MRI Brain Changes After Marathon Running: Results of the Berlin Beat of Running Study
In conclusion, acute ischemic brain lesions may be found in endurance runners. Every seventh endurance athlete and every ninth control showed evidence for substantial white matter lesions. [...] © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - September 10, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Herm, Juliane Haeusler, Karl Georg Kunze, Claudia Kr üll, Matthias Brechtel, Lars Lock, J ürgen Heuschmann, Peter U. Haverkamp, Wilhelm Heekeren, Hauke Liman, Thomas Endres, Matthias Fiebach, Jochen B. Jungehulsing, Gerhard Jan Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Acute Effects of Different Training Loads on Affective Responses in Resistance-trained Men
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0997-6680The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of different training loads on ratings of perceived exertion and discomfort and feelings of pleasure/displeasure in resistance-trained men. Twelve resistance-trained men (26.7±3.5 years, 85.1±17.5 kg, and 174. 9±9.9 cm) performed 3 sets of the bench press, squat on a hack machine, and lat pulldown, until volitional concentric failure in two separate conditions: a moderate load (MOD) consisting of a relative load of 8–12 repetitions maximum (RM), and a light load (LIT) ...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - September 9, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Ribeiro, Alex S. dos Santos, Erick D. Nunes, Jo ão Pedro Schoenfeld, Brad J. Tags: Training & Testing Source Type: research

Effects of Frequency and Duration of Interrupting Sitting on Cardiometabolic Risk Markers
This study examined the effect of high and low frequency PA bouts (matched for total PA duration and energy expenditure) on postprandial cardiometabolic responses when compared with prolonged sitting. In this three-condition randomised crossover trial, 14 sedentary, inactive females (33.8±13.4 years, BMI 27.1±6.3 kg/m2) completed 3, 7.5 h conditions: 1) prolonged sitting (SIT), 2) high-frequency PA breaks (HIGH-FREQ) consisting of 15 ×2 min bouts of moderate-intensity treadmill PA every 30 min, and 3) low-frequency PA breaks (LOW-FREQ) consisting of 3 ×10 min bou...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - September 9, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Maylor, Benjamin D. Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K. Stensel, David J. Orton, Charlie J. Bailey, Daniel P. Tags: Physiology & Biochemistry Source Type: research

Oral Contraceptive Use does not Negatively Affect Body Composition and Strength Adaptations in Trained Women
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0985-4373The purpose was to analyze the influence of oral contraceptive use on body composition and strength levels in trained women. Twenty-three resistance-trained women participated in this study (age=27.4±3.4 years; fat mass=28.0±5.0%; BMI=22.9±2.7 kg∙m-2). Subjects performed an 8-week non-linear resistance-training program. Participants were assigned to either a group that consumed oral contraceptives (n=12, OC) or to a group that did not consume (n=11, NOC). Changes in body composition were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Strength performance...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - September 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Romance, Ram ón Vargas, Salvador Espinar, Sergio Petro, Jorge L. Bonilla, Diego A. Sch öenfeld, Brad J. Kreider, Richard B. Ben ítez-Porres, Javier Tags: Training & Testing Source Type: research

Statement to the Letter to the Editor: MicroRNA Profile and Adaptive Response to Exercise Training: A Review
Int J Sports Med 2019; 40: 680-680 DOI: 10.1055/a-0986-9898 © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - September 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Laguette, Mary-Jessica Nancy September, Alison Victoria Ci ęszczyk, Pawel Doma ńska-Senderowska, Daria Jegier, Anna Brzezia ńska-Lasota, Ewa Tags: Statement to the Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Letter to The Editor: MicroRNA Profile and Adaptive Response to Exercise Training: A Review
Int J Sports Med 2019; 40: 678-679 DOI: 10.1055/a-0986-9767 © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - September 6, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Velasque, Rodolfo dos Santos, Caleb G.M. Xavier, Raphael Paulucio, Dailson Alvarenga, Renato Pfaffl, Michael W. Pompeu, Fernando A. M. S Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Periodized versus Non-periodized Stretch Training on Gymnasts Flexibility and Performance
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0942-7571Static stretching (SS) can increase joint range of motion (ROM), due to neural, morphological, and physio-psychological factors. Periodized training programs (PD) (e. g., strength, power) are adopted to induce greater adaptations while avoiding overtraining. However, the effectiveness of periodized stretch training adaptations are unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effects of periodized and non-periodized (NP) stretching programs on flexibility, hamstrings stiffness and muscle performance. Sixteen gymnasts were allocated to either periodized or...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - September 5, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Lima, Camila D. Brown, Lee E. Li, Yimeng Herat, Nehara Behm, David Tags: Training & Testing Source Type: research

