Virtual morphometric method using seven cervical vertebrae for sex estimation on the Turkish population
This study aims to contribute to the development of sex estimation standards from a Turkish population through the examination of CT scans from the seven cervical vertebrae. A total of 294 individuals were included in this study. The CT scans were obtained from patients attending the Bakirkoy Training and Research Hospital (Turkey) and the data was collected retrospectively by virtually taking measurements from each cervical vertebrae. The full database was divided into a training set (N = 210) and a validation set (N = 84) to test the fit of the models. Observer error was assessed through technical error of measurement an...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - February 5, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Application of the “bubbling” procedure to dead body portraits in forensic identification
ConclusionThe “bubbling” procedure for visual identification enhancement is quick and straightforward and may be attempted before escalating to more involved identification methods and procedures. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - February 5, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

The use of multiple keratinous matrices (head hair, axillary hair, and toenail clippings) can help narrowing a period of drug exposure: experience with a criminal case involving 25I-NBOMe and 4-MMC
The objective of this publication is to present the interest of collecting several keratinous specimens in order to document possible drug impairment at the time of the assault, when knowledge solely occurred 7 months after. A subject committed a murder and within minutes after the crime self-inflicted serious wounds. He was charged to the hospital where he slowly recovered. After several weeks, he was sent to prison. During this period, intelligence indicated possible drug impairment at the time of the assault after using 25I-NBOMe and 4-MMC. Head hair (4 cm), axillary hair, and toenails were collected 7 months after the ...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - February 1, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Developmental validation of the MGIEasy Signature Identification Library Prep Kit, an all-in-one multiplex system for forensic applications
AbstractAnalyzing genetic markers in nuclear and mitochondrial genomes is helpful in various forensic applications, such as individual identifications and kinship analyses. However, most commercial kits detect these markers separately, which is time-consuming, laborious, and more error-prone (mislabelling, contamination, ...). The MGIEasy Signature Identification Library Prep Kit (hereinafter “MGIEasy identification system”; MGI Tech, Shenzhen, China) has been designed to provide a simple, fast, and robust way to detect appropriate markers in one multiplex PCR reaction: 52 autosomal STRs, 27 X-chromosomal STRs,...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - February 1, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Association between monoamine oxidase A promoter polymorphism and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome: a meta-analysis
ConclusionIn male Caucasian infants, the low expression of MAOA promoter VNTR alleles (2R and 3R) is associated with an increased risk of SIDS, and the existence of the 4R allele could be regarded as a protective factor. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - February 1, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Assessment of Illumina ® Human mtDNA Genome assay: workflow evaluation with development of analysis and interpretation guidelines
In this study, we performed an assessment of Illumina ® Human mtDNA Genome assay on MiSeq FGx™ instrument. Through analysis of several types of negative controls, as well as mtDNA positive controls, we established thresholds for data analysis and interpretation, consisting of several components: minimum read depth (220 reads), minimum quality score (41), percentage of minor allele sufficient for analysis (3.0%), percentage of minor allele sufficient for interpretation (6.0%), and percentage of major allele sufficient for homoplasmic variant call (97.0%). Based on these criteria, we defined internal guidelines for...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 29, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Forensic age estimation based on fast spin-echo proton density (FSE PD) –weighted MRI of the distal radial epiphysis
This study examined the reliability of distal radius ossification using fast spin-echo proton density (FSE PD) –weighted MRI to estimate age. Left wrist MRI findings of 532 patients aged 10–29 years were evaluated retrospectively using the five-stage system of Dedouit et al. The intra- and interobserver reliability values wereκ = 0.906 and 0.869, respectively. Based on the results, the respective minimum ages estimated for stages 4 and 5 were 13.4 and 16.1 years for females, and 15.1 and 17.3 years for males; the method could not estimate an age of 18 years in any case. FSE PD MRI analysis of the distal r...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 28, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Evaluation of microhaplotypes in forensic kinship analysis from a Swedish population perspective
In this study, we have examined a custom-made QIAseq Microhaplotype panel (Qiagen), including 45 different microhaplotype loci. DNA libraries were prepared according to the GeneRead DNAseq Targeted Panels V2 library preparation workflow (Qiagen) and sequenced on a MiSeq FGx instrument (Verogen). We evaluated the performance of the panel based on 75 samples of Swedish origin and haplotype frequencies were established. We performed sensitivity studies and could detect haplotypes at input amounts down to 0.8  ng. We also studied mixture samples with two contributors for which haplotypes, for the minor contributor, were d...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 28, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Genetic identification and subsequent LC-QTOF MS analysis of plant remains ( Oenanthe spp.) could prove the cause of an undetermined sudden death
