The effect of different imaging techniques for the visualisation of evidence in court on jury comprehension
AbstractEvidence presented within a courtroom should be clear so that the members of the jury can understand it. The presentation of distressing images, such as human remains, can have a negative effect on the jury since photographic images may evoke emotional responses. Therefore, it is important to understand how other visual mediums may improve comprehension, bias, or distress individuals. For this study, 91 individuals were randomly assigned one of three visual evidence formats in a mock courtroom exercise. These included photographs, 3D visualisations, or a 3D-printed model. The results show that the use of 3D imaging...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - December 6, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

A new strategy to confirm the identity of tumour tissues using single-nucleotide polymorphisms and next-generation sequencing
In this study, we evaluated performance of the panel for individual identification of tumour tissues. One hundred and fifty pairs of tumour tissues and corresponding normal tissues were analysed. Loss of heterozygosity was detected only in tumour tissues. The identity-by-state (IBS) scoring system was adopted to identify the body source of tumour tissues. The IBS score, as well as the number of loc i with 2 alleles (A2), 1 allele (A1) and 0 alleles (A0) shared, were analysed within each tumour-normal pair, unrelated individual pairs, parent –offspring pairs and full-sibling pairs. According to the probability distrib...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - December 6, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Multiple methods used for type detection of uniparental disomy in paternity testing
In this study, after autosomal STR profiling was used, we found that there were several gene loci on the same chromosome that did not conform to Mendelian genetic law, thus we highly suspected the existence of UPD and performed X-STR profiling immediately. Then whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis was performed to identify the type, and the results provided straightforward evidence for distinguishing complete from segmental UPD. Lastly, we used deletion insertion polymorphism (DIP)-SNP SNaPshot assay and Miseq FGx sequencing (for SNP and STR) to determine whether the mutation source is maternal ...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - December 6, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Editors ’ Note to: Predicting adult height from DNA variants in a European-Asian admixed population
(Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - December 5, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Retrospective analysis of 172 cases of custodial deaths in China between 1999 and 2016: forensic experience in China
AbstractCustodial deaths refer to the death of an individual who is in prison, a detention center, or a police station. The present study aims to retrospectively analyze cases of custodial deaths examined at Tongji Medico Legal Expertise Center in Hubei (TMECH). A total of 172 out of 5853 cases were screened at TMECH from January 1999 to December 2016. Male preponderance was observed in 172 cases (male –female ratio: 5:1). Natural deaths accounted for the majority (70.93%), followed by suicide (16.28%), accidents (3.49%), homicides (4.65%), and undetermined causes (4.65%). The most common natural cause was cardiovasc...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - December 4, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Protocol for evaluating women with female genital mutilation seeking asylum
AbstractRapid immigration from countries that practice female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has introduced new populations requiring culturally sensitive health care. Clinicians play an important role in providing documentation and expert testimony for women seeking asylum on the basis on FGM/C. The intent of this paper is to provide instruction to providers aiming to evaluate an individual seeking asylum based on FGM/C. This document provides guidance about the three primary parts of evaluation: the interview, exam, and report. Other goals of investigation include preventing and ending suffering, compensation, and ps...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - December 4, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Forensic pathological study on temporal appearance of dendritic cells in skin wounds
AbstractDendritic cells (DCs) can essentially contribute to innate and adaptive immune system in various organs. A double-color immunofluorescence analysis was carried out with anti-CD11c and -HLA-DR α antibodies to detect DCs in 53 skin wounds (their postinfliction intervals: group I, 0–3 days; group II, 4–7 days; group III, 9–14 days; and group IV, 17–21 days). CD11c+HLA-DR α+ DCs were first observed in skin wounds with postinfliction intervals of 3 days, and the DC numbers were found to be elevated in skin wounds with the subsequent increase in postinfliction intervals. Semi-quantitat...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - December 2, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Quantitative analysis of noncoding RNA from paired fresh and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded brain tissues
