Assessment of bullet holes through the analysis of mushroom-shaped morphology in synthetic fibres: analysis of six cases
In this study, the textile remains of six individuals executed during the first decade of the Chilean military dictatorship period (1973 –1990) were analysed. The purpose was to examine their clothing in order to describe the fibre defects in the bullet holes. The fibres were directly observed using two different models of stereomicroscopy (MZ16A and EZ4D, Leica Microsystem Ltd., Wetzlar, Germany) and through a combination of trans mitted, oblique and co-axial illumination (with Leica DFC500 Digital Camera), at × 230 and at a resolution of up to 840 Lp/mm. The mushroom-shaped morphology, along with ruptu...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 31, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

TMEM119 as a specific marker of microglia reaction in traumatic brain injury in postmortem examination
AbstractThe aim of the present study was a refined analysis of neuroinflammation including TMEM119 as a useful microglia-specific marker in forensic assessments of traumatic causes of death, e.g., traumatic brain injury (TBI). Human brain tissue samples were obtained from autopsies and divided into cases with lethal TBI (n = 25) and subdivided into three groups according to their trauma survival time and compared with an age-, gender-, and postmortem interval-matched cohort of sudden cardiovascular fatalities as controls (n = 23). Brain tissue samples next to cortex contusions and surrounding white ...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 27, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Toxicogenetic analysis of Δ9-THC-metabolizing enzymes
AbstractWhile the impact of genetic polymorphisms on the metabolism of various pharmaceuticals is well known, more data are needed to better understand the specific influence of pharmacogenetics on the metabolism of delta 9-tetrahydocannabinol ( Δ9-THC). Therefore, the aim of the study was to analyze the potential impact of variations in genes coding forphase I enzymes of the Δ9-THC metabolism. First, a multiplex assay for genotyping different variants of genes coding forphase I enzymes was developed and applied to 66 Δ9-THC-positive blood samples obtained in cases of driving under the influence of drugs ...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 25, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

The relevance of body mass index in forensic age assessment of living individuals: an age-adjusted linear regression analysis using multivariable fractional polynomials
AbstractIn forensic age assessment of living individuals, developmental stages of skeletal maturation and tooth mineralization are examined and compared with a reference population. It is of interest which factors can affect the development of these features. We investigated the effect of body mass index (BMI) on the developmental stages of the medial epiphysis of the clavicle, the distal epiphysis of the radius, the distal epiphysis of the femur, the proximal epiphysis of the tibia, and the left lower third molar in a total of 581 volunteers, 294 females and 287 males aged 12 –24 years, using 3 T MRI. BMI ...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 23, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Compound elevated fracture —reconstruction of an unusual skull injury
This article provides a brief review of the literature with special regard to the pathomechanism. In addition, it demonstrates the possible pitfall of computed tomography, or more specifically, the 3D reconstruction. To our knowledge, this is the first forensic report describing this kind of fracture. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 23, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Unusual attempted suicide or covered attempted homicide? A neck stabbing case report and review of literature
AbstractA medico-legal consult is frequently required in a clinical context in order to assess the eventual compatibility of specific wounds with a self- or hetero-infliction. Accordingly, the case of a 52-year-old man with a single, penetrating stab wound of the neck, reported as self-inflicted, is here presented. The forensic aspects, taken into account in order to determine the self- or hetero-infliction nature of the wound, are further discussed and compared to cases described in the literature. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 22, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Ballistic protective properties of material representative of English civil war buff-coats and clothing
AbstractOne type of clothing system used in the English Civil War, more common amongst cavalrymen than infantrymen, was the linen shirt, wool waistcoat and buff-coat. Ballistic testing was conducted to estimate the velocity at which 50% of 12-bore lead spherical projectiles (V50) would be expected to perforate this clothing system when mounted on gelatine (a tissue simulant used in wound ballistic studies). An estimated six-shotV50 for the clothing system was calculated as 102  m/s. The distance at which the projectile would have decelerated from the muzzle of the weapon to this velocity in free flight was triple the ...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 21, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

A distant relationship? —investigation of correlations between DNA isolated from backspatter traces recovered from firearms, wound profile characteristics, and shooting distance
In this study, we investigated possible correlations between the shooting distance and the amount of backspatter in/on the used firearm. To this purpose, we employed a previously established skull model and performed shootings in triplicates fro m various distances up to 50 cm with two types of handguns (pistol and revolver). Backspatter was collected from various sampling locations, and DNA contents were quantified. A post-shooting wound channel evaluation was conducted by optical and radiological evaluation. The obtained DNA yields varie d considerably between replicates from the same and from different distances. I...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 20, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Medico-legal assessment of personal damage in older people: report from a multidisciplinary consensus conference