We report on the medicolegal characteristics of an undetermined sudden death (USD) of a woman in which scene there were remnants of a vegetal peeling. After the autopsy, macroscopic findings reported multiorgan failure and requested the investigation of the cause of death. Postmortem blood was firstly investigated on cyanide toxicity presumptively coming from a yucca-like root; however, found cyanide levels were under normality. Because of the lack of morphological features of the encountered plant remains, a genetic nrDNAITS2 sequence investigation was followed. The resulting DNA sequence could identify the evidence as th...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 27, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Identification and sequencing of 59 highly polymorphic microhaplotypes for analysis of DNA mixtures
This study not only demonstrated the applicability of microhaplotypes in mixture analysis but also provided new choices for highly polymorphic microhaplotypes because after adding the markers identified here, the number of microhaplotypes with Ae values of>  4.00 will increase from ~ 50 to ~ 110. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 27, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Shape morphing technique can accurately predict pelvic bone landmarks
In this study, we demonstrated the use of a registration algorithm to automatically seed anthropological landmarks on the CT images of the pelvis. We found a high correlation between manually and automatically seeded landmarks. The registration algorithm makes it possible to achieve a high degree of automation with the potential to reduce operator errors in the seeding of anthropological landmarks. The results of this study represent a promising step forward in effectively defining the anthropological measures of the human skeleton. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 27, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Towards developing forensically relevant single-cell pipelines by incorporating direct-to-PCR extraction: compatibility, signal quality, and allele detection
AbstractCurrent analysis of forensic DNA stains relies on the probabilistic interpretation of bulk-processed samples that represent mixed profiles consisting of an unknown number of potentially partial representations of each contributor. Single-cell methods, in contrast, offer a solution to the forensic DNA mixture problem by incorporating a step that separates cells before extraction. A forensically relevant single-cell pipeline relies on efficient direct-to-PCR extractions that are compatible with standard downstream forensic reagents. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of implementing single-cell pipelines into the fo...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 23, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-9 gene variations in sudden infant death syndrome
In conclusion, this study adds further evidence to the involvement of brain aquaporins in SIDS, suggesting that specific variants of AQP genes constitute a genetic predisposition, making the infant vulnerable to sudden death together with external risk factors and probably other genetic factors. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 18, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Brain/blood ratios of methadone and ABCB1 polymorphisms in methadone-related deaths
AbstractMethadone is an opioid that often leads to fatalities. Interpretation of toxicological findings can be challenging if no further information about the case history is available. The aims of this study were (1) to determine whether brain/blood ratios can assist in the interpretation of methadone findings in fatalities; (2) to examine whether polymorphisms in the gene encoding the P-glycoprotein (also known as multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) or ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1)), which functions as a multispecific efflux pump in the blood –brain barrier, affect brain/blood ratios of metha...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 17, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Developmental validation of the STRscan-17LC kit: a 6 Dye STR kit enhanced stability and ability to detect degraded samples
In this study, the STRscan-17LC kit is validated according to the SWGDAM (Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods) guidelines, including PCR-based studies, sensitivity, precision and accuracy, inhibitors, species specificity, DNA mixture studies, population, and concordance studies. The validation results suggest that the STRscan-17LC kit is a useful tool for forensic application. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 16, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Death in the sauna-vitality markers for heat exposure
AbstractIn sauna-associated deaths, the vitality of heat exposure is of great importance. Two case reports address this. First, we present the case of a 77-year-old man who was found dead in the sauna of his family home. When found, the sauna door was closed, and the sauna indicated a temperature of 78  °C. The body had already begun to decay and was partially mummified when it was found. In the other case, a 73-year-old woman was found dead in the sauna by her husband. In this case, the sauna door was also closed. The sauna was still in operation at a temperature of approximately 70 °C. Epide rmal detach...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 14, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Postmortem magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral globi pallidi lesions in a death associated with prolonged carbon monoxide poisoning: a case report
This report further exemplifies the utility of PMMR for detecting brain lesions, which may be difficult to detect by macroscopic analysis. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 14, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Postmortem CT and autopsy findings in nine victims of terrorist attack