In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the possibility of performing accurate quantitative analysis of ncRNAs using short amplicons and standardized RT-qPCR assays in autopsy-derived FFPE samples. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - December 1, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Identification of human remains using Rapid DNA analysis
AbstractRapid identification of human remains following mass casualty events is essential to bring closure to family members and friends of the victims. Unfortunately, disaster victim identification, missing persons identification, and forensic casework analysis are often complicated by sample degradation due to exposure to harsh environmental conditions. Following a mass disaster, forensic laboratories may be overwhelmed by the number of dissociated portions that require identification and reassociation or compromised by the event itself. The interval between the disaster and receipt of victim samples at a laboratory is c...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 28, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Comparison of different iterative CT reconstruction techniques and filtered back projection for assessment of the medial clavicular epiphysis in forensic age estimation
AbstractPurposeTo assess the impact of iterative reconstruction and filtered back projection (FBP) on image quality in computed tomography (CT)-based forensic age estimation of the medial clavicular epiphysis.Methods and materialsCT of the clavicle was performed in 19 patients due to forensic reasons (70 mAs/140 kVp). Raw data were reconstructed with FBP and with an iterative algorithm at level 4 and 6. Clavicular ossification stage was determined by two radiologists in consensus, firstly on FBP reconstructed images and secondly after reviewing all reconstructions including iDose 4 and 6. In addition, the 3 reconstructions...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 27, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Targeted exon sequencing in deceased schizophrenia patients in Denmark
AbstractSchizophrenia patients have higher mortality rates and lower life expectancy than the general population. However, forensic investigations of their deaths often fail to determine the cause of death, hindering prevention. As schizophrenia is a highly heritable condition and given recent advances in our understanding of the genetics of schizophrenia, it is now possible to investigate how genetic factors may contribute to mortality. We made use of findings from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to design a targeted panel (PsychPlex) for sequencing of exons of 451 genes near index single nucleotide polymorphisms (...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 26, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Postmortem interval determination using mRNA markers and DNA normalization
AbstractPostmortem interval (PMI) determination is an important part of criminal investigations, but it is still subject to uncertainty. Degradation of mRNA in PMI determination has been studied in decays; however, some studies have reported no correlation between PMI and RNA degradation. Thus, we aimed to determine whether RNA quantity was correlated with PMI. Heart and brain tissues were separated from a mouse model of a 0 –48 h PMI with 29 time points. We then coextracted the DNA and RNA in one tube with Bioteke coextraction kits and selected some mRNA markers associated with cell oxygen deprivation and apoptosis ...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 26, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Reply to “MDPV-induced aggression in humans not established”
(Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 26, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Ancestry-informative marker (AIM) SNP panel for the Malay population
In this study, we describe three methods for selecting AIM SNPs for the Malay population (Malay AIM panel) using different approaches based on pairwise FST, informativeness for assignment (In), and PCA-correlated SNPs (PCAIMs). These Malay AIM panels were extracted from genotype data stored in SNP arrays hosted by the Malaysian node of the Human Variome Project (MyHVP) and the Singapore Genome Variation Project (SGVP). In particular, genotype data from a total of 165 Malay individuals were analyzed, comprising data on 117 individual genotypes from the Affymetrix SNP-6 SNP array platform and data on 48 individual genotypes ...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 23, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Comparing third molar root development staging in panoramic radiography, extracted teeth, and cone beam computed tomography
This study aimed at performing and comparing third molar development staging in extracted teeth (EX), panoramic radiography (PAN), and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Extracted third molars (n = 158, 95 maxillary, 63 mandibular) from 102 patients (36 males, 66 females) having at least one preoperative PAN and one CBCT were studied. Third molar development staging was performed in PAN, EX, and CBCT using Gleiser et al. (1955) technique modified by K öhler et al (1994). A polytomous logistic regression model was used to compare the staging performed in EX and CBCT with the gold standard staging in PAN. The pair-wi...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 21, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Inter-laboratory study on standardized MPS libraries: evaluation of performance, concordance, and sensitivity using mixtures and degraded DNA