Increased Risk of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Mental Health Problems in Retired Professional Jockeys: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-1004-5495 © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  open access Full text (Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - September 3, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Mackinnon, Anna-Louise Jackson, Kate Kuznik, Kerry Turner, Alison Hill, Jerry Davies, Madeleine A. M. Jones, Mary Elizabeth Delmestri, Antonella Sanchez-Santos, Maria T. Newton, Julia Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Allometric Scale Corrects Performance Outcomes in Special Judo Fitness Test
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0929-6985We compared results of Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) performance of young athletes of two different age categories after correcting body mass (BM) variations by allometric scales. Thirty young judokas (14.2±3.6 years) belonging to two age categories underwent an SJFT: under 15 (U15) years old (12.1±2.4 years; 46.5±15.6 kg; 152.4±11.2 cm) and under 21 years old (U21) (18.2±0.8 years; 77.1±23.5 kg; 174.2±8.9 cm). Allometric exponents of −0.33 and 0.67 were used to correct the influence of BM variatio...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - September 2, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Franco-Alvarenga, Paulo Estev ão Ferreira, Guilherme Assun ção Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo Bertuzzi, R ômulo Pires, Fl ávio Oliveira De Oliveira, Fernando Roberto Tags: Training and Testing Source Type: research

Concurrent Training and Detraining: brief Review on the Effect of Exercise Intensities
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0975-9471Concurrent resistance and aerobic training (CT) has been applied to optimize both strength and aerobic performance. However, it should be carefully prescribed, as there are some factors, as the training intensity, which have strong influence on training adaptations. Thus, we conducted a systematic review to analyze the scientific evidence regarding aerobic and resistance exercise intensities during CT and their effect on performance outcomes. The effects of exercise intensity on a subsequent detraining period were also assessed. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, the risk of b...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - September 2, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Sousa, Ant ónio C. Neiva, Henrique Pereira Izquierdo, Mikel Cadore, Eduardo Lusa Alves, Ana R. Marinho, Daniel Almeida Tags: Review Source Type: research

Post-exercise Hypotension Produced by Supramaximal Interval Exercise is Potentiated by Angiotensin Receptor Blockers
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0927-6957We studied the effects of supramaximal interval exercise (SIE) with or without antihypertensive medication (AHM) on 21-hr blood pressure (BP) response. Twelve hypertensive patients chronically medicated with AHM, underwent three trials in a randomized order: a) control trial without exercise and substituting their AHM with a placebo (PLAC); b) placebo medicine and a morning bout of SIE (PLAC+SIE), and c) combining AHM and exercise (AHM+SIE). Acute and ambulatory blood pressure responses were measured for 21-hr after treatment. 20  min after treatment, systolic blood pressure ...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - September 2, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Ramirez-Jimenez, Miguel Morales-Palomo, Felix Ortega, Juan Fernando Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo Tags: Physiology & Biochemistry Source Type: research

Calf Blood Compound (CFC) and Homeopathic Drug Induce Differentiation of Primary Human Skeletal Muscle Cells
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0915-2306The use of injections to treat structural muscle injuries is controversially discussed. In our controlled in vitro study, we investigated the biological impact of Actovegin and Traumeel alone and in combination on primary human skeletal muscle cells. Cells were characterized by immunofluorescence staining for myogenic factor 5 (Myf5) and MyoD, and cultured with or without Actovegin and / or Traumeel. The effects of these agents were assayed by cell viability and gene expression of the specific markers MyoD, Myf5, neural adhesion molecule (NCAM), and CD31. Myotube formation was deter...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - September 2, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Langendorf, Eva K. Klein, Anja Rommens, Pol M. Drees, Philipp Ritz, Ulrike Mattyasovszky, Stefan G. Tags: Genetics & Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Suspended Push-up Training Augments Size of not only Upper Limb but also Abdominal Muscles
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0989-2482We investigated the effects of sling-based, suspended push-up training on muscle size and function of upper limb and abdominal muscles. Eight men conducted suspended push-ups to failure 3 sets/session, 3 sessions/week, for 8 weeks. The maximum number of push-ups during training gradually and from the first to last training session (+92%), suggesting improved muscle endurance. After the training, muscle thickness of the elbow extensors (+16%) and flexors (+3%), as well as abdominal muscles (rectus abdominis: RA,+27%; external oblique: EO,+14%) significantly increased. No changes occu...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - August 29, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Kohiruimaki, Ren Maeo, Sumiaki Kanehisa, Hiroaki Tags: Training & Testing Source Type: research

