Type 2 diabetes mellitus, oxidative stress and inflammation: examining the links.
Authors: Oguntibeju OO Abstract Diabetes mellitus has been recognised as one of the four major non-communicable diseases that demands urgent attention from all key shareholders globally in an effort to address its prevalence and associated complications. It is considered as a top 10 cause of death globally, killing about 1.6 million people worldwide and is seen as the third highest risk factor for worldwide premature mortality due to hyperglycaemia and hyperglycaemic-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. There is a strong link between hyperglycaemia, hyperglycaemic-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and th...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - July 26, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Melatonin modulates inflammatory mediators and improves olanzapine-induced hepatic steatosis in rat model of schizophrenia.
CONCLUSION: Although ineffective as monotherapy, Mel co administration provides promising natural way to improve Ola-induced hepatic derangement in psychotic disorders. PMID: 31333809 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology)
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - July 26, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

The effect of Korean red ginseng on mesenchymal stem cells from healthy and osteoporotic human bone marrow.
CONCLUSION: KRG triggered an increase in intracellular ALP levels of osteoporotic MSCs. It suggests that KRG on osteoporotic cells is influential in stimulating osteogenesis and may be useful in osteoporotic patients. PMID: 31333810 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology)
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - July 26, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Long-term prognosis after cancer surgery with inhalational anesthesia and total intravenous anesthesia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis suggests that TIVA is associated with lower all-cause mortality after cancer surgeries. As cancers of different origins can respond very differently to pharmacological intervention, more clinical trials are needed in each cancer types in order to substantiate the role of anesthesia in cancer surgery prognosis. PMID: 31333811 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology)
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - July 26, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Distinct plasma proteomic changes in male and female African American stroke patients.
CONCLUSION: Plasma proteins that differ in quantities between stroke patients and controls were readily detected using a simple proteomic approach. Sex-dependent changes and changes that have not been reported for African American stroke patients offer potentially novel biomarkers for stroke in this underserved population. PMID: 31149323 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology)
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - June 4, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Positive effects of systemic sodium benzoate and olanzapine treatment on activities of daily life, spatial learning and working memory in ketamine-induced rat model of schizophrenia.
CONCLUSION: Both Ola and SB improved ADL, cognitive and memory functions. Although SB saved testicular and renal functions, it worsened liver function compared to Ola. PMID: 31149324 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology)
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - June 4, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

The rise of circulatory endothelin (ET)-1 and endothelin receptors (ETA, ETB) expression in kidney of obese wistar rat.
CONCLUSION: Obesity in elder obese rats leads to dysregulation of kidney vessels through activity of ET-1 and ETA/ETB. PMID: 31149325 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology)
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - June 4, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Nephroprotective effect of Costus afer on lead induced kidney damage in albino rats.
Authors: Ezejiofor AN, Orisakwe OE Abstract BACKGROUND: Lead is a nephrotoxicant probably implicated in the rising incidence of chronic kidney injury in sub-Sahara Africa. With the prohibitive cost and unavailability of metal chelators, chronic kidney disease CKD prevention is very difficult hence the search for affordable alternative. Costus afer have been shown to be organo-protective. The present research investigated the nephroprotective effect of aqueous leaf extract of Costus afer on lead induced nephrotoxicity in male rats. METHODS: Adult male rats were weight matched into five groups of five rats each. ...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - June 4, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Post-stroke neuronal circuits and mental illnesses.
Authors: Naghavi FS, Koffman EE, Lin B, Du J Abstract Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. It is also associated with severe mental illnesses, such as depression and anxiety, that hinder the rehabilitation of surviving patients. Thus, a better understanding of how stroke causes mental illnesses is crucial, but little is known about the neurological mechanisms involved. In this review, we summarized the most common mental illnesses developed after stroke, as well as the underlying mechanisms at the neuronal circuit level. PMID: 30911356 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Phy...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - March 27, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

