Dendritic cell subsets and locations.
Abstract Dendritic cells (DCs) are a unique class of immune cells that act as a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. The discovery of DCs by Cohen and Steinman in 1973 laid the foundation for DC biology, and the advances in the field identified different versions of DCs with unique properties and functions. DCs originate from hematopoietic stem cells, and their differentiation is modulated by Flt3L. They are professional antigen-presenting cells that patrol the environmental interphase, sites of infection, or infiltrate pathological tissues looking for antigens that can be used to activate effector cells. ...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - December 9, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Balan S, Saxena M, Bhardwaj N Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

The role of dendritic cells in cancer.
Abstract Cancer immunotherapy harnesses the ability of the immune system to recognize and eliminate cancer. The potent ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to initiate and regulate adaptive immune responses underpins the successful generation of anti-tumor immune responses. DCs are a heterogeneous leukocyte population comprised of distinct subsets that drive specific types of immune responses. Understanding how DCs induce tumor immune responses and the mechanisms adopted by tumors to evade DC surveillance is essential to render immunotherapies more effective. This review discusses current knowledge of the roles played...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - December 9, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Lee YS, Radford KJ Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Interplay between dendritic cells and cancer cells.
Abstract Dendritic cells (DCs) orchestrate a repertoire of immune responses that bring about resistance to infection and tolerance to self. Cancers can exploit DCs to evade immunity, but DCs also can generate resistance to cancer. Owing to their capacity to capture, process, and present antigens to naïve T cells, thereby launching adaptive immunity, DCs are poised to play a critical role in cancer recognition and rejection. As such, DCs represent a solution for the expansion and infiltration of T cells with tumor-rejecting properties. Indeed, clinical responses to checkpoint blockade, such as anti-PD-1, are l...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - December 9, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Martinek J, Wu TC, Cadena D, Banchereau J, Palucka K Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Type I interferons and dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy.
Abstract Type I interferons (IFNs) facilitate cancer immunosurveillance, antitumor immunity and antitumor efficacy of conventional cell death-inducing therapies (chemotherapy/radiotherapy) as well as immunotherapy. Moreover, it is clear that dendritic cells (DCs) play a significant role in aiding type I IFN-driven immunity. Owing to these antitumor properties several immunotherapies involving, or inducing, type I IFNs have received considerable clinical attention, e.g., recombinant IFNα2 or agonists targeting pattern recognition receptor (PRR) pathways like Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cGAS-STING or RIG-I/MDA...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - December 9, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Sprooten J, Agostinis P, Garg AD Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Liver DCs in health and disease.
Abstract Hepatic dendritic cells represent a unique and multifaceted subset of antigen-presenting leukocytes that orchestrate specified immune responses in the liver. They are constantly exposed to antigens and signals derived not only from the hepatic microenvironment and the systemic circulation but also from the portal vein draining the gut and conveying food antigens as well as microbial compounds. Modulated by these various factors they shape intrahepatic immune responses during acute and chronic liver diseases, hepatocellular carcinoma and allograft tolerance as well as systemic responses to gut-derived comp...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - December 9, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Wirtz TH, Brandt EF, Berres ML Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Antigen processing and presentation.
Abstract Dendritic cells are at the center of immune responses. They are defined by their ability to sense the environment, take up and process antigen, migrate to secondary lymphoid organs, where they present antigens to the adaptive immune system. In particular, they present lipids and proteins from pathogens, which they encountered in peripheral tissues, to T cells in order to induce a specific effector immune response. These complex antigens need to be broken down into peptides of a certain length in association with Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules. Presentation of MHC/antigen complexes alongs...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - December 9, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Kotsias F, Cebrian I, Alloatti A Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Preface-Dendritic cells: Master regulators of innate and adaptive immunity.
PMID: 31810557 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology)
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - December 9, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Lhuillier C, Galluzzi L Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Origin and development of classical dendritic cells.
