The role of C-reactive protein as a prognostic marker in COVID-19
ConclusionsThe distributional characteristics of CRP indicated an optimal cut-off of ≥40 mg/L was associated with mortality. This threshold may assist clinicians in using CRP as an early trigger for enhanced observation, treatment decisions and advanced care planning. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - March 3, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile: The Collaborating Consortium of Cohorts Producing NIDA Opportunities (C3PNO)
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - March 2, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Social inequalities and COVID-19 mortality in the city of S ão Paulo, Brazil
ConclusionOur results reveal striking social inequalities in COVID-19 mortality in S ão Paulo, exposing structural inequities in Brazilian society that were not addressed by the governmental response to COVID-19. Without an equitable response, COVID-19 will further exacerbate current social inequalities in São Paulo. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 28, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Low-intensity daily smoking and cause-specific mortality in Mexico: prospective study of 150  000 adults
AbstractBackgroundResearch is needed to determine the relevance of low-intensity daily smoking to mortality in countries such as Mexico, where such smoking habits are common.MethodsProspective study of 159  755 Mexican adults recruited from 1998–2004 and followed for cause-specific mortality to 1 January 2018. Participants were categorized according to baseline self-reported smoking status. Confounder-adjusted mortality rate ratios (RRs) at ages 35–89 were estimated using Cox regression, after ex cluding those with previous chronic disease (to avoid reverse causality).ResultsAmong 42  416 men and 86&n...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 28, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Early life exposure to tobacco smoke and ovarian cancer risk in adulthood
AbstractBackgroundOvarian cancer risk in adulthood may be affected by early life exposure to tobacco smoke. We investigated this relationship in two large prospective cohorts, the Nurses ’ Health Study (NHS) and NHSII.MethodsIn total, analyses included 110  305 NHS participants (1976–2016) and 112 859 NHSII participants (1989–2017). Self-reported early life smoking exposures were queried at baseline or follow-up questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk o f ovarian cancer overall and by tumour histotype.R...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 27, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Methods for estimating tuberculosis incidence and mortality by age and sex
AbstractAimsTo develop methods to disaggregate World Health Orgagnization estimates of tuberculosis (TB) incidence and mortality for each country by sex and age.MethodsFor countries where incidence estimates derived from a factor adjustment of notifications and case detection ratio over 0.85, or with
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Electronic cigarettes and public health: a policy brief
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 22, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

COVID-19 antibody seroprevalence in Santa Clara County, California
ConclusionThe estimated prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in Santa Clara County implies that COVID-19 was likely more widespread than indicated by the number of cases in late March, 2020. At the time, low-burden contexts such as Santa Clara County were far from herd-immunity thresholds. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 22, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Cohort Profile: The Cohorts Consortium of Latin America and the Caribbean (CC-LAC) Cohorts Consortium of Latin America and the Caribbean (CC-LAC)
First published online: 5 September 2020,Int J Epidemiol 2020;49:1437 –1437g, doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyaa073 (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 20, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Commentary: Big data bring big controversies: HDL cholesterol and mortality
No matter how large a study, how richly it is phenotyped or how intriguing the findings that emerge, it behoves us to be sceptical in interpreting evidence arising from observational epidemiological studies. Various intractable sources of error, including reverse causality and residual confounding, hinder interpretations on potential causal relationships between exposures and outcomes in observational study settings.1 (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 19, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Reflection on modern methods: building causal evidence within high-dimensional molecular epidemiological studies of moderate size
AbstractThis commentary provides a practical perspective on epidemiological analysis within a single high-dimensional study of moderate size to consider a causal question. In this setting, non-causal confounding is important. This occurs when a factor is a determinant of outcome and the underlying association between exposure and the factor is non-causal. That is, the association arises due to chance, confounding or other bias rather than reflecting that exposure and the factor are causally related. In particular, the influence of technical processing factors must be accounted for by pre-processing measures to remove artef...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 17, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Characterizing a two-pronged epidemic in Mexico of non-communicable diseases and SARS-Cov-2: factors associated with increased case-fatality rates
AbstractBackgroundPeople with a previous diagnosis of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are more likely to develop serious forms of COVID-19 or die. Mexico is the country with the fourth highest fatality rate from SARS-Cov-2, with high mortality in younger adults.ObjectivesTo describe and characterize the association of NCDs with the case-fatality rate (CFR) adjusted by age and sex in Mexican adults with a positive diagnosis for SARS-Cov-2.MethodsWe studied Mexican adults aged ≥20 years who tested positive for SARS-Cov-2 during the period from 28 February to 31 July 2020. The CFR was calculated and associations wi...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 15, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile: The Shanghai Children ’s Health, Education and Lifestyle Evaluation, Preschool (SCHEDULE-P) study