The effect of lunasin from Indonesian soybean extract on histopatologic examination and cox-2 expression in dextran sodium sulfate-induced mice colon.
In this study, we analyzed the effect of lunasin from soybean to decrease the risk of inflammation by analyzing histopathologic feature and the expression of COX-2. 30 mice are divided into 6 groups. Normal group was not induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). The other groups were induced by 2% DSS through drinking water for 9 days. After 9 days, negative control group did not receive any treatment. The other groups received treatment given lunasin dose 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) and 40 mg/kg BW, commercial lunasin and positive control given aspirin. Treatment was performed for 5 weeks. Inflammatory colon histopathologic ...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - February 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Does β-caryophyllene protect against renal dysfunction following ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat?
CONCLUSION: Our study results demonstrate that BCP attenuated the alterations in some of the oxidative stress markers. However, these were not translated in to the protective effects on the haemodynamic and tubular glomerular functions when measured seven days post-IRI. This suggests that BCP has a weak reno-protective effect under ischemic conditions. PMID: 30697363 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology)
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - February 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Profiling of Argonaute-2-loaded microRNAs in a mouse model of frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism-17.
Authors: Kenny A, Hernández F, Avila J, Lucas JJ, Henshall DC, Prehn JH, Jiménez-Mateos EM, Engel T Abstract Tauopathies are a group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the pathological aggregation of the microtubule-associated protein tau. These include more than 20 diseases, with Alzheimer's disease being the most frequent. While pathological and neurotoxic effects of tau are well documented, the mechanisms by which tau can promote neurodegeneration are less clear. Increasing evidence suggests a functional role for microRNAs in the pathogenesis of tauopathies, with altered expression and ...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - February 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Evaluate neuroprotective effect of silibinin using chronic unpredictable stress (cus) model.
CONCLUSION: The study revealed that silibinin exerted effects in behavioral despair paradigm in chronically stressed mice, specifically by modulating central oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID: 30697365 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology)
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - February 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Role of adenylyl cyclase activator in controlling experimental diabetic nephropathy in rats.
In conclusion, treatment with adenylyl cyclase activator, Forskolin in diabetic rats reduced the elevated serum glucose level, biomarkers of renal morphological dysfunction, renal hypertrophy, dyslipidaemia, oxidative stress and improved renal structure, function and enhanced level of endogenous antioxidants. Forskolin has a potential to prevent nephropathy without showing any effect on body weight in diabetic rats. PMID: 30515257 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology)
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - December 6, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

The evaluation of malignant mucosal melanoma of nasal cavity with a rare occasion.
Authors: Kepekci AH, Kig C, Gundogan GI Abstract Malignant mucosal melanoma is an uncommon disease with a low rate of survival. Malignancies of nasal mucosa which usually presents with nasal obstruction, epistaxis and back drip are difficult to treat and often have poor prognosis. The present case had presented to our clinic with classic symptoms and diagnostic findings of nasal polyposis. Consistently, the patient had previously been diagnosed with and treated for nasal polyposis in another ENT clinic. Physical examination, rhinoscopic examination, computed tomography (CT) scan of the head did not reveal any findi...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - September 26, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

The role of PPAR- γ and NFKB genes expression in muscle to improve hyperglycemia in STZ-induced diabetic rat following magnesium sulfate administration.
The role of PPAR-γ and NFKB genes expression in muscle to improve hyperglycemia in STZ-induced diabetic rat following magnesium sulfate administration. Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol. 2018;10(3):124-131 Authors: Khosravi F, Kharazmi F, Kamran M, Malekzadeh K, Talebi A, Soltani N Abstract The present study was designed to investigate the possible role of magnesium (Mg2+) on activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and inhibition of nuclear factor-KB (NFKB p65) in muscle to increase glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) gene expression. Fifty rats were divided...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - July 27, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

