Canine cutaneous and renal glomerular vasculopathy in the Republic of Ireland: a description of three cases
ConclusionsCRGV occurs in dogs residing in the Republic of Ireland and is a differential for cases presenting with skin lesions and azotaemia. The histopathological lesions of CRGV can also affect the brain leading to neurological signs such as seizures. Owners and veterinarians should be aware that this condition can occur in dogs in Ireland. (Source: Irish Veterinary Journal)
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - November 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

MRI signal changes and their association with intervertebral disc disease in canine vertebral endplates
This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between intervertebral endplate changes and intervertebral disc disease. This study was designed as a cross-sectional, observational study. Two hundred thirteen canine MRI scans performed between 2007 and 2014 were retrieved from a digital image archive. Scans which included any sagittal sections of the vertebral column from C1 to S1 were assessed for morphological changes to the vertebral endplate.ResultsThere was found to be a significant association between vertebral endplate changes and intervertebral disc disease of the adjacent disc (P = 0.021). Th...
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - October 31, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of influenza D virus in selected sample groups of Irish cattle, sheep and pigs
This study suggests that IDV is widespread in Irish cattle. (Source: Irish Veterinary Journal)
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - October 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Blood lactate, pH, base excess and pCO 2 as prognostic indicators in caesarean-born kids from goats with pregnancy toxaemia
This study involved 10 PT goats, in which a caesarean surgery was performed. Twenty-five kids were born after caesarean surgery of which 16 survived. A blood sample was collected from the jugular vein of the 10 goats and from the kids immediately after caesarean surgery (within 15  min). There were differences between the kids that survived and the kids that did not survive concerning the blood levels of pH (7.22 vs 7.00), base excess (− 9 vs − 18 mmol/L), pCO2 (46 vs 62  mmHg) and L-lactate (5.6 vs 16 mmol/L). Maternal ketoacidosis due to PT has a negative impact on th...
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - October 14, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Schmallenberg virus: a systematic international literature review (2011-2019) from an Irish perspective
AbstractIn Autumn 2011, nonspecific clinical signs of pyrexia, diarrhoea, and drop in milk yield were observed in dairy cattle near the German town of Schmallenberg at the Dutch/German border. Targeted veterinary diagnostic investigations for classical endemic and emerging viruses could not identify a causal agent. Blood samples were collected from animals with clinical signs and subjected to metagenomic analysis; a novel orthobunyavirus was identified and named Schmallenberg virus (SBV). In late 2011/early 2012, an epidemic of abortions and congenital malformations in calves, lambs and goat kids, characterised by arthrogr...
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - October 9, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Detection of antibodies against hepatitis E virus in pet veterinarians and pet dogs in South Korea
AbstractHepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen commonly considered an important foodborne virus. Pet dogs are important reservoirs of zoonotic agents. In the present study, the seroprevalence of HEV in pet dogs and pet veterinarians were found to be 28.2 and 5.0%, respectively. It remains unclear whether pet veterinarians are at higher risk of HEV transmission. However, pet animals and individuals who have contact with infected animals must be continually monitored for public health concerns. (Source: Irish Veterinary Journal)
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - July 22, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identification and epidemiological analysis of Perostrongylus falciformis infestation in Irish badgers
ConclusionInfestation was widely distributed throughout the Republic of Ireland, with a trend towards higher infestation risk in western versus eastern counties. In addition males were at a higher risk of infestation than females and juveniles were at a significantly higher risk than adult badgers. (Source: Irish Veterinary Journal)
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - July 9, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Comparison of T1wFLAIR and T1wTSE sequences in imaging the brain of small animals using high-field MRI
ConclusionsT1wFLAIR provides better CNR with better WM-GM and WM-CSF definition both pre- and post-contrast compared to T1wTSE albeit with a higher degree of noise; this was confirmed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Our results also suggest that T1wFLAIR is better for lesion detection and margination pre-contrast administration and sequences are relatively equivocal post-gadolinium administration although further research is required to determine the benefit that inversion recovery sequences make when investigating brain lesions in small animal MRI. (Source: Irish Veterinary Journal)
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - July 6, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Tamoxifen in horses: pharmacokinetics and safety study
ConclusionsTamoxifen has moderate oral bioavailability and a large volume of distribution, with three main metabolites in horses. Additionally, oral TAM administration over a 7-day treatment period demonstrated to be clinically safe, without adverse effects on clinical, hematological or serum biochemical parameters. These data could contribute to the continued research into this drug ’s potential for the treatment of different inflammatory conditions in equine species. (Source: Irish Veterinary Journal)
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - June 20, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Ivermectin treatment failure on four Irish dairy farms
This study highlights the urgent need for Irish producers to reappraise their parasite control practices. (Source: Irish Veterinary Journal)
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - May 15, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Can bovine TB be eradicated from the Republic of Ireland? Could this be achieved by 2030?
