The institutional response to mental disorder in Ireland: censuses of Irish asylums, psychiatric hospitals and units 1844–2014
Abstract Before the eighteenth century, there was limited response to the problem of psychiatric illness in Ireland as in many other countries. The asylums of the 1820s and 1830s were no sooner opened than they were overcrowded. A second wave of asylum building commenced in the second half of the nineteenth century continuing up to the early twentieth century. In 1966, the Report of the Commission on Mental Illness noted that the rate of psychiatric beds in Ireland per 1,000 was one of the highest in the world. The report called for a change in the policy of caring for the mentally ill in psychiatric hospitals to...
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - December 14, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Risky sun tanning behaviours amongst Irish University students: a quantitative analysis
Abstract Background Despite Ireland’s temperate maritime climate, it has the third highest rate of malignant melanoma in the European Union, indicating the need to recognise tanning practices as a risky behaviour, especially amongst those most at risk (the younger population). Aim To explore the factors associated with deliberate sun tanning amongst university students in Cork, Ireland. Methods Self-reported sun exposure, attitudes to tanning and sun protection practices were investigated using an online ques...
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - December 12, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Therapeutic goals in patients with pheochromocytoma: a guide to perioperative management
Conclusion A multidisciplinary team approach is best throughout the perioperative period to prevent potential complications that arise. The hospital physician, intensivist, anesthetist and cardiovascular specialist play a pivotal role in the management of patients with pheochromocytoma. In addition to the pharmacologic and volume recommendations, a multidisciplinary discussion allows for seamless implementation of an organized plan of care. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - December 9, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Push and stay factors affecting Irish medical student migration intentions
Conclusion This study has provided insight into the factors that influence medical student migration intentions. There is a strong need for all stakeholders to collectively discuss and engage in possible solutions. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - December 9, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Oncological and functional outcomes of transoral surgery for the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer
Conclusion Transoral resection is an excellent option for selected patients with OPSCC, offering excellent functional and oncological outcomes. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - November 18, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Influence of age and gender on Doppler index of diastolic function in Chinese hypertensive patients
Abstract Aim This paper explores age- and gender-specific changes in Doppler echocardiographic index-E′ of left ventricular diastolic function. Methods The study involved 366 hypertensive patients (197 men and 169 women) who were aged from 20 to 90 years (mean 58.60 ± 15.68 years), without a diagnosis of any other disease. Early diastolic mitral inflow velocity (E), late diastolic mitral annular velocity (A), and E/A ratio were measured with pulse wave Doppler. Early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E′) and...
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - October 20, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Validation of a nomogram predicting sentinel lymph node status in melanoma in an Irish population
Abstract Background Sentinel lymph node (SLN) positivity is an important prognostic factor in cutaneous melanoma. A nomogram has been developed at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Centre (MSKCC) to predict SLN positivity and this may be useful to select patients for SLN biopsy. Aims We aimed to determine whether this nomogram would be of clinical use in an Irish population. Methods Age, Breslow thickness, Clark’s level, presence of ulceration and tumour location indices were used to calculate the pr...
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - October 20, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Are oxidized low-density lipoprotein and C-reactive protein markers of atherosclerosis in nephrotic children?
Conclusions We observed presence of pro-atherogenic lipid profile in INS. Elevation of oxLDL may reflect increased oxidative stress and higher risk of atherosclerosis in INS, therefore it seems to be relevant to find patients of risk of atherosclerosis to consider lipid lowering treatment with antioxidants. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - October 20, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Clinical and metabolic evaluation of patients with history of renal calculi in Qazvin, Iran
Abstract Background Nephrolithiasis is a common clinical disorder with significant health and economic burden. We conducted this study to evaluate clinical and metabolic parameters in adult patients with history of renal calculi. Materials and methods A total of 213 patients with history of nephrolithiasis participated in this study. Evaluation included the measurement of serum calcium, uric acid, parathormone, renal function tests, urinalysis, and urinary tests for cystinuria. Also, parameters such as volume, creatinine, calcium, uric acid, citra...
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - October 20, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

A randomized controlled trial comparing polyethylene glycol + ascorbic acid with sodium picosulphate + magnesium citrate solution for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy
Abstract Introduction Adequate bowel cleansing which is acceptable to the patient is a prerequisite for safe and effective colonoscopy. A 2-L polyethylene glycol solution containing ascorbic acid and electrolytes (PEG-Asc) is an alternative to sodium picosulphate + magnesium citrate (SPS-Mg) for bowel preparation. The aim of the current study is to compare PEG-Asc to SPS-Mg in terms of tolerability and efficacy. Methods This was a single blind, randomized controlled trial. A blinded assessment of bowel cleansing was made by the attending...
