Unfolding the Role of Splicing Factors and RNA Debranching in AID Mediated Antibody Diversification.
Authors: Jaiswal A, Singh AK, Tamrakar A, Kodgire P Abstract Activated B-cells diversify their antibody repertoire via somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR). SHM is restricted to the variable region, whereas, CSR is confined to the constant region of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a crucial player in the diversification of antibodies in the activated B-cell. AID catalyzes the deamination of cytidine (C) into uracil (U) at Ig genes. Subsequently, low fidelity repair of U:G mismatches may lead to mutations. Transcription is essential for the AID ac...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - September 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Immunology of HPV-mediated cervical cancer: current understanding.
Authors: Jee B, Yadav R, Pankaj S, Shahi SK Abstract Human papilloma virus (HPV) has emerged as a primary cause of cervical cancer worldwide. HPV is a relatively small (55 nm in diameter) and non-enveloped virus containing approximately 8 kb long double stranded circular DNA genome. To date, 228 genotypes of HPV have been identified. Although all HPV infections do not lead to the development of malignancy of cervix, only persistent infection of high-risk types of HPV (mainly with HPV16 and HPV18) results in the disease. In addition, the immunity of the patients also acts as a key determinant in the ca...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - August 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

The novel target :exosoms derived from M2 macrophage.
The novel target:exosoms derived from M2 macrophage. Int Rev Immunol. 2020 Aug 12;:1-14 Authors: Hou Y, Liu Y, Liang S, Ding R, Mo S, Yan D, Li D Abstract More and more exosome-based therapeutics are being developed with advances in nanotechnology and precision medicine. Exosome is a kind of tiny vesicles with a bilayer of phospholipids, which can transfer biological macromolecules to recipients to influence the biological process. M2 macrophages are closely related to the occurrence and development of serious diseases such as tumor. In addition to the traditional concept of macrophage functions such...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - August 14, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Emerging Human Coronavirus Infections (SARS, MERS, and COVID-19): Where They Are Leading Us.
Authors: Kumar V Abstract Coronavirus infections are responsible for mild, moderate, and severe infections in birds and mammals. These were first isolated in humans as causal microorganisms responsible for common cold. The 2002-2003 SARS epidemic caused by SARS-CoV and 2012 MERS epidemic (64 countries affected) caused by MERS-CoV showed their acute and fatal side. These two CoV infections killed thousands of patients infected worldwide. However, WHO has still reported the MERS case in December 2019 in middle-eastern country (Saudi Arabia), indicating the MERS epidemic has not ended completely yet. Although we have ...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - August 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

CD4+CD25-FoxP3+ T cells: a distinct subset or a heterogeneous population?
Authors: Zohouri M, Mehdipour F, Razmkhah M, Faghih Z, Ghaderi A Abstract In addition to generating effective immunity against infectious agents, the immune system helps to fight against different noninfectious human diseases while maintaining the balance between self and non-self discrimination. The breakdown of tolerance in autoimmune diseases or sustainable tolerance in an abnormal microenvironment such as chronic inflammation may initiate the process of malignancy. Immune system regulation is controlled by a complex, dynamic network of cells and mediators. Understanding the cellular and molecular basis of immun...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - July 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

The biological function and the regulatory roles of wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 in immune system.
Authors: Shi L, Tian Q, Feng C, Zhang P, Zhao Y Abstract Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (WIP1) belongs to the protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) family and is a mammalian serine/threonine specific protein phosphatase to dephosphorylate numerous signaling molecules. Mammalian WIP1 regulates a wide array of targeting molecules and plays key regulatory roles in many cell processes such as DNA damage and repair, cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and senescence. WIP1 promotes the formation and development of tumors as an oncogene and a negative regulator of p53. It is also involved in the regulation of agi...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - July 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Tools for fundamental understanding of systemic lupus erythematosus.
Authors: Kumar H PMID: 32687460 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - July 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Biological mechanisms of ectopic lymphoid structure formation and their pathophysiological significance.
Authors: Marinkovic T, Marinkovic D Abstract Ectopic lymphoid structures (ELS) or tertiary lymphoid organs are structures with the organization similar to the one of secondary lymphoid organs, formed in non-lymphoid tissues. They are considered to be an important site for the lymphocytic physiological and pathological role in conditions such are chronic infections, autoimmune diseases, cancer, and allograft rejection. Although similar to the secondary lymphoid tissues, the initiation of ELS formation is not preprogramed and requires chronic inflammation, expression of homeostatic chemokines, and lymphotoxin beta re...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - July 8, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