AbstractAgeing of the global population represents a challenge for national healthcare systems and healthcare professionals, including medico-legal experts, who assess personal damage in an increasing number of older people. Personal damage evaluation in older people is complex, and the scarcity of evidence is hindering the development of formal guidelines on the subject. The main objectives of the first multidisciplinary Consensus Conference on Medico-Legal Assessment of Personal Damage in Older People were to increase knowledge on the subject and establish standard procedures in this field. The conference, organized acco...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 17, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

An evaluation of the objectivity and reproducibility of shear wave elastography in estimating the post-mortem interval: a tissue biomechanical perspective
AbstractCadaveric rigidity —also referred to asrigor mortis—is a valuable source of information for estimating the time of death, which is a fundamental and challenging task in forensic sciences. Despite its relevance, assessing the level of cadaveric rigidity still relies on qualitative and often subjective observations, and the development of a more qua ntitative approach is highly demanded. In this context, ultrasound shear wave elastography (US SWE) appears to be a particularly well-suited technique for grading cadaveric rigidity, as it allows non-invasive quantification of muscle stiffness in terms of Youn...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 17, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Dental age estimation based on pulp chamber/crown volume ratio measured on CBCT images in a Spanish population
This study included 313 teeth from 107 adult individuals, 56 females and 51 males with a mean age of 44  ± 14 years. The statistical analysis of the results took account of clustering (multiple teeth in individuals). Linear regression models were constructed on the relationship between pulp/tooth volume ratio and chronological age for each tooth type. The highest coefficient of determination (R2) value was provided by the upper incisors (36.6%), and the difference between chronological and estimated age was less than 5  years in 31.3% of the sample and less than 10 years for 65.7%. CBCT ...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 17, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

A novel splicing mutation in Marfan syndrome
ConclusionA novel pathogenic splicing mutation (c.5672-2delA) was confirmed. Present work enriches the profile mutations in FBN1 associated with MFS and stresses the importance of postmortem genetic analysis in such cases. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 16, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

A mummified human corpse and associated insects of forensic importance in indoor conditions
We report, for the first time from Poland, the presence ofDermestes haemorrhoidalis (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) on a mummified human corpse found in a flat (Lower Silesia province, south-western Poland). Different life stages ofD. haemorrhoidalis were gathered from the cadaver, and the signs of activity of these beetles (i.e. frass) were observed. On the basis of these facts, we concluded that the decedent, whose remains were discovered in the flat on 13 December 2018, died no later than the summer of 2018, with a strong probability that death occurred even earlier (2016 or 2017). A case history, autopsy findings, and entomo...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 14, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Epigenetic clocks may come out of rhythm —implications for the estimation of chronological age in forensic casework
AbstractThere is a growing perception that DNA methylation may be influenced by exogenous and endogenous parameters. Knowledge of these factors is of great relevance for the interpretation of DNA-methylation data for the estimation of chronological age in forensic casework. We performed a literature review to identify parameters, which might be of relevance for the prediction of chronological age based on DNA methylation. The quality of age predictions might particularly be influenced by lifetime adversities (chronic stress, trauma/post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), violence, low socioeconomic status/education), cancer...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 14, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Sharp force trauma with two katana swords: identifying the murder weapon by comparing tool marks on the skull bone
AbstractThis paper describes the variety of information that a tool mark analysis on human tissue can provide based on a case of multiple sharp violence. The perpetrator attacked the victim with a sharp-edged weapon against the head, leaving several deep wounds on the back of the skull bone. Three of those marks on the skull bone could be used for a forensic tool mark examination. Silicone casts of the marks were compared by light microscopy with casts of test marks of Japanese katana swords found at the crime scene. One of the swords could be identified as the one responsible for the marks. In addition, the marks and the ...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 13, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Correction to: Intra- and intermuscular variations of postmortem protein degradation for PMI estimation
