novel association between pollinosis and an air pollutant (lead) was shown. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - March 22, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Huadong Xu, Nobutaka Ohgami, Masafumi Sakashita, Kazuhiro Ogi, Kazunori Hashimoto, Akira Tazaki, Keming Tong, Masayo Aoki, Shigeharu Fujieda, Masashi Kato Source Type: research

What is the contribution of IgE to nasal polyposis?
Taking a novel approach, this narrative review collates knowledge about nasal polyposis and the biological functions of IgE in several diseases (allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-exacerbated respiratory disease [N-ERD] and chronic spontaneous urticaria) to consider which IgE-mediated mechanisms are relevant to nasal polyposis pathology. A type 2 (T2) eosinophil-dominated inflammatory signature is typical in nasal polyp tissue of European patients with nasal polyposis, with a shift towards this endotype observed in Asian populations in recent years. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - March 20, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Claus Bachert, Marcus Maurer, Oscar Palomares, William W. Busse Source Type: research

Lung virome: new potential biomarkers for asthma severity and exacerbation
Capsule Summary: Lung virome alteration such as increased cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus as well as reduced bacteriophage were observed in asthma patients and presented good positive or negative correlation with severity and symptoms score of asthma, and lung function. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - March 20, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Sungmi Choi, Kyoung-Hee Sohn, Jae-Woo Jung, Min-Gyu Kang, Min-Suk Yang, Sujeong Kim, Jeong-Hee Choi, Sang-Heon Cho, Hye-Ryun Kang, Hana Yi Source Type: research

Routine KIT p.D816V screening identifies clonal mast cell disease in Hymenoptera allergic patients regularly missed using baseline tryptase levels alone
Capsule summaryPresence of the KIT p.D816V is most commonly associated with normal BST, while H αT is the most common cause of elevated BST, among individuals with severe HVA and should be considered clinically to risk-stratify patients with venom allergy. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - March 19, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Julij Šelb, Matija Rijavec, Renato Eržen, Mihaela Zidarn, Peter Kopač, Matevž Škerget, Nissera Bajrović, Ajda Demšar Luzar, Young Hwan Park, Yihui Liu, Vladka Čurin Šerbec, Samo Zver, Mitja Košnik, Jonathan J. Lyons, Peter Korošec Source Type: research

Immunomodulatory aged neutrophils are augmented in blood and skin of psoriasis patients
Aged neutrophils present in blood and skin of psoriasis patients have a pro-inflammatory effect on T-cells, mediated by NET formation, and decrease from circulation after targeted biological therapy. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - March 18, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yessica A. Rodriguez-Rosales, Jeroen D. Langereis, Mark A.J. Gorris, Juul M.P.A. van den Reek, Esther Fasse, Mihai G. Netea, I. Jolanda M. de Vries, Laia Gomez-Mu ñoz, Bram van Cranenbroek, Andreas Körber, Wiebke Sonderman, Irma Joosten, Elke MGJ. de Jo Source Type: research

Inhaled JAK inhibitor GDC-0214 reduces exhaled nitric oxide in patients with mild asthma: a randomized, controlled, proof-of-activity trial
Capsule Summary: In this randomized, controlled, proof-of-activity trial in adults with mild asthma, GDC-0214, an inhaled small molecule JAK inhibitor, caused dose-dependent reductions in FeNO and was well tolerated without evidence of systemic toxicity. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - March 16, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Irene E. Braithwaite, Fang Cai, Jennifer A. Tom, Joshua M. Galanter, Ryan P. Owen, Rui Zhu, Mathew Williams, Anna G. McGregor, Avi Eliahu, Matthew R. Durk, Hart S. Dengler, Mark Zak, Jane R. Kenny, Maria E. Wilson, Richard Beasley, Hubert Chen Source Type: research

2020 Updated Asthma Guidelines: Intermittent Inhaled Corticosteroids and Long-Acting Muscarinic Antagonists for Asthma: the latest NAEPP Guidelines are SMART!
(Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - March 16, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Michael E. Wechsler Source Type: research

Asthma and viruses: A  focus on rhinoviruses and SARS-CoV-2
Acute asthma exacerbations (AEs) are common events that result in high morbidity and mortality and place a major burden on health care services. The most prominent trigger for AEs is viral respiratory infections, particularly rhinoviruses (RVs), which have been strongly linked as causative agents by studies of naturally occurring and experimentally induced exacerbations.1,2 RVs induce enhanced airway inflammation and clinical symptom severity in patients with asthma compared with healthy individuals. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - March 13, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yorissa Padayachee, Tasnim Shahridan Faiez, Aran Singanayagam, Patrick Mallia, Sebastian Lennox Johnston Tags: Paradigms and perspectives Source Type: research

Asthma and viruses (a focus on rhinoviruses and SARS-CoV-2)
(Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - March 13, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yorissa Padayachee, Tasnim Shahridan Faiez, Aran Singanayagam, Patrick Mallia, Sebastian Lennox Johnston Source Type: research