Evaluation of the safety profile and antioxidant activity of fatty hydroxamic acid from underutilized seed oil of Cyperus esculentus
Conclusions Cyperus esculentus has been presented as a potential source of feed stock for the synthesis of a relatively cheap and non toxic FHA which has antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - July 11, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Surveillance of acute community acquired urinary tract bacterial infections
Conclusions It was concluded that periodic surveillance of pathogens is an essential corollary in effective health management in any country, as empiric therapy is a common/essential practice in effective clinical management. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - July 11, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Shock index as a mortality predictor in patients with acute polytrauma
Conclusions An initial shock index greater than 0.9 implies a worse prognosis 24 h after injury. The shock index predicts mortality in multiple trauma patients in the emergency department, and is also a quick and applicable in all hospital. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - July 11, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Triiodothyronine levels in acute pulmonary embolism predict in-hospital mortality
Conclusions Our preliminary data suggest that low plasma triiodothyronine is an independent predictor of in-hospital death in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - July 11, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Determination of individual preparation behaviors of emergency health services personnel towards disasters
Conclusions As a result of the study, a significant relationship was found between being trained related to disaster and emergency situations and development of positive attitudes about training for disasters and emergencies. This indicates that people, no matter what educational level they are in, have to be trained for disasters and emergencies. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - July 11, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Mortality after acute trauma: progressive decreasing rather than a trimodal distribution
Conclusions The trimodal time distribution of mortality remains a milestone in trauma education and research. Nevertheless, it must be questioned in the modern and very efficcient trauma systems, but still very actual for developing trauma care systems. In conclusion, the pattern of mortality due to major trauma seems decreasing continuously with time rather than presenting high peaks of frequency at some moments. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - July 11, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Acute gouty Achilles tendonitis
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2015 Source:Journal of Acute Disease Author(s): Sora Yasri , Viroj Wiwanitkit (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - July 11, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Progress on macrophage’s proinflammatory products as markers of acute endometriosis
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2015 Source:Journal of Acute Disease Author(s): Alicja Ziętek , Konrad Futyma , Łukasz Nowakowski , Marek Gogacz , Rechberger Tomasz To provide the review of the macrophage activity products as pathophysiological markers of endometriosis by literature survey (PubMed, Cochrane). Immunoreactive cells and several of their synthesis products concentrations are elevated in the serum and peritoneal fluid in patients with endometriosis.The enhanced reactive proteins contributed to local inflammation and aggregation of endometriotic lesions. Immune response and immune surveillance of ...
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - July 11, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Big data as a new approach in emergency medicine research
This article aims to provide a showcase in emergency medicine research to demonstrate the advantages of conducting such research using big data. Big data is a new and cost-effective research approach, and emergency medicine researchers could benefit from using this approach and by doing so producing high-quality research at a faster pace. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - July 11, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Analysis of cases caused by acute spider bite
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2015 Source:Journal of Acute Disease Author(s): Zihni Sulaj , Gentian Vyshka , Amarda Gashi We performed a retrospective study of 176 patients in the University Hospital Center of Tirana (Albania), during the period 2001-2011, admitted with the diagnosis of a suspected spider bite. Three fatalities were registered during this decade covered from our study, with a clinical picture of marked hypertension, tachycardia and acute cardiac failure leading to death within a minimum of 25 hours and a maximum of 42 hours from the occurrence. Out of the total of 176 patients, we had 59% (1...
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - July 11, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

The trend of acute burns in hospital
Conclusions Burn injuries are common in our settings, a more reason for all to know the immediate intervention to give to victims of such accidents. The kind of first aid administered to burns victims possibly affects the burns management outcome. Thus, the earlier the right intervention implemented, the lesser the complications. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - July 11, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia from acute intracerebral hemorrhage: a case report
We describe here the case of diagnosis of a chronic myeloid leukemia from ICH in emergencies. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - July 11, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Transfusion-related acute lung injury: a case report
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2015 Source:Journal of Acute Disease Author(s): Emmanouil Petrou , Vasiliki Karali , Vasiliki Vartela Transfusion-related acute lung injury is the most common cause of serious morbidity and mortality associated with the transfusion of plasma-containing blood components. The syndrome can be confused with other causes of acute respiratory failure. Herein, we describe a 71-year-old man who was transfused with fresh frozen plasma due to prolonged INR, and died of what was considered as transfusion-related acute lung injury, despite treatment. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - July 11, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

