Reaching consensus on drug resistance conferring mutations (Part 2)
Publication date: December 2016 Source:International Journal of Mycobacteriology, Volume 5, Supplement 1 Author(s): D.M. Cirillo, P. Miotto, E. Tagliani (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - January 11, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Reaching consensus on drug resistance conferring mutations (Part 1)
Conclusions ReSeqTB serves as a single repository for the compilation, curation, and validation of existing and newly created sequences and metadata on M. tuberculosis strains and will use the currently reviewed data set, validated by international experts, as a starting point until sufficient new sequence data are accumulated. This initiative is supported by a global partnership of academic institutions, public health agencies, and nongovernmental organizations including the Critical Path Institute, FIND, the World Health Organization, the New Diagnostics Working Group, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,...
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - January 11, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Evaluation the virulence of Mycobacterium bovis isolated from milk samples through histopathological study in laboratory animals
Conclusion Our study conclude the presence of M. bovis isolates in milk in high percentage pause important source of tuberculosis infection for human being. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - December 16, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Pathogenesis of multi drug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis as a determinant of future treatment success
Publication date: Available online 25 November 2016 Source:International Journal of Mycobacteriology Author(s): Faramarz Valafar (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - December 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Diagnosing tuberculosis in the 21st century – Dawn of a genomics revolution?
Publication date: December 2016 Source:International Journal of Mycobacteriology, Volume 5, Issue 4 Author(s): Christopher Jeanes, Justin O’Grady Tuberculosis (TB) ranks alongside HIV as the leading cause of death worldwide, killing 1.5million people in 2014. Traditional laboratory techniques do not provide sufficiently rapid results to inform clinicians on appropriate treatment, especially in the face of increasingly prevalent drug-resistant TB. Rapid molecular methods such as PCR and LAMP are vital tools in the fight against TB, however, rapid advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technology are allowing in...
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - December 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Challenging dogma and stagnation in TB research
Publication date: December 2016 Source:International Journal of Mycobacteriology, Volume 5, Issue 4 Author(s): Matthew Bates, Rumina Hassan, Ben Marais, Francine Ntoumi, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - December 5, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Radiographic manifestations of Tuberculosis in HIV positive patients: Correlation with CD4+ T-cell count
Conclusion In CD4+ cell count <500, the dominant radiographic pattern of Tuberculosis is atypical presentation. At this level of immunity, CD4+ T cell dysfunction may play a deterministic role in TB radiographic manifestation. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - December 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Development of rapid immuno-diagnostic test for the early detection of tuberculosis
Conclusion The combination of targeted antigens and developed mAbs could be used as novel biomarker for detection of active TB directly from patient sera. We are trying to uncover the best antigen and mAbs recipe for the development of point of care diagnosis of active tuberculosis. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - December 2, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Childhood tuberculosis in Qatar
Publication date: Available online 1 December 2016 Source:International Journal of Mycobacteriology Author(s): J.P.N. Singh, Reem Mohammed, Thanveer Thayyullathil, Abdullatif Al-Khal, Zubaida Al- Suwaidi Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has been long neglected but has gained attention in recent years. In 2012, the World Health Organization annual report included an estimate for childhood TB for the first time, and in the following year, the TB Alliance received a grant from UNITAID to develop pediatric TB formulations. Qatar is a low-incidence country. In this observational study, laboratory-confirmed cases of TB were analyzed...