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 12, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Commentary: Silica —A Multisystem Hazard
Silica has a long history. Inhalation of silica, a ubiquitous constituent of the Earth ’s crust in the form of quartz, produces the singular inflammatory and fibrotic lung disease we know as silicosis. The close association of pulmonary tuberculosis and silicosis as separate diseases was identified during the early years of the 20th century.1 The nature of silica ’s association with lung cancer, an association accepted by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2007, continues to be refined.2 However, despite all our knowledge, epidemics of silica-related disease persist in both traditional an...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 11, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile Update: The Yorkshire Health Study
Research platformpublic healthlong-term conditionshealthlifestylehealthcare resource usage (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 11, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The use of negative control outcomes in Mendelian randomization to detect potential population stratification
AbstractA key assumption of Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis is that there is no association between the genetic variants used as instruments and the outcome other than through the exposure of interest. One way in which this assumption can be violated is through population stratification, which can introduce confounding of the relationship between the genetic variants and the outcome and so induce an association between them. Negative control outcomes are increasingly used to detect unobserved confounding in observational epidemiological studies. Here we consider the use of negative control outcomes in MR studies to d...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 11, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Human papillomavirus vaccination and all-cause morbidity in adolescent girls: a cohort study of absence from school due to illness
ConclusionsOur study provides an important and novel contribution to HPV vaccine safety. Using absence from school records, we were able to address important safety concerns without relying on medical diagnoses. We conclude that HPV vaccination does not increase the risk of morbidity in any manner that manifests as absence from school due to illness. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 6, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort profile: A super-elderly population-based cohort in Japan (the Sukagawa Study)
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 5, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

COVID-19 and the worsening of health inequities in Santiago, Chile
Mortalityhealth equityinequalitiesurban healthLatin AmericaChile (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 4, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to: Epidemiological characteristics of patients with severe COVID-19 infection in Wuhan, China: evidence from a retrospective, observational study
First published online: 5 November 2020,Int J Epidemiol 2020;49:1940 –1950. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyaa180 (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 4, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Adiposity rebound and cardiometabolic health in childhood: results from the Generation XXI birth cohort
AbstractBackgroundWe aimed to evaluate the association of adiposity rebound (AR) timing on cardiometabolic health in childhood.MethodsParticipants were part of the Generation XXI birth cohort, enrolled in 2005/2006 in Porto. All measurements of the child ’s weight and height performed by health professionals as part of routine healthcare were collected. Individual body mass index (BMI) curves were fitted for 3372 children, using mixed-effects models with smooth spline functions for age and random effects. The AR was categorized into very early (
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 1, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Worldwide burden of genital human papillomavirus infection in female sex workers: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that FSWs are disproportionately affected by HPV, which is more pronounced in the Western Pacific and African regions, and are therefore in need of prevention, treatment and care services. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 1, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Paternal body mass index and offspring DNA methylation: findings from the PACE consortium
ConclusionOur findings do not support the hypothesis that paternal BMI around the time of pregnancy is associated with offspring-blood DNA methylation, even at imprinted regions. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 29, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Commentary: Challenges of COVID-19 screening of health care workers in Egypt and the Eastern Mediterranean region
The Eastern Mediterranean region has been severely affected by COVID-19. Countries have suffered from wave 3 of the COVID19/SARS-CoV-2 virus, after the first wave started in China and the second wave started in Europe. Good-quality data are lacking on the precise extent of infection. However, conditions that favour spread include large populations living in overcrowded cities (in Egypt especially given it is a country of close to 100 million people), inadequate healthcare and lack of transparency and accountability of governments.1 (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 27, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile: The Norwegian Life Course, Ageing and Generation Study (NorLAG)
Key MessagesThe Norwegian Life Course, Ageing and Generation Study (NorLAG) was set up to gain new and updated knowledge on ageing and age-related changes in Norway.The nationwide, population-based study includes information on core life domains for 11 028 men and women born between 1922 and 1966. NorLAG combines longitudinal survey data from three waves (2002, 2007 and 2017) with secondary annual data from the public registers that provide time series on financial information, civil status and educational attainment for up to 50 years (1967 to 2017).NorLAG1 comprises 5555 respondents aged 40 years and older at the time of...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 26, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Tobacco smoking and mortality among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults in Australia