The research progress of acute small bowel perforation
This article reviews the various aetiologies of small bowel perforations and their management. In addition to the well-known aetiologies such as trauma, inflammation and circulatory disorders, several new causes of small bowel perforation have been described in recent years. The spectrum reaches from iatrogenic perforations during laparoscopic surgery or enteroscopies to drug-induced perforations with new anticancer agents. The management of small bowel perforations requires a concept consisting of the safe revision of the leaking bowel and the treatment of the peritonitis. Depending on the local situation and the conditio...
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - July 8, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Cough-induced intercostal lung herniation
Publication date: June 2015 Source:Journal of Acute Disease, Volume 4, Issue 2 Author(s): Eva Genbrugge , Jayant R. Kichari Intercostal lung herniation is an uncommon entity, defined as protrusion of lung tissue between the ribs. The disease is mostly diagnosed either congenitally or acquired following post-surgery or after chest wall trauma. A spontaneous lung herniation is rarely described. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 26, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

A report of acute atrial fibrillation induced by misapplication of epinephrine
Publication date: June 2015 Source:Journal of Acute Disease, Volume 4, Issue 2 Author(s): Yu-Jang Su Urticaria is a systemic allergic reaction leading to wheal formation with skin itching. Occasionally we come across some intractable cases, in which we may administrate epinephrine infusion besides steroid and anti-histamine. A 19 year-old man suffered from intractable urticaria for 2 days, although anti-histamine and steroids were used. Titration of adrenaline was considered in the treatment of intractable urticaria. He was administrated 1 mg epinephrine intravenous bolus due to mis-dilution by the nurse. Transient atria...
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 26, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Report of a child with acute herpes zoster ophthalmicus induced partial third nerve palsy
Publication date: June 2015 Source:Journal of Acute Disease, Volume 4, Issue 2 Author(s): AR Suraida , LM Evelyn-Tai , Madhusudhan , LK Thavaratnam , Mohtar Ibrahim , WH Wan Hazabbah Herpes zoster is a reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV), which may remain dormant in the dorsal root ganglion of the trigeminal nerve for decades after the patient's initial exposure. The ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve, i.e., the innervation to the ocular structures, is one of the most commonly involved dermatomes, giving rise to herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). A 10-year-old indigenous Malaysian girl presented with a...
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 26, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical manifestation as acute coronary syndrome without electrocardiographically ischemia: a clue for aortic dissection
We presented a case of 51-year-old woman who complained of dyspnea for 3 d after she experienced back pain for one week. She was presented with severe respiration distress with impending respiration failure on arrival to our hospital. Her chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly with acute pulmonary edema. The laboratory data revealed elevated cardiac enzyme and electrocardiography demonstrated sinus tachycardia. She was hospitalized under the initial diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. The patient remained hemodynamically stable, and experienced one episode of chest discomfort. After electrocardiography, she was found with bigem...
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 26, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Report of a pregnant lady with bilateral elbow dislocation caused by acute fall injury
Publication date: June 2015 Source:Journal of Acute Disease, Volume 4, Issue 2 Author(s): Koh Shao Hui Simultaneous bilateral posterior elbow dislocations occur rarely with only 14 cases being reported in the literature so far. Of these cases, none occurred in a patient who was pregnant. No cases of bilateral elbow dislocation with a distal radial fracture-dislocation have also been described. A case of a pregnant patient presenting with bilateral elbow dislocation, right wrist fracture-dislocation is reported here and the issues involved in managing such a case are discussed. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 26, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

An unusual presentation of acute electrocution
Publication date: June 2015 Source:Journal of Acute Disease, Volume 4, Issue 2 Author(s): Louay Al-Mouazzen , Emeka Oragui , Karthig Rajakulendran , Nurul Ahad Injury to the Lisfranc joint is usually as a result of a direct blow or indirect axial loading of the foot. Lisfranc injuries are associated with significant morbidity and early recognition and treatment is imperative. To date, there has been no description of this injury arising from electrocution. We describ the unusual presentation of a Lisfranc injury in a diabetic patient caused by electrocution of the midfoot. We discuss the surgical management of this case ...
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 26, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

A retrospective study of acute pertussis in Hasan Sadikin Hospital–Indonesia
Conclusions Mostly patients were admitted on paroxysmal phase when no more active B. pertussis could be found from nasopharyngeal secret. A rigorous history taking particularly excessive cough, posttussive vomitting, and pertussis vaccination status need to be taken into account. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 26, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Genotypic characterization, invasion index and antimicrobial resistance pattern in Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from clinical samples
Conclusions Since MLVA is a high-throughput screening method that is fairly inexpensive, easy to accomplish, rapid, and trustworthy, it is well suited to interlaboratory comparisons during epidemiological investigations. Also further studies of larger samples from a variety of sources such as food and animal specimens recommended comparing by MLVA method. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 26, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Carissa carandas Linn. fruit extract ameliorates gentamicin–induced nephrotoxicity in rats via attenuation of oxidative stress
Conclusions Extract ameliorated oxidative stress generated by gentamicin administration, which is one of the mechanisms for its preventive action against diabetic nephropathy. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 26, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Evaluation of the effects of Citrus sinensis seed oil on blood glucose, lipid profile and liver enzymes in rats injected with alloxan monohydrate
Conclusions However, further studies need to be carried out to show its mechanism of action and to isolate the active ingredient in the Citrus sinensis seed oil that is responsible for these actions. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 26, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Hippophae salicifolia D.Don berries attenuate cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion
Conclusions Our results indicate that H. salicifolia mitigated the ischemia reperfusion induced neuronal damage. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 26, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Treatment of acute deep burns in lower extremities of the elderly
Conclusions Careful patient selection and timing of surgery will help to avoid any adverse effect on patient outcome. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 26, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