ConclusionBased on current knowledge, it will not be possible to eradicate TB by 2030 with current control strategies plus national badger vaccination. Additional measures will be needed if Ireland is to eradicate TB within a reasonable time frame. Decisions made now will have long-term implications both  in terms of time-to-eradication and cumulative programme costs. (Source: Irish Veterinary Journal)
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - April 25, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Cervical vertebral malformations in 9 dogs: radiological findings, treatment options and outcomes
ConclusionCervical vertebral malformations are rare, or alternatively, being underdiagnosed in veterinary medicine. Patients diagnosed with Klippel-Feil-like Syndrome had a successful medium and long-term outcome with conservative management. Surgical treatment was often indicated for the other conditions presented in this study due to spinal instability and/or myelopathy. Stabilisations via ventral approaches were revealed to be safe. Multicentre and prospective studies are necessary in veterinary medicine to better characterise clinical outcomes in cervical vertebral malformations. (Source: Irish Veterinary Journal)
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - April 23, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Exploring the understanding of best practice approaches to common dog behaviour problems by veterinary professionals in Ireland
This study aimed to explore veterinary professionals ’ understanding of training and treatment options for frequently encountered dog behaviour problems, and to help support the development of competences in VBM in Ireland.MethodsAn online survey was developed, including a pre-test evaluation by a pilot group of veterinary professionals, on SurveyMonkey ®. The link to the online survey was distributed via third-party professional associations and social media. The survey contained twelve vignettes illustrating advice from veterinary professionals on common behaviour scenarios. Using a Likert Scale, respondents we...
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - March 21, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Comparative study to evaluate the voluntary acceptance of two liquid oral formulations of ciclosporin in dogs
ConclusionThere was no significant difference in acceptance of the two oral ciclosporin solutions, the investigational Atopica ® oral solution (Elanco) and Cyclavance® (Virbac) for dogs. (Source: Irish Veterinary Journal)
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - December 29, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Effects of midazolam on cardiovascular responses and isoflurane requirement during elective ovariohysterectomy in dogs
ConclusionNo significant effect on cardiovascular parameters could be observed with administration of midazolam, but a modest (14.3%) isoflurane-sparing effect was detected. (Source: Irish Veterinary Journal)
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - December 17, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A radiographic measurement of left atrial size in dogs
ConclusionRLAD appears to be a clinically useful radiographic measurement for evaluating left atrial dimensions. RLAD would provide clinicians with a simple and cost-effective tool for evaluating and monitoring LAE. (Source: Irish Veterinary Journal)
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - December 17, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The bovine tuberculosis cluster in north County Sligo during 2014 –16
ConclusionThis paper describes a substantial outbreak in north County Sligo over a 3-year period. A coordinated area-based approach was a key feature of the outbreak, and substantial resources were applied to bring the outbreak under control. No definitive source was identified, nor reasons why a substantial number of herds were infected over a relatively short period. A coordinated regional approach was taken, and a number of lessons were learned including the need for urgency, for a team-based approach, for a consistent message when dealing with the public, for an area-based approach, for a degree of flexibility for the ...