ConclusionsIn this population,>80% of never-smokers would survive to 75  years, versus ∼40% of current-smokers. Quitting at all ages examined had substantial benefits versus continuing smoking; those quitting before age 45 years had mortality risks similar to never-smokers. Smoking causes half of deaths in older Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults; Indige nous tobacco control must receive increased priority. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 25, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Reflection on modern methods: causal inference considerations for heterogeneous disease etiology
AbstractMolecular pathological epidemiology research provides information about pathogenic mechanisms. A common study goal is to evaluate whether the effects of risk factors on disease incidence vary between different disease subtypes. A popular approach to carrying out this type of research is to implement a multinomial regression in which each of the non-zero values corresponds to a bona fide disease subtype. Then, heterogeneity in the exposure effects across subtypes is examined by comparing the coefficients of the exposure between the different subtypes. In this paper, we explain why this common method potentially cann...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 23, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Spicy food consumption and risk of gastrointestinal-tract cancers: findings from the China Kadoorie Biobank
AbstractBackgroundPrevious case –control studies have reported positive associations of spicy food consumption with risks of certain gastrointestinal-tract (GI) cancers. However, there is no prospective evidence on such associations, particularly from China, where there are high incidence rates of GI cancers and spicy food is wi dely consumed.MethodsThe prospective China Kadoorie Biobank study recruited>512  000 adults aged 30–79 years from 10 areas in China during 2004–2008; 2350 oesophageal, 3350 stomach and 3061 colorectal incident cancer cases were recorded by 1 January 2017, after a ...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 23, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Mismatch between poor fetal growth and rapid postnatal weight gain in the first 2 years of life is associated with higher blood pressure and insulin resistance without increased adiposity in childhood: the GUSTO cohort study
First published online: 20 August 2020,Int J Epidemiol 2020;49:1591 –1603, doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyaa143 (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 20, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Educational note: Paradoxical collider effect in the analysis of non-communicable disease epidemiological data: a reproducible illustration and web application
First published online: 10 December 2019,Int J Epidemiol 2019; Volume 48, Issue 2, April 2019, Pages 640 –653. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyy275 (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 19, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Declining mortality in older people with type 2 diabetes masks rising excess risks at younger ages: a population-based study of all-cause and cause-specific mortality over 13 years
AbstractBackgroundExcess mortality in people with vs without type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has fallen, but it is unclear whether men/women at all ages have benefited and which causes of death have driven these trends.MethodsAll-cause and cause-specific mortality rates and excess mortality [by mortality rate ratios (MRRs) relative to the non-diabetic general population] were examined in 1  268 018 Australians with T2DM registered on the National Diabetes Services Scheme (2002–2014).ResultsAge-standardized mortality decreased in men ( −2.2%/year;Ptrend
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 18, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica and risk of autoimmune rheumatic diseases: a nationwide cohort study
ConclusionsThis study shows an exposure-dependent association between occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica and autoimmune rheumatic diseases and thus suggests causal effects, most evident for systemic sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 18, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Oestradiol and the risk of myocardial infarction in women: a cohort study of UK Biobank participants
ConclusionsHigher levels of oestradiol were not associated with a decreased risk of MI. The presumed cardioprotective effects of oestradiol seem to be largely confounded by age and further confounded by other cardiovascular risk factors. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 17, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Duration of diabetes-related complications and mortality in type 1 diabetes: a national cohort study
ConclusionsIn this cohort we show that duration of diabetes-related complications is an important determinant of mortality in type 1 diabetes, for example the MRR associated with CVD is highest in the first period after diagnosis of CVD. A stronger focus on time-updated information and thorough consideration of complication duration may improve risk stratification in routine clinical practice. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 16, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile Update: Manhi ça Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) of the Manhiça Health Research Centre (CISM)
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 16, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A systematic review on lagged associations in climate –health studies
AbstractBackgroundLagged associations in climate –health studies have already been ubiquitously acknowledged in recent years. Despite extensive time-series models having proposed accounting for lags, few studies have addressed the question of maximum-lag specification, which could induce considerable deviations of effect estimates.MethodsWe searched the PubMed and Scopus electronic databases for existing climate –health literature in the English language with a time-series or case-crossover study design published during 2000–2019 to summarize the statistical methodologies and reported lags of associations...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 15, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in over 6000 healthcare workers in Spain