STREET: Swedish Tool for Risk/Resource Estimation at EvenTs. Part two, resource assessment – face validity and inter–rater reliability
Conclusions A better collaboration ability and more accurate resource assessment with acceptable reliability and validity were shown in this study to be used as a foundation for resource assessment before major events/mass-gathering in a simulated environment. However, the result also indicates the challenges of creating measurable values from simulated cases. A study on real events can provide higher reliability but needs, on the other hand, an already developed tool. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 26, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Long term outcome and follow up of electrical injury
Conclusions High voltage electrical burns are severe, needing more flap repairs and/or amputations and cause longer periods away from work. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 26, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Detection of microRNAs in patients with sepsis
Conclusions miR-146a and miR-223 demonstrated no significantly diagnostic or prognostic ability in this cohort. miR-150 was associated with inflammation, severity of illness, and mortality. Given the independent predictive value of miR-150, additional research regarding its role in sepsis is warranted. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 26, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Research progress in the application of inferior vena cava filter on acute venous thrombosis
Publication date: June 2015 Source:Journal of Acute Disease, Volume 4, Issue 2 Author(s): Ioannis Stefanidis , George Galyfos , Stavros Kerasidis , Ioannis Stamatatos , Georgios Geropapas , Sotirios Giannakakis , Georgios Kastrisios , Gerasimos Papacharalampous , Chrisostomos Maltezos Anticoagulant therapy using heparins or per os vitamin K antagonists has been the treatment of choice in patients with venous thromboembolic disease for decades. However, the introduction of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters recently has provided new therapeutic choices appropriate for specific groups of patients with venous thromboembolic d...
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 26, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Pubovaginal sling, the godfather of midurethral slings that remained so
Publication date: June 2015 Source:Journal of Acute Disease, Volume 4, Issue 2 Author(s): Diaa-Eldin Taha , Bassem S. Wadie Forty years ago, autologous fascial slings became the gold standard in the treatment of genuine stress incontinence. In 1996, a synthetic material sling was introduced to the urogynecological literature known as tension-free vaginal tape. Some years later, another synthetic tape was introduced through a novel trajectory: transobturator. Due the conception of most polypropylene synthetic tapes, scores of devices, applicators and tape designs evolved. Now, with reports surfacing in the urologic litera...
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 26, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Prognostic indicators in acute burned patients–a review
Publication date: June 2015 Source:Journal of Acute Disease, Volume 4, Issue 2 Author(s): Sherif Emara Burn trauma is in need for prognostic indicators or admission scores. This aims for realistic documentation of the burn injury, expectation of the prognosis, and to facilitate a patient stratification to evaluate therapeutic strategies. A computer search through different medical websites was performed looking for articles correlating prognosis with different burn indices. These were carefully summarized and analyzed for this review. Variable studies were found related to that issue; the reliable indicators found had be...
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 26, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Hearing evaluation in patients with chronic renal failure
Conclusions DPOAE raised the percentages of detection of SNHL indicating that it is a better technique than the conventional PTA for evaluation of hearing acuity. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 23, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Craniectomy size, mortality, outcome and complications: a short summary
Publication date: March 2015 Source:Journal of Acute Disease, Volume 4, Issue 1 Author(s): Somsri Wiwanitkit , Viroj Wiwanitkit The craniectomy is an important surgical management for the problem of acute neurological disorder. It is widely practiced by neurosurgeons around the world. The technique for craniectomy is various and there are many new reports concerning on the size of craniectomy. In this short article, the authors discuss on the important topics about neurosurgery “craniectomy size, mortality, outcome and complications.” (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 22, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Is the early percutaneous spine total care to treat the polytrauma patient a good way?
We reported a case control to discuss about the early spinal total care associated at orthopedic total care in patients with multiple trauma. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 22, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding after low anterior resection for middle rectal cancer – case report
Conclusions Angiography with angioembolization is an effective tool in emergency setting, avoiding the morbidity and associated mortality of a surgical reinervention. In early postoperative hemorrhages, only a rapid clinical recognition, a personalized diagnostic workup and an agressive intervention may offer the patient the best chances for cure. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 22, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Factors predicting early outcome in patients admitted at emergency department with severe head trauma
Conclusions Improving pre-hospital care and ovoid futile resuscitation to given priority in resource allocation and urgent CT scan of the head to look for operable mass lesions as early detection should improve the prognosis of severe head injury at emergency department. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 22, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