Abstract Classical dendritic cells (cDCs) are mononuclear phagocytes of hematopoietic origin specialized in the induction and regulation of adaptive immunity. Initially defined by their unique T cell activation potential, it became quickly apparent that cDCs would be difficult to distinguish from other phagocyte lineages, by solely relying on marker-based approaches. Today, cDCs definition increasingly embed their unique ontogenetic features. A growing consensus defines cDCs on multiple criteria including: (1) dependency on the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand hematopoietic growth factor, (2) development from the...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - November 26, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Guermonprez P, Gerber-Ferder Y, Vaivode K, Bourdely P, Helft J Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

The impact of endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in dendritic cell immunobiology.
Abstract Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical for bridging innate and adaptive immunity. They do so by presenting antigens to T cells, and by expressing diverse molecules that further promote T cell activation, differentiation and memory formation. During this process, intracellular and extracellular factors can perturb the protein-folding capacity of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and induce a cellular state of "ER stress," which is controlled and resolved by the unfolded protein response (UPR). Interestingly, various studies have shown that DCs can activate UPR-related pathways even in the absence of global ...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - November 26, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Salvagno C, Cubillos-Ruiz JR Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

The versatile plasmacytoid dendritic cell: Function, heterogeneity, and plasticity.
Abstract Since their identification as the natural interferon-producing cell two decades ago, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) have been attributed diverse functions in the immune response. Their most well characterized function is innate, i.e., their rapid and robust production of type-I interferon (IFN-I) in response to viruses. However, pDCs have also been implicated in antigen presentation, activation of adaptive immune responses and immunoregulation. The mechanisms by which pDCs enact these diverse functions are poorly understood. One central debate is whether these functions are carried out by different p...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - November 26, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Leylek R, Idoyaga J Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Dendritic cell extracellular vesicles.
Abstract In addition to direct cell-to-cell contact, dendritic cells (DCs) can regulate the onset of adaptive immunity through the secretion of nano-sized membrane structures, called extracellular vesicles (EVs). This novel mode of communication between cells has added a new layer of complexity to the regulation of immune responses. DCs secrete into their environment different types of EVs containing immunomodulatory molecules that have distinct structural and biochemical properties depending on their intracellular site of origin. Exosomes are generated inside multivesicular bodies and are secreted when these comp...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - November 26, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Kowal J, Tkach M Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Ex vivo dendritic cell generation-A critical comparison of current approaches.
Abstract Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells, required for the initiation of naïve and memory T cell responses and regulation of adaptive immunity. The discovery of DCs in 1973, which culminated in the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2011 for Ralph Steinman and colleagues, initially focused on the identification of adherent mononuclear cell fractions with uniquely stellate dendritic morphology, followed by key discoveries of their critical immunologic role in initiating and maintaining antigen-specific immunity and tolerance. The medical promise of marshaling these key cap...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - November 26, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Han P, Hanlon D, Sobolev O, Chaudhury R, Edelson RL Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Transcriptional control of dendritic cell development and functions.
Abstract Dendritic cells (DCs) are major regulators of adaptive immunity, as they are not only capable to induce efficient immune responses, but are also crucial to maintain peripheral tolerance and thereby inhibit autoimmune reactions. DCs bridge the innate and the adaptive immune system by presenting peptides of self and foreign antigens as peptide MHC complexes to T cells. These properties render DCs as interesting target cells for immunomodulatory therapies in cancer, but also autoimmune diseases. Several subsets of DCs with special properties and functions have been described. Recent achievements in understan...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - November 26, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Amon L, Lehmann CHK, Baranska A, Schoen J, Heger L, Dudziak D Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Preface: Dendritic cells: Master regulators of innate and adaptive immunity.
PMID: 31759435 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology)
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - November 26, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Lhuillier C, Galluzzi L Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Drugging cancer metabolism: Expectations vs. reality.
Abstract As compared to their normal counterparts, neoplastic cells exhibit a variety of metabolic changes that reflect not only genetic and epigenetic defects underlying malignant transformation, but also the nutritional and immunobiological conditions of the tumor microenvironment. Such alterations, including the so-called Warburg effect (an increase in glucose uptake largely feeding anabolic and antioxidant metabolism), have attracted considerable attention as potential targets for the development of novel anticancer therapeutics. However, very few drugs specifically conceived to target bioenergetic cancer meta...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - August 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Montrose DC, Galluzzi L Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Diet, lipids and colon cancer.
