BCG-induced trained immunity in macrophage: reprograming of glucose metabolism.
Authors: Liu Y, Liang S, Ding R, Hou Y, Deng F, Ma X, Song T, Yan D Abstract Memory is no longer a privilege of adaptive immunity. Innate immune cells can exhibit a long-term immune activation after infection or vaccination, which is called "trained immunity." In addition to defense against mycobacterial infection, BCG-induced trained immunity can also exert nonspecific protection, which is regulated by metabolic rewiring and epigenetic reprograming. Enhanced glycolysis and glutamine-driven tricarboxylic acid cycle have been proven to be important metabolic pathways for trained immunity induced by BCG, wh...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - January 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Decoding intrathecal immunoglobulins and B cells in the CNS: their synthesis, function, and regulation.
Authors: Negi N, Das BK Abstract The discovery of an active lymphatic system in the meninges (dura mater) has opened up a wide range of possibilities for the role of CNS immunoglobulins in brain development in early fetal life or during infancy. The antibody-dependent and -independent functions of B cells in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis are not new to immunologists, yet their role in other neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease is incompletely understood. Deep cervical lymph nodes have emerged as a candidate site for autosensitization against CNS antigens and have be...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - January 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Therapeutic approaches for genetic and infectious diseases.
Authors: Kumar H PMID: 31894736 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - January 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Approaches for deciphering the molecular basis of disease and its translational benefits.
Authors: Kumar H PMID: 31738672 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - November 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Current challenges: from the path of "original antigenic sin" towards the development of universal flu vaccines.
Current challenges: from the path of "original antigenic sin" towards the development of universal flu vaccines. Int Rev Immunol. 2019 Nov 09;:1-16 Authors: Biswas A, Chakrabarti AK, Dutta S Abstract Annual flu led by influenza viruses is contemplated to be one of the foremost global health challenges due to its rapid spread leading to the life-threatening epidemic or pandemic. An enormous number of people die due to flu and its associated intricacies every year. Annual vaccination is considered to be the gold standard strategy to protect the individual from acquiring infection and further de...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - November 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Exercise Mediated by Toll-Like Receptor Regulation in Innate Immune Cells - A Review.
Authors: Collao N, Rada I, Francaux M, Deldicque L, Zbinden-Foncea H Abstract Over the last three decades, the combination of a sedentary lifestyle and excessive food intake has led to a significant increase in the prevalence of obesity. The latter favors a chronic low-grade inflammatory state and an over-activation of the innate immune system, which contribute to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Physical exercise is a powerful preventive tool and treatment for several diseases as it induces metabolic and immune effects that provide health benefits. Exercise is known to reduce inflammation; however, the unde...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - November 6, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Chicken toll-like receptors and their significance in immune response and disease resistance.
Authors: Nawab A, An L, Wu J, Li G, Liu W, Zhao Y, Wu Q, Xiao M Abstract Infectious diseases are a major challenge for the poultry industry that causes widespread production losses. Thus, management and control of poultry health and diseases are essential for the viability of the industry. Toll-like receptors are best characterized as membrane-bound receptors that perform a central role in immune homeostasis and disease resistance by recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In response to pathogen recognition, TLRs initiate both innate and adaptive immune responses which may help to develop immunomodu...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - October 31, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

The potential role of interleukin-37 in infectious diseases.
In conclusion, this review reported that IL-37 has a crucial role in reducing infection-associated inflammation and has a good impact on inflammation-induced pathology. However, tight regulation that achieved balance between effector immune responses that required for pathogen elimination and limited tissue damage that resulted from excessive inflammation should be existed in the potential IL-37 therapy to prevent clinical complications of a disease. PMID: 31633447 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - October 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