We present results from an inter-laboratory massively parallel sequencing (MPS) study in the framework of the SeqForSTRs project to evaluate forensically relevant parameters, such as performance, concordance, and sensitivity, using a standardized sequencing library including reference material, mixtures, and ancient DNA samples. The standardized library was prepared using the ForenSeq DNA Signature Prep Kit (primer mix A). The library was shared between eight European laboratories located in Austria, France, Germany, The Netherlands, and Sweden to perform MPS on their particular MiSeq FGx sequencers. Despite variation in p...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 19, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Fatalities associated with NPS stimulants in the Greater Cologne area
This study centres on the prevalence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) stimulant use, and its relevance as a cause of death amongst individuals between the ages of 12 and 35 in the greater Cologne area. An automated solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of 97 stimulants in urine (including conventional stimulants, e.g. amphetamine and MDMA), of which 68 analytes were fully validated for quantification. Samples of urine or kidney tissue (in cases where urine was unavailable) of 268 deceased were collected, during autopsy, between January 2011 and ...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 18, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Updating the risk profile of fatal head trauma: an autopsy study with focus on age- and sex-dependent differences
AbstractFatal head trauma (FHT) represents one of the most frequent causes of death diagnosed in forensic pathology. However, profound statistic autopsy data on FHT is still sparse. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the circumstances and injury patterns of FHT with particular focus on age and sex, and additionally, to describe a recent risk profile of FHT. To this end, the forensic autopsy records of each FHT case at a large German university hospital during a 10-year period (2006 –2015) were analyzed retrospectively (n = 372). The male-female ratio was 2.6:1. Regarding median age, females were ...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 18, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

A stepwise strategy to distinguish menstrual blood from peripheral blood by Fisher ’s discriminant function
In this study, the relative expression levels of four different miRNAs (miR-451, miR-205, miR-214 and miR-203) were analysed by real-time PCR, with 200 samples from 5 different body fluids, including two kinds of blood samples (peripheral blood and menstrual blood) and three kinds of non-blood samples (saliva, semen and vaginal secretion). Then, a strategy for identifying menstrual and peripheral blood based on Fisher ’s discriminant function and the relative expression of multiple miRNAs was established. Two sets of functions were used: Z1 and Z2 were used to distinguish blood samples from non-blood samples, and Y1 ...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 16, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Comparison of whole mitochondrial genome variants between hair shafts and reference samples using massively parallel sequencing
In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the utility of MPS in forensic casework in the comparative analysis of mtGenome variants containing PHP. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 16, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Automatic rib unfolding in postmortem computed tomography: diagnostic evaluation of the OpenRib software compared with the autopsy in the detection of rib fractures
AbstractObjectivesThe main objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the OpenRib software against the gold standard of autopsy in the detection of rib fractures. The secondary objective was to measure inter-rater agreement between each radiological reader.Materials and methodsThirty-six subjects who underwent postmortem CT and autopsy were included in this study. Rib fractures were first assessed during the autopsy by carefully dissecting and examining each rib. They were also independently evaluated by three readers using OpenRib software. This software produces from postmortem CT images a refo...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 16, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Relationship between bullet diameter and bullet defect diameter in human calvariums
AbstractExisting literature on the relationship between bullet diameter and bullet defect diameter in the human calvarium is summarized and discussed. The hypothesis, derived from the literature, that bullet deformation influences bullet defect diameter was studied in a small controlled experiment. The mean defect size caused by non-deforming projectiles was found to be smaller than the mean defect size caused by deforming projectiles of equal original mass and size. Thep value of the difference between the two means, measured in two different ways, was found to be 0.002 for both in a Mann –WhitneyU test and was sign...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 16, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