Abstract Dietary fat is digested and absorbed in the small intestine and can then be utilized as an energy source and/or as a reservoir for other bioactive lipid species. Excessive dietary fat has been implicated in the induction and/or aggravation of several diseases, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Diets with high fat content have been shown to exacerbate CRC through regulation of intestinal inflammation and proliferation, as well as alteration of bile acid pools, microbiota, and bioactive lipid species. This chapter will investigate the effects of dietary fat on CRC development and pathobiology, and possible...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - August 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Choi S, Snider AJ Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Autophagy and cancer cell metabolism.
Abstract Autophagy is an ancient catabolic process used by cells to clear excess or dysfunctional organelles and large subcellular structures and thus performs an important housekeeping role for the cell. Autophagy is acutely sensitive to nutrient availability and is upregulated at a transcriptional and posttranslational level in response to nutrient deprivation. This serves to promote turnover of cellular content and recycling of nutrients for continued growth and survival. While important for most normal tissues, tumor cells appear to be particularly dependent on autophagy for survival under ischemic or therapeu...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - August 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Anderson CM, Macleod KF Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Application of metabolomics technologies toward cancer prognosis and therapy.
Abstract Altered metabolism is one of the defining features of cancer. Since the discovery of the Warburg effect in 1924, research into the metabolic aspects of cancer has been reinvigorated over the past decade. Metabolomics is an invaluable tool for gaining insights into numerous biochemical processes including those related to cancer metabolism and metabolic aspects of other diseases. The combination of untargeted and targeted metabolomics approaches has greatly facilitated the discovery of many cancer biomarkers with prognostic potential. Using mass spectrometry-based stable isotope-resolved metabolomics (SIRM...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - August 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Hoang G, Udupa S, Le A Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

A strategy for poisoning cancer cell metabolism: Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation coupled to anaplerotic saturation.
Abstract The combination of inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) with dimethyl-α-ketoglutarate, a cell-permeable precursor of α-ketoglutarate, is highly efficient in killing human cancer cells in vitro or in vivo, in xenotransplanted mice. This effect involves excessive anaplerosis, as demonstrated by the fact that inhibition of isocitrate dehydrogenase-1, IDH1, reduced the efficacy of cancer cell killing by the combination treatment. However, the signal transduction pathway leading to cell death turned out to be complex because it involved numerous atypical cell death effectors (such as AIF...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - August 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Sica V, Bravo-San Pedro JM, Kroemer G Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Sulfur metabolism and its contribution to malignancy.
Abstract Metabolic dysregulation is an appreciated hallmark of cancer and a target for therapeutic intervention. Cellular metabolism involves a series of oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions that yield the energy and biomass required for tumor growth. Cells require diverse molecular species with constituent sulfur atoms to facilitate these processes. For humans, this sulfur is derived from the dietary consumption of the proteinogenic amino acids cysteine and methionine, as only lower organisms (e.g., bacteria, fungi, and plants) can synthesize them de novo. In addition to providing the sulfur required to sustain ...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - August 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Ward NP, DeNicola GM Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Molecular platforms for targeted drug delivery.
Abstract The targeted delivery of bioactive molecules to the appropriate site of action, one of the critical focuses of pharmaceutical research, improves therapeutic outcomes and increases safety at the same time; a concept envisaged by Ehrlich over 100 years ago when he described the "magic bullet" model. In the following decades, a considerable amount of research effort combined with enormous investment has carried selective drug targeting into clinical practice via the advent of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody-drug conjugates derivatives. Additionally, a deeper understanding of physiopatholo...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - May 29, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Maso K, Grigoletto A, Vicent MJ, Pasut G Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

New insights into the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton dynamics by GPCR/ β-arrestin in cancer invasion and metastasis.
New insights into the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton dynamics by GPCR/β-arrestin in cancer invasion and metastasis. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2019;346:129-155 Authors: Rosanò L, Bagnato A Abstract Metastatic progression is strongly influenced by the connection between hyperactivated signaling pathways. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) through β-arrestins (β-arrs), which serve as intracellular signaling molecules, integrate different pathways to control multiple aspects of metastatic process. As primary component of a core-scaffold, β-arr-dependent signaling represents ...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - May 29, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Rosanò L, Bagnato A Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Healthy skeletal muscle aging: The role of satellite cells, somatic mutations and exercise.