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - November 28, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Development of superficial lung lesions monitored on farm by serial ultrasonographic examination in sheep with lesions confirmed as ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma at necropsy
ConclusionLesions involving the visceral pleura, with sonographic changes consistent with previous published findings of early OPA, developed over 40 –120 days to large masses in 10 of 17 Group 1 sheep with the provisional sonographic diagnosis confirmed histologically at necropsy. While it is possible that atalectic lung could have caused some of the minor sonographic changes there was no microscopic evidence of pathologies other than OPA in nine of 10 Group 1 sheep. We conclude that some small tumours progress to large tumours within 3 months questioning the assumption that OPA is a slow growing tumour in...
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - November 5, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Tamoxifen inhibits chemokinesis in equine neutrophils
AbstractNeutrophils are terminally differentiated innate effector cells at the first line of host defense. Neutrophil migration within tissues is complex and involves several steps, during which these cells must be able to interpret a variety of chemical and physical signals. Exacerbated neutrophil activity can be harmful to surrounding tissues; this is important in a range of diseases, including equine asthma. Tamoxifen (TX) is a non-steroidal estrogen receptor modulator with effects on cell growth and survival. Previous studies showed that TX treatment in horses with induced acute pulmonary inflammation promoted early ap...
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - October 23, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Association between left-displaced abomasum corrected with 2-step laparoscopic abomasopexy and milk production in a commercial dairy farm in Italy
ConclusionsIn the present study cows with left displacement of the abomasum corrected with 2-step laparoscopic abomasopexy produced less milk than their control herdmates. Each case and control pair in the present study came from the same farm in order to eliminate farm to farm differences in management, housing, season, etc. However, this limits the validity of our data to the specific situation described here. (Source: Irish Veterinary Journal)
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - October 9, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Effect of l-theanine tablets in reducing stress-related emotional signs in cats: an open-label field study
AbstractBackgroundL-theanine is an aminoacid found in tea leaves which has relaxing effects in humans and animals. It is a structural analogue of glutamate which can bind glutamate receptors. Although the relaxing action of L-theanine has been shown in humans, laboratory animals and dogs, it has never been published in cats. The goal of this open-label, multicentre and prospective trial was to determine whether an L-theanine based oral supplement (Anxitane ®, Virbac, France) could attenuate manifestations of stress in cats under field conditions.Case presentationThirty-three privately owned cats presenting signs associ...
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - October 9, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The evaluation of three treatment protocols using oral prednisone and oral meloxicam for therapy of canine idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis: a pilot study
AbstractBackgroundIdiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis (LPR) is a common inflammatory disorder of the nasal cavity in dogs due to unknown etiology. It is characterised by non-specific clinical signs, including nasal discharge, epistaxis and breathing problems. Diagnosis is usually based on the histopathologic identification of infiltrating plasmocytes and lymphocytes in the nasal mucosa and the exclusion of other underlying diseases. Treatment strategies include glucocorticoids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and antifungal medications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of various ther...
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - October 3, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A visual representation of cattle movement in Ireland during 2016
AbstractThe aim of this study was to create a clear visual representation of the live movements of cattle in the Republic of Ireland over the course of the year 2016. The animation created can be viewed online:https://youtu.be/PTCdPMnenBw This animation was created to be a communication tool to enable stakeholders to appreciate the extent of high risk cattle movements (farm to farm, farm to market to farm) in the Republic of Ireland and to highlight the potential role that these movements may play in the spread of infectious diseases of cattle in Ireland from one farm to another. (Source: Irish Veterinary Journal)
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - September 7, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Selected feline abstracts from the Companion Animal Genetic Health conference 2018 (CAGH 2018): Irish Veterinary Journal
(Source: Irish Veterinary Journal)
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - August 29, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Effect of dietary oridonin supplementation on growth performance, gut health, and immune response of broilers infected with Salmonella pullorum
AbstractBackgroundThe effects of dietary supplementation of oridonin (ORI) on growth performance, cecal microbiota, epithelium development and antioxidant and immune parameters of broilers infected withS. pullorum were studied. A total of 300 1-d-old male chicks were selected and divided into 5 trial groups (6 replicates of 10 chickens): 1) nonchallenge control chicks (CON), 2) chicks treated with Salmonella Challenged Control (SCC), 3) chicks treated withS. pullorum challenge and 50  mg/kg ORI (O1), 4) chicks treated withS. pullorum challenge and 80  mg/kg ORI (O2), and 5) chicks treated withS. pullorum challeng...