AbstractIn a foreign country, a religious terrorist group raided a restaurant, using pipe bombs, sharp-edged weapons, and various types of firearms (handguns, submachine guns, and AK-47 assault rifles) loaded with normal and prohibited bullets to kill foreigner customers, some of whom were Italian tourists. Local pathologists performed forensic autopsies on the bodies, but we were asked to perform additional external examinations, postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) scans, and then a second round of complete autopsies on nine victims (5 females and 4 males). Four victims had slash wounds inflicted by sharp-edged weapons,...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 8, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Life-threatening danger assessments of penetrating injuries in Eastern Danish clinical forensic medicine
AbstractClinical forensic assessments of injuries ’ life-threatening danger may have an impact on the legal aftermath following a violent assault. The pursuit of evidence-based guidelines should ensure a user-independent and reproducible forensic practice. However, does it? The aim of this study was to evaluate the forensic life-threatening dange r assessments after a protocol implementation in 2016. The evaluation concerned usability and reproducibility of the protocol, and its influence on assessment severity. We analyzed the level of inter- and intra-rater agreement using 169 blinded, prior-protocol cases that wer...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 7, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Volatile organic compounds in variably aged carrion impacted by the presence of the primary colonizer, Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae)
This study also discusses the significant impact of necrophagous arthropods to the VOC profile of carrion. The results of this study provide insight into the changes in decomposition VOCs over time, with an explanation of compounds in high concentration known to be attractive to carrion-colonizing arthropods. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 7, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Intrathrombotic appearances of AQP-1 and AQP-3 in relation to thrombus age in murine deep vein thrombosis model
AbstractAquaporins (AQPs) are membrane-bound proteins for water transportation and are useful for diagnosing drowning and wound vitality in forensic pathology. Here, we examined intrathrombotic expression of AQP-1 and AQP-3 using deep vein thrombosis models in mice. To perform immunohistochemical analyses, we used anti-AQP-1 and anti-AQP-3 antibodies. In thrombus samples with the post-ligation intervals of 1 to 5  days, AQP-1+ areas were over 70%. At 7  days after the IVC ligation, AQP-1+ areas became less than 50%, eventually decreasing to 11% at 21  days. At 3 days after the IVC ligation, AQP-3+ cells...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 7, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Forensic evaluation of alleged wrist restraint/handcuff injuries in survivors of torture utilizing the Istanbul Protocol
AbstractDespite being a common form of abuse, there is a paucity of literature describing shackling and wrist restraint injuries among survivors of torture. Forensic evaluation of alleged wrist restraint/handcuff injuries in survivors of torture presents challenges to the evaluator, especially if the injuries are remote and do not leave lasting marks nor neurologic deficits. Thorough history-taking and physical examination are critical to effective forensic documentation. Guidance is provided inThe Manual on Effective Investigation and Documentation of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 7, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Comparison of different machine learning approaches to predict dental age using Demirjian ’s staging approach
ConclusionCompared to the two reference methods, all the ML methods based on the maturation stages defined by Demirjian were more accurate in estimating dental age. These results support the use of ML algorithms instead of using standard population tables. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 7, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of postmortem computed tomography for bleeding source determination in cases with hemoperitoneum
ConclusionPostmortem computed tomography provides moderate sensitivity and high specificity for determining the bleeding source in cases with hemoperitoneum. Different PMCT signs are associated with different causes of hemoperitoneum and survival intervals. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 7, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

A case of “false tri-allelic pattern” on D7S820, caused by invasion of a short SE33 allele into the bins of D7S820
AbstractAutosomal short tandem repeats (asSTR) serve as genetic markers for discriminating individuals and have been extensively used for criminal investigations as well as the establishment of genetic relationships. Tri-allelic pattern usually occurs due to chromosomal duplication, trisomy, and chimerism during mitotic division, but a false tri-allelic pattern at the D7S820 locus was encountered in our laboratory during the analysis of a case exhibit. DNA isolation from exhibit for profiling was done as per manufacturer ’s protocol. This is the first report which observed false tri-allelic pattern (10, 11, 14.1 alle...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 7, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

PP2A-C may be a promising candidate for postmortem interval estimation
In this study, we speculated that the other two subunits of PP2A and the activation of PP 2A may play different roles in estimating the PMI. For this purpose, mice were euthanized and stored at different temperatures (4, 15, and 25 °C). At each temperature, the musculus vastus lateralis was collected at different time points (0, 24, 48, and 96 h) to investigate the degradation of PP2A -B, PP2A-C, and P-PP2A-C (Tyr-307). Homocysteine (Hcy) was used to establish a hyperhomocysteinemia animal model to explore the effects of plasma Hcy on PMI estimation. The data showed not only that PP2A-C was more stable than P...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 6, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Forensic characteristics and genetic structure of 18 autosomal STR loci in the Sierra Leone population