Abstract Satellite cells (SCs) form the resident stem cell population in the skeletal muscle tissue. While their function in mediating tissue regeneration after injury is well described, their role in the undamaged-, aging-, and exercising muscle is only starting to be unraveled. Although direct evidence linking the loss of SC function to the onset of age-related loss of muscle mass and function (i.e., sarcopenia) is currently lacking, satellite cells are increasingly seen as an important component for the decline of tissue function seen with aging. This is evident from the pertinent role of SCs in maintaining hom...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - May 29, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Franco I, Fernandez-Gonzalo R, Vrtačnik P, Lundberg TR, Eriksson M, Gustafsson T Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Nongenomic glucocorticoid effects and their mechanisms of action in vertebrates.
Abstract Glucocorticoids (GC) act on multiple organ systems to regulate a variety of physiological processes in vertebrates. Due to their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions, glucocorticoids are an attractive target for pharmaceutical development. Accordingly, they are one of the most widely prescribed classes of therapeutics. Through the classical mechanism of steroid action, glucocorticoids are thought to mainly affect gene transcription, both in a stimulatory and suppressive fashion, regulating de novo protein synthesis that subsequently leads to the physiological response. However, over the past th...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - May 29, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Johnstone WM, Honeycutt JL, Deck CA, Borski RJ Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

A tale of the good and bad: Cell senescence in bone homeostasis and disease.
Abstract Historically, cellular senescence has been viewed as an irreversible cell-cycle arrest process with distinctive phenotypic alterations that were implicated primarily in aging and tumor suppression. Recent discoveries suggest that cellular senescence represents a series of diverse, dynamic, and heterogeneous cellular states with the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Although senescent cells typically contribute to aging and age-related diseases, accumulating evidence has shown that they also have important physiological functions during embryonic development, late pubertal bone growth cessa...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - May 29, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Liu X, Wan M Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Nucleic Acid Sensing in Allergic Disorders.
Abstract Recent advances indicate that there is crosstalk between allergic disorders and nucleic acid sensing. Triggers that activate inflammatory mechanisms via nucleic acid sensors affect both allergic phenotypes and anti-viral responses, depending on the timing and the order of exposure. Viral respiratory infections, such as those caused by the rhinovirus, influenza, and respiratory syncytial virus, are the most frequent cause of significant asthma exacerbations through effects mediated predominantly by TLR3. However, agonists of other nucleic acid sensors, such as TLR7/8 and TLR9 agonists, may inhibit allergic...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - March 26, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Farahnak S, Chronopoulos J, Martin JG Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Nucleic Acid Induced Interferon and Inflammasome Responses in Regulating Host Defense to Gastrointestinal Viruses.
Abstract The gut bacterial and fungal communities residing in the gastrointestinal tract have undisputed far-reaching effects in regulating host health. In the meantime, however, metagenomic sequencing efforts are revealing enteric viruses as the most abundant dimension of the intestinal gut ecosystem, and the first gut virome-wide association studies showed that inflammatory bowel disease as well as type 1 diabetes could be linked to the presence or absence of particular viral inhabitants in the intestine. In line with the genetic component of these human diseases, mouse model studies demonstrated how beneficial ...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - March 26, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Dubois H, van Loo G, Wullaert A Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Genome Damage Sensing Leads to Tissue Homeostasis in Drosophila.
Abstract DNA repair is a critical cellular process required for the maintenance of genomic integrity. It is now well appreciated that cells employ several DNA repair pathways to take care of distinct types of DNA damage. It is also well known that a cascade of signals namely DNA damage response or DDR is activated in response to DNA damage which comprise cellular responses, such as cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and cell death, if the damage is irreparable. There is also emerging literature suggesting a cross-talk between DNA damage signaling and several signaling networks within a cell. Moreover, cell death player...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - March 26, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Khan C, Muliyil S, Rao BJ Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Nucleic Acid Sensing in Mammals and Plants: Facts and Caveats.