CRISPR/Cas: from adaptive immune system in prokaryotes to therapeutic weapon against immune-related diseases.
Authors: Garcia-Robledo JE, Barrera MC, Tobón GJ Abstract CRISPR/Cas evolved as an adaptive immune system in bacteria and archaea to inactivate foreign viral and plasmid DNA. However, the capacities of various CRISPR/Cas systems for precise genome editing based on sequence homology also allow their use as tools for genomic and epigenomic modification in eukaryotes. Indeed, these genetic characteristics have proven useful for disease modeling and testing the specific functions of target genes under pathological conditions. Moreover, recent studies provide compelling evidence that CRISPR/Cas systems could be u...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - October 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Reproductive immunomodulatory functions of B cells in pregnancy.
Authors: Dutta S, Sengupta P, Haque N Abstract Pregnancy, a challenging physiological state, requires shuffling of conventional immune work-sets. Strategies to tolerate the semi-allogenic fetus in normal human pregnancy are multivariate with perfect modulation of the immune cells. Pregnancy is marked by B cell lymphocytopenia accompanied by reduced responsiveness to infectious agents. Besides this old age concept, plenty of research confirms that B cells have other crucial roles in pregnancy and undergo a wide range of modifications in terms of its proliferation, switching between its subtypes, variation in antibod...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - October 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

T cell subtypes and its therapeutic potential in autoimmune diseases and cancer.
Authors: Awasthi A, Kumar H PMID: 31608783 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - October 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Cancer Stem Cells Targeting; the Lessons from the Interaction of the Immune System, the Cancer Stem Cells and the Tumor Niche.
Authors: Rajayi H, Tavasolian P, Rezalotfi A, Ebrahimi M Abstract Failure of treatment strategies against cancers is a major issue engaging many scientists to investigate the possible resistance factors. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) subvert promising therapeutic methods by developing resistant cancers. These pluripotent cells are located in individual microenvironments called cancer niche. CSCs affect the immune cells and on the flip side, the immune cells in the cancer niche influence them. Thereby, the interaction between CSCs and immune cells in cancer niche needs to be clearly studied in order to develop novel effi...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - October 5, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Immunity and its role in white plague and obesity.
Authors: Kumar H PMID: 31483192 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - September 5, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Immunoinformatics: In Silico Approaches and Computational Design of a Multi-epitope, Immunogenic Protein.
Authors: Bahrami AA, Payandeh Z, Khalili S, Zakeri A, Bandehpour M Abstract Immunoinformatics is a new critical field with several tools and databases that conduct the eyesight of experimental selection and facilitate analysis of the great amount of immunologic data obtained from experimental researches and helps to design and introducing new hypothesis. Given these visages, immunoinformatics seems to be the way that develop and progress the immunological research. Bioinformatics methods and applications are successfully employed in vaccine informatics to assist different sites of the preclinical, clinical, and pos...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - September 4, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Emerging Roles of Th9 Cells as an Anti-tumor Helper T Cells.
Authors: Chandwaskar R, Awasthi A Abstract The newly discovered Th9 cells are the distinct subset of CD4+ T helper (Th) cells, which are involved in various pathophysiological conditions of an immune response. In addition to its role in allergic inflammation and elimination of extracellular pathogens, Th9 cells were found to play a key role in inducing anti-tumor immune response. Precisely, the anti-tumor functions of Th9 cells were found to be superior as compared to Th1 and other Th subsets. Th9 cells eliminate tumors via activating innate and adaptive immune cells, and in particular, generating a profound effect...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - August 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Emerging roles of noncoding RNAs in T cell differentiation and functions in autoimmune diseases.
Authors: Roy S, Awasthi A Abstract Noncoding RNA comprises of microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are abundantly present in mammalian transcriptome. These noncoding RNAs have been implicated in multiple biological processes through the regulation of gene expression. Each of these noncoding RNAs were found to have multiple genes targets. Emerging literature indicated the role of noncoding RNAs in shaping the immune responses which include immune cell development, helper T (Th) cell differentiation as well as maintenance of immune homeostasis by inducing the interplay between effector and regula...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - August 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