In this study, 528 unrelated individuals (256 males and 272 females) in Sierra Leone, West Africa, were genotyped using the DNA Typer19 ™ kit; forensic parameters and genetic relationships with 32 populations around the world were analyzed. A total of 239 alleles were detected, with corresponding allele frequencies ranged from 0.0009 to 0.4545. The cumulative power of discrimination (CPD) value of the 18 STR loci was 0.99999999999 99999999999697; the cumulative probability of exclusion for duos (CPEduos) and exclusion for trios (CPEtrios) were 0.99999343 and 0.9999999895, respectively. Genetic comparisons showed that...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 6, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Forensic characterization and genetic evaluation in the Central Indian population using 27 Y-STRs
AbstractIntroductionForensic characterization and genetic evaluation study in the 539 randomly selected unrelated adult healthy individuals belonging to the Central Indian population was undertaken.MethodsThe study was performed using a multiplex of 27 Y-STRs incoporated in Yfiler ™ Plus multiplex kit.ResultsOut of 539 samples, 6 samples were observed for large deletion and tri-allelic patterns, which were removed from the analysis, and out of 533 samples, a total of 507 haplotypes were found, and out of these haplotypes, 482 unique haplotypes were found in this piece of work. The forensically important parameters, i...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 6, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Pulmonary PMCT angiography by right ventricle cardiac puncture: a novel, promising approach for investigating pulmonary thromboembolism
AbstractForensic scholars are paying more attention to postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) and PMCT angiography (PMCTA), which are gradually becoming effective and practical methods in forensic practice. However, few studies have focused on the application of PMCTA to cardiac ventricular puncture —especially of the right ventricle. In this article, we introduce a pulmonary PMCTA approach by right ventricle cardiac puncture and its potential value in fatalities from pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). The procedure was performed on 11 males and 6 females. PMCT was performed first; then a biops y core needle was used fo...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 3, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

An efficient method for building a database of diatom populations for drowning site inference using a deep learning algorithm
In this study, we developed an artificial intelligence (AI)-based system as a substitute for manual morphological examination capable of identifying and classifying diatoms at the species level. Within two days, the system collected information on diatom profiles in the Huangpu and Suzhou Rivers of Shanghai, China. In an animal experiment, the similarities of diatom profiles between lung tissues and water samples were evaluated through a modified Jensen-Shannon (JS) divergence measure for drowning site inference, reaching a prediction accuracy of 92.31%. Considering its high efficiency and simplicity, our proposed method i...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 3, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

SARS-Cov-2 fulminant myocarditis: an autopsy and histopathological case study
In conclusion, this exhaustive post-mortem pathological case study of fulminant myocarditis demonstrates the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in heart tissue, without significant lung involvement. Immunohistochemistry showed that the virus was specifically localized in cardiomyocytes and induced a strong cytotoxic T cells inflammatory response. This case report thus gives new insight in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2-induced myocarditis and emphasizes on the importance and reliability of post-mortem analyses in order to better understand the physiopathology of this worldwide spreading new viral disease. (Source: International Jo...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 3, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Exploring the Western Mediterranean through X-chromosome
In this study, we investigate the forensic and population genetics properties of 21 X-chromosome markers (9 X-Alu insertions and 12 X-STRs) in a dataset composed of 716 individuals from 11 Western Mediterranean populations. The high values of combined forensic parameters indicate that this 21 X-loci panel can complement autosomal or uniparental markers in kinship analysis and complex deficient paternity testing in the populations studied. Population analyses revealed a lower differentiation between Western Mediterranean human groups for X-STRs than for X-Alu insertion polymorphisms. Moreover, X-chromosome markers suggest a...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 3, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Findings of illicit drugs in hair of children at different ages
AbstractHair is a preferred material to detect exposure or use of illegal drugs in children. In the present study, we investigated a total of 387 hair samples for commonly applied illegal drugs of children up to 16 years. Analysis was by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with LOQs of 0.01 ng/mg hair for all analytes except tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid with an LOQ of 0.1 pg/mg hair. Results were firstly compared with our in-house statics on results from adults ’ hair, and secondly to literature data. We started from the assumption that drug concentrations decrease with increasing age.Results were assigne...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 3, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

The usefulness of a trauma probability of survival model for forensic life-threatening danger assessments
