Commentary on ‘Protect our children’: The elephant in the room
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 27, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Protect our Children *
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 27, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile: The transition from childhood to adolescence in European children –how I.Family extends the IDEFICS cohort
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 23, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Change in birth outcomes among infants born to Latina mothers after a major immigration raid
Conclusions: Our findings highlight the implications of racialized stressors not only for the health of Latino immigrants, but also for USA-born co-ethnics. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 23, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Triangulation in aetiological epidemiology
AbstractTriangulation is the practice of obtaining more reliable answers to research questions through integrating results from several different approaches, where each approach has different key sources of potential bias that are unrelated to each other. With respect to causal questions in aetiological epidemiology, if the results of different approaches all point to the same conclusion, this strengthens confidence in the finding. This is particularly the case when the key sources of bias of some of the approaches would predict that findings would point in opposite directions if they were due to such biases. Where there a...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 20, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Diabetes mellitus and the incidence of hearing loss: a cohort study
Int. J. Epidemiol. (2016) doi:10.1093/ije/dyw243. First published online: November 7, 2016 (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 18, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Bicycle injuries and helmet use: a systematic review and meta-analysis
In the originally published version of this article, in Table 1, the study size for Otte and Wiese should have been given as  4245 instead of 245. Additionally, the last Dinh et al reference (#91) should have been 254 for the study size. This has now been corrected. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 18, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Every participant is a PI. Citizen science and participatory governance in population studies
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 17, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile: The ENVIRonmental influence ON early AGEing (ENVIR ON AGE): a birth cohort study
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 15, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The epigenetic clock and physical development during childhood and adolescence: longitudinal analysis from a UK birth cohort
Conclusions: We found evidence that being ahead of one ’s epigenetic age acceleration is related to developmental characteristics during childhood and adolescence. This demonstrates the potential for using AA as a measure of development in future research. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 15, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Data Resource Profile: IPUMS-International
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 15, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Robust causal inference using directed acyclic graphs: the R package ‘dagitty’
We describe how the R package ‘dagitty’ can be used to: evaluate whether a DAG is consistent with the dataset it is intended to represent; enumerate ‘statistically equivalent’ but causally different DAGs; and identify exposure-outcome adjustment sets that are valid for causally different but statistically equivalent DAGs. This functionality enables epidemiologists to detect causal misspecifications in DAGs and make robust inferences that remain valid for a range of different DAGs. The R package ‘dagitty’ is available through the comprehensive R archive network (CRAN) at [https://cran.r-p...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 14, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile Update: The Janus Serum Bank Cohort in Norway
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 12, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Evidence for large-scale gene-by-smoking interaction effects on pulmonary function
Conclusions: This study highlights the benefit of using genetic risk scores for identifying interactions missed when studying individual SNPs and shows, for the first time, that persons with the highest genetic risk for low FEV1/FVC may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of smoking. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 12, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Alcohol and coronary artery calcification: an investigation using alcohol flushing as an instrumental variable
Conclusions: Alcohol flushing can be used as an IV in studies evaluating the health impact of alcohol consumption, especially in East Asian countries. Through such an analysis, we found that increased alcohol consumption was associated with an increased risk of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Commentary: Mining gene-lifestyle interactions in UK Biobank: all that glitters isn ’t gold
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Gene –obesogenic environment interactions in the UK Biobank study
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the obesogenic environment accentuates the risk of obesity in genetically susceptible adults. Of the factors we tested, relative social deprivation best captures the aspects of the obesogenic environment responsible. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Commentary: On the Harmfulness of Tobacco ; Chekhov’s journey from vaudeville to empathy
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Change in organizational justice as a predictor of insomnia symptoms: longitudinal study analysing observational data as a non-randomized pseudo-trial