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - July 31, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Evaluation of a coaching workshop for the management of veterinary nursing students ’ OSCE-associated test anxiety
ConclusionsThe shared experience of the coaching intervention and formative OSCE was reported to have been helpful in empowering the students to manage assessment-associated anxiety. Implications and recommendations for educators were identified. (Source: Irish Veterinary Journal)
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - July 27, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Key actors in driving behavioural change in relation to on-farm biosecurity; a Northern Ireland perspective
ConclusionsThis workshop provided a unique and invaluable insight into key issues regarding farm level biosecurity activities. From a policy perspective, delivering improved on-farm biosecurity must be addressed via a multidisciplinary approach. This can only be achieved with active involvement, commitment and support of a number of key industry and government stakeholders. (Source: Irish Veterinary Journal)
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - June 14, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Comparison of three commercial serological tests for the detection of Chlamydia abortus infection in ewes
ConclusionsThe LSI assay was the most sensitive out of the three kits tested in this study, when sera were tested at three weeks post lambing. As the LPS used in this kit is cross-reactive with all chlamydia, it is good for identifying flocks infected with any chlamydial species, but it is not considered specific forC. abortus. Furthermore, antibody levels were higher in ewes that aborted compared to ewes that had live lambs, at both 35  days post challenge and at three weeks post lambing. Future work should include evaluation of a larger number of sera at a wider range of time-points as well as an estimation of the s...
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - May 29, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Towards the development of day one competences in veterinary behaviour medicine: survey of veterinary professionals experience in companion animal practice in Ireland
ConclusionsBehavioural problems in companion animals can affect the quality of life of pets and their owners. Our survey findings indicate that many veterinary professionals frequently encounter behavioural problems and identify an opportunity for improved provision in behaviour medicine in veterinary education. (Source: Irish Veterinary Journal)
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - May 12, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Effect of pre-milking teat disinfection on new mastitis infection rates of dairy cows
AbstractBackgroundThe practise of teat disinfection prior to cluster attachment for milking is being adopted by farmers in Ireland, particularly where there are herd issues with new infection rates. Pre-milking teat disinfection has been shown to reduce bacterial numbers on teat skin and to be most effective against environmental bacteria such asEscherichia coli andStreptococcus uberis. A split udder design experiment was undertaken on two research herds (A  = 96 cows: B = 168 cows) to test the benefit of pre-milking teat disinfection on new mastitis infection levels. The disinfectant was applie...
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - April 18, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Prevalence of welfare outcomes in the weaner and finisher stages of the production cycle on 31 Irish pig farms
ConclusionsA large variation was observed for the recorded welfare outcomes corresponding to the different challenges pigs experience during the different stages of production on commercial pig farms. The prevalence of pigs affected by lesions caused by injurious behavior is a cause for concern and requires a collaborative approach to identify appropriate intervention strategies. This information could be used to further investigate appropriate benchmark values for different welfare outcomes that would assist the pig industry to develop appropriate health and welfare management plans to minimise welfare problems. At herd l...