C-Reactive Protein Serum Levels as an Internal Load Indicator of Sprints in Competitive Football Matches
This study compared internal load variable dynamics across three consecutive football matches and investigated its relationship with the number of sprints performed by players. Twenty-three male players had blood and salivary samples collected for hormonal concentration (testosterone, cortisol, and testosterone-cortisol ratio), and serum analysis (interleukin-6, interleukin-1-beta, and c-reactive-protein), respectively. Sprints were measured through Global Position System devices. Testosterone and testosterone-cortisol-ratio presented a decreasing behavior up to the second match, and all other indicators presented an incre...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - August 29, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Jatene, Pedro dos Santos, Gustavo Silva Portella, Daniel Leite Tags: Physiology & Biochemistry Source Type: research

Recovery from Strenuous Downhill Running in Young and Older Physically Active Adults
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0951-0017There is a well-conceived notion that rate of recovery from strenuous exercise gets slower with age. However, it is unclear whether older adults who exercise habitually demonstrate slower rates of recovery. We determined whether older adults who are physically active demonstrate slower rates of recovery from unaccustomed strenuous exercise compared with younger peers. Healthy young sedentary (n=10, 28±2 years), young endurance-trained (n=15, 27±2 years), and older endurance-trained (n=14, 58±2 years) men and women were studied. Participants performed 45 m...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - August 24, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Hayashi, Koichiro Leary, Miriam E. Roy, Stephen J. Laosiripisan, Jitanan Pasha, Evan P. Tanaka, Hirofumi Tags: Physiology & Biochemistry Source Type: research

Phase Angle is Moderately Associated with Short-term Maximal Intensity Efforts in Soccer Players
This study examined the relationship between PhA and short-term maximal intensity efforts in soccer players, and was conducted in 99 male soccer players, ages 19–36 years. Bioelectrical impedance was used to assess body fat, fat free mass (FFM) and PhA (phase angle). Running Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) was used to evaluate physical performance. Food consumption was assessed through the 24-hour dietary recall method. Pearson correlation and multiple regressions were used for statistical analysis. Phase angle exhibited a positive relationship with maximum power (β=0.66; P
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - August 22, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Nabuco, Hellen C. G. Silva, Analiza M. Sardinha, Lu ís B. Rodrigues, Felipe B. Tomeleri, Crisieli M. Ravagnani, Fabr ício C. P. Cyrino, Edilson S. Ravagnani, Christianne F. C. Tags: Nutrition Source Type: research

Eccentric-concentric Ratio: A Key Factor for Defining Strength Training in Soccer
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0977-5478The aims of this study were to analyse the effect of chronic strength training over concentric power (CON), eccentric power (ECC), ECC/CON ratio, and 20 m linear sprint performance in elite young soccer players. Twenty young elite Spanish soccer players were assigned to an experimental group (CPG) which performed a front-step exercise using a conical pulley, 2–3 sets of 6 repetitions each leg, during 9 weeks (CPG, n=10) in addition to its usual strength training, or to a control group (CG, n=10). The improvements in the ECC mean power (36%, ES=1.61), and ECC / CON ratio...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - August 21, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Nu ñez, F. Javier Hoyo, Mois és de L ópez, Alejandro Muñoz Sa ñudo, Borja Otero-Esquina, Carlos Sanchez, Hugo Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver Tags: Training & Testing Source Type: research

Effect of Stacked Sodium Bicarbonate Loading on Repeated All-out Exercise
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0978-5139The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether NaHCO3, administered via a 9-h stacked loading protocol (i.e. repeated supplementation with small doses in order to obtain a gradual increase in blood [HCO3 -]), has an ergogenic effect on repeated all-out exercise. Twelve physically active males were randomly assigned to receive either NaHCO3 (BIC) or placebo (PL) in a double-blind cross-over design. NaHCO3 supplementation was divided in three identical 3-h cycles: a 6.3 g bolus at the start, followed by 2.1 g doses at +1-h and +2-h, yielding a total NaHCO3 intake of 0...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - August 21, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Dalle, Sebastiaan De Smet, Stefan Geuns, Willem Rompaye, Bart Van Hespel, Peter Koppo, Katrien Tags: Training & Testing Source Type: research

Moderate Associations of Muscle Elasticity of the Hamstring with Hip Joint Flexibility
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0981-7282The main purpose of the present study was to identify whether and to what extent the individual differences in range of motion and stiffness of the hip joint can account for that in muscle elasticity of the hamstring. Hip extension torque and shear moduli (a measure of elasticity) of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus were assessed in 21 young males during unilateral passive hip flexion in the knee-extended position from the anatomical position to the individual’s maximal hip flexion angle. Muscle shear modulus was quantified by using ultrasound shear wave...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - August 19, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Miyamoto, Naokazu Hirata, Kosuke Tags: Orthopedics & Biomechanics Source Type: research