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - December 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Effectiveness of a novel cellular therapy to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis
Conclusion MSC treatment could vastly improve treatment outcomes for MDR-TB patients. Our findings could revolutionize therapy options and have strong implications for future directions of MDR-TB therapy research (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Antimycobacterial ingredients from plants used in traditional medicine to treat Buruli ulcer
Conclusions The results completed support the use these plants in the indigenous knowledge against BU. Further analyses of active principles might lead to new drug toe fight against BU. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The difficulties of childhood tuberculosis diagnosis
Conclusions Tuberculosis in children is often undiagnosed or difficult to diagnose, most developing countries still using ancient methods which can recognize only the developed tuberculosis. It’s necessary to evaluate the issue’s importance in order to improve the diagnosis conditions (systematic culture and susceptibility test in children), and to ensure the availability of the effective treatment (the pediatric formulation of the essential drugs). (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 26, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The prevalence of tuberculosis among Iranian elderly patients admitted to the infectious ward of hospital: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusion The prevalence of tuberculosis among Iranian elderly patients admitted to the Infectious ward of hospital is high and it is recommended considering tuberculosis as differential diagnosis in elderly patients with infectious symptoms. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 26, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Thoracic surgical interventions for DR-TB and their results
Conclusions In conclusion, surgical intervention should be offered and made available for greater number of DR-TB patients. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 26, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Rehabilitation of treated TB patients: Social, psychological and economic aspects
Conclusion Therefore despite having completed treatment, many people continue to suffer. Hence it is necessary that robust systems for post-treatment rehabilitation are put in place, and are designed based on the needs of those affected. Peer to peer counselling can be a low-cost high-impact strategy to address some of these issues. Institutional provisions, under the national response in each country, must be put in place if individuals are to successfully complete treatment, and return to their normal lives. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 26, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Usefulness of IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in North India
Conclusion In this study, we found that the majority of isolates were having multiple copy numbers of IS6110 element and showed a very diverse pattern. These results showed that the IS6110-RFLP analysis is still a promising genotyping method and has good discriminatory power to differentiate strains of MTB isolates. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 26, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Whole genome sequencing as the ultimate tool to diagnose tuberculosis
Publication date: Available online 24 November 2016 Source:International Journal of Mycobacteriology Author(s): Dick van Soolingen, Rana Jajou, Arnout Mulder, Han de Neeling In the past two decades, DNA techniques have been increasingly used in the laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). The (sub) species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex are usually identified using reverse line blot techniques. The resistance is predicted by the detection of mutations in genes associated with resistance. Nevertheless, all cases are still subjected to the cumbersome phenotypic resistance testing. The production of a strain-cha...
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Evaluation of genotype MTBDRplus assay for rapid detection of isoniazid and rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from Pakistan
Conclusions As evidenced in this study, the major concern with the GenoType MTBDRplus assay were false negative results. In comparison to conventional drug susceptibility testing, the assay was unable to detect 30 (30/100; 30%) strains resistant to INH and 23 (23/100; 23%) strains resistant to RMP. The GenoType MTBDRplus failed to identify 38 MDR (38/100; 38%) strains. Resistance in those strains probably originate from mutations in other codons and/or genes than those covered by the test. For detecting INH and RMP resistance in TB cases, especially in high TB incidence countries, such as Pakistan, molecular approaches sho...
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Use of WGS in M. tuberculosis routine diagnosis
Publication date: Available online 24 November 2016 Source:International Journal of Mycobacteriology Author(s): Daniela M. Cirillo, A.M. Cabibbe, M.R. De Filippo, A. Trovato, T. Simonetti, G.M. Rossolini, E. Tortoli Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) is becoming affordable with overall costs comparable to other tests currently in use to perform the diagnosis of drug resistant tuberculosis and cluster analysis. The WGS approach allows an “all-in one” approach providing results on expected sensitivity of the strains, genetic background, epidemiological data and indication of risk of laboratory cross-contamination. Al...
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Pathological, bacteriological, and molecular characteristics of natural outbreaks of Johne ’s disease in goats of Fars Province, Iran
Conclusion MAP detection in intestinal content and in tissues is quite necessary for the diagnosis, control, and eradication of this disease in small ruminant herds. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Nontubercular mycobacteria (NTM) in fistula-in-ano: A new finding and its implications
Conclusion Nontubercular mycobacteria can cause fistula-in-ano. It could be an undiagnosed contributory factor in fistula recurrence. Mycobacterial disease (both tubercular and nontubercular) may be associated with delayed recurrence of fistula. RT-PCR is a highly sensitive test and can differentiate between NTM and MTB. It should perhaps be performed in all recurrent and refractory cases. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Evaluation of specific antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis recombinant antigens for detection of recent infection
Conclusion Altogether, the role of M. tuberculosis recombinant proteins, as a suitable candidate for early diagnosis of tuberculosis infection was supported in this study. However, these strongly offer the potential of mixture or fusion of these recombinant proteins for better sensitivity and specificity. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Mutations in embB gene associated with resistance to ethambutol in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from TB patients in the west of Iran (2014 –15)
Conclusion Our results were similar to those that were regularly reported in earlier studies. The only mutations in the EMB-resistant isolates were found in embB 306 and 406 codons. Substantiation amino acids at codon 306 were the most frequent. The data indicated that embB 306 mutations are sufficient to induce ethambutol resistance, and detection of these mutations is advisable to be considered in the development of rapid molecular tests. Sequence analysis of the ERDR in the embB gene is adequate for rapid detection of EMB resistance, and mutations in the codon 306 are good predictive markers for resistance to EMB. (Sour...