The above article was published online with an error in the article title. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 13, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Species identification of semen stains by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy
In this study, we investigated the potential of species identification of semen stains by using attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with advanced chemometrics methods. The effect of substrates types and time since deposition (TSD) were considered in the study. A partial least squares –discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) classification model was established which demonstrated complete separation between human and other species (rabbit, dog, boar, bull, and ram). Validation was conducted which showed prediction abilities with 100% accuracy. Additionally, we found species...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 10, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Three-dimensional prediction of nose morphology in Chinese young adults: a pilot study combining cone-beam computed tomography and 3dMD photogrammetry system
AbstractThe nose is the most prominent part of the face and is a crucial factor for facial esthetics as well as facial reconstruction. Although some studies have explored the features of external nose and predicted the relationships between skeletal structures and soft tissues in the nasal region, the reliability and applicability of methods used in previous studies have not been reproduced. In addition, the majority of previous studies have focused on the sagittal direction, whereas the thickness of the soft tissues was rarely analyzed in three dimensions. A few studies have explained the specific characteristics of the n...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 9, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Age estimation of fragmented human dental remains by secondary dentin virtual analysis
AbstractUnlike bones, teeth are remarkably resilient and can withstand severe trauma, making age assessment based on the dentition essential for forensic analysis. Modern techniques for age estimation focus on pulp-chamber volume measurements using radiographs and computerized tomography (CT); however, these are applicable only for complete teeth (i.e., with intact crown and root). In the current study, we developed a new approach using high-resolution micro-computerized tomography ( μCT) to visualize the secondary dentin (SD), an inner layer surrounding the pulp which accumulates with age, thus facilitating age estimat...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 8, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Technical note: presence of gunshot residue in and around a police station
This study continues to strengthen the body of knowledge surrounding transferring of GSR. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 8, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Intra- and intermuscular variations of postmortem protein degradation for PMI estimation
AbstractIn recent years, protein decomposition has become of increasing interest for the use in forensic estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI). Especially skeletal muscle tissue has proven to be a prime target tissue, among other reasons, due to its large abundance in the human body. In this regard, it is important to know whether there are any intra- and intermuscular differences in the behavior of protein degradation. Thus, samples from different locations within several skeletal muscles as well as from cardiac and smooth muscle tissue samples were collected from three autopsy cases with varying degree of decomposi...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 7, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Postmortem age estimation via DNA methylation analysis in buccal swabs from corpses in different stages of decomposition —a “proof of principle” study
In conclusion, buccal swabs are a suitable and easy to collect source for DNA methylation analysis as long as sufficient amounts of DN A are present. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 7, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Intra- and intramuscular variations of postmortem protein degradation for PMI estimation
AbstractIn recent years, protein decomposition has become of increasing interest for the use in forensic estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI). Especially skeletal muscle tissue has proven to be a prime target tissue, among other reasons, due to its large abundance in the human body. In this regard, it is important to know whether there are any intra- and intermuscular differences in the behavior of protein degradation. Thus, samples from different locations within several skeletal muscles as well as from cardiac and smooth muscle tissue samples were collected from three autopsy cases with varying degree of decomposi...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 7, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Beer stein blast to the head a rare case of combined blunt and sharp force trauma
We present a case of a 43-year old man, who suffered from blunt and sharp force head traumas due to one single blow with a 1-l beer stein. A forensic-biomechanical analysis of the event, together with witness testimony evaluation and experimental comparison helped to reconstruct the most probable chain of events. Based on these findings as well as on the medical diagnoses and treatment, the assault was assessed as a nonacute life-threatening, but potentially fatal offence. The case was indicted as grievous bodily harm. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 6, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Impact of metal ions on PCR inhibition and RT-PCR efficiency