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - October 20, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Percutaneous balloon compression (PBC) of trigeminal ganglion for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia after microvascular decompression (MVD)
Conclusions PBC is a minimally invasive, safe and effective procedure which can be regarded as an optimized choice for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia after MVD. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - October 20, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Cross-sectional audit on the relevance of Elevated National Early Warning Score in medical patients at a Model 2 hospital in Ireland
Conclusions In medical patients admitted to a Model 2 hospital with chronic respiratory illness, the ‘respiratory variables’ of the NEWS score are poor discriminators of patients who are clinically deteriorating. Better tools (such as the CREWS score) are required to distinguish acutely ill from chronically ill patients with respiratory disease in Model 2 hospitals. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - October 20, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Mental health professionals and information sharing: carer perspectives
Conclusions Carer involvement is essential for the complete and effective management of individuals with mental illness. Confidentiality should not be used as a reason for completely excluding carers. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - October 20, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Buccal mucosa urethroplasty: a 10-year retrospective review of maxillofacial and urological outcomes
Conclusion This study suggests that anterior urethral strictures up to 6 cm in length may be predictably and safely managed with buccal mucosal urethroplasty. The buccal mucosa is easy to harvest, and can be used successfully in one- and two-stage grafting procedures. The rate of complications, from both a urological and maxillofacial perspective, in the group of patients studied was low. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - October 20, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Urinary nerve growth factor in patients with detrusor overactivity
Conclusions The uNGF level could be used for detecting DO in children and adolescents. Measuring uNGF level is a simple, noninvasive procedure and very useful for choosing therapy in patients with DO in various clinical conditions. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - October 20, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Effects of different etomidate doses on intraoperative somatosensory-evoked potential monitoring
Abstract Background Somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEPs) are widely used for intraoperative spinal cord monitoring. Although many general anesthetics inhibit SSEPs, etomidate has been reported to boost SSEPs. This clinical study aimed to test whether etomidate doses less than 0.3 mg/kg amplify SSEP monitoring. Methods Patients were divided into four groups: A, B, C, and D. Etomidate doses of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg/kg were infused into patients in groups A, B, and C, respectively, after baseline SSEPs were obtained. Group D patients were...
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - October 20, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

2014 Conway review lecture, Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland: “S6, drugs and RCK and Bowl”
Conclusions We hypothesize that this novel opener activates BK channels by altering an interaction between the S4/S5 linker and the pore-forming S6 transmembrane helix. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - October 17, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Characterisation of the patellar tendon reflex in cerebral palsy children using motion analysis
Abstract Background The patellar tendon reflex (PTR) is an important spinal reflex and an important diagnostic tool assessing neurological disturbances. Reflexes are conveniently assessed but quantifying the response can be subjective. Motion analysis is commonly used to assess gait kinematics in a variety of populations. It can be used to objectively assess the PTR with the advantage that standard technique and hammer can be used without the need for bulky apparatus or fixing the subject position. Aim To compare the PTR in 15 cerebral palsy (CP) chi...
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - October 15, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Irish Thoracic Society Annual Scientific Meeting 2015
(Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - October 10, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Playing your heart out
(Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - October 10, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Outcomes for patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation: a literature review
Conclusion Accurate data are limited by the fact that these studies are retrospective, often covering long periods in the past. Larger, more recent, prospective, multi-centre studies will be required. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - October 6, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Characteristics of coronary artery lesion in patients with and without diabetes mellitus
Abstract Purpose The goal of this study was to compare the coronary atherosclerotic burden in patients with and without type-2 diabetes by using CT coronary angiography (CTCA). Methods A total of 206 diabetic (mean age 67 ± 11 years; male: 136) and 523 non-diabetic patients (mean age 62 ± 13 years; male: 323) without history of coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent CTCA. The per-patient number of diseased coronary segments was determined, and each diseased segment was classified as showing obstructive lesion ...
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - October 6, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Stability and accuracy of total and free PSA values in samples stored at room temperature
Conclusions Our recommendation is that samples that have been stored for prolonged amounts of time (greater than 24 h) should not be used for free PSA testing. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - October 6, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Generalisability of pharmacoepidemiological studies using restricted prescription data
Abstract Background Linking medication databases to disease registries enables population-based pharmacoepidemiology research. In Ireland, country-wide dispensing data is available only from the means-tested government-medical cards scheme. This restriction may impact generalisability of analyses based on these data. Aim Gender was previously identified as predictor of card status so we aimed to compare women with and without medical cards at the time of ovarian cancer diagnosis. Methods Ovarian cancers...