Immune and Hormonal Response to High-intensity Exercise During Orienteering
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0970-9064Orienteering is an endurance sport that combines physical and cognitive activity, during which the athlete must complete a course with several points distributed over unknown terrain in the shortest possible time. A number of studies have investigated the body’s physiological adaptations to the stress caused during competition, but not the immunological changes. To that end, the present study evaluated the immunological, physiological and pathological responses in athletes performing high-intensity physical exercise during an orienteering race. The 30 athletes tested belonged ...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - August 14, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Araujo, Nayara Costa Neto, Anibal Monteiro Magalh ães Fujimori, Mahmi Bortolini, Miguel Sordi Justino, Allisson Benatti Honorio-Fran ça, Adenilda Cristina Luz ía França, Eduardo Tags: Physiology & Biochemistry Source Type: research

Plyometric-based Training for Isokinetic Knee Strength and Jump Performance in Cricket Fast Bowlers
This study evaluated the effect of a combined plyometric and strength training program on isokinetic knee strength of fast bowlers. Forty-two professional fast bowlers were randomly assigned to a training group (n=21) and a control group (n=21). Both groups underwent isokinetic knee strength and vertical and standing broad-jump testing. Quadriceps and hamstring concentric and eccentric peak torques, bilateral strength asymmetries (BSAs), and dynamic control ratios (DCRs) were evaluated by isokinetic testing. The study group underwent 12 weeks of plyometric training, whereas the control group continued with their own traini...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - August 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Krishna, Sai Aditya Alwar, Thiagarjan Keddin Sibeko, Sandile Ranjit, Shivani Sivaraman, Arumugam Tags: Training & Testing Source Type: research

Radiographic Osteoarthritis Prevalence Over Ten Years After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0902-8539The purpose of this study was to conduct an up-to-date systematic review and meta-analysis of radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA) over minimal ten years after ACL reconstruction. The database of Pubmed and the Ovid was adopted. The radiographic knee OA over minimal ten years after ACL reconstruction was systematically reviewed. Both the ipsilateral and contralateral knees were evaluated referring to the tibiofemoral joint (TFJ), the patellofemoral joint (PFJ), and the overall knee OA prevalence. Nineteen studies were included for review, with nine screened for the meta-analysis. T...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - August 12, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Chen, Tianwu Wang, Shuang Li, Yunxia Ai, Chengchong Jiang, Fangyi Chen, Shiyi Tags: Review Source Type: research

Increased Risk of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Mental Health Problems in Retired Professional Jockeys: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0902-8601To examine the prevalence of chronic disease and mental health problems in retired professional, male jockeys compared to an age-matched reference population. A cross-sectional study comparing data from a cohort of retired professional jockeys with an age-matched general population sample. Male participants (age range: 50–89 years old) were used to compare health outcomes of self-reported physician-diagnosed conditions: heart disease, stroke, diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, depression and anxiety between study populations. Conditional logistic regression ...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - August 7, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Mackinnon, Anna-Louise Jackson, Kate Kuznik, Kerry Turner, Alison Hill, Jerry Davies, Madeleine A. M. Jones, Mary Elizabeth Delmestri, Antonella Sanchez-Santos, Maria T. Newton, Julia Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Segment Coordination Variability During Double Leg Bodyweight Squats at Different Tempos
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0965-7358The aims of this study were twofold: 1) to examine lower extremity coordination during bodyweight squats performed at two different tempos, and 2) to establish a reliable measure of segment coordination variability. Eighteen subjects (10 F, 8 M) completed bodyweight squats at preferred (self-paced) and non-preferred (metronome-paced) tempos. A modified vector coding approach used kinematic data to compute absolute couplings patterns and coordination variability for three couplings (foot-shank, shank-thigh, thigh-trunk) in three planes of motion for the descent and asce...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - August 5, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: King, Adam C. Hannan, Kelci B. Tags: Orthopedics & Biomechanics Source Type: research

Effects of Two High-intensity Interval Training Concepts in Recreational Runners
This study investigated the effects induced by 8 weeks of two high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols, 10–20–30 and 30–30 concepts, characterized by significantly different training volume and intensity, on physiological parameters, running performance, body composition and psychophysiological stress of recreational divided into two groups: the 10–20–30 group performed two 10–20–30 sessions/wk and one continuous training (CT)/wk, whilst the 30–30 group performed two 30–30 sessions/wk and one CT session/wk. VO2max, 1 km time, maximal aerobic speed (MAS),...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - August 2, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Faelli, Emanuela Ferrando, Vittoria Bisio, Ambra Ferrando, Mara Torre, Antonio La Panasci, Marco Ruggeri, Piero Tags: Training & Testing Source Type: research