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - March 27, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Partial avulsion of the ulnaris lateralis and enthesiopathy of the lateral epicondyle of the humerus in a thoroughbred race horse
ConclusionThis is the first report of partial avulsion of the ulnaris lateralis and enthesiopathy of the lateral humeral epicondyle in the horse. In contrast to other reported soft tissue conditions of the elbow, this horse had a successful return to work. This case highlights the value of ultrasonography in assessing peri-articular soft tissues, and the importance of pain relief as treatment in some soft tissue injuries. (Source: Irish Veterinary Journal)
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - March 27, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Prevalence of welfare outcomes in the weaner and finisher stages of the production cycle on 31 Irish pig farms
ConclusionsA large variation was observed for the recorded welfare outcomes corresponding to the different challenges pigs experience during the different stages of production on commercial pig farms. The prevalence of pigs affected by lesions caused by injurious behavior is a cause for concern and requires a collaborative approach to identify appropriate intervention strategies. This information could be used to further investigate appropriate benchmark values for different welfare outcomes that would assist the pig industry to develop appropriate health and welfare management plans to minimise welfare problems. At herd l...
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - March 27, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identifying physiological measures of lifetime welfare status in pigs: exploring the usefulness of haptoglobin, C- reactive protein and hair cortisol sampled at the time of slaughter
AbstractBackgroundPhysiological measures indicative of the welfare status of animals during rearing could form part of an abattoir-based animal health and welfare assessment tool. A total of 66 pigs were used in this study, the aim of which was to assess how serum concentrations of haptoglobin (Hp) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (assessed in 51 pigs), and hair concentrations of cortisol (assessed in 65 pigs), measured at or close to slaughter, reflected welfare-related indicators recorded from the animal during its lifetime. These indicators were recorded at intervals between 7 and 21  weeks of age and included assignin...
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - March 2, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A comparison of a novel time-based summary measure of dairy cow health against cumulative disease frequency
ConclusionsThe DALact provides a time-based method for assessing the overall burden of disease on dairies. It is important to emphasize that a summary measure of dairy health goes beyond simply linking morbidity to culling and mortality in a standardized fashion. A summary measure speaks to the burden of disease on both the well-being and productivity of individuals and populations. When framed as lost days, years, or lactations the various health issues on a farm are more comprehensible than they may be by frequency measures alone. Such an alternative accounting of disease highlights the lost opportunity costs of producti...
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - March 2, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identifying physiological measures of lifetime welfare status in pigs: exploring the usefulness of haptoglobin, C- reactive protein and hair cortisol sampled at the time of slaughter
AbstractBackgroundPhysiological measures indicative of the welfare status of animals during rearing could form part of an abattoir-based animal health and welfare assessment tool. A total of 66 pigs were used in this study, the aim of which was to assess how serum concentrations of haptoglobin (Hp) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (assessed in 51 pigs), and hair concentrations of cortisol (assessed in 65 pigs), measured at or close to slaughter, reflected welfare-related indicators recorded from the animal during its lifetime. These indicators were recorded at intervals between 7 and 21  weeks of age and included assignin...
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - March 2, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A comparison of a novel time-based summary measure of dairy cow health against cumulative disease frequency
ConclusionsThe DALact provides a time-based method for assessing the overall burden of disease on dairies. It is important to emphasize that a summary measure of dairy health goes beyond simply linking morbidity to culling and mortality in a standardized fashion. A summary measure speaks to the burden of disease on both the well-being and productivity of individuals and populations. When framed as lost days, years, or lactations the various health issues on a farm are more comprehensible than they may be by frequency measures alone. Such an alternative accounting of disease highlights the lost opportunity costs of producti...
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - March 2, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A retrospective report (2003 –2013) of the complications associated with the use of a one-man (head and tail) rope recovery system in horses following general anaesthesia
ConclusionsThis study reports the major and minor complication and mortality rate during recovery from anaesthesia using a specific type of rope recovery system. Mortality associated with the rope recovery system was low. During recovery from anaesthesia this rope system may reduce the risk of lethal complications, particularly major orthopaedic injuries. (Source: Irish Veterinary Journal)
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - February 13, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identification, differentiation and antibiotic susceptibility of Gallibacterium isolates from diseased poultry
ConclusionsThe PCR-RFLP assay allows specific detection and differentiation ofGallibacterium spp. from poultry. Antimicrobial resistance ofGallibacterium spp. is highly significant in Thuringian field isolates. (Source: Irish Veterinary Journal)
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - February 5, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research