microRNAs: key modulators of disease-modifying therapies in multiple sclerosis.
Authors: Ehtesham N, Mosallaei M, Karimzadeh MR, Moradikazerouni H, Sharifi M Abstract There is a high level of heterogeneity in symptom manifestations and response to disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in multiple sclerosis (MS), an immune-based neurodegenerative disease with ever-increasing prevalence in recent decades. Because of unknown aspects of the etiopathology of MS and mechanism of action of DMTs, the reason for this variability is undetermined, and much remains to be understood. Traditionally, physicians consider switching to other DMTs based on the exacerbation of symptoms and/or change in the results o...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - June 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Evaluation of targetable biomarkers for chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) in the treatment of pancreatic cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of preclinical studies.
Authors: Sahlolbei M, Dehghani M, Kheiri Yeghane Azar B, Vafaei S, Roviello G, D'Angelo A, Madjd Z, Kiani J Abstract One of the cutting edge techniques for treating cancer is the use of the patient's immune system to prevail cancerous disease. The versatility of the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell approach in conjugation with promising treatments in haematological cancer has led to countless cases of research literature for the treatment of solid cancer. A systematic search of online databases as well as gray literature and reference lists of retrieved studies were carried out up to March 2019 to identify ex...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - June 18, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Cancer immunotherapy: dawn of the death of cancer?
Authors: Jain S, Kumar S Abstract Cancer is one of the proficient evaders of the immune system which claims millions of lives every year. Developing therapeutics against cancer is extremely challenging as cancer involves aberrations in self, most of which are not detected by the immune system. Conventional therapeutics like chemotherapy, radiotherapy are not only toxic but they significantly lower the quality of life. Immunotherapy, which gained momentum in the 20th century, is emerging as one of the alternatives to the conventional therapies and is relatively less harmful but more costly. This review explores the ...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - June 14, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Pregnancy immune tolerance at the maternal-fetal interface.
Authors: Li X, Zhou J, Fang M, Yu B Abstract Pregnancy is a natural process that poses an immunological challenge because non-self fetus must be accepted. During the pregnancy period, the fetus as 'allograft' inherits maternal and also paternal antigens. For successful and term pregnancy, the fetus is tolerated and nurtured enjoying immune privileges that minimize the risk of being rejected by maternal immune system. Multiple mechanisms contribute to tolerate the semi-allogeneic fetus. Here, we summarize the recent progresses on how the maternal immune system actively collaborates to maintain the immune balance and...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - June 14, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Double-edged role of natural killer cells during RSV infection.
Authors: Bhat R, Farrag MA, Almajhdi FN Abstract Natural killer cells play a vital role in the rejection of tumors and pathogen-infected cells. NK cells are indispensable in the early immune response against viral infections by directly targeting infected cells. Furthermore, NK cells influence adaptive immunity by driving virus-specific T-cell responses. Respiratory syncytial virus, a highly contagious virus that causes bronchiolitis, is the main reason for mortality in infants and elderly patients. RSV infection triggers both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, immunity against RSV is ephemeral due to t...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - May 31, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Reactive oxygen species and immune regulation.
Authors: Yang Z, Min Z, Yu B Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a kind of single electron reduction product of oxygen in vivo. Because they contain unpaired electrons, ROS has high chemical reactivity. Various researches of ROS are focused on DNA damage, cell apoptosis, oxidative stress. Actually, ROS is also closed related to immune regulation. Based on this, we review the research in immune regulated ROS production, regulation of ROS on inflammatory factors and inflammatory response, antigen presentation and macrophage polarization for better understanding of its role. PMID: 32423322 [PubMed - as ...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - May 20, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) as a therapeutic target in infectious and noninfectious disease: a critical review.
Authors: Dantas PHDS, Matos AO, da Silva Filho E, Silva-Sales M, Sales-Campos H Abstract The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is an innate immune receptor found in the surface of several immune and non-immune cells. Since its first description in 2000, this molecule and its soluble form (sTREM-1) have been implicated in many diseases with infectious and noninfectious origins. As an amplifier of inflammation, the membrane-associated TREM-1 (mTREM-1) isoform induces the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of diseases such as sepsis, arthritis, colit...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - May 9, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Can melatonin reduce the severity of COVID-19 pandemic?
Authors: Shneider A, Kudriavtsev A, Vakhrusheva A Abstract The current COVID-19 pandemic is one of the most devastating events in recent history. The virus causes relatively minor damage to young, healthy populations, imposing life-threatening danger to the elderly and people with diseases of chronic inflammation. Therefore, if we could reduce the risk for vulnerable populations, it would make the COVID-19 pandemic more similar to other typical outbreaks. Children don't suffer from COVID-19 as much as their grandparents and have a much higher melatonin level. Bats are nocturnal animals possessing high levels of mel...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - May 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Metabolic pathways and metabolites shaping innate immunity.
Authors: Kumar H PMID: 32312122 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - April 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Contribution of mouse models in our understanding of lupus.
Authors: Halkom A, Wu H, Lu Q Abstract Laboratory animal models are beneficial when they recapitulate all or just some of the clinical and immunological manifestations of the disease. Various animals such as cats, rats, dogs, hamsters, guinea pigs, rabbits, horses, minks, pigs, and primates have been described lupus-like phenotype. However, a mouse has remained the preferable animal for scientific investigations as a result of their reduced lifespan, easy reproduction, markedly low costs, public acceptance, ease of genetic management, and the probability to stay under standardized conditions. It is highly challengi...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - March 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Advances in applying of multi-omics approaches in the research of systemic lupus erythematosus.
Authors: Song W, Tang D, Chen D, Zheng F, Huang S, Xu Y, Yu H, He J, Hong X, Yin L, Liu D, Dai W, Dai Y Abstract Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease that causes multiorgan injury, has an unclear etiology and complex pathogenesis. Numerous studies have found abnormal alterations in mRNAs, proteins and/or metabolites in SLE patients. These findings have extended our understanding of the pathogenesis of SLE. Novel omics techniques, such as transcriptome, proteome and metabolome profiling, can identify and quantify large numbers of biomarkers of human diseases. However, in most cases, biological r...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - March 7, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Phagocytosis: Phenotypically Simple Yet a Mechanistically Complex Process.
Authors: Kumar V Abstract Phagocytosis is a pivotal immunological process, and its discovery by Elia Metchnikoff in 1882 was a step toward the establishment of the innate immune system as a separate branch of immunology. Elia Metchnikoff received the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine for this discovery in 1908. Since its discovery almost 140 years before, phagocytosis remains the hot topic of research in immunology. The phagocytosis research has seen a great advancement since its first discovery. Functionally, phagocytosis is a simple immunological process required to engulf and remove pathogens, dead c...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - March 7, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Balancing immune tolerance and immune responses.
Authors: Kumar H PMID: 32077344 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - February 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Characteristics and the role of purinergic receptors in pathophysiology with focus on immune response.
Authors: Zyma M, Pawliczak R Abstract The nucleotide adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is mostly thought to be energy carrier, but evidence presented in multiple studies proves ATP involvement into variety of processes, due to its neuromodulatory capabilities. ATP and its metabolite-adenosine, bind to the purinergic receptors, which are divided into two types: adenosine binding P1 receptor and ADP/ATP binding P2 receptor. These receptors are expressed in different tissues and organs. Recent studies report their immunomodulatory characteristics, connected with varying immunological processes, such as immunological res...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - February 12, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