AbstractClinical forensic medical examinations constitute an increasing proportion of our institution ’s tasks, and, concomitantly, the authorities are now requesting forensic life-threatening danger assessments based on our examinations. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess if a probability of survival (PS) trauma score could be useful for these forensic life-threatening danger asses sments and to identify a cut-off PS score as a supporting tool for the forensic practice of assessing life-threatening danger. We compared a forensic database and a trauma database and identified 161 individuals (aged 15 ye...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 3, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Scientometric evaluation of highly cited scientists in the field of forensic science and legal medicine
This article takes a closer look at these highly cited forensic scientists, the countries where they work, the particular research field in which they publish, and their composite citation scores with and without self-citations. The top ten most cited individuals in both d atabases (2019 and 2020) were the same and these should therefore be considered an elite group among all forensic practitioners. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 2, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Detecting drugs in dry bone: a pilot study of skeletal remains with a post-mortem interval over 23 years
AbstractIn decomposed or skeletonized bodies, conventional matrices used in forensic toxicology may no longer be available for analysis. The aim of this paper was to test the survival and detection of toxicological substances in dry bone samples with over 23 years of post-mortem interval. In this perspective, bone samples from the cranium, ribs, and vertebrae of seven skeletons from the CAL Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection, buried for over 23 years, fully decomposed and altered by taphonomic factors were selected based on their ante-mortem data, which included verified or suspected drug addictions or overdose. Qualitati...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 2, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Fatal strangulation during consensual BDSM activity: three case reports
AbstractAutoerotic accidents are well-known occurrences in forensic casework. Reports about unintentional deaths in a sexual context involving other persons are much rarer. Three cases of fatal incidents related to asphyxiophilia during consensual BDSM activity are reported. Two men died while visiting a dominatrix, the third one in the presence of a male casual sexual partner. Paraphernalia associated with BDSM/fetishism were found at the scene in all cases. Autopsy findings were compatible with death by strangulation. The cases are compared with published autoerotic accidents and similar unintentional deaths involving ot...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Putatively lethal ingestion of isopropyl alcohol-related case: interpretation of post mortem isopropyl alcohol and acetone concentrations remains challenging
In conclusion, this death can be cautiously regarded as an IPA ingestion-related fatality in the hypothesis of a survival time which have promoted IPA metabolism to acetone: this hypothesis is supported by the puta tive limited IPA-ingested dose. This report emphasizes the fact that post mortem IPA and acetone concentration interpretation involves to take account of (i) results in multiple biological specimens, (ii) complete case history, and (iii) a search of possible IPA presence at the scene of death. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Genetic association study of fatal pulmonary embolism
AbstractPulmonary embolism (PE) is a complex multi-factorial disease and represents one manifestation of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Most commonly PE constitutes a complication of VTE ’s other clinical presentation deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The majority of studies concerning risk factors do not distinguish between PE and DVT. The risk factors are often estimated to be alike, but the prevalence and the risk associated with the major genetic factor Factor V Leiden differ betwee n the two disease states. We have investigated the association of 22 SNPs with PE in 185 PE case and 375 healthy control subjects. Atp&thin...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Postmortem examination of three SARS-CoV-2-positive autopsies including histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis
AbstractThis paper describes three autopsy cases with postmortem diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, with detailed macroscopic examination as well as advanced microscopic studies of organ tissues collected using hematoxylin-eosin stains and immunohistochemical markers. Two of the cases were admitted briefly in the County Clinical Emergency Hospital of Sibiu, and one was found deceased at his home address. All three autopsies were completed at the County morgue, in the COVID-19 restricted area, using complete protective equipment. The lungs of the patients seemed to be the center organ of invasion and pathogenesis of the nov...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Post-mortem genetic investigation of cardiac disease –associated genes in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases
AbstractThe sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is one of the leading causes of postneonatal infant death. It has been shown that there exists a complex relationship between SIDS and inherited cardiac disease. Next-generation sequencing and surveillance of cardiac channelopathy and cardiomyopathy genes represent an important tool for investigating the cause of death in SIDS cases. In the present study, targeted sequencing of 80 genes associated with genetic heart diseases in a cohort of 31 SIDS cases was performed. To determine the spectrum and prevalence of genetic heart disease associated mutations as a potential monogen...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Be careful with lentils! About a forensic observation