The peptide glycyl- ʟ-histidyl-ʟ-lysine is an endogenous antioxidant in living organisms, possibly by diminishing hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals.
The peptide glycyl-ʟ-histidyl-ʟ-lysine is an endogenous antioxidant in living organisms, possibly by diminishing hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals. Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol. 2018;10(3):132-138 Authors: Sakuma S, Ishimura M, Yuba Y, Itoh Y, Fujimoto Y Abstract Despite evidence that tripeptide glycyl-ʟ-histidyl-ʟ-lysine (GHK) is an endogenous antioxidant, its mechanism and importance are not fully understood. In the present study, the ability of GHK to reduce levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Caco-2 cells was evaluated by flow cytometry with the oxidation-sensitive fluorescent dye 2'...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - July 27, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Melatonin and tumeric ameliorate aging-induced changes: implication of immunoglobulins, cytokines, DJ-1/NRF2 and apoptosis regulation.
Authors: Ismail IA, El-Bakry HA, Soliman SS Abstract Aging is associated with several biological, physiological, cellular and histological changes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of aging on different signaling pathways, including antioxidant system, apoptosis and immune status. Several natural products were used to ameliorate and block aging-related changes. Melatonin and turmeric have been known to ameliorate and decrease aging-related changes. However, the exact mechanism(s) of their action is not fully understood. In the present study, we tried to uncover the regulatory mechanism(s) by which m...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - May 18, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Ischemic preconditioning attenuates acute lung injury after partial liver transplantation.
In conclusion, toxic cytokine and HMGB1 released from failing small-for-size grafts leads to pulmonary adhesion molecule expression, leukocyte infiltration and injury. IP prevents DAMP release and toxic cytokine formation in small-for-size grafts, thereby attenuating ALI. PMID: 29755641 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology)
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - May 18, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

An improved method for increasing the efficiency of gene transfection and transduction.
Authors: Shi B, Xue M, Wang Y, Wang Y, Li D, Zhao X, Li X Abstract Transfection and transduction using lentivirus has gained attention in biomedical research. To date, how to reach the maximum transfection and viral transduction efficiency is still challenging. Here we compared the transfection and viral transduction efficiency using commercially available transfection reagents including FuGENE 6, Lipofectamine 2000 and Lipofectamine 3000 in different cell lines and primary cultured cells. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was clearly seen in Eppendorf tubes from harvested cells using Lipofectamine 3000 wit...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - May 18, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Tumor associated macrophages deliver iron to tumor cells via Lcn2.
In conclusion, TAMs increased intracellular iron concentration of the tumor cells via Lcn2 which acted as an iron transporter. Targeting Lcn2 secretion in TAMs to "starve cancer cells" could act as alternative option for tumor therapy. PMID: 29755643 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology)
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - May 18, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Potential implication of SGK1-dependent activity change in BV-2 microglial cells.
Authors: Asai H, Inoue K, Sakuma E, Shinohara Y, Ueki T Abstract It has recently been established that microglial activation is involved in the pathophysiology of various neurological and psychiatric disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and schizophrenia. The pathological molecular machineries underlying microglial activation and its accelerating molecules have been precisely described in the diseased central nervous system (CNS). However, to date, the details of physiological mechanism, which represses microglial activation, are still to be elucidated. Our latest report demonstrated that serum- and gluc...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - May 18, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

New insights into Nod-like receptors (NLRs) in liver diseases.
Authors: Xu T, Du Y, Fang XB, Chen H, Zhou DD, Wang Y, Zhang L Abstract Activation of inflammatory signaling pathways is of central importance in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Nod-like receptors (NLRs) are intracellular innate immune sensors of microbes and danger signals that control multiple aspects of inflammatory responses. Recent studies demonstrated that NLRs are expressed and activated in innate immune cells as well as in parenchymal cells in the liver. For example, NLRP3 signaling is involved in liver ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and silencin...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - March 30, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