Correction: Effect of Exercise on Outcome after Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0983-9023 © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: M üssigbrodt, Andreas Czimbalmos, Csilla Stauber, Annina Bertagnolli, Livio Bode, Kerstin Dagres, Nikolaos D öring, Michael Richter, Sergio Sommer, Philipp Husser, Daniela Bollmann, Andreas Hindricks, Gerhard Arya, Arash Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Maximal Sustained Isokinetic Power at Exercise Intolerance is not Critical Power
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0946-1974The asymptote of the hyperbolic power-duration relationship, critical power (CP), demarcates sustainable from non-sustainable exercise. CP is a salient parameter within the theoretical framework determining exercise tolerance. However, measuring CP is time consuming – typically 4 constant-power exercise tests to intolerance, or a 3-min all-out sprint is required.To determine whether 30 s of maximal isokinetic cycling, immediately following the limit of tolerance, approximates CP.Fifteen participants (7 women, 8 men, 23±5 yr, 71±12 kg, V̇O2peak 4.39...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - July 31, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Yong, Stanley Swisher, Austin R. Ferguson, Carrie Cannon, Daniel T. Tags: Training & Testing Source Type: research

Field Methods to Estimate Fat-free Mass in International Soccer Players
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0969-8591Based on the high financial and logistical costs associated with the assessment of body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), this study determined which field method has the best correlation with DXA data, and developed an equation to estimate fat-free mass (FFM) using the field anthropometric data in international soccer players. A total of 17 international soccer players participated in this study. DXA values provided a criterion measure of FFM. Correlation coefficients, biases, limits of agreement, and differences were used as validity measures, and regression...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - July 31, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Nu ñez, F. Javier Munguia-Izquierdo, Diego Petri, Cristian Suarez-Arrones, Luis Tags: Training & Testing Source Type: research

Differences Between Bimodal and Unimodal Force-Time Curves During Countermovement Jump
This study aimed to explore the biomechanical differences between single and double peak ground reaction force-time curves during the countermovement jump with respect to kinematics, kinetics, and coordination of the lower extremities. Twenty-five college students were stratified into a single peak curve group and a double peak curve group. Eight infrared cameras and two force platforms were synchronized to collect the data. Independent t-tests were performed with groups for each dependent kinematic, kinetic and time of the joint extensor concentric contraction variable. Repeated one-way analysis of variance measurements w...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - July 31, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Peng, Hsien-Te Song, Chen-Yi Chen, Zong-Rong Wang, I-Lin Gu, Chin-Yi Wang, Li-I Tags: Orthopedics & Biomechanics Source Type: research

Sports Medicine International Open – recently published
Int J Sports Med 2019; 40: 614-614 DOI: 10.1055/a-0967-3468 © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - July 26, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: SMIO-Teaser Source Type: research

Exercise with Blood Flow Restriction to Improve Quadriceps Function Long After ACL Reconstruction
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0961-1434Quadriceps atrophy and weakness can persist for years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). We evaluated the effectiveness of a home-based blood flow restriction (BFR) exercise program to increase quadriceps size and strength several years after ACLR. Nine adults with ACLR (5±2 yrs post-surgery, ≤90% symmetry in quadriceps size and strength) and nine uninjured controls volunteered. ACLR participants exercised at home for 25 min, 5×/wk for 4 wks (single-leg knee extension, bodyweight half-squats, walking). Blood flow in only the involve...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - July 23, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Kilgas, Matthew A. Lytle, Lydia L.M. Drum, Scott N. Elmer, Steven J. Tags: Training & Testing Source Type: research

Total and Regional Body Composition of NCAA Division I Collegiate Female Softball Athletes
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0962-1283The purpose of this study was to evaluate total, regional, and throwing versus non-throwing arm body composition measures across the 4 major positions of NCAA Division I female softball players using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (n=128). Total and regional total mass (TM), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and visceral adipose tissue were measured. Athletes were separated into: pitchers (n=32), catchers (n=13), outfielders (n=39), and infielders (n=44). ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD assessed total and regional differences between...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - July 23, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Czeck, Madeline A. Raymond-Pope, Christiana J. Stanforth, Philip R. Carbuhn, Aaron Bosch, Tyler A. Bach, Christopher W. Oliver, Jonathan M. Dengel, Donald R. Tags: Training & Testing Source Type: research