In this study, we assessed the inhibitory effects of commonly encountered metals on DNA amplification. Of the nine tested metals, zinc, tin, iron(II) and copper were shown to have the strongest inhibitory properties having IC50 values significantly below 1  mM. In the second part of the study, three commercially available DNA polymerases were tested for their susceptibility to metal inhibition. We found that KOD polymerase was the most resistant to metal inhibition when compared with Q5 and Taq polymerase. We also demonstrate how the calcium chelator ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraac...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Pangolin Indexing System: implications in forensic surveillance of large seizures
In this study, we developed a Pangolin Indexing System, a multi-locus STR panel of eight dinucleotide microsatellites that showed promising results in individualization and assignment of scales into Chinese and Indian pangolins. The combined power of exclusion was 0.83 and 0.99 for Chinese and Indian pangolin. The select panel of eight polymorphic STRs exhibited the cumulative probability of identity 3.7  × 10−9 for Indian pangolin and 3.6  × 10−7 for Chinese pangolin and identified 51 unique genotypes from the 74 scales selected from the four pangolin seizures. The study...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

A novel approach for the forensic diagnosis of drowning by microbiological analysis with next-generation sequencing and unweighted UniFrac-based PCoA
AbstractThe diagnosis of drowning is one of the major challenges in forensic practice, especially when the corpse is in a state of decomposition. Novel indicators of drowning are desired in the field of forensic medicine. In the past decade, aquatic bacteria have attracted great attention from forensic experts because they can easily enter the blood circulation with drowning medium, and some of them can proliferate in the corpse. Recently, the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has created new opportunities to efficiently analyze whole microbial communities and has catalyzed the development of forensic microbiology...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 2, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Comparison of ethanol concentrations in the human brain determined by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and serum ethanol concentrations
AbstractAimsEthanol is a widespread substance that inherits desired effects, but also negative consequences with regard to DUI or battery. Where required, the ethanol concentration is usually determined in peripheral venous blood samples, while the brain is the target organ of the ethanol effects. The aim of this study with three participants was the determination of the ethanol concentration in functionally relevant regions of the brain and the comparison with serum ethanol concentrations.DesignAfter the uptake of ethanol in a calculated amount, leading to a serum ethanol concentration of 0.99 g/L, the ethanol concentrati...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 10, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Technical note: developmental validation of a novel 41-plex Y-STR system for the direct amplification of reference samples
AbstractThe SureID® PathFinder Plus is a new 6-dye, 41-plex Y-STR system that includes the 17 loci from the Yfiler® kit (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, and Y-GATA-H4) plus 14 rapidly mutating Y-STR loci (DYS449, DYS481, DYS518, DYS527a/b, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, DYS627, DYF387S1a/b, and DYF404S1), and 10 low-medium mutation loci (DYS388, DYS444, DYS447, DYS460, DYS522, DYS557, DYS593, DYS596, DYS643, and DYS645). The inclusion of the 14 rapidly mutating Y-STR loci improves the discrimination of related individuals. Conver...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 10, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Validation of the Microreader 40Y ID System: a Y-STR multiplex for casework and database samples
AbstractY-chromosome-specific short tandem repeat loci (Y-STRs) are commonly analysed in forensic science for paternity testing, familial searches, and, in sexual assault cases, to determine male DNA identity from mixed sources with high background female DNA content. The Microreader 40Y ID System is a six-dye multiplex amplification kit that contains 17 Y-STR loci from the Yfiler Plus PCR Amplification Kit and the powerplex Y23 system (DYS19, DYF385a/b, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS549, DYS635(Y GATA C4), DYS643, Y GATA H4, DYS460, DYS481, DYS533, DYF387S1,...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 9, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

DNA typing from skeletal remains: a comparison between capillary electrophoresis and massively parallel sequencing platforms
In this study, short tandem repeats (STR) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 35 human skeletons were genotyped by MPS platform, and CE method was also used to perform STR genotyping. The results indicated that the detection rates reached 100.00% in 16 of 35 samples with MPS method, while the same 100.00% was reached in only 9 samples with CE. The success rates of MPS were also higher than that of CE method in shared 21 loci (excluding Y-indel, DYS391, and SE33), especially in loci detected by MPS method only. Besides, all SNPs (124 and 90 SNPs in males and females) were detected in 18 samples of 35 samples by M...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 7, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Complete mitogenome data for the Serbian population: the contribution to high-quality forensic databases
AbstractMitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is a valuable resource in resolving various human forensic casework. The usage of variability of complete mtDNA genomes increases their discriminatory power to the maximum and enables ultimate resolution of distinct maternal lineages. However, their wider employment in forensic casework is nowadays limited by the lack of appropriate reference database. In order to fill in the gap in the reference data, which, considering Slavic-speaking populations, currently comprises only mitogenomes of East and West Slavs, we present mitogenome data for 226 Serbians, representatives of South Slavs fr...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 6, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Advanced procedures for skull sex estimation using sexually dimorphic morphometric features