The crosstalk between autonomic nervous system and blood vessels.
Authors: Sheng Y, Zhu L Abstract The autonomic nervous system (ANS), comprised of two primary branches, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, plays an essential role in the regulation of vascular wall contractility and tension. The sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves work together to balance the functions of autonomic effector organs. The neurotransmitters released from the varicosities in the ANS can regulate the vascular tone. Norepinephrine (NE), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) function as vasoconstrictors, whereas acetylcholine (Ach) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) ...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - March 30, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Saturated fatty acids bound to albumin enhance osteopontin expression and cleavage in renal proximal tubular cells.
This study was designed to examine if FA overload could stimulate OPN expression and cleavage in renal tubule epithelial cells. OPN gene and protein expression was examined in the kidney of Zucker diabetic (ZD) rats and cultured proximal tubular cells exposed to either bovine serum albumin (BSA) or BSA conjugated with palmitic acid (PA), the most abundant saturated plasma FA. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed an upregulation of renal cortical OPN gene correlated with albuminuria and nephropathy progression in ZD rats at the age of 7-20 weeks. Immunofluorescence staining of kidney sections revealed a massive induction of OPN...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - March 30, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate synergistically aggravates testicular dysfunction in adult Wistar rats.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that ascorbic acid and NaB synergistically aggravates testicular dysfunction. This is independent of oxidative stress status. PMID: 29593849 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology)
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - March 30, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Systemic delivery of selective EP1 and EP3 receptor antagonists attenuates pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice.
Authors: Reschke CR, Poersch AB, Masson CJ, Jesse AC, Marafiga JR, Lenz QF, Oliveira MS, Henshall DC, Mello CF Abstract Neuroinflammation plays a major role in brain excitability and may contribute to the development of epilepsy. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a direct mediator of inflammatory responses and, through EP receptors, plays an important role in neuronal excitability. Pharmacological evidence supports that centrally-administered EP1 and EP3 receptor antagonists reduced acutely evoked seizures in rats. Translation of these findings would benefit from evidence of efficacy with a more clinically relevant route ...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - March 30, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Acupuncture for alcohol use disorder.
Authors: Chen P, Li J, Han X, Grech D, Xiong M, Bekker A, Ye JH Abstract Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a common medical and social problem, affecting about 240 million people in the world. To address this major health concern, the currently available treatments for AUD need to be improved. Acupuncture, a popular form of complementary and alternative therapy, is emerging as an effective treatment for AUD. This review summarizes how preclinical and clinical studies are related to the application of acupuncture for AUD. These studies suggest that if used correctly, acupuncture may effectively reduce alcohol intake, at...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - March 30, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Inflammasome in drug abuse.
Authors: Xu E, Liu J, Wang X, Xiong H Abstract Drug abuse disorders refer to a set of related negative health implications associated with compulsive drug seeking and use. Because almost all addictive drugs act on the brain, many of them cause neurological impairments after long-term abuse. Neuropathological studies have revealed a widespread impairment of the cellular elements. As the key components to limit the damage of neural cells, CNS immune system is also found affected by these drugs, directly or indirectly. It has been shown that drugs of abuse alter neuroimmune gene expression and signaling. Growing studi...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - January 21, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Tubby-like protein 1 (Tulp1) is a target of microRNA-134 and is down-regulated in experimental epilepsy.
Authors: Rodriguez AS, Engel T, Palfi A, Farrar GJ, Henshall DC, Jimenez-Mateos EM Abstract MicroRNAs are important determinants of gene expression via post-transcriptional control of the protein levels of their mRNA targets. MicroRNA-134 (miR-134) has emerged as an important brain-specific microRNA which has been implicated in the control of dendritic spine morphology, neuronal differentiation and apoptosis. Here we show that Tubby-like protein 1 (Tulp1) is a target of miR-134. Tulp1 protein showed a similar cellular distribution pattern in the hippocampus to miR-134 and displayed an inverse expression pattern in ...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - January 21, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Therapeutic angiogenesis of exosomes for ischemic stroke.
Authors: Manuel GE, Johnson T, Liu D Abstract Angiogenesis is the process through which new blood vessels are formed, while therapeutic angiogenesis aims to promote and control the angiogenic response. Ischemia results from the lack of blood flow with oxygen and nutrients. Therapeutic angiogenesis is crucial in preserving brain tissue and bodily functions after ischemic stroke. Various approaches have been proposed to promote angiogenesis in ischemic diseases. Traditional protein/gene and subsequent stem/progenitor cell approaches have not shown consistent efficacy for ischemic diseases in clinical trials. Exosomes...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - January 21, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Condition-specific transcriptional regulation of neuronal ion channel genes in brain ischemia.
The objective of this study is to identify ion channel genes that are differentially regulated under different brain ischemic conditions, as a mean to identify those ion channels that are associated with ischemic brain injury and ischemic tolerance. In mice in vivo, transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. In cultured neuronal cells in vitro, simulated ischemia was modeled by oxygen-glucose deprivation. For both in vivo and in vitro studies, three principal ischemic conditions were included: ischemic-preconditioned, injured and tolerant, respectively, plus appropriate controls. In ...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - January 21, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Experimentally-induced ventricular arrhythmias.
Authors: Merrill GF Abstract Hypoxia and reoxygenation, ischemia and reperfusion, catecholamine infusion, ouabain, sodium pentobarbital and caffeine, can all be used experimentally to induce ventricular arrhythmias. According to the Lambeth Convention guidelines our experimentally-induced ventricular arrhythmias include but are not limited to: ventricular premature beats (VPB), ventricular salvos (VS), ventricular bigeminy (VB), nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (VTn), sustained ventricular tachycardia (VTs) and ventricular fibrillation (VF, or if the heart is not defibrillated, sudden cardiac death). We have st...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - January 21, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