BCG-induced trained immunity in macrophage: reprograming of glucose metabolism.
Authors: Liu Y, Liang S, Ding R, Hou Y, Deng F, Ma X, Song T, Yan D Abstract Memory is no longer a privilege of adaptive immunity. Innate immune cells can exhibit a long-term immune activation after infection or vaccination, which is called "trained immunity." In addition to defense against mycobacterial infection, BCG-induced trained immunity can also exert nonspecific protection, which is regulated by metabolic rewiring and epigenetic reprograming. Enhanced glycolysis and glutamine-driven tricarboxylic acid cycle have been proven to be important metabolic pathways for trained immunity induced by BCG, wh...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - January 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Decoding intrathecal immunoglobulins and B cells in the CNS: their synthesis, function, and regulation.
Authors: Negi N, Das BK Abstract The discovery of an active lymphatic system in the meninges (dura mater) has opened up a wide range of possibilities for the role of CNS immunoglobulins in brain development in early fetal life or during infancy. The antibody-dependent and -independent functions of B cells in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis are not new to immunologists, yet their role in other neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease is incompletely understood. Deep cervical lymph nodes have emerged as a candidate site for autosensitization against CNS antigens and have be...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - January 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Therapeutic approaches for genetic and infectious diseases.
Authors: Kumar H PMID: 31894736 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - January 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Approaches for deciphering the molecular basis of disease and its translational benefits.
Authors: Kumar H PMID: 31738672 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - November 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Current challenges: from the path of "original antigenic sin" towards the development of universal flu vaccines.
Current challenges: from the path of "original antigenic sin" towards the development of universal flu vaccines. Int Rev Immunol. 2019 Nov 09;:1-16 Authors: Biswas A, Chakrabarti AK, Dutta S Abstract Annual flu led by influenza viruses is contemplated to be one of the foremost global health challenges due to its rapid spread leading to the life-threatening epidemic or pandemic. An enormous number of people die due to flu and its associated intricacies every year. Annual vaccination is considered to be the gold standard strategy to protect the individual from acquiring infection and further de...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - November 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Exercise Mediated by Toll-Like Receptor Regulation in Innate Immune Cells - A Review.
Authors: Collao N, Rada I, Francaux M, Deldicque L, Zbinden-Foncea H Abstract Over the last three decades, the combination of a sedentary lifestyle and excessive food intake has led to a significant increase in the prevalence of obesity. The latter favors a chronic low-grade inflammatory state and an over-activation of the innate immune system, which contribute to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Physical exercise is a powerful preventive tool and treatment for several diseases as it induces metabolic and immune effects that provide health benefits. Exercise is known to reduce inflammation; however, the unde...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - November 6, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Chicken toll-like receptors and their significance in immune response and disease resistance.
Authors: Nawab A, An L, Wu J, Li G, Liu W, Zhao Y, Wu Q, Xiao M Abstract Infectious diseases are a major challenge for the poultry industry that causes widespread production losses. Thus, management and control of poultry health and diseases are essential for the viability of the industry. Toll-like receptors are best characterized as membrane-bound receptors that perform a central role in immune homeostasis and disease resistance by recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In response to pathogen recognition, TLRs initiate both innate and adaptive immune responses which may help to develop immunomodu...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - October 31, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