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Investigation of isoniazid and ethionamide cross-resistance by whole genome sequencing and association with poor treatment outcomes of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients in South Africa
Conclusion Baseline ETH molecular resistance before second-line treatment is a concern. Unfavorable treatment outcomes of patients with ethA, ethR, and inhA mutations highlight the importance of genotypic testing before initiation of treatment containing ETH. The clinical significance of whole genome analysis for early detection of mutations predictive of treatment failure needs further investigation. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Assessing genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by spoligotyping and IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism in North India
Conclusion Spoligotype analysis resulted in the grouping of a much larger number of isolates within apparently identical clusters compared with IS6110-RFLP typing, while IS6110-RFLP was not found to effectively distinguish between zero- and low-copy-number isolates. Therefore, we concluded that, in India, the use of both the techniques simultaneously for DNA fingerprinting of M. tuberculosis is a better approach. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Mediastinal lymphadenopathy in pediatric tuberculosis in computed tomography scan
Conclusion Attention to distribution and characteristics of mediastinal lymphadenopathy can help differentiate tuberculosis from other causes of pediatric mediastinal lymphadenopathy. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Usefulness of pulmonary artery diameter in diagnosing pulmonary hypertension in patients admitted to tuberculosis intensive care unit
Conclusion Although PAD and PA:AA ratio are useful in assessing of presence of PH, we conclude that these CT parameters are not sufficient for ruling in or ruling out PH in this group of patients. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Deletion of region of difference 181 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strains
Conclusion As we found a deletion in RD181 in the Beijing strains only, we propose to use this marker as an identification tool for genotyping of the Beijing strain. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Increased expression of efflux pump genes in extensively drug-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Conclusion The differences between XDR-TB and drug-susceptible isolates suggest that the increased expression levels of MTB efflux pump genes may contribute to drug resistance in extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Future studies are needed to determine whether combining efflux pump inhibitors to antitubercular drugs would be effective to treat resistant tuberculosis. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Pathogenesis of multidrug-/extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis as a determinant of future treatment success
Publication date: Available online 25 November 2016 Source:International Journal of Mycobacteriology Author(s): F. Valafar (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Development of Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium smegmatis recombinants expressing major Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigenic proteins
Conclusion Positive results of cloning and expression suggest that the constructed clones are ready tools for further assessment of their immunogenicity and can be included in improved diagnostic tools and vaccines against TB. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Complex emergencies in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Impact on tuberculosis control
Conclusion Complex emergencies pose a significant negative impact on tuberculosis in the EMR. This issue should be raised in the global health and political arena. This is a time bomb for tuberculosis. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

What is in a cough?
Conclusion Cough aerosol cultures of M. tuberculosis are the best predictors of infectiousness and predict incident TB disease among sputum smear-positive patients in Uganda. We propose that cough aerosol cultures are a better surrogate of inhaled dose than sputum smear. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 24, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Application of highly portable MinION nanopore sequencing technology for the monitoring of nosocomial tuberculosis infection
Publication date: Available online 23 November 2016 Source:International Journal of Mycobacteriology Author(s): Matthew Bates, Pascal Polepole, Nathan Kapata, Matt Loose, Justin O’Grady Referral hospitals in sub-Saharan African concentrate large numbers of tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant TB patients, failed by community TB services. We have previously shown, from enhanced screening and through autopsy studies, a significant burden of missed TB infections at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia, with many patients dying or being discharged without treatment. With minimal TB isolation facilities ...
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 23, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Antimycobacterial activity of medicinal plants against the causative agent of buruli ulcer: Mycobacterium ulcerans
Conclusion The obtained results further strengthened the exploitation of these extracts as potent hits in the treatment of Buruli ulcer. Meanwhile, further studies are required to fully characterize the bioactive compounds. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 23, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Molecular drug susceptibility testing against the first-line (rifampin and isoniazid) and second-line (ciprofloxacin –amikacin and kanamycin) treatment in different subtypes of Mycobacterium simiae
Conclusion Regarding the given result, first-line tuberculosis drugs should be excluded from the treatment regimen of M. simiae patients. In addition, subtype I seems to be the most or even the only isolated M. simiae subtype among all Iranian patients. While both amikacin and kanamycin drugs showed better efficacy in the treatment M. simiae, the most susceptible antibiotic is still indeterminate. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Ten years ’ experience of Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) in Gambella Regional State, Ethiopia: An evaluation of tuberculosis control program
Conclusions The recommended TSR set by WHO was achieved as it was already been fulfilled more than 85% from 2009 up to 2011 in the region and the reported CDR was far below (40.9%) for smear-positive pulmonary TB including other forms of TB from the target. Therefore, extensive efforts should be established to maintain the achieved TSR and to increase the low level of CDR for all forms of TB cases through implementing alternative case finding strategies (see Fig. 1 and Table 1). (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: The problem and some priorities in controlling it
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2016 Source:International Journal of Mycobacteriology Author(s): Sven Hoffner Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and even more severe forms of drug resistance, cause significant problems and costs for national TB control programs and constitutes an increasing public health concern globally. In parts of the former Soviet Union, the prevalence of MDR-TB is as high as 50% and one third of all newly detected TB patients are infected with MDR strains. Such strains transmit and certain MDR-TB clones constitute an important part of the problem, especially in high MDR-TB burd...