AbstractBackgroundSpain has one of the highest incidences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide, so Spanish health care workers (HCW) are at high risk of exposure. Our objective was to determine severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody seroprevalence amongst HCW and factors associated with seropositivity.MethodsA cross-sectional study evaluating 6190 workers (97.8% of the total workforce of a healthcare-system of 17 hospitals across four regions in Spain) was carried out between April and June 2020, by measuring immunoglobulin G (IgG)-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titres and related clinical d...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 12, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile Update: Africa Centre Demographic Information System (ACDIS) and population-based HIV survey
South AfricaepidemiologyHIVpopulation cohort (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 12, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The combined impact of smoking, obesity and alcohol on life-expectancy trends in Europe
ConclusionWithout the combined impact of smoking, obesity and alcohol, the increase over time in life expectancy at birth would have been smaller among men but larger among women, resulting in a stable increase in e0, parallel for men and women. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 11, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

International comparisons of COVID-19 deaths in the presence of comorbidities require uniform mortality coding guidelines
COVID-19classification of deathsmortality statisticsICD-10politicsnosologyWorld Health Organization (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 11, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Healthy ageing for all? Comparisons of socioeconomic inequalities in health expectancies over two decades in the Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies I and II
ConclusionsPrevention should target the most disadvantaged areas, to narrow inequalities, with clear indication from the most advantaged that reduction in poor transitions is achievable. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 9, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Reflection on modern methods: good practices for applied statistical learning in epidemiology
AbstractStatistical learning includes methods that extract knowledge from complex data. Statistical learning methods beyond generalized linear models, such as shrinkage methods or kernel smoothing methods, are being increasingly implemented in public health research and epidemiology because they can perform better in instances with complex or high-dimensional data —settings in which traditional statistical methods fail. These novel methods, however, often include random sampling which may induce variability in results. Best practices in data science can help to ensure robustness. As a case study, we included four sta...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 9, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Associations of parental birth characteristics with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in their offspring: a population-based multigenerational cohort study in Denmark
AbstractBackgroundFetal exposure risk factors are associated with increased autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk. New hypotheses regarding multigenerational risk for ASD have been proposed, but epidemiological evidence is largely lacking. We evaluated whether parental birth characteristics, including preterm birth and low birthweight, were associated with ASD risk in offspring.MethodsWe conducted a nationwide register-based cohort study that included 230  174 mother-child and 157 926 father-child pairs in Denmark. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) f...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 7, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Protein foods from animal sources, incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: a substitution analysis
ConclusionsNuts, whole grains, legumes and fish appeared to be healthier protein sources than eggs, processed meat, unprocessed red meat and poultry for preventing incident CVD and premature death. The magnitude of lower risk for incident CVD and all-cause mortality was driven by amount and number of animal protein foods substituted. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 7, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A comprehensive evaluation of methods for Mendelian randomization using realistic simulations and an analysis of 38 biomarkers for risk of type 2 diabetes
ConclusionThe relative performance of different MR methods depends heavily on the sample sizes of the underlying GWAS, the proportion of valid instruments and the validity of the InSIDE assumption. Down-sampling analysis can be used in large GWAS for the possible detection of bias in the MR methods. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 4, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile: The Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study (CRISPS) and the follow-up studies
CRISPScardiovascular diseasesdiabetes mellitusmetabolic syndromecohort profileChinese (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 4, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

War across the life course: examining the impact of exposure to conflict on a comprehensive inventory of health measures in an aging Vietnamese population
ConclusionsFindings support a life course theory of health and point to long-term effects of war on health that require detailed attention. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 4, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases study (SEED)
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 4, 2021 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Low HbA1c levels and all-cause or cardiovascular mortality among people without diabetes: the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 –2015
This study includes a nationally representative sample of 39  453 US adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999–2014, linked to mortality data through 2015. We employed the parametric g-formula with pooled logistic regression models and the ensemble machine learning algorithms to estimate the time-varying risk of all-cause and c ardiovascular mortality by HbA1c categories (low, 4.0 to
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 30, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile: Centro de Integra ção de Dados e Conhecimentos para Saúde (CIDACS) Birth Cohort
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 30, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research