AbstractThis paper introduces an automated method for estimating sex from cranial sex diagnostic traits by extracting and evaluating specialized morphometric features from the glabella, the supraorbital ridge, the occipital protuberance, and the mastoid process. The proposed method was developed and evaluated using two European population samples, a Czech sample comprising 170 crania reconstructed from anonymized CT scans and a Greek sample of 156 crania from the Athens Collection. It is based on a fully automatic algorithm applied on 3D models for extracting sex diagnostic morphometric features which are further processed...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 5, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Technical note: double immunohistochemical stain (anti-CD31 and anti-cytokeratins) as a tool for a confident forensic post-mortem diagnosis of amniotic fluid embolism
AbstractAmniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare cause of unexpected late maternal gestational death. The forensic post-mortem diagnosis is rendered upon the histological recognition of fetal “foreign” material inside maternal lung vasculature. The authors propose a double immunohistochemical (anti-CD31 plus anti-cytokeratin AE1/AE3) stain in order to assess accurate amniotic fluid pulmonary embolic burden in a highly reproducible fashion based on the fact that such technique allows to detect an impressive amount of scales within lung vasculature, thereby offering further evidence that pulmonary embolic obstruct...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 5, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Gross and histopathological pulmonary findings in a COVID-19 associated death during self-isolation
AbstractForensic investigations generally contain extensive morphological examinations to accurately diagnose the cause of death. Thus, the appearance of a new disease often creates emerging challenges in morphological examinations due to the lack of available data from autopsy- or biopsy-based research. Since late December 2019, an outbreak of a novel seventh coronavirus disease has been reported in China caused by “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2” (SARS-CoV-2). On March 11, 2020, the new clinical condition COVID-19 (Corona-Virus-Disease-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organizat...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 5, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Genomic polymorphism in North-western Indian population based on autosomal STR ’s: a population data study
AbstractGenetic diversity indices and forensic parameters at 20 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci were evaluated in 541 unrelated individuals of north-western Indian state Rajasthan. In total, 243 alleles were observed with an average of 12.15 alleles per locus. The most polymorphic and discriminative locus was Penta E with a value of 0.908 and 0.984, respectively. The combined power of exclusion and the combined power of discrimination were found to be 0.999999998 and 1, respectively. Additionally, the genetic relationship of the studied population with the reported Indian as well as global populations was investig...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 5, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Correction to: A four-step mutation at D22S1045 in one complex paternity case when the brother of the alleged father hypothesis is evaluated
This article was published online with an error. Given names and family names of the authors were interchanged. The correct author names are presented above. The original article has been corrected. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 5, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Dying with SARS-CoV-2 infection —an autopsy study of the first consecutive 80 cases in Hamburg, Germany
This study provides the largest overview of autopsies of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients presented so far. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 4, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Corona deaths in Hamburg, Germany
(Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 4, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Deletions and duplications of 42 Y chromosomal short tandem repeats in Chinese Han population
AbstractGenotypes of 42 Y chromosome STR (Y-STR) loci were analyzed for a sample of 1420 unrelated males and 1160 father-son pairs from a Chinese Han population. Deletions of Y-STR loci were detected at DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS437, DYS446, DYS447, DYS448, and DYS557 loci. The most common deletion occurred at DYS448 and DYS557 with a frequency of 0.0056 and 0.0035, respectively. On the other hand, duplications of alleles were observed at DYF387S1a/b, DYS385a/b, DYS460, DYS527a/b, DYS459a/b, and DYS557 loci. The DYF387S1a/b, DYS527a/b, and DYS385a/b showed the highest duplicated frequencies of 0.0148, 0.0134, and 0.0099, respe...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - June 1, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Homicide and concealment of the corpse. Autopsy case series and review of the literature
ConclusionsThe methodology of ascertainment should be case-specific and based on a multidisciplinary and multimodal evaluation of all data, including those gained through novel radiological and/or analytical techniques. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - May 30, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Complete decapitation by a self-constructed guillotine in a burned body - complex suicide or postmortem burning?