Effect of Exercise on Outcome after Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy
This study aimed to assess the role of exercise on long-term results of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) therapy of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with ARVD/C. Exercise participation was evaluated by telephone or in-person interviews in patients from our ARVD/C registry with previous VT ablation (38 patients, 26 males, age 52.6±14.1years). Of 38 patients, 30 were involved in sports activities before RFCA. Only the minority of our patient population (21.1%) had a sedentary lifestyle before RFCA; 42.1 and 36.8% reported recreational or competitive sports, respectively. During the follow-up period of 5...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - July 23, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: M üssigbrodt, Andreas Czimbalmos, Csilla Stauber, Annina Bertagnolli, Livio Bode, Kerstin Dagres, Nikolaos D öring, Michael Richter, Sergio Sommer, Philipp Husser, Daniela Bollmann, Andreas Hindricks, Gerhard Arya, Arash Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Habitual Light-intensity Physical Activity and ASC Methylation in a Middle-aged Population
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0965-1374Apoptosis-associated, speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) plays an important role in inflammatory cytokine synthesis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and the expression of ASC is suppressed by increased methylation of its CpG sites. The current study investigated the longitudinal association of replacing sedentary time with light-intensity physical activity (LPA) or moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) on the ASC methylation in middle-aged people. We investigated 1 238 individuals who participated in baseline and 5...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - July 23, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Nishida, Yuichiro Hara, Megumi Higaki, Yasuki Taguchi, Naoto Nakamura, Kazuyo Nanri, Hinako Horita, Mikako Shimanoe, Chisato Yasukata, Jun Miyoshi, Nobuyuki Yamada, Yosuke Higashimoto, Ken Soejima, Hidenobu Tanaka, Keitaro Tags: Behavioural Sciences Source Type: research

Appropriate Resistance Intensity and Effective Exercise for Activation of Infraspinatus
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0960-9676We investigated the muscle activities of the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid, as well as the ratio of the infraspinatus to posterior deltoid muscle activities, in response to 3 resistance intensities during prone external rotation (PER) and sitting external rotation (SITER) exercises. Fifteen healthy males participated; the subjects performed two exercises randomly at three resistance intensity levels: 1) low intensity (10–20%); 2) medium intensity (45–55%); 3) high intensity (60–70%). Surface electromyography was used to measure the activities of the infraspin...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - July 18, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Yu, Il-Young Oh, Se-Il Jung, Won-Jeong Oh, Jaeseop Tags: Training & Testing Source Type: research

Comparison of Oxygen Uptake Kinetics During Severe-intensity Laboratory and Field Cycling
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0961-6999The O2-kinetic response to constant work rate exercise provides an insight into the adjustment of systemic oxygen transport and muscle metabolism. Whether O2-kinetics measured in laboratory conditions reflect O2-kinetics in field conditions has not yet been analysed. The aim of this study was to compare O2-kinetics between field and laboratory conditions. Thirteen competitive male cyclists (mean±SD age 23.3±4.1 years; V̇O2peak 68.2±4.7 mL.min−1.kg−1) completed two 6-min severe-intensity trials at 60 and 90 rev.min−1 in both conditions. ...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - July 15, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Prinz, Bernhard Haselsberger, Kevin Tschan, Harald Nimmerichter, Alfred Tags: Training & Testing Source Type: research

Methodological Considerations for a Vascular Function Test Battery
This study aimed to determine the test-retest reliability of a test battery of vascular function measures: automated blood pressure (BP), laser Doppler imaging with iontophoresis (LDI), digital volume pulse (DVP), pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx) measured by pulse wave analysis (PWA) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) taken within and between sessions. Measures were taken in 21 non-smoking males intra-session and again inter-session (one week apart) to determine repeatability and reproducibility, respectively. There was moderate to excellent repeatability (ICC: 0.53–0.93; CV=2.2–18.1%) and repr...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - July 15, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Kimble, Rachel Keane, Karen M. Lodge, John K. Howatson, Glyn Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Is the Energy Expenditure Provided by Exergames Valid?
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0955-9394To assess energy expenditure (EE) estimated by a metabolic system during the exergame Hollywood Workout on Xbox 360Kinect® and to compare this measure with the EE estimated by the exergame (EEEx). thirty-four physically active young males performed the Sports Athlete protocol of the Hollywood Workout. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and carbon dioxide production (V̇CO2) were measured before and during the protocol using a metabolic system. The absolute means V̇O2 and V̇CO2 were used to calculate the EE during the exergame session (EEMS). The EEEx (kcal) provided by the exergame was co...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - July 11, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Viana, Ricardo Borges Gentil, Paulo Andrade, Mar ília Santos Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa Tags: Physiology & Biochemistry Source Type: research