;oz I Abstract The accumulation of nucleic acids in aberrant compartments is a signal of danger: fragments of cytosolic or extracellular self-DNA indicate cellular dysfunctions or disruption, whereas cytosolic fragments of nonself-DNA or RNA indicate infections. Therefore, nucleic acids trigger immunity in mammals and plants. In mammals, endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) sense single-stranded (ss) or double-stranded (ds) RNA or CpG-rich DNA, whereas various cytosolic receptors sense dsDNA. Although a self/nonself discrimination could favor targeted immune responses, no sequence-specific sensing of nucleic acids...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - March 26, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Heil M, Vega-Muñoz I Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Nucleic Acid Sensing in Invertebrate Antiviral Immunity.
Abstract Innate immunity is an ancient and conserved defense mechanism against infectious agents. It is activated after pathogen-associated molecular pattern sensing by germline-encoded pattern-recognition receptors, including specialized nucleic acid sensors. In vertebrates, nucleic acid sensing activates the dominant antiviral pathway that induces interferon (IFN) response and enhances antigen-specific adaptive immunity. Although canonical IFN system is absent in invertebrates, nucleic acid stimulation, and viral infection trigger an inducible non-specific antiviral response that exhibits multiple similarities t...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - March 26, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Wang PH, He JG Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

The Role of Nucleic Acid Sensing in Controlling Microbial and Autoimmune Disorders.
Abstract Innate immunity, the first line of defense against invading pathogens, is an ancient form of host defense found in all animals, from sponges to humans. During infection, innate immune receptors recognize conserved molecular patterns, such as microbial surface molecules, metabolites produces during infection, or nucleic acids of the microbe's genome. When initiated, the innate immune response activates a host defense program that leads to the synthesis proteins capable of pathogen killing. In mammals, the induction of cytokines during the innate immune response leads to the recruitment of professional immu...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - March 26, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Matz KM, Guzman RM, Goodman AG Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Nucleic Acid Sensing at the Interface Between Innate and Adaptive Immunity.
PMID: 30904197 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology)
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - March 26, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Vanpouille-Box C, Galluzzi L Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Discrimination Between Self and Non-Self-Nucleic Acids by the Innate Immune System.
Abstract During viral and bacterial infections, the innate immune system recognizes various types of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as nucleic acids, via a series of membrane-bound or cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors. These include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), AIM2-like receptors (ALRs), and cytosolic DNA sensors. The binding of PAMPs to these receptors triggers the production of type I interferon (IFN) and inflammatory cytokines. Type I IFN induces the expression of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs), which protect surrounding cells from infection. Some ISG...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Kawasaki T, Kawai T Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Nucleic Acid Sensing Perturbation: How Aberrant Recognition of Self-Nucleic Acids May Contribute to Autoimmune and Autoinflammatory Diseases.
Abstract Bacteria and mammalian cells have developed sophisticated sensing mechanisms to detect and eliminate foreign genetic material or to restrict its expression and replication. Progress has been made in the understanding of these mechanisms, which keep foreign or unwanted nucleic acids in check. The complex of mechanisms involved in RNA and DNA sensing is part of a system which is now appreciated as "immune sensing of nucleic acids" or better "nucleic acid immunity." Nucleic acids, which are critical components for inheriting genetic information in all species, including pathogens, are key...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Bordignon V, Cavallo I, D'Agosto G, Trento E, Pontone M, Abril E, Di Domenico EG, Ensoli F Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Common Differences: The Ability of Inflammasomes to Distinguish Between Self and Pathogen Nucleic Acids During Infection.
Abstract The innate immune system detects the presence of pathogens based on detection of non-self. In other words, most pathogens possess intrinsic differences that can distinguish them from host cells. For example, bacteria and fungi have cell walls comprised of peptidoglycan and carbohydrates (like mannans), respectively. Germline encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and C-type lectin receptor (CLR) family have the ability to detect such unique pathogen associated features. However, some TLRs and members of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR), NOD-like receptor (NLR), or AIM2-l...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Lupfer CR, Rippee-Brooks MD, Anand PK Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Activating the Nucleic Acid-Sensing Machinery for Anticancer Immunity.