We report an original observation of a multi-visceral dispersion of exogenous particles detected, in an 8-year-old boy, who allegedly fell from a 2-m high brick-wall. The autopsy found major liver fracture and diaphragm rupture with massive internal hemorrhage without gastric wall rupture. The histological analyses have identified round to oval bodies in the lung bronchi, alveoli, and, rarely, in vascular sections, and also on the surface of several samples. These particles stained strongly pink by the periodic acid Schiff method, evoking dried vegetables. Two hypotheses were invoked: aspirated vegetable particles into the...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - January 1, 2021 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Sudden cardiac death —update
AbstractSudden cardiac death (SCD) is one of the most common causes of death worldwide with a higher frequency especially in the young. Therefore, SCD is represented frequently in forensic autopsy practice, whereupon pathological findings in the heart can explain acute death. These pathological changes may not only include myocardial infarction, coronary thrombosis, or all forms of myocarditis/endocarditis but also rare diseases such as hereditary structural or arrythmogenic anomalies, lesions of the cardiac conduction system, or primary cardiac tumours. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - December 21, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Common and much less common scenarios in which botany is crucial for forensic pathologist and anthropologists: a series of eight case studies
AbstractIt is commonly accepted that crime scene recovery and recording are key moments of any judicial inspection in which investigators must decide on the correct strategies to put into place. Complex outdoor scenarios, presenting partially or entirely skeletonised remains, can benefit more than others by the intervention of environmental specialists (forensic anthropologists, archaeologists, entomologists and botanists). These experts are capable of singling out, correctly recording and recovering environmental evidence that can lead to a more comprehensive reconstruction of a given criminal episode. If human remains ar...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - December 19, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Penetrating eye injury by dart
This report is about a juvenile who suffered from a severe eye injury including the opening of the eye bulb. The attending ophthalmologists ruled out the possibility that this kind of injury could be caused by a dart with a plastic point. However, by reconstructing the course of action and throwing darts at porcine eyes, the forensic medical advisory opinion was able to state that darts with damaged plastic points may cause the exact same form of injury. This casuistic illustrates the essential significance of forensic-traumatological knowledge and, especially in the case of rare injury patterns, case-related practical exp...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - December 17, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Automated age estimation of young individuals based on 3D knee MRI using deep learning
AbstractAge estimation is a crucial element of forensic medicine to assess the chronological age of living individuals without or lacking valid legal documentation. Methods used in practice are labor-intensive, subjective, and frequently comprise radiation exposure. Recently, also non-invasive methods using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have evaluated and confirmed a correlation between growth plate ossification in long bones and the chronological age of young subjects. However, automated and user-independent approaches are required to perform reliable assessments on large datasets. The aim of this study was to develop ...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - December 17, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Virtual anthropology? Reliability of three-dimensional photogrammetry as a forensic anthropology measurement and documentation technique
In this study, six 3D models were created using photogrammetry (n = 3) and CT scanning (n = 3). The 3D models were generated from three different Bone Clone® human skulls. A mobile phone camera was used to capture images, which were then processed in Agisoft Metashape®. Intrarater, interrater, and intermethod reliability tests gave correlation coefficients of at least 0.9980, 0.987 1, and 0.9862, respectively; rTEM results ranged from 0.250 to 6.55%; and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) yieldedP values under 0.05 for all measurements except one. Statistical tests therefore showed photogrammet...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 27, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Thank you, Professor Thomas Bajanowski!
(Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 26, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Macromorphological findings in cases of death in water: a critical view on “drowning signs”
In this study, we observed that pathological organ changes of the cardiovascular system were significantly more common in corpses after shortened (atypical) drowning processes than in classical drowned victims. Furthermore only a complete formation of external foam, immediately after the corpse ’s recovery, was exclusively found in drowning victims. All other drowning signs were either also observed in non-drowning deaths in water or no information could be provided with reasonable assurance. In addition, many of the examined drowning signs were negatively affected by prolonged postmorte m intervals, putrefaction, or...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 25, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research

Preventable fatal injury during rally race: a multidisciplinary approach
ConclusionMVC and especially high-speed motor racing represent an important death cause. There was, for this reason, a marked development of cars and occupants ’ safety systems, such as HANS collar. PMCT improves the diagnostic performance of conventional autopsy and increases forensic medical knowledge related to traumatic injuries. (Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - November 25, 2020 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research