How Does Power During Running Change when Measured at Different Time Intervals?
This study aimed to examine how the power output changes while running at a continuous comfortable velocity on a motorized treadmill by comparing running power averaged during different time intervals. Forty-nine endurance runners performed a running protocol on a treadmill at self-selected comfortable velocity. Power output (W) was estimated with the Stryd™ power meter, and it was examined over six recording intervals within the 3-min recording period: 0–10 s, 0–20 s, 0–30 s, 0–60 s, 0–120 s and 0–180 s. The ANOVAs showed no significant di...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - July 11, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Garc ía-Pinillos, Felipe Soto-Hermoso, V íctor M. Latorre-Rom án, Pedro Á. P árraga-Montilla, Juan A. Roche-Seruendo, Luis E. Tags: Orthopedics & Biomechanics Source Type: research

Full-Squat as a Determinant of Performance in CrossFit
This study analyzed the relationship between CrossFit performance and power and strength variables measured in the full-squat exercise. Twenty male trained subjects (33±7 years) performed an incremental load full-squat test for assessment of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM) and the mean (Pmean) and peak (Ppeak) power. Performance in 5 different Workouts of the Day (WODs) was measured on different days, and overall CrossFit performance was determined as the sum of the scores obtained in these WODs. Athletes were then assigned to a high (HP) or low (LP) performance group based on the median score for overall performance...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - July 10, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Mart ínez-Gómez, Rafael Valenzuela, Pedro L. Barranco-Gil, David Moral-Gonz ález, Susana Garc ía-González, Adela Lucia, Alejandro Tags: Training & Testing Source Type: research

To Couple or not to Couple? For Acute:Chronic Workload Ratios and Injury Risk, Does it Really Matter?
We examined the association between coupled and uncoupled acute:chronic workload ratios (ACWR) and injury risk in a cohort of 28 elite cricket fast bowlers (mean±SD age, 26±5 yr). Workloads were estimated using the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE). Coupled ACWRs were calculated using a 1-week acute workload and 4-week chronic workload (acute workload was included in the chronic workload calculation), whereas uncoupled ACWRs used the most recent 1-week acute workload and the prior 3-week chronic workload (acute workload was not included in the chronic workload calculation). A nearly pe...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - July 10, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Gabbett, Tim J. Hulin, Billy Blanch, Peter Chapman, Paul Bailey, David Tags: Training & Testing Source Type: research

Blood Flow Restriction Alters Motor Unit Behavior During Resistance Exercise
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-0888-8816We aimed to determine whether blood flow restriction (BFR) alters the characteristics of individual motor units during low-intensity (LI) exercise. Eight men (26.0±3.8 yrs) performed 5 sets of 15 knee extensions at 20% of one-repetition maximum (with and without BFR). Maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MVC) were performed before and after exercise to quantify force decrement. Submaximal isometric voluntary contractions were additionally performed for 18 s, matching trapezoidal target-force trajectories at 40% pre-MVC. EMG activity was recorded from the va...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - July 10, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Fatela, Pedro Mendonca, Goncalo V. Veloso, Ant ónio Prieto Avela, Janne Mil-Homens, Pedro Tags: Physiology & Biochemistry Source Type: research

Effect of Subcutaneous Tissue on Changes in Thigh Circumference Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
This study’s primary purpose was to examine pre- and post-operative changes in thigh circumference, thigh muscles and SF CSAs in both legs. Secondary, the relationship between thigh circumference and muscle and SF CSAs was examined to demonstrate that circumference measurements could be used to detect atrophy. Quadriceps, hamstrings, and SF CSAs at 15, 10, and 5 cm proximal to the patella were measured by MRI pre- and 4 weeks postoperatively to examine how reconstruction affected those tissues in the thighs. The results showed increases in SF CSA (r=0.72 at 10 cm, r=0.67 at 15 cm) greatly affecte...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - July 9, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Yoshii, Ryo Konishi, Yu Ando, Daisuke Ochiai, Satoshi Hagino, Tetsuo Dobashi, Shohei Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Sleep Hygiene for Optimizing Recovery in Athletes: Review and Recommendations
Int J Sports Med 2019; 40: 535-543 DOI: 10.1055/a-0905-3103For elite athletes who exercise at a high level, sleep is critical to overall health. Many studies have documented the effects of sleep deprivation in the general population, but few studies exist regarding specific effects in the athlete. This review summarizes the effects of sleep deprivation and sleep extension on athletic performance, including reaction time, accuracy, strength and endurance, and cognitive function. There are clear negative effects of sleep deprivation on performance, including reaction time, accuracy, vigor, submaximal strength, and endurance....
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - July 9, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Vitale, Kenneth C. Owens, Roberts Hopkins, Susan R. Malhotra, Atul Tags: Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Weightlifting Shoulder Injuries Presenting to U.S. Emergency Departments: 2000 –2030
Int J Sports Med 2019; 40: 528-534 DOI: 10.1055/a-0927-6818Weightlifting is associated with a significant risk of shoulder injury. We used the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database to identify patients presenting to U.S. emergency departments between 2000 and 2017 with weightlifting-associated shoulder injuries to determine how the health burden and demographic characteristics of these patients have changed over time. Our analyses demonstrated a significant increase in the national estimate of weightlifting-associated shoulder injuries between 2000 (N=8.073; C.I. 6.309–9.836) and 2017 (N=14....
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - July 9, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Pirruccio, Kevin Kelly, John D. Tags: Orthopedics & Biomechanics Source Type: research