MDPV-induced aggression in humans not established
(Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 16, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Targeted molecular genetic testing in young sudden cardiac death victims from Western Denmark
AbstractSudden unexpected death in the young continues to be an important unsolved challenge. A significant proportion of the deaths are suspected to be caused by inherited cardiac diseases and are referred to as sudden cardiac deaths (SCD). We performed targeted molecular testing of 70 deceased individuals under 40 years of age that after forensic autopsy were suspected to have died of SCD. The individuals were previously genetically investigated using smaller numbers of genes associated with specific cardiac diseases. In our previous studies, seven (10%) individuals had pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants according ...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 15, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Assessment of genetic polymorphism at 20 autosomal STR loci in scheduled caste population of Himachal Pradesh
In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity indices and forensic parameters of scheduled caste population of Himachal Pradesh, India, at 20 autosomal STR loci. Altogether, 233 alleles were observed with an average of 11.65 ± 0.88 alleles per locus. In exception of locus D13S317, no loci deviated from Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. Locus Penta E was found to be the most polymorphic and discriminative loci. The combined power of discrimination and the combined power of exclusion were 1 and 0.999. Further, we established t he phylogenetic relationship between the scheduled caste population of Himachal Pradesh and 14...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 15, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Allele frequencies of 20 autosomal STR loci for 207 unrelated individuals of the Blang people in China
AbstractThe Blang is a minority living in the mountainous areas of Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, and they also scatter in the neighboring cities of Lincang and Simao. This population is investigated in this study through PowerPlex ® 21 System. The frequency distribution of allele, forensic, and population parameters of 20 autosomal short tandem repeat loci were evaluated based on 207 non-related individuals from Blang minority; meanwhile, the genetic relationships between Blang and 11 related populations were also assessed. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 15, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Population genetics of 30 insertion/deletion polymorphisms in the Kuwaiti population
This study evaluates the forensic utility of the 30 insertion and deletion (indel) markers contained in the Qiagen Investigator ® DIPplex kit in the Kuwaiti population (n = 150). All but one of the 30 markers were shown to conform to the expectations of the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. Linkage disequilibrium tests showed no statistically significant deviation from independence. The high combined power of discrimination (CPD> 99.999%) and low combined match probability (CMP) of 2.736 × 10−13 provide a satisfactory level of discrimination, allowing the DIPplex loci to be used as forensic markers for individ...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 14, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Usability of dental pulp visibility and tooth coronal index in digital panoramic radiography in age estimation in the forensic medicine
In conclusion, we believe that the root pulp visibility of the third molar teeth can be applied safely for stages 1, 2, and 3 at 16, 17, and 21 years of ages, respectively. A correlation was also found between TCI and age, and our findings have shown that both methods are available for forensic purposes. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 13, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

The application of autophagy to thrombus age estimation in murine deep vein thrombosis model
AbstractWe immunohistochemically examined the intrathrombotic dynamics of autophagy during thrombogenesis using murine deep vein thrombosis (DVT) models. To perform the immunohistochemical analyses, we used anti-LC3 antibody and anti-p62 antibody for detecting the intrathrombotic autophagic functions. We estimated dynamics of the intrathrombotic autophagy as LC3+ cell number ( ×1000, five fields) with the thrombus ages (each groupn = 5). The number of LC3+ cells was once decreased at 3 days, and then increased until 10 days. On the contrary, the number of p62+ cells progressively increased until 10 days after the inf...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 12, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Characterization of DNA methylation-based markers for human body fluid identification in forensics: a critical review