The role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipid metabolism of metabolic diseases.
Authors: Chen Y, Yu CY, Deng WM Abstract Adipose tissue has been considered as a crucial source of certain pro-inflammatory cytokines; conversely, these pro-inflammatory cytokines are involved in regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of adipocytes, promoting lipolysis, inhibiting lipid synthesis and decreasing blood lipids, etc. In recent decades, extensive studies have indicated that pro-inflammatory cytokines play important roles in the development of lipid metabolism of metabolic diseases, including obesity, atherosclerosis, steatohepatitis and hyperlipoproteinemia. However, the involved pro-inflammatory cy...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - July 30, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Donor-specific antibodies and organ transplantation: a dangerous mix.
Authors: Oltean M, Kumar H PMID: 31282229 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - July 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Inflammatory processes in obesity: focus on endothelial dysfunction and the role of adipokines as inflammatory mediators.
Authors: Singh M, Benencia F Abstract Obesity predisposes the affected individuals to several metabolic, inflammatory, cardiovascular and malignant pathologies and is a top risk factor for premature mortality. It is now well known that inflammation has a major causative role in obesity-associated disease development and that obesity favors the establishment of a pro-inflammatory milieu at the level of adipose microenvironment. These inflammatory signals result in a disruption of normal cellular-crosstalk between adipose and non-adipose components leading to an altered metabolic and immunological status and a dysfun...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - July 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Synergy between Th1 and Th2 responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: A review of current understanding.
Authors: Abebe F Abstract Induction of Th1 (cell-mediated) immunity and associated production of IFN-γ by CD4+ T cells has been widely used as a marker of protective immunity against tuberculosis (TB). This is based on two assumptions. The first is the widely accepted view that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of TB is an obligate intracellular pathogen, and the second is based on the Th1/Th2 paradigm, which posits that polarization of CD4+ T cells into type1 (cell-mediated) and type 2 (humoral) is central for proper induction of protective immunity against pathogens. However, almost all ...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - June 29, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Donor-specific antibodies following liver and intestinal transplantation: Clinical significance, pathogenesis and recommendations.
Authors: Wozniak LJ, Venick RS Abstract A growing body of evidence shows that donor-specific antibodies (DSA) are associated with rejection and allograft failure following both liver and intestinal transplantation. However, data have clearly shown that not all DSA are injurious. The reasons for this remain unclear but appear to be multifactorial, impacted by clinical factors such as immunosuppression and infection as well as immunologic factors such as HLA expression and donor-specific antibodies affinity. Establishing a diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) remains clinically challenging, especially given...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - June 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Regulatory T cells as therapeutic targets and mediators.
Authors: Sharma A, Rudra D Abstract With the advent of the concept of dominant tolerance and the subsequent discovery of CD4+ regulatory T cells expressing the transcription factor FOXP3 (Tregs), almost all productive as well as nonproductive immune responses can be compartmentalized to a binary of immune effector T cells and immune regulatory Treg populations. A beneficial immune response warrants the timely regulation by Tregs, whereas a nonproductive immune response indicates insufficient effector functions or an outright failure of tolerance. There are ample reports supporting role of Tregs in suppressing spont...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - June 5, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Rheumatoid arthritis: 'melting pot' of T helper subsets.
Authors: Vyas SP, Hansda AK, Goswami R Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder that affects joints associated with inflammation leading to poor quality of life. The phenotype of RA is distinct from osteoarthritis (OA), the degenerative joint disorder. The annual incidence of RA is approximately 4 in 10,000 individuals. Studies suggest dysregulated T cell activation in the initiation and progression of RA. Distinct RA-associated allelic variants encode molecules involved in T-cell activation pathways. Additionally, RA is also associated with aberrant regulation and function of T helper cells. Th...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - June 5, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Host defense: basic, disease and translational biology.
Authors: Kumar H PMID: 31117899 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - May 24, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Calcium Signaling Commands Phagosome Maturation Process.
Authors: Pradhan G, Raj Abraham P, Shrivastava R, Mukhopadhyay S Abstract Phagosome-lysosome (P-L) fusion is one of the central immune-effector responses of host. It is known that phagosome maturation process is associated with numerous signaling cascades and among these, important role of calcium (Ca2+) signaling has been realized recently. Ca2+ plays key roles in actin rearrangement, activation of NADPH oxidase and protein kinase C (PKC). Involvement of Ca2+ in these cellular processes directs phagosomal maturation process. Some of the intracellular pathogens have acquired the strategies to modulate Ca2+ associat...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - May 24, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