Training Organization, Physiological Profile and Heart Rate Variability Changes in an Open-water World Champion
This study reports extreme load of an elite ultra-endurance swimmer. Improvements in parasympathetic indices with increasing Z2 volume indicate that this training zone was useful to improve cardiac autonomic activity, whereas Z1 training reduced sympathetic activity. [...] © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - July 9, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Pla, Robin Aubry, Anael Resseguier, No émie Merino, Magali Toussaint, Jean-Fran çois Hellard, Philippe Tags: Training & Testing Source Type: research

Effect of External Counterpulsation on Exercise Recovery in Team Sport Athletes
This study examined the effects of an ECP session upon neuromuscular function (vertical jump and torque/velocity characteristics), biochemical responses (creatine kinase, cortisol, testosterone, alpha-amylase and immunoglobulin-A), and muscle soreness (visual analogue scale) following high-intensity exercise. Twenty-one male team sport athletes (age: 21.6±3.4 yrs; height: 182.7±7.3 cm; body mass: 82.7±9.3 kg) recovered from the fatiguing exercise using either ECP or rest. Data collection was conducted at three separate time points: upon arrival (Pre), post-recovery (Post), and 24 h...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - July 9, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Collins, Ruben McGrath, Denise Horner, Katy Eusebi, Silvia Ditroilo, Massimiliano Tags: Training & Testing Source Type: research

Effects of Various Work-to-rest Ratios during High-intensity Interval Training on Athletic Performance in Adolescents
Int J Sports Med 2019; 40: 503-510 DOI: 10.1055/a-0927-6884To examine the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with different work-to-rest ratios on athletic performance in athletes. Forty-seven male Taekwondo athletes (aged 15–18 yrs) were randomly assigned into 3 HIIT groups and a control group. Each group performed 6 and 8 bouts of HIIT: 1) 1:2 (30:60 s), 2) 1:4 (30:120 s), and 3) 1:8 (30:240 s) groups while the control group performed only Taekwondo training program. All HIIT groups completed 10 sessions over 4 weeks. Athletic performance tests including VO2max test, Winga...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - July 9, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Seo, Myong-Won Lee, Jung-Min Jung, Hyun Chul Jung, Sung Woo Song, Jong Kook Tags: Training & Testing Source Type: research

Reliability of Trail Walking and Running Tasks Using the Stryd Power Meter
Int J Sports Med 2019; 40: 498-502 DOI: 10.1055/a-0875-4068Footpod monitors are wearable devices attaching to the shoe with the ability to sense oscillations in leg movement; however, few studies provide reliability. The purpose was to provide reliability data for outdoor tasks as measured by the Stryd Power Meter, which is a footpod monitor. Young healthy individuals (N=20, male n=12, female n=8) completed two 5-min self-paced walks along a trail, and two 5-min trail runs. Reliability of the tasks was determined using Coefficient of Variation (CV), Intraclass Correlation (ICC), and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Measures ...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - July 9, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Navalta, James Wilfred Montes, Jeffrey Bodell, Nathaniel G. Aguilar, Charli D. Radzak, Kara Manning, Jacob W. DeBeliso, Mark Tags: Training & STesting Source Type: research

Recommendations in Post-exercise Hypotension: Concerns, Best Practices and Interpretation
Int J Sports Med 2019; 40: 487-497 DOI: 10.1055/a-0938-4415Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is a clinically relevant phenomenon that has been widely investigated. However, the characteristics of study designs, such as familiarization to blood pressure measurements, duration of PEH assessments or strategies to analyze PEH present discrepancies across studies. Thus identifying key points to standardize across PEH studies is necessary to help researchers to build stronger study designs, to facilitate comparisons across studies, and to avoid misinterpretations of results. The goal of this narrative review of methods used in PEH...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - July 9, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: de Brito, Leandro Campos Fecchio, Rafael Yokoyama Pe çanha, Tiago Lima, Aluisio Halliwill, John Forjaz, Claudia Lucia de Moraes Tags: Review Source Type: research