TRPM7 is a unique target for therapeutic intervention of stroke.
Authors: Lin J, Xiong ZG Abstract Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and long-term disabilities. The current therapy is limited to thrombolysis and mechanical recanalization, which have limited success. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying ischemic brain injury is therefore needed for the development of more effective interventions. Glutamate receptor-mediated Ca2+ overload and neurotoxicity have been well established for decades. However, clinical trials failed to show a satisfactory effect with the antagonists of glutamate receptors. Other glutamate-independent mechanisms, such as activati...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - January 21, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Low-dose ethanol excites lateral habenula neurons projecting to VTA, RMTg, and raphe.
Authors: Fu R, Mei Q, Zuo W, Li J, Gregor D, Bekker A, Ye J Abstract It is unclear how social drinking can contribute to the development of addiction in susceptible individuals. However, alcohol's aversive properties are a well-known factor contributing to its abuse. The lateral habenula (LHb) is a key brain structure responding to various aversive stimuli, including those related to alcohol. We recently reported that ethanol at 10 mM or less that can be achieved by social drinking activates many LHb neurons and drives aversive conditioning. The current study sought to identify LHb circuits that are activated by a ...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - January 21, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Methanolic extract of Cola nitida elicits dose-dependent diuretic, natriuretic and kaliuretic activities without causing electrolyte impairment, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in rats.
Authors: Adeosun OI, Olaniyi KS, Amusa OA, Jimoh GZ, Oniyide AA Abstract Cola nitida (Kolanut) is conventionally used in tropical Africa for the treatment of all kinds of ailments such as migraine, morning sickness, metabolic disorders etc. However, this study was designed to investigate the diuretic, natriuretic and kaliuretic activities of methanolic extract of Cola nitida (MECN) in male Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly allotted into control (25 ml/kg b.w.), furosemide (20 mg/kg b.w; standard), MECN1 (100 mg/kg), MECN2 (200 mg/kg), MECN3 (300 mg/kg), MECN4 (400 mg/kg), MECN5 (500 mg/kg), MECN6 (6...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - January 21, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Erratum: New insights and new hope for pulmonary arterial hypertension: natriuretic peptides clearance receptor as a novel therapeutic target for a complex disease.
Authors: Egom EE, Feridooni T, Pharithi RB, Khan B, Shiwani HA, Maher V, El Hiani Y, Rose RA, Pasumarthi KB, Ribama HA Abstract [This corrects the article on p. 112 in vol. 9, PMID: 28951773.]. PMID: 29218116 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology)
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - December 10, 2017 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Effect of oleanolic acid on small intestine morphology and enzymes of glutamine metabolism in diabetic rats.
This study investigates the effects of oleanolic acid (OA) on SI morphology and some enzymes of glutamine metabolism in male Sprague-Dawley diabetic rats. High dose STZ-induced diabetes (HDD) and low dose STZ-induced diabetes (LDD) were induced by intraperitoneal injection of 60 and 40 mg streptozotocin/kg body weight respectively. Non-diabetic and diabetic rats were treated for two weeks with OA, insulin or OA + insulin in HDD study while animals in the in LDD study were treated with OA. There was significant (P
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - December 7, 2017 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Zinc chelation promotes streptokinase-induced thrombolysis in vitro.
Authors: Wang Z, Yu X, Li YV Abstract Cardiovascular disorder occurs when a local blood clot obstructs an artery or a vein to its surround organs, causing related tissues to lose function and die. It is one of the leading causes of mortality and a major cause of disability. The effect of thrombolysis induced by injecting intravenous thrombolytic agents is critical for reducing tissue damages. Streptokinase (SK) is a widely used thrombolytic agent in the treatment of thromboembolism in the blood vessels. A high unit of streptokinase is used in thrombolytic therapies for thrombotic disorders and could improve tissue ...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - December 7, 2017 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