Abstract Nucleic acid sensing pathways have likely evolved as part of a broad pathogen sensing strategy intended to discriminate infectious agents and initiate appropriate innate and adaptive controls. However, in the absence of infectious agents, nucleic acid sensing pathways have been shown to play positive and negative roles in regulating tumorigenesis, tumor progression and metastatic spread. Understanding the normal biology behind these pathways and how they are regulated in malignant cells and in the tumor immune environment can help us devise strategies to exploit nucleic acid sensing to manipulate anti-can...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Medler T, Patel JM, Alice A, Baird JR, Hu HM, Gough MJ Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Cytosolic Nucleic Acid Sensors in Inflammatory and Autoimmune Disorders.
Abstract Innate immunity employs germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to sense microbial pattern molecules. Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by various PPRs located on the cell membrane or in the cytosol leads to the activation of cell signaling pathways and production of inflammatory mediators. Nucleic acids including DNA, RNA, and their derivatives are potent PAMPs which can be recognized by multiple PRRs to induce inflammatory responses. While nucleic acid sensors can also sense endogenous nucleic acids, they are capable of discriminating self from non-self. However...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Khan S, Godfrey V, Zaki MH Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Intracellular RNA Sensing in Mammalian Cells: Role in Stress Response and Cancer Therapies.
Abstract DNA damage has been considered the primary action of ionizing radiation (IR) in normal and tumor cells resulting in cell autonomous death. However, recent findings have elucidated novel local and systemic effects of IR mediated by the induction of Type I interferons (IFN) and activation of adaptive immune responses. These responses are initiated by DNA- and RNA-dependent activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRR) which comprise an innate immunity system responsible for detection of exogenous pathogens, mounting of an anti-viral response, and activation of adaptive immunity. Activation of cytoplasmi...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Khodarev NN Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Negative Regulation of Cytosolic Sensing of DNA.
Abstract In mammals, cytosolic detection of nucleic acids is critical in initiating innate antiviral responses against invading pathogens (like bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites). These programs are mediated by multiple cytosolic and endosomal sensors and adaptor molecules (c-GAS/STING axis and TLR9/MyD88 axis, respectively) and lead to the production of type I interferons (IFNs), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. While the identity and role of multiple pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) have been elucidated, such immune surveillance systems must be tightly regulated to limit collateral damage and...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Abe T, Shapira SD Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Nucleic Acid Sensing at the Interface Between Innate and Adaptive Immunity.
PMID: 30798992 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology)
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Vanpouille-Box C, Galluzzi L Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

The Molecular and Cellular Regulation of Brassicaceae Self-Incompatibility and Self-Pollen Rejection.
Abstract In flowering plants, sexual reproduction is actively regulated by cell-cell communication between the male pollen and female pistil, and many species possess self-incompatibility systems for the selective rejection of self-pollen to maintain genetic diversity. The Brassicaceae self-incompatibility pathway acts early on when pollen grains have landed on the stigmatic papillae at the top of the pistil. Extensive studies have revealed that self-pollen rejection in the Brassicaceae is initiated by an S-haplotype-specific interaction between two polymorphic proteins: the pollen S-locus protein 11/S cystei...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - February 6, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Jany E, Nelles H, Goring DR Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Glycosylation and Antitumor Immunity.
Abstract Glycosylation and its by-product, the glycan, play a crucial role in many cellular processes. Aberrant glycan structures and mutations of the glycosylation pathway have been intricately linked with the development of cancer and more recently with cancer's ability to escape the innate immune system. This chapter aims to elucidate how glycosylation interacts with the immune system to promote tumor deviation through endogenous lectins, mutated glycosphingolipids, sialic acid domains, and more. This chapter also explores the mechanisms of glycosylation that may lead to powerful translational therapeutic tools...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - February 6, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Cadena AP, Cushman TR, Welsh JW Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Emerging Themes in PDZ Domain Signaling: Structure, Function, and Inhibition.