The potential role of interleukin-37 in infectious diseases.
In conclusion, this review reported that IL-37 has a crucial role in reducing infection-associated inflammation and has a good impact on inflammation-induced pathology. However, tight regulation that achieved balance between effector immune responses that required for pathogen elimination and limited tissue damage that resulted from excessive inflammation should be existed in the potential IL-37 therapy to prevent clinical complications of a disease. PMID: 31633447 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - October 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

CRISPR/Cas: from adaptive immune system in prokaryotes to therapeutic weapon against immune-related diseases.
Authors: Garcia-Robledo JE, Barrera MC, Tobón GJ Abstract CRISPR/Cas evolved as an adaptive immune system in bacteria and archaea to inactivate foreign viral and plasmid DNA. However, the capacities of various CRISPR/Cas systems for precise genome editing based on sequence homology also allow their use as tools for genomic and epigenomic modification in eukaryotes. Indeed, these genetic characteristics have proven useful for disease modeling and testing the specific functions of target genes under pathological conditions. Moreover, recent studies provide compelling evidence that CRISPR/Cas systems could be u...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - October 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Reproductive immunomodulatory functions of B cells in pregnancy.
Authors: Dutta S, Sengupta P, Haque N Abstract Pregnancy, a challenging physiological state, requires shuffling of conventional immune work-sets. Strategies to tolerate the semi-allogenic fetus in normal human pregnancy are multivariate with perfect modulation of the immune cells. Pregnancy is marked by B cell lymphocytopenia accompanied by reduced responsiveness to infectious agents. Besides this old age concept, plenty of research confirms that B cells have other crucial roles in pregnancy and undergo a wide range of modifications in terms of its proliferation, switching between its subtypes, variation in antibod...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - October 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