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Investigation of urine lipoarabinomannan in human immunodeficiency virus patients with or without coinfection with Tuberculosis in Iran
Conclusion Our results highlight the limitations of using urine LAM levels for differentiating HIV-associated TB patients in Iran. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Impact of genotypic and phenotypic resistance to second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs on treatment outcomes in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in China
Conclusion Drug susceptibility testing for pyrazinamide and fluoroquinolones together with genetic information appears to provide a clinically useful indicator of the treatment outcome of MDR-TB in China. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Alternate efflux pump mechanism may contribute to drug resistance in extensively drug-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Conclusion Our data show an nsSNP in the drrA efflux pump gene that may result in upregulation of drug efflux mechanisms in MTB strains. It is therefore imperative to understand the mechanism of efflux and its role in drug resistance, which will enable the identification of new drug targets and development of new drug regimens to counteract the drug efflux mechanism of MTB. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Comparison of histopathology, acid fast bacillus smear and real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in anal fistula in 161 patients: A prospective controlled trial
Conclusion RT-PCR is significantly more sensitive than histopathology and AFB smear in detecting MTB in fistula-in-ano. The routine practice of doing only histopathology and AFB smear in fistula patients might be missing a significant number of MTB cases and could be responsible for many recurrences in fistula patients. RT-PCR should preferably be done in all fistula cases and at least in refractory and recurrent fistulas. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Occurrence of zoonotic tuberculosis in occupationally exposed high-risk groups in Peshawar, Pakistan
Conclusion Zoonotic TB is a significant public health issue among professionally exposed groups in Peshawar, Pakistan, and suggests a need for further detailed investigations of the disease in this and similar areas. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Genotyping analysis of bovine, ovine, and caprine paratuberculosis in Iran: An IS900-RFLP study
Conclusion Further description on population genetic of MAP in Iran urges for more epidemiological work using similar and alternative standard genotyping system. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Tuberculosis in children
In conclusion most cases of tuberculosis in children occur within 1year of the infection, tuberculosis disease in a child shows recent transmission of the organism. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Bedaquiline in the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment: Belarus experience
Conclusion Our interim results on safety and effectiveness of bedaquiline-containing regimens in multidrug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) patients are encouraging. They will add value to understanding role and place of this new anti-TB drug in M/XDR-TB treatment. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Yield of mycobacteriological study in diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis among Human immune deficiency virus-infected patients
Conclusion The diagnostic yield of mycobacteriological studies is higher among HIV-infected patients with pleural TB than among HIV-negative patients. This may decrease the need for pleural biopsy among them. Therefore, a diagnostic approach to pleural TB may be different among HIV-infected patients. In this group of patients, it is prudent to perform sputum and pleural analysis for the detection of AFB before pleural biopsy. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 19, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Emotional distress patients with several types of tuberculosis. A pilot study with patients from the Sanatorium Hospital of Huambo
Conclusions Our study found high rates of anxiety, depression and emotional distress among TB patients. Marital status, gender, type and treatment of TB were related to higher levels of emotional disorder. Mental health services should be an integral part of programs against tuberculosis. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 19, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Murine model of TB meningitis
Conclusion Our findings demonstrated the design of a novel murine model of CNS-TB using a C3 strain and that replicated events of EPTB dissemination. This model will promote efforts to understand the pathogenesis CNS-TB infection for development of improved therapeutic interventions in the future. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 19, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis among females in South Asia —gap analysis
We report significant gaps in the surveillance of EPTB among women in South Asia, emphasizing the need for greater focus on EPTB in females to overcome current surveillance and knowledge gaps. (Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology)
Source: International Journal of Mycobacteriology - November 15, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research