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - October 6, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Adalimumab for refractory pulmonary sarcoidosis
Conclusion Symptomatic improvement was found in all patients as well as stabilisation or improvement in DLCO sb. Improvements in pulmonary function tests correlated well to radiological stage and length of disease. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - October 1, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Evarts Ambrose Graham (1883–1957), doyen of pulmonary surgeons
Abstract Evarts Graham performed the first successful pneumonectomy in 1933. Evarts Ambrose Graham, the son of a Scotch Irish surgeon, was born on 19 March 1883. After early schooling in Chicago, he graduated at Princeton and returned to Chicago to study Medicine, taking his MD at Rush Medical College in 1907. The chemical aspects of pathological changes then occupied him fully until 1919, when he was appointed full-time professor of surgery at the Washington School of Medicine in St Louis. Visualisation of gallstones temporarily took his attention, but bronchogenic carcinoma was seldom far from his thoughts, and ...
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - September 25, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

GP supply, deprivation and emergency admission to hospital for COPD and diabetes complications in counties across Ireland: an exploratory analysis
Conclusion Geographical variation in rates of admission to hospital for chronic disease is associated with both population need and health system factors. These findings suggest that primary care resourcing must be a key consideration in any efforts to tackle acute hospital capacity problems. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - September 23, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Readmission rates among cardiology inpatients with echocardiography abnormalities associated with heart failure
Conclusions A significant proportion of patients were found to have a cardiac disorder related to HF. Echocardiographic abnormalities were shown to be an independent risk factor for readmission. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - September 16, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Pyogenic liver abscess after gunshot injury: 10 years’ experience at a single level 1 trauma center
Conclusion Hepatic abscess after GSW to the liver is a rare condition, with an incidence of 1.2 %. It is usually seen in severe liver injury (grade 3 and above), but our patients were all treated successfully, with no mortality. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - September 16, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Homemade laparoscopic surgical simulator: a cost-effective solution to the challenge of acquiring laparoscopic skills?
Conclusion Homemade laparoscopic surgical simulators are easy to construct, affordable, usable and of interest to trainees. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - September 16, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Sedation for gastroscopy: Is it an adequately understood and informed choice?
Conclusion The decision to undergo gastroscopy with or without sedation is not a sufficiently informed one. This study highlights the need for the widespread dissemination of good quality information to inform patients better regarding sedation prior to OGD. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - September 10, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Listeria meningitis complicating a patient with ulcerative colitis on concomitant infliximab and hydrocortisone
Abstract Infliximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against tumour necrosis factor, is an effective therapy for moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Uncommonly, serious opportunistic infections have occurred in patients after infliximab administration. Here, we describe meningitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes developing in a 37-year-old man with ulcerative colitis refractory to intravenous corticosteroids 10 days after receiving his first infusion of infliximab. With the increasing use of tumour necrosis factor-α-neutralizing agents, clinicians should be aware of the risk...
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - September 10, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Negative effects of chlorthalidone on sympathetic nervous system and insulin resistance in hypertensive patients may be avoided with spironolactone: further studies are still needed
Abstract Chlorthalidone is commonly used for blood pressure control in hypertensive patients. However, it increases sympathetic nervous system activity and insulin resistance. Both conditions are related with an elevated number of complications and worsen patients’ prognosis. Recently has been demonstrated that these adverse effects are avoided with spironolactone administration. Mechanisms to explain increasing sympathetic nervous activity and insulin resistance with chlorthalidone, but not with spironolactone are unclear and under investigation. It should be necessary to continue medical investigation on t...
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - September 4, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Adequacy and accuracy of salivary gland fine needle aspiration cytology
Conclusions Salivary gland FNAC has good sensitivity and specificity. Radiologists and pathologists have the best adequacy rates and image guidance makes radiologists good aspirators. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - September 4, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Freyer Meeting on 4th and 5th September abstract
(Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - September 1, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Analysis of subsequent publication and impact of abstracts presented at the Sir Peter Freyer Surgical Symposium: Focus on the Plenary Session
Conclusion These results indicate that the quality of papers presented at the Sir Peter Freyer Surgical Symposium compares favourably with international equivalents, making this meeting an important forum for Irish Academic Surgery. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - September 1, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Propofol-ketamine combination: a choice with less complications and better hemodynamic stability compared to propofol? On a prospective study in a group of colonoscopy patients
In this study, we compared duration for reaching desired Ramsay Sedation Score (RSS) and postoperative recovery according to Modified Aldrete Score (MAS) of propofol and propofol-ketamine combination in a group of colonoscopy patients. Rates of cardiovascular, respiratory, laryngospasm, visual and nausea/vomiting complications were also compared as secondary outcomes. Methods This is a double-blinded prospective randomized controlled trial. 95 patients were included and blocked randomized to either propofol (GroupP, n: 47) or propofol-ketamine (GroupPK, n: 48). GroupP patients receiv...