Abstract Post-synaptic density-95, disks-large and zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) domains are small globular protein-protein interaction domains widely conserved from yeast to humans. They are composed of ∼90 amino acids and form a classical two α-helical/six β-strand structure. The prototypical ligand is the C-terminus of partner proteins; however, they also bind internal peptide sequences. Recent findings indicate that PDZ domains also bind phosphatidylinositides and cholesterol. Through their ligand interactions, PDZ domain proteins are critical for cellular trafficking and the surface retention of var...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - February 6, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Liu X, Fuentes EJ Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Cross Talk Networks of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling With the Ubiquitin Proteasome System and Their Clinical Implications in Multiple Myeloma.
assermann F Abstract Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological malignancy and results from the clonal amplification of plasma cells. Despite recent advances in treatment, MM remains incurable with a median survival time of only 5-6years, thus necessitating further insights into MM biology and exploitation of novel therapeutic approaches. Both the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis, and treatment of MM and different lines of evidence suggest a close cross talk between these central cell-regulatory signaling networks...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - February 6, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Eichner R, Fernández-Sáiz V, Targosz BS, Bassermann F Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Regulation of Plant Immunity by the Proteasome.
Abstract Plants rely on a sophisticated innate immune system to recognize pathogens and defend against pathogen attacks. The immune system must be precisely regulated to be capable of mounting a strong and effective defense response while avoiding autoimmunity. Targeted protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays crucial roles in both negative and positive regulations of immunity. In the absence of pathogens, the UPS targets immune receptors and downstream signaling components to maintain their homeostasis. Following pathogen recognition, UPS activity is also required for immune signaling an...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - February 6, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Copeland C, Li X Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Role of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Plant Response to Abiotic Stress.
Abstract Ubiquitination is a prevalent post-translation modification system that is involved in almost all aspects of eukaryotic biology. It involves the attachment of ubiquitin, a small, highly conserved protein to selected substrates. The most notable function of ubiquitin is the targeting of modified proteins to the multi-proteolytic 26S proteasome complex for degradation. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) regulates the abundance of numerous enzymes, structural and regulatory proteins ensuring proper cellular function. Plants utilize the UPS to facilitate cellular changes required to respond to and tolerate...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - February 6, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Stone SL Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Stimulating T Cells Against Cancer With Agonist Immunostimulatory Monoclonal Antibodies.
Abstract Elimination of cancer cells through antitumor immunity has been a long-sought after goal since Sir F. Macfarlane Burnet postulated the theory of immune surveillance against tumors in the 1950s. Finally, the use of immunotherapeutics against established cancer is becoming a reality in the past 5years. Most notable are the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against inhibitory T-cell receptors cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed death-1. The next generation of mAbs targeting T cells is designed to stimulate costimulatory receptors on T cells. Here we review the recent progress on these immunos...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - January 14, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Han X, Vesely MD Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Cancer Immunosurveillance by T Cells.
Abstract Cancer immunotherapy is based on the ability of the immune system to recognize tumors as foreign tissue. The idea of cancer immunosurveillance was first conceived over a century ago but remained controversial through much of the 20th century. In the past few decades, however, the field has progressed rapidly, and the concept of tumor immunosurveillance is now well established. With this chapter, we provide a historical background of immunosurveillance, the concept of immunoediting, and the role of different T-cell subsets in the tumor microenvironment. We also discuss the relationship between immune check...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - January 14, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Rao S, Gharib K, Han A Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

T Lymphocytes as Measurable Targets of Protection and Vaccination Against Viral Disorders.
Abstract Continuous epidemiological surveillance of existing and emerging viruses and their associated disorders is gaining importance in light of their abilities to cause unpredictable outbreaks as a result of increased travel and vaccination choices by steadily growing and aging populations. Close surveillance of outbreaks and herd immunity are also at the forefront, even in industrialized countries, where previously eradicated viruses are now at risk of re-emergence due to instances of strain recombination, contractions in viral vector geographies, and from their potential use as agents of bioterrorism. There i...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - January 14, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Monette A, Mouland AJ Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

In Silico Methods for Studying T Cell Biology.
We present informatic tools useful to both seasoned bioinformaticians and novices alike, providing a comprehensive overview of the in silico methods used to study T cell biology. With the goal of making this manuscript useful to a broad range of readers, we focus only on freely available tools and algorithms, and we describe the concepts using simple and direct language. We hope this work will serve to assist and inspire researchers interested in T cell biology. PMID: 30635092 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology)
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - January 14, 2019 Category: Cytology Authors: Grzesik K, Eng K, Crauste F, Battaglia S Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research