The complement system, toll-like receptors and inflammasomes in host defense: three musketeers' one target.
Authors: Kumar V Abstract The innate immune system-based recognition of the pathogens or their PAMPs initiates the pro-inflammatory immune response required for the maintenance of the homeostasis. The dysregulation of this innate immune response causes several diseases including sepsis, cancer and autoimmunity. However, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) including toll-like receptors (TLRs), complement receptors (CRs) and NLRs of inflammasomes regulate both these processes of recognition of pathogens/PAMPs and their clearance. These three major components of the innate immune arm were studied independently/separa...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - May 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

ABO-Incompatible Liver Transplantation - A Review of the Historical Background and Results.
Authors: Dahlgren US, Bennet W Abstract ABO-incompatible liver transplantation (ABOi LT) using conventional immunosuppression has been considered a contraindication due to the high risk for antibody-mediated complications potentially resulting in graft loss. However, organ shortage has led to the development of anti-A/B antibody reducing immunosuppressive protocols which have made the outcome after living donor (LD) ABOi LT equivalent to that achieved with LD ABO-compatible (ABOc). The experience of deceased donor (DD) ABOi LT is however still limited. In this article, we discuss the historical background and the r...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - April 24, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

How does blood coagulation/neutrophils shape innate immunity and uncontrolled inflammation to autoimmune disease?
Authors: Kumar H PMID: 30943817 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - April 6, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Novel Methods to Improve the Efficiency of Radioimmunotherapy for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.
Authors: Eskian M, Khorasanizadeh M, Zinzani PL, Illidge TM, Rezaei N Abstract Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a novel strategy for treating non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Several studies have shown the promising results of using RIT in NHL, which have led to FDA approval for two RIT agents in treating low grade NHL. In spite of these favorable results in low-grade NHL, most of the aggressive or relapsed/refractory NHL subjects experience relapses following RIT. Although more aggressive treatments such as myeloablative doses of RIT followed by stem cell transplantation appear to be able to provide a longer survival for so...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - April 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Asthma: An Undermined State of Immunodeficiency.
Authors: Christou EAA, Giardino G, Stefanaki E, Ladomenou F Abstract Asthma is a heterogeneous chronic respiratory disease characterized by an increased burden of infections. Respiratory tract infections associated with an increased risk for asthma especially when occurring in the first months of life, also represent the most common cause of asthma exacerbations. The association between asthma and the increased frequency of infections and microbiota dysbiosis might be explained by a common mechanism, such as an underlying immune system defect. Apart from the well-established association between primary immunodefici...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - April 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Faces of antibody in immunopathology and immunotherapy.
Authors: Kumar H PMID: 30806183 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - February 28, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Single-Domain Antibodies or Nanobodies: A Class of Next-Generation Antibodies.
Authors: Khodabakhsh F, Behdani M, Rami A, Kazemi-Lomedasht F Abstract Nanobodies for the first time were identified in the sera of Camelidae. Single-domain antibodies or nanobodies are a class of next-generation antibodies that have specific features: small size (in nanoscale), high penetration in various tissues, high stability in hard situations and ease production process in microbial systems. In fact single-domain antibodies are the smallest fragment of the antibody with binding ability. Unique characteristics and features of nanobodies make them an appropriate candidate for further evaluation as the developme...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - February 12, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Current Trend in Immunotherapy for Peanut Allergy.
Authors: Joo Chan C, Richardo T, Lim RLH Abstract Peanut allergy is a hypersensitivity reaction with symptoms varying from mild to severe anaphylaxis, tends to be lifelong and very few are able to outgrow this allergy. The prevalence of peanut allergy is highest among the Western countries and over the past decade, a 3.5 fold increase in prevalence of peanut allergy was reported among children in the United States. Increasing prevalence has also been observed among the Asian countries. As with other food allergies, peanut allergy reduces quality of life for the affected individuals and the social and economy burden...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - January 16, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Blood coagulation: a powerful bactericidal mechanism of human innate immunity.
Authors: Minasyan H, Flachsbart F Abstract Infection proliferates and disseminates rapidly and so innate immunity should react effectively and fast. Innate immunity mechanisms depend upon fluid dynamics and are different in compartments with slow (the tissues) and rapid (the bloodstream) liquid flow. In the tissues, coagulation initiated by clotting factors, platelets and erythrocytes, is prompt and effective mechanism of the first line of antibacterial defense. Resident macrophages, transmigrated neutrophils, monocytes, NETs and platelets are the second line of the defense. In the bloodstream the first line of inn...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - January 12, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Many Ways-One Destination: Different Types of Neutrophils Death.
Authors: Dąbrowska D, Jabłońska E, Iwaniuk A, Garley M Abstract Neutrophils constitute the most numerous populations of peripheral blood leukocytes, fulfilling the fundamental role in the development of the innate immune response. As the cells of the first line of defense, they guard the organism against the spread of pathogenic microorganisms. Neutrophils, similar to the other cells of the immune system, enter the path of death after fulfilling their biological function. Depending on the conditions that they are found in, they may undergo different types of cell death which requires the involvement of numerous ...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - December 7, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