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - September 1, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Utility of CT head in the acute setting: value of contrast and non-contrast studies
Conclusion Head CT in ED non-traumatic neurological presentations with CECTH is not generally indicated and represents a calculable cost savings in the management of these patients. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - August 23, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

The place of four-dimensional ultrasound in evaluating fetal anomalies
Abstract Objective To analyze the capability of four-dimensional surface rendering mode ultrasound (4D SRM USG) in the detection of fetal abnormalities, and also compare it with 2D USG. Materials and methods A total of 1,379 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, and they all underwent 2D USG screening. In the same session, they were all subsequently screened using 4D USG. The findings of both methods were compared. Results A total of 194 fetal anomalies were detected in 176 of 1,379 pregnant women b...
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - August 23, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Franciscus Cornelis Donders (1818–1889)
Abstract Franciscus Cornelis Donders was educated at Duizel and Boxmeer before entering the Military Medical School and the medical faculty at Utrecht University in 1835. In 1840, he received his MD from Leiden and spent 2 years in practice at Vlissingen before returning to Utrecht, where he was appointed as an extraordinary professor to lecture on forensic medicine, anthropology, general biology and ophthalmology. Refraction by the eye is complex, since the ray of light passes through many changes of refractive index in its path, and Donders simplified the account of the process by establishing an equivalen...
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - August 23, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Comorbidity, health-related quality of life and self-care in type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study in an outpatient population
Conclusions Health professionals should be aware of the fall in HRQoL associated with comorbidity. This should be taken into account in the management of patients. Patients with discordant comorbidity should be advised and supported to maintain levels of physical activity. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - August 23, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

The body composition phenotype of Irish adults aged 18–81 years
Conclusions These data provide an insight into the age-related anthropometric phenotype of Irish adults. Centile data have been constructed that provide informative data of the age and sex-specific range of adiposity and lean tissue mass. These data may assist in identification of those at risk of aberrant, body composition-related disease. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - August 11, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Re-evaluating the role of Doppler ultrasonography in patients presenting with scrotal pain
Conclusion DUS may prevent unnecessary scrotal exploration in patients presenting with acute scrotal pain and is useful for diagnosing TT in patients presenting with symptoms>24 h. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - August 7, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Fatal primary cutaneous cryptococcosis: case report and review of published literature
Conclusion Cryptococcus is crucial to be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous necrosis in any patient on immunosuppressive therapy. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - August 5, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Proceedings of the RAMI Section of Ophthalmology Meetings2005–2015
(Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - August 4, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Effects of serum uric acid levels on the arginase pathway in women with metabolic syndrome
Conclusion Results of the present study suggest that serum uric acid levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of MetS through a process mediated by arginase pathway, and serum arginase activity and nitrite and uric acid levels can be used as indicators of CVD in women with MetS. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - August 1, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Evaluation of lead and essential elements in whole blood during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study
Abstract Aim Physiological concentrations of some elements fluctuate during pregnancy due to the increased requirements of growing fetus and changes in the maternal physiology. The aim of the study is to evaluate the distribution at different stages of pregnancy in healthy Chinese women and to show the association between trace elements and gestational age-specific reference intervals. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 1089 pregnant women and 677 nonpregnant control women. Five element concentrations, including Cu, Zn, Ca, Mg, Pb in the bl...
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - July 31, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Maternal obesity and physical activity and exercise levels as pregnancy advances: an observational study
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between BMI categorisation and PA and exercise levels as pregnancy advances. Methods This was an observational study in a large university maternity hospital. Women were recruited at their convenience before they left hospital after delivering a baby weighing 500 g or more. They completed a detailed customised physical activity and exercise questionnaire. BMI categorisation was based on the measurement of weight and height in early pregnancy. Results Of the 155 women rec...
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - July 28, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

The importance of antenatal diagnosis of congenital duodenal obstruction
Conclusion The prenatal diagnosis of CDO affects the pre-operative complication rate, the time for the operation in the postpartum period, the duration to start post-operative oral feeding, and the duration of hospital stay, but does not affect the mortality or the morbidity. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - July 27, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Correction of vitamin D deficiency in a cohort of newborn infants using daily 200 IU vitamin D supplementation
Abstract Introduction Although the role of vitamin D in the prevention of rickets has long been well established, controversies still exist on the ideal dose of vitamin D supplementation in infants. Objective We assessed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) status simultaneously in maternal and cord samples and the response to vitamin D3 supplementation in neonates. Methods Serum 25OHD levels were evaluated from maternal, and umbilical cord samples from term normal pregnancies. Repeat 25OHD levels were assessed in...
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - July 25, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research