AbstractBody fluid identification in crime scene investigations aids in reconstruction of crime scenes. Several studies have identified and reported differentially methylated sites (DMSs) and regions (DMRs) which differ between forensically relevant tissues (tDMRs) and body fluids. Diverse factors affect methylation patterns such as the environment, diets, lifestyle, disease, ethnicity, genetic variation, amongst others. Thus, it is important to analyse the stability of markers employed for forensic identification. Furthermore, even though epigenetic modifications are described as stable and heritable, epigenetic inheritan...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 12, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Using micro-computed tomography to examine the larynx in cases of suspected strangulation —a comparison of case findings and control images
This study therefore uses micro-CT to examine ten larynges from strangulation deaths and to compare them to nineteen samples from donor individuals in order to distinguish between naturally occurring features and actual trauma. It was found that there are several features which mimic damage in the donor group. Using associated case inf ormation, initial trends and patterns of different strangulation methods were established. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 12, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Validation of the AGCU Expressmarker 16 + 22Y Kit: a new multiplex for forensic application
AbstractGenotyping by targeting short tandem repeats (STRs) has been widely used in forensic applications. However, most commercial kits detect autosomal STRs or Y-STRs alone, which waste both time and opportunity. The AGCU Expressmarker 16 + 22Y Kit includes 16 autosomal and 22 Y-chromosomal STR loci and is designed for the forensic science field and obtaining quicker results. Here, we conducted the validation study according to Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) guidelines. Validation of PCR-based studies, species specificity, sensitivity, DNA mixture studies, inhibitors, precision, and sizing accu...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 12, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Noninvasive analysis and identification of an intramuscular fluid collection by postmortem 1 H-MRS in a case of a fatal motor vehicle accident
AbstractIn a case of a fatal traffic accident, a suspicious finding was identified in the muscular tissue of the left thigh by whole-body postmortem computed tomography. To better interpret the finding, the lower extremities were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). MRI revealed the presence of an evenly distributed intramuscular fluid and1H-MRS of a volume within the fluid detected concentrations of acetate and lactate. The fluid was assumed to be an extravasation of an intraosseous infusion, erroneously administered to the intermediate vastus of the left th...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 12, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Estimation of the number of contributors to mixed samples of DNA by mitochondrial DNA analyses using massively parallel sequencing
AbstractWe evaluated whether the number of contributors to mixed DNA samples can be estimated by analyzing the D-loop of mitochondrial DNA using massively parallel sequencing. The A- (positions 16,209 –16,400) and B- (positions 30–284) amplicons in hypervariable regions 1 and 2, respectively, were sequenced using MiSeq with 2 × 251 cycles. Sequence extraction and trimming were performed using CLC Genomics Workbench 11 and the number of observed haplotypes was counted for each amplicon type u sing Microsoft Excel. The haplotype ratios were calculated by dividing the number of counted reads of the correspon...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 12, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Estimating forensic age via magnetic resonance imaging of the distal radial epiphysis
In this study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of distal radius ossification to obtain data for age estimation. Wrist MRI scans from 338 individuals, aged 10 –29 years, were examined retrospectively using the staging system of Schmidt et al. and the extension of the stages as described by Timme et al. The results revealed that the minimum ages for stage 4a ossification were 16.0 years in women and 17.7 years in men, whereas those for stage 4b ossificat ion were 16.6 and 18.2 years in women and men, respectively. Stage 5 was not detected in any patient. These results were comparable with those of a previous s...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 12, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Arrow entrance wounds with blackened margins simulating bullet wipe
In conclusion, the presence of a black-margined roundish skin wound does not necessarily mean a bullet wipe. The casuistic part of the paper deals with a suicidal shot to the chest in a 48-year-old man, inflicted with a field-tipped carbon arrow which perforated both the heart and the thoracic aorta. In addition, a review of the literature on fatal crossbow injuries is presented. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 11, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Pathological changes induced by phosphine poisoning: a study on 8 children