An update on the cutaneous manifestations of coeliac disease and non-coeliac gluten sensitivity.
Authors: Graziano M, Rossi M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Coeliac disease is a gluten-induced immune-mediated enteropathy, characterised by the expression of specific genotypes and the production of autoantibodies. The inflammatory process specifically targets the intestinal mucosa, but gastrointestinal and extraintestinal signs and symptoms can also be present. Non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) can be diagnosed in individuals who have intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten, but do not have autoantibodies and do not suffer from lesions in the duodenal mucosa. Among the extrainte...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - December 7, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Psoriasis and cardiovascular disease: the elusive link.
Authors: Manolis AS, Manolis TA, Melita H, Manolis AS Abstract Psoriasis, an autoimmune inflammatory disease, with its most common coexisting condition, psoriatic arthritis, seem to be more than just a local skin or joint disease, as evidence has accumulated over the years that it is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), which may confer an increased cardiovascular event and death rate. The data come mostly from observational studies and meta-analyses and indicate a potential pathogenetic link between these two systemic diseases, however definite proof of this detrimental relationship awaits further prospec...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - November 22, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies by solid phase immunoassays: advantages and technical concerns.
This article underlines the prognostic value of SPI in the immunized recipient of an organ transplant while cautioning uncritical clinical interpretation of mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) as a quantitative parameter in organ transplantation based on documented as well as theoretical shortcomings of the method. The role of SPI-based detection of anti-HLA antibodies in clinical transplantation diagnostics is summarized and put into perspective of the Sensitization in Transplantation: Assessment of Risk (STAR) working group report 2017. PMID: 30457026 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - November 22, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Evolution of innate immune sensors and responses during immune disorders and immunization against microbial infection.
Authors: Kumar H PMID: 30418071 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - November 13, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

How far have we reached in development of effective influenza vaccine?
Authors: Looi QH, Foo JB, Lim MT, Le CF, Show PL Abstract Despite of ongoing research programs and numerous clinical trials, seasonal influenza epidemics remain a major concern globally. Vaccination remains the most effective method to prevent influenza infection. However, current flu vaccines have several limitations, including limited vaccine capacity, long production times, inconsistence efficacy in certain populations, and lack of a "universal" solution. Different next-generation approaches such as cell line-based culture, reverse genetics, and virus expression technology are currently under developme...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - September 27, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

In this issue: Antibodies and T Cell subtypes in diseases and therapy.
Authors: Kumar H, Bot A PMID: 30239264 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - September 23, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Evolution and species-specific conservation of toll-like receptors in terrestrial vertebrates.
Authors: Bagheri M, Zahmatkesh A Abstract Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are known for their essential roles in promotion of innate immunity and induction of adaptive immunity through recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). TLR genes are excellent models for the study of the selective pressure enforced by microorganisms on the host genome. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that interactions between pathogens and immune systems have changed during evolution. Selective pressure for maintenance of specific pathogen recognition has led to evolution of TL...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - September 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Antithymocytes globulins: Time to revisit its use in kidney transplantation?
Authors: Ducloux D, Bamoulid J, Daguindau E, Rebibou JM, Courivaud C, Saas P Abstract T cell depletion by polyclonal antithymocyte globulins (ATG) has been used for many years in both organ and hematopoietic cell transplantation as an induction and rejection therapy. Nevertheless, its use remains largely empirical and many clinical questions, such as the determination of an individualized dose, therapeutic relevance of nondepletive effects, or prediction of long-term effects, are still unresolved. This review evaluates the evidence-based knowledge and the uncertainties concerning ATG, and suggests perspectives and ...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - August 8, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