The role of physician–staffed ambulances: the outcome of a pilot study
Conclusions Most of the missions neither required the interventional skills of a physician, nor could they be performed at distance. However, the added medical value of physicians was found to be in other prehospital situations, such as critical decision-making, staff education and research. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 22, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Hypoglycemia in Emergency Department
Conclusions When hypoglycemic patients present in the emergency department, physicians should pay attention to the presence of infection, malignancy, liver diseases (liver cirrhosis and biliary tract infection), and acute renal failure. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 22, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy on the management of acute paediatric urinary tract infection in a general paediatric unit
Conclusions UTI can be difficult to accurately diagnosis in certain clinical cases. Decisions made should be individualized and tailored according to clinical suspicion and presentation of the patients. Improvement to ensure accurate diagnosis is vital to ensure correct data capture in the HIPE system thus giving valuable information and resource for future care. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 22, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Developing risk factors for post traumatic empyema in patients with chest trauma
Conclusions The posttraumatic empyema is a complication that occurs in patients with thoracic trauma. One of the most important risk factors is coagulated hemothorax which could be identified and treated in time to avoid comorbidities during hospital stay. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 22, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Factors leading to poor outcome of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Conclusions In this study, NIPPV was successful in 77.4% cases and 22.6% cases were underwent endotracheal intubation. Pedal edema was the most common factor leading to poor outcomes while age >60 years was the least common factor, 66.2% and 24.2% respectively. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 22, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

STREET: Swedish Tool for Risk/Resource Estimation at EvenTs. Part one, risk assessment – face validity and inter–rater reliability
Conclusions The collaboration tool, “STREET”, showed acceptable reliability and validity to be used as a foundation for high reliability organization collaboration in a simulated environment. However, the lack of reliability in one of the cases highlights the challenges of creating measurable values from simulated cases. A study on real events can provide higher reliability but need, on the other hand, an already developed tool. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 22, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

The effect of an emergency department clinical “triggers” program based on abnormal vital signs
Conclusions In our model, the implementation of an ED triggers program resulted in a modest decreased time to physician evaluation and disposition decision but not time to intervention. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 22, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Trypanocidal efficacy of two indigeneous ethanolic plant extracts (Mimosa pigra and Ipomoea asarifolia) against Trypanosoma evansi phospholipase A2 activity
Conclusions The low Ki values obtained for these extracts towards this enzyme are an indication of high affinity of the extract or the active components (present in the plants) are for these enzyme and therefore, could be explored to serve as a cheap source of T. evansi PLA2 antidote and as well help in designing a novel drug with high efficiency. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 22, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Antimalarial potential of the ethanolic leaf extract of Pseudocedrala kotschyi
Conclusion The results showed that the leaf extract has potential antiplasmodial activity, which can be exploited in malaria therapy. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 22, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Survey of the results of acute sciatic nerve repair comparing epineural and perineurial techniques in the lower extremities of rat
Conclusion The results of epineural and perineurial surgery techniques show no difference in nerve repair, SFI index, or axon counting in distal part. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 22, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Induction of DNA damage by the leaves and rhizomes of Curcuma amada Roxb in breast cancer cell lines
Conclusions The results indicated that the methanolic extract of leaves of rhizomes of C. amada possess genotoxic and cytotoxic activity against the breast cancer cell lines. (Source: Journal of Acute Disease)
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 22, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage
Publication date: March 2015 Source:Journal of Acute Disease, Volume 4, Issue 1 Author(s): Ioannis N. Mavridis , Maria Meliou , Efstratios-Stylianos Pyrgelis Troponin (tr) elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words: “troponin elevation” and “subarachnoid hemor...
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 22, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Acute flaccid paraplegia: neurological approach, diagnostic workup, and therapeutic options
Publication date: March 2015 Source:Journal of Acute Disease, Volume 4, Issue 1 Author(s): Gentian Vyshka , Altin Kuqo , Serla Grabova , Eris Ranxha , Liro Buda , Jera Kruja Acute flaccid paraplegia is a clinical occurrence with extreme importance, due to the dramatic presentation, the severity of the underlying disorder, and the generally poor prognosis that follows such a condition. Among etiological factors, the traumatic events are of particular interest, with the clinical treating dealing with a severely ill patient, following fall from height, motor vehicle collisions, and direct shocks applied over the vertebral c...
Source: Journal of Acute Disease - April 22, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research