This study reviewed 4 fatal accidents including 8 children with PH3 poisoning and aimed to determine the pathological changes that resulted from exposure to PH3 and, secondly, aimed to determine whether oxidative stress was involved in PH3-induced neurotoxicity using histopathological and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods. After focusing on the pathological changes on the major organs, we found severe damage induced by PH3 in many systems, especially the neurological system, including neuronal, axonal, and vascular injuries as well as oxidative damage with increased expression of 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (4HNE), 8-hydrox...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 11, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Forensic effectiveness and genetic distribution of 23 autosomal STRs included in Verifiler Plus TM multiplex in a population sample from Madhya Pradesh, India
We report here the first ever global study on genetic polymorphism using a Verifiler PlusTM autosomal STR multiplex system. The study evaluated genetic characteristics of 23 autosomal STRs in 200 unrelated residents of Guna district of Madhya Pradesh, India. Allele frequencies and forensic parameters are reported. Population comparison analysis was also performed using NJ tree and PCA plot. Penta E marker showed highest power of discrimination (0.938) among all 23 studied markers. The study also presents the first ever global forensic assessment in Indian population on D6S1043 marker (PD 0.937). The results demonstrated th...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 11, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Haplotype diversity of 17 Y-STRs in Sheikh population of Punjab
AbstractY chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) haplotype diversity of 180 genetically unrelated male individuals from Sheikh population of Punjab Pakistan was studied by amplifying 17 Y-STR markers through the AmpFISTR ®Yfiler™ PCR amplification kit. The analysis of data revealed mean discrimination capacity of 0.6438 and matching probability of 0.3561. Sheikh population was also compared with 11 other populations in order to determine its population relationships which indicated that Punjabi Sheikhs have low g enetic resemblance with Indian-Balmiki, UAE [Arab], Yousafzai Pathan from Pakistan, and Pathans from...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 10, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Evaluation of genetic polymorphism at 20 autosomal STR loci in Rajput population of Himachal Pradesh, India
AbstractIn the present study, genetic diversity indices and forensic parameters of Rajput population of Himachal Pradesh, India, were obtained at 20 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in the PowerPlex® 21 System (Promega, USA). With 227 alleles and 11.35  ± 0.89 alleles per locus, none of the locus deviated from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). The most polymorphic and discriminative locus was Penta E. Phylogenetic tree showed high genetic affinity of Rajput population of Himachal Pradesh with Rajputs of Madhya Pradesh and Yadav of Bihar . Overall, the tested 20 autosomal ...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 9, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Paternal lineages and forensic parameters based on 23 Y-STRs (Powerplex ® Y23) in Mestizo males from Mexico City
AbstractWe analyzed 307 Mexican-Mestizo (admixed) males from Mexico City with the Powerplex ® Y23 system. The complete list of Y-STR haplotypes was uploaded into the YHRD database (accession number YA004275). The discriminatory capacity (98.70 %) and gene diversity (D = 99.99 %) were calculated, improving the haplotype diversity regarding previous studies in Mexico based on 17 Y-STRs and 12 Y-STRs. Haplogroup distribution assignment was inferred by means of two different online-available algorithms. The Native American Q* haplogroup was the most frequent (66.2 %), followed by the European R1b lineage (19.5 %). In addit...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 9, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

The effects of crossbow impacts onto a common automotive vehicle side window —a preliminary study
In this study, the penetrability of two distinct bolts using an off-the-shelve crossbow against a common automotive side window was explored, where velocity loss up to 25 m/s post impact was recorded. All windows failed through radial glass fracture at a rate up to 1600 m/s, whilst bolt damage varied from tip holder decoupling, shaft damage, and traumatic fletching removal. No distinct relationship between bolt type, velocity, and window damage was identified. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 7, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Lesions and characteristic injury patterns caused by high-voltage fault arcs
AbstractExposure to high-voltage electric arcs as a result of an accident or by means to commit suicide can affect people ’s health and cause death. There are characteristic external findings that can be found on external examination. These include extensive skin burns, periorbital recesses or “crow’s feet,” vapor deposition of conductor material, known as metallization, and tightly spaced, roundish, crocodile skin like burns. The Institute of Legal Medicine of the Rostock University Medical Center recorded 16 deaths caused by exposure to electricity between 1990 and 2018. Six of these deaths were c...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 7, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Fatal cervix rupture due to intraplacental choriocarcinoma triggered by sexual intercourse