T cell subtypes and its therapeutic potential in autoimmune diseases and cancer.
Authors: Awasthi A, Kumar H PMID: 31608783 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - October 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Cancer Stem Cells Targeting; the Lessons from the Interaction of the Immune System, the Cancer Stem Cells and the Tumor Niche.
Authors: Rajayi H, Tavasolian P, Rezalotfi A, Ebrahimi M Abstract Failure of treatment strategies against cancers is a major issue engaging many scientists to investigate the possible resistance factors. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) subvert promising therapeutic methods by developing resistant cancers. These pluripotent cells are located in individual microenvironments called cancer niche. CSCs affect the immune cells and on the flip side, the immune cells in the cancer niche influence them. Thereby, the interaction between CSCs and immune cells in cancer niche needs to be clearly studied in order to develop novel effi...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - October 5, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Immunity and its role in white plague and obesity.
Authors: Kumar H PMID: 31483192 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - September 5, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Immunoinformatics: In Silico Approaches and Computational Design of a Multi-epitope, Immunogenic Protein.
Authors: Bahrami AA, Payandeh Z, Khalili S, Zakeri A, Bandehpour M Abstract Immunoinformatics is a new critical field with several tools and databases that conduct the eyesight of experimental selection and facilitate analysis of the great amount of immunologic data obtained from experimental researches and helps to design and introducing new hypothesis. Given these visages, immunoinformatics seems to be the way that develop and progress the immunological research. Bioinformatics methods and applications are successfully employed in vaccine informatics to assist different sites of the preclinical, clinical, and pos...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - September 4, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Emerging Roles of Th9 Cells as an Anti-tumor Helper T Cells.
Authors: Chandwaskar R, Awasthi A Abstract The newly discovered Th9 cells are the distinct subset of CD4+ T helper (Th) cells, which are involved in various pathophysiological conditions of an immune response. In addition to its role in allergic inflammation and elimination of extracellular pathogens, Th9 cells were found to play a key role in inducing anti-tumor immune response. Precisely, the anti-tumor functions of Th9 cells were found to be superior as compared to Th1 and other Th subsets. Th9 cells eliminate tumors via activating innate and adaptive immune cells, and in particular, generating a profound effect...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - August 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Emerging roles of noncoding RNAs in T cell differentiation and functions in autoimmune diseases.
Authors: Roy S, Awasthi A Abstract Noncoding RNA comprises of microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are abundantly present in mammalian transcriptome. These noncoding RNAs have been implicated in multiple biological processes through the regulation of gene expression. Each of these noncoding RNAs were found to have multiple genes targets. Emerging literature indicated the role of noncoding RNAs in shaping the immune responses which include immune cell development, helper T (Th) cell differentiation as well as maintenance of immune homeostasis by inducing the interplay between effector and regula...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - August 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