IRF5-mediated immune responses and its implications in immunological disorders.
Authors: Kaur A, Lee LH, Chow SC, Fang CM Abstract Transcription factors are gene regulators that activate or repress target genes. One family of the transcription factors that have been extensively studied for their crucial role in regulating gene network in the immune system is the interferon regulatory factors (IRFs). IRFs possess a novel turn-helix turn motif that recognizes a specific DNA consensus found in the promoters of many genes that are involved in immune responses. IRF5, a member of IRFs has recently gained much attention for its role in regulating inflammatory responses and autoimmune diseases. Here, ...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - July 11, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Developing effective vaccines: Cues from natural infection.
Authors: Bhurani V, Mohankrishnan A, Morrot A, Dalai SK Abstract The ultimate goal of any vaccine is to generate a heterogeneous and stable pool of memory lymphocytes. Vaccine are designed with the hope to generate antigen specific long-lived T cell responses, as it may be the case in natural infection; however, inducing such response by sub-unit vaccine has been a challenge. Although significant progress has been made, there is lot of scope for designing novel vaccine strategies by taking cues from the natural infection. This review focuses upon the roadblocks and the possible ways to overcome them leading to deve...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - June 22, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Challenges related to the immunogenicity of parenteral recombinant proteins: Underlying mechanisms and new approaches to overcome it.
Authors: Faraji F, Karjoo Z, Moghaddam MV, Heidari S, Emameh RZ, Falak R Abstract Immune response elicited by therapeutic proteins is an important safety and efficacy issue for regulatory agencies, drug manufacturers, clinicians, and patients. Administration of therapeutic proteins can potentially induce the production of anti-drug antibodies or cell-mediated immune responses. At first, it was speculated that the immunogenicity is related to the non-human origin of these proteins. Later on, it was confirmed that the human proteins may also show immunogenicity. In this review article, we will focus on a number of fa...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - June 2, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Regulatory T-cell dynamics with abatacept treatment in rheumatoid arthritis.
Authors: Langdon K, Haleagrahara N Abstract The progressive damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been linked to an increase in inflammatory Th1/Th17 cells and a decrease in number or function of immunomodulatory regulatory T cells (Tregs). Many therapies that are effective in RA are shown to affect Th1/Th17 cells and/or Tregs. One such therapy, abatacept, utilizes a physiologic immunomodulatory molecule called cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) which causes contact-dependent inhibition of inflammatory T-cell activation. Recent advances in CTLA-4 research has uncovered the method by which this occurs physiol...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - May 16, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

In this issue: Role of immune cells and molecules in rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis and cancer immunotherapy.
Authors: Kumar H, Bot A PMID: 29733768 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - May 9, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Th9 Cells: Probable players in ulcerative colitis pathogenesis.
Authors: Shohan M, Elahi S, Shirzad H, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Bagheri N, Soltani E Abstract T lymphocytes represent an important part of adaptive immune system undertaking different functions to regulate immune responses. CD4+ T cells are the most important activator cells in inflammatory conditions. Depending on the type of induced cells and inflamed sites, expression and activity of different subtypes of helper T cells are changed. Recent studies have confirmed the existence of a new subset of helper T lymphocytes called Th9. Naive T cells can differentiate into Th9 subtypes if they are exposed simultaneously by inte...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - April 20, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Chorea revealing systemic lupus erythematosus in a 13-year old boy: A case report and short review of the literature.
We report on the case of a 13-year old boy, admitted with acute onset chorea and finally diagnosed with SLE. Subsequently, we present a short review of the literature on the epidemiology, suggested pathogenesis, clinical presentation and treatment of this rare presentation of SLE. PMID: 29595356 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - March 30, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research