AbstractA 27-year-old woman, gravida 1 para 0, died 30 min after intercourse at the 16th week of gestation. The prenatal medical history indicated the placental implantation position at the cervix. The autopsy revealed massive hemoperitoneum and a tumor in the placenta and myometrium on the anterior right side of the cervix. A transmural perforation was found from the tumor to the serosal surface of the cervix. The autopsy, histopathology, and medical history indicated that her death was ascribed to the rupture of the cervix due to intraplacental choriocarcinoma (IC) after intercourse. The case indicated that placental imp...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 7, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Shooting through windscreens: ballistic injury assessment using a surrogate head model —two case reports
AbstractA synthetic head model developed to reproduce military injuries was assessed in two different scenarios involving shooting through intermediate targets (a laminated vehicle windscreen in scenario 1 and a military helicopter windscreen in scenario 2) with 7.62 × 39-mm mild steel core (MSC) ammunition. The injury patterns resulting from the two scenarios were assessed by a military radiologist and a forensic pathologist with combat injury experience and found to be clinically realistic. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 6, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Effect of sodium hypochlorite decontamination on the DNA recovery from human teeth
AbstractGenetic identification of skeletal human remains is often realized by short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping of nuclear DNA. Dental DNA is preferred to DNA from bone for the better protection of the endogenous DNA. Especially if whole tooth grinding is intended to access the DNA, contaminations with exogenous DNA have to be avoided. The immersion of the tooth in sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, known as bleach) is one common procedure to clean the outer surface from extraneous DNA and PCR inhibitors. To investigate the impact of bleaching on endogenous DNA and the decontamination success, 71 recently extracted teeth were ...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 6, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Feasibility of an accelerated PVAL method for the collection of GSR and biological traces
In this study, the feasibility of a modified procedure taking 6 to 8 min per sample is tested within the frame of an experimental setting including (1) the collection of GSR from experimental gunshots with a semi-automatic pistol and lead-containing primer ammunition and (2) a simple experimental setting involving dry and moist artificial blood traces. In a third step, samples of four gun-associated suicide cases and one attempted suicide case were taken and analyzed. Furthermore, an exemplary implementation into a work flow of modern instrumental techniques of GSR analysis is presented. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 5, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Exploring the degrees of distortion in simulated human bite marks
This study aimed to explore the degree of distortion between a ‘touch mark’ (method 1) and a ‘bite mark’ (method 2) on the left upper arm at three different positions (arm relaxed; arm flexed in two different positions). A pair of dental casts with biting edges coated in ink was used to create a mark in 30 subjects (6 ♂, 24 ♀) aged 20–50 years ol d. Photographs were taken using a Nikon DX digital camera (D5000). The mesiodistal widths and angle of rotations of both upper right central incisor and lower right central incisor and the inter-canine distances were analysed and compared wit...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 5, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Ballistic gelatine —what we see and what we get
AbstractSince decades, 10% gelatine is used to visualize and estimate the energy transfer of projectiles. The study performed investigates the correlation of the temporary cavity (TC) recorded by high-speed video (HSV) and the cracks in gelatine slices. A total of 36 shots were performed from distance using form-stable bullets (FMJ), 12 using deforming bullets (HP) in the calibres .32 auto, .38 special and 9 mm Luger. The target models were prepared according to Fackler ’s standard as 10% gelatine cubes with 12 cm edge length doped with a paint pad beneath the front cover (“reference cube”). Scaled images...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 4, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Age estimation using canine pulp volumes in adults: a CBCT image analysis
This study was performed on 719 subjects of Pakistani origin. Cone beam computed tomography images of 521 left maxillary and 681 left mandibular canines were collected from 368 females and 349 males aged from 15 to 65  years. Planmeca Romexis® software was used to trace the outline of the pulp cavity and to calculate pulp volumes. Regression analysis was performed to assess the correlation between pulp volumes considering with and without sex as a predictor with chronological age. The obtained results showed th at mandibular canine pulp volume and sex have the highest predictive power (R2 = 0.33). Th...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - October 24, 2019 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research