The role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipid metabolism of metabolic diseases.
Authors: Chen Y, Yu CY, Deng WM Abstract Adipose tissue has been considered as a crucial source of certain pro-inflammatory cytokines; conversely, these pro-inflammatory cytokines are involved in regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of adipocytes, promoting lipolysis, inhibiting lipid synthesis and decreasing blood lipids, etc. In recent decades, extensive studies have indicated that pro-inflammatory cytokines play important roles in the development of lipid metabolism of metabolic diseases, including obesity, atherosclerosis, steatohepatitis and hyperlipoproteinemia. However, the involved pro-inflammatory cy...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - July 30, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Donor-specific antibodies and organ transplantation: a dangerous mix.
Authors: Oltean M, Kumar H PMID: 31282229 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - July 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Inflammatory processes in obesity: focus on endothelial dysfunction and the role of adipokines as inflammatory mediators.
Authors: Singh M, Benencia F Abstract Obesity predisposes the affected individuals to several metabolic, inflammatory, cardiovascular and malignant pathologies and is a top risk factor for premature mortality. It is now well known that inflammation has a major causative role in obesity-associated disease development and that obesity favors the establishment of a pro-inflammatory milieu at the level of adipose microenvironment. These inflammatory signals result in a disruption of normal cellular-crosstalk between adipose and non-adipose components leading to an altered metabolic and immunological status and a dysfun...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - July 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Synergy between Th1 and Th2 responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: A review of current understanding.
Authors: Abebe F Abstract Induction of Th1 (cell-mediated) immunity and associated production of IFN-γ by CD4+ T cells has been widely used as a marker of protective immunity against tuberculosis (TB). This is based on two assumptions. The first is the widely accepted view that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of TB is an obligate intracellular pathogen, and the second is based on the Th1/Th2 paradigm, which posits that polarization of CD4+ T cells into type1 (cell-mediated) and type 2 (humoral) is central for proper induction of protective immunity against pathogens. However, almost all ...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - June 29, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Donor-specific antibodies following liver and intestinal transplantation: Clinical significance, pathogenesis and recommendations.
Authors: Wozniak LJ, Venick RS Abstract A growing body of evidence shows that donor-specific antibodies (DSA) are associated with rejection and allograft failure following both liver and intestinal transplantation. However, data have clearly shown that not all DSA are injurious. The reasons for this remain unclear but appear to be multifactorial, impacted by clinical factors such as immunosuppression and infection as well as immunologic factors such as HLA expression and donor-specific antibodies affinity. Establishing a diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) remains clinically challenging, especially given...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - June 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Regulatory T cells as therapeutic targets and mediators.
Authors: Sharma A, Rudra D Abstract With the advent of the concept of dominant tolerance and the subsequent discovery of CD4+ regulatory T cells expressing the transcription factor FOXP3 (Tregs), almost all productive as well as nonproductive immune responses can be compartmentalized to a binary of immune effector T cells and immune regulatory Treg populations. A beneficial immune response warrants the timely regulation by Tregs, whereas a nonproductive immune response indicates insufficient effector functions or an outright failure of tolerance. There are ample reports supporting role of Tregs in suppressing spont...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - June 5, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Rheumatoid arthritis: 'melting pot' of T helper subsets.
Authors: Vyas SP, Hansda AK, Goswami R Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder that affects joints associated with inflammation leading to poor quality of life. The phenotype of RA is distinct from osteoarthritis (OA), the degenerative joint disorder. The annual incidence of RA is approximately 4 in 10,000 individuals. Studies suggest dysregulated T cell activation in the initiation and progression of RA. Distinct RA-associated allelic variants encode molecules involved in T-cell activation pathways. Additionally, RA is also associated with aberrant regulation and function of T helper cells. Th...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - June 5, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Host defense: basic, disease and translational biology.
Authors: Kumar H PMID: 31117899 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - May 24, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

Calcium Signaling Commands Phagosome Maturation Process.
Authors: Pradhan G, Raj Abraham P, Shrivastava R, Mukhopadhyay S Abstract Phagosome-lysosome (P-L) fusion is one of the central immune-effector responses of host. It is known that phagosome maturation process is associated with numerous signaling cascades and among these, important role of calcium (Ca2+) signaling has been realized recently. Ca2+ plays key roles in actin rearrangement, activation of NADPH oxidase and protein kinase C (PKC). Involvement of Ca2+ in these cellular processes directs phagosomal maturation process. Some of the intracellular pathogens have acquired the strategies to modulate Ca2+ associat...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - May 24, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

The complement system, toll-like receptors and inflammasomes in host defense: three musketeers' one target.
Authors: Kumar V Abstract The innate immune system-based recognition of the pathogens or their PAMPs initiates the pro-inflammatory immune response required for the maintenance of the homeostasis. The dysregulation of this innate immune response causes several diseases including sepsis, cancer and autoimmunity. However, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) including toll-like receptors (TLRs), complement receptors (CRs) and NLRs of inflammasomes regulate both these processes of recognition of pathogens/PAMPs and their clearance. These three major components of the innate immune arm were studied independently/separa...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - May 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

ABO-Incompatible Liver Transplantation - A Review of the Historical Background and Results.
Authors: Dahlgren US, Bennet W Abstract ABO-incompatible liver transplantation (ABOi LT) using conventional immunosuppression has been considered a contraindication due to the high risk for antibody-mediated complications potentially resulting in graft loss. However, organ shortage has led to the development of anti-A/B antibody reducing immunosuppressive protocols which have made the outcome after living donor (LD) ABOi LT equivalent to that achieved with LD ABO-compatible (ABOc). The experience of deceased donor (DD) ABOi LT is however still limited. In this article, we discuss the historical background and the r...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - April 24, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

How does blood coagulation/neutrophils shape innate immunity and uncontrolled inflammation to autoimmune disease?
Authors: Kumar H PMID: 30943817 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - April 6, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research