miR-149 reduces while let-7 elevates ASIC1a expression in vitro.
Authors: Jiang YQ, Zha XM Abstract Acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) is the key subunit that determines acid-activated currents in neurons. ASIC1a is important for neural plasticity, learning, and for multiple neurological diseases, including stroke, multiple sclerosis, and traumatic injuries. These findings underline the importance for better defining mechanisms that regulate ASIC1a expression. During the past decade, microRNA has emerged as one important group of regulatory molecules in controlling protein expression. However, little is known about whether microRNA regulates ASIC1a. Here, we assessed several m...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - December 7, 2017 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Protective roles of hepatic GABA signaling in liver injury.
Authors: Wang S, Zhang L, Liu C, Lu WY Abstract In addition to functioning as a neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) generates signals, via its type A or type B receptors (GABAARs or GABABRs), in various types of cells. Studies, including ours, show that GABAAR-mediated auto- and paracrine GABAergic signaling occurs in rodent hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, protecting the liver against toxic injuries. This short article briefly introduces the GABA signaling system in rodent livers and discusses potential mechanisms by which the hepatic GABA signaling protects the liver function. PMID: 29209452 [Pu...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - December 7, 2017 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Statistical methods and common problems in medical or biomedical science research.
Authors: Yan F, Robert M, Li Y Abstract Statistical thinking is crucial for studies in medical and biomedical areas. There are several pitfalls of using statistics in these areas involving in experimental design, data collection, data analysis and data interpretation. This review paper describes basic statistical design problems in biomedical or medical studies and directs the basic scientists to better use of statistical thinking. The contents of this paper were based on previous literatures and our daily basic support work. It includes the sample size determination and sample allocation in experimental design sta...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - December 7, 2017 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

New insights and new hope for pulmonary arterial hypertension: natriuretic peptides clearance receptor as a novel therapeutic target for a complex disease.
Authors: Egom EE, Feridooni T, Pharithi RB, Khan B, BSc HAS, Maher V, Hiani YE, Rose RA, Pasumarthi KB, Ribama HA Abstract BACKGROUND: Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is a deadly and disabling disease for which there is no marketed drug that addresses the underlying disease mechanism and targets to cure patients. The lack of understanding of the disease mechanism represents the main challenges in developing curative therapies. We here report, for the first time, that mice lacking natriuretic peptides clearance receptor develop PAH. METHODS AND RESULTS: Initial studies assessed cardiac structure and functi...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - September 29, 2017 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

The effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on the renal dysfunction in the obstructed kidney in the rat.
Authors: Hammad FT, Lubbad L Abstract INTRODUCTION: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most active catechin polyphenol extracted from the green tea. EGCG has protective effects in various renal and non-renal conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of EGCG on the alterations in renal functional parameters following reversible unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in the rat. METHODS: Wistar rats underwent reversible left UUO for 72 hours. Group-EGCG (n=10) received intraperitoneal 50 mg/kg/day of EGCG whereas Group-Vx (n=10) had only normal saline. Five days post UUO reversal, renal...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - September 29, 2017 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Erratum: Effects of Low-Dose acetazolamide on exercise performance in simulated altitude.
Authors: Ernst E, Gatterer H, Burtscher J, Faulhaber M, Pocecco E, Burtscher M Abstract [This corrects the article on p. 28 in vol. 9, PMID: 28533889.]. PMID: 28951775 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology)
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - September 29, 2017 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Alteration of circadian rhythm during epileptogenesis: implications for the suprachiasmatic nucleus circuits.
Authors: Xiang Y, Li ZX, Zhang DY, He ZG, Hu J, Xiang HB Abstract It is important to realize that characterization of the circadian rhythm patterns of seizure occurrence can implicate in diagnosis and treatment of selected types of epilepsy. Evidence suggests a role for the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circuits in overall circadian rhythm and seizure susceptibility both in animals and humans. Thus, we conclude that SCN circuits may exert modifying effects on circadian rhythmicity and neuronal excitability during epileptogenesis. SCN circuits will be studied in our brain centre and collaborating centres to explore ...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - July 12, 2017 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

8-pCPT-cGMP prevents mitochondrial depolarization and improves the outcome of steatotic partial liver transplantation.
In this study, we explored whether 8-pCPT-cGMP prevents the MPT and decreases post-transplant damage to fatty partial liver grafts (FPG) in vivo. Rats were fed a control or high-fat, high-fructose diet for 2-week. Lean and fatty liver explants were reduced in size ex vivo to ~35% and stored in the University of Wisconsin solution with and without 8-pCPT-cGMP (300 µM) for 2 h. After transplantation, alanine aminotransferase release (indicator of hepatocellular injury), hyperbilirubinemia (indicator of poor liver function), and cell death were all higher in FPG than in lean partial grafts (LPG). Liver regeneration incr...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - July 12, 2017 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Role of microglia in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity.
Authors: Xu E, Liu J, Liu H, Wang X, Xiong H Abstract Methamphetamine (Meth) is an addictive psychostimulant widely abused around the world. The chronic use of Meth produces neurotoxicity featured by dopaminergic terminal damage and microgliosis, resulting in serious neurological and behavioral consequences. Ample evidence indicate that Meth causes microglial activation and resultant secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules leading to neural injury. However, the mechanisms underlying Meth-induced microglial activation remain to be determined. In this review, we attempt to address the effects of Meth on human immunod...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - July 12, 2017 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Generating CNS organoids from human induced pluripotent stem cells for modeling neurological disorders.
Authors: Brawner AT, Xu R, Liu D, Jiang P Abstract Understanding human brain development and disease is largely hampered by the relative inaccessibility of human brain tissues. Recent advances in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have led to the generation of unlimited human neural cells and thereby facilitate the investigation of human brain development and pathology. Compared with traditional 2-dimensional (2D) culture methods, culturing the hiPSC-derived neural cells in a three-dimensional (3D) free-floating manner generates human central nervous system (CNS) organoids. These 3D CNS organoids possess...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - July 12, 2017 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Lidocaine suppresses glioma cell proliferation by inhibiting TRPM7 channels.
CONCLUSIONS: Lidocaine significantly inhibits the proliferation of glioma cells. The effect of lidocaine is mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting TRPM7 channels. PMID: 28533887 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology)
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - May 25, 2017 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research