We report a suicide case of complete decapitation using a self-constructed guillotine. A 45-year-old man, whose body was severely burned, was found dead. The head was completely separated from the middle level of the neck, and a sharp blade with a steel frame was placed between the head and neck. The severance plane passed between the C4 and C5 vertebrae. Vital reactions such as hemorrhage could not be confirmed at the decapitated skin edge because the body was severely burned. Both common carotid arteries were sharply transected. Subendocardial hemorrhage was detected in the left ventricle. Only a little blood, but no soo...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - May 30, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Haplotype analysis of 36 Y-STR loci in a Chinese Han population from Anhui Province, Eastern China
AbstractWe analyzed haplotypes for 36 Y chromosomal STRs (Y-STRs), including 27 Yfiler Plus loci and 9 additional STRs (DYS549, DYS643, DYS508, DYS447, DYS596, DYS444, DYS557, and DYS527a/b) in 2018 unrelated Chinese Han individuals from Anhui Province using DNATyperTM 36Y Kit. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to determine the genetic relationship of the Anhui Han population with other neighboring and/or linguistically close populations. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - May 29, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Combined application of multiple autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR loci in solving a homicide case in 2009
AbstractIn 2009, a violent murder occurred. Two victims, a 47-year-old mother and her 21-year-old daughter, were murdered at home. After importing the 20 autosomal STR loci and 27 Y-STR loci into a database, no hit had been found. In 2019, a person with a prior criminal record was matched in the national forensic Y-STR database. When increasing the number of detected Y-STR loci to 60, all loci of the bloodstain donor at the crime and the suspect were still found to be identical. With the combined calculation of multiple autosomal STR and kinship index, we were able to identify the perpetrator as a previously unknown illegi...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - May 28, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Inside the lungs of COVID-19 disease
We present here the first case of forensic autopsy of a COVID-19 fatality occurring in a young woman, in the community. Diagnosis was made at necropsy and lung histology showed diffuse alveolar damage, edema, and interstitial pneumonia with a geographically heterogeneous pattern, mostly affecting the central part of the lungs. This death related to COVID-19 pathology highlights the heterogeneity and severity of central lung lesions after natural evolution of the disease. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - May 26, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Massive parallel sequencing in forensics: advantages, issues, technicalities, and prospects
AbstractIn the last decade, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, alternatively massive parallel sequencing (MPS), was applied to all fields of biological research. Its introduction to the field of forensics was slower, mainly due to lack of accredited sequencers, kits, and relatively higher sequencing error rates as compared with standardized Sanger sequencing. Currently, a majority of the problematic issues have been solved, which is proven by the body of reports in the literature. Here, we discuss the utility of NGS sequencing in forensics, emphasizing the advantages, issues, the technical aspects of the experime...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - May 25, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Feasibility of use of medical dual energy scanner for forensic detection and characterization of explosives, a phantom study
ConclusionOur medical DECT algorithm and prediction model can readily detect and distinguish our range of explosives on the human body. This would avoid possible endangering of DVI staff. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - May 23, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Cerebellar heterotopia of infancy in sudden infant death syndrome: an observational neuropathological study of four cases
AbstractSudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden unexpected death of an infant
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - May 21, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Revolution in death sciences: body farms and taphonomics blooming. A review investigating the advantages, ethical and legal aspects in a Swiss context
AbstractTaphonomy is the study of decaying organisms over time and their process of fossilization. Taphonomy, originally a branch of palaeontology and anthropology, was developed to understand the ecology of a decomposition site, how site ecology changes upon the introduction of plant or animal remains and, in turn, how site ecology affects the decomposition of these materials. In recent years, these goals were incorporated by forensic science to understand the decomposition of human cadavers, to provide a basis on which to estimate postmortem and/or postburial interval, to assist in the determination of cause and circumst...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - May 21, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Correction to: Development and validation of forensically useful growth models for central European population of Creophilus maxillosus L. (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae)
This article was published with an error in Figs.  5 and 6. The figures have multiple mistakes with lines extending beyond the chart and lack of grid lines in some places. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - May 18, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research