ConclusionsThese data suggest that changes in perceived relational justice may affect employees ’ sleep quality. Decreases in the fairness of managerial behaviours were linked to increases in insomnia symptoms, whereas rises in fairness were associated with reduced insomnia symptoms. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 8, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile: The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study –Generation 2
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 7, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile: The Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC) study
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 7, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The burden of bladder outlet obstruction in men in rural Uganda
Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are estimated to affect 2.3 billion individuals worldwide; of these, 1.1 billion are men with bladder outlet obstruction (BOO).1,2 Problematically, whereas epidemiological studies document the incidence and severity of BOO in the developed world, in the developing world only estimates are available; yet this is where the number of affected individuals is predicted to increase the most (rising by 30% in Africa alone by 2018),1 and currently late diagnosis and limited access to testing and treatment result in great hardship. The negative impact on quality of life and productivity is consid...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 7, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Books Received
The Diet Myth: The Real Science Behind What We Eat. Trade paperback edition. T Spector. Weidenfeld & Nicolson Press, 2015. ISBN: 978-1-7802-2900-3. Pp. 336. £14.99. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Impact of energy efficiency interventions in public housing buildings on cold-related mortality: a case-crossover analysis
ConclusionsEEFR interventions had differentiated effects on cold-related mortality in men and women. Differentiated effects were also observed by cause, educational level and age. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 4, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Does job promotion affect men ’s and women’s health differently? Dynamic panel models with fixed effects
ConclusionsThe present study indicates that a job promotion could lead to decreased SRH and increased symptoms of depression in a 2-4-year perspective. Associations appear to differ for women and men. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 31, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Estimating 24-h urinary sodium/potassium ratio from casual ( ‘spot’) urinary sodium/potassium ratio: the INTERSALT Study
ConclusionWith appropriate bias correction, casual urine Na/K ratio may be a useful, low-burden alternative method to 24-h urine for estimation of population urinary Na/K ratio. It may also be applicable for assessment of the urinary Na/K ratio of individuals, with use of repeated measurements to reduce measurement error and increase precision. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 30, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

An introduction to g methods
We present a simple worked example that illustrates basic concepts, while minimizing technical complications. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 30, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Low sodium intake and cardiovascular health: an unanswered question. Response to: Letter from Dr N. Campbell, ‘Dissidents and dietary sodium. Concerns about the commentary by O’Donnell et al. ’
‘An error does not become truth by reason of multiplied propagation, nor does the truth become error because nobody will see it’ [Mahatma Gandhi , All Men Are Brothers (2005 edition), Continuum - ISBN: 9780826417398]. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 30, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Dissidents and dietary sodium: concerns about the commentary by O ’Donnell et al.
O ’Donnellet al. claim that there are few individuals with extreme perspectives on both sides of the sodium controversy and that there are ‘few areas in public health that elicit more strident, polemic interpretations of the research literature’.1 Yet numerous independent health and scientific organizations have reviewed the totality of evidence and have reached very consistent recommendations to reduce dietary sodium.2 Further, mainstream health practitioners and scientists, including the World Health Organization, have strongly supported reductions in dietary sodium.3 –5 In Canada, where O ’...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 30, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Paracetamol use during pregnancy and attention and executive function in offspring at age 5 years
Conclusions: We found some evidence that maternal paracetamol use during pregnancy was associated with poorer attention and executive function in 5-year-olds. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 29, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Assessment of causality between serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and type 2 diabetes mellitus using publicly available data: a Mendelian randomization study
Conclusion: The previously observed association between high levels of serum GGT and T2D in observational studies might not be causal. Likely, results from the observational studies can be explained by reverse causality and/or residual confounding. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 29, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Coffee intake, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: observational and Mendelian randomization analyses in 95 000–223 000 individuals
Conclusions: Observationally, coffee intake was associated with U-shaped lower risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality; however, genetically caffeine intake was not associated with risk of cardiovascular disease or all-cause mortality. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 29, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile: The Nijmegen Biomedical Study (NBS)
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 26, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Commentary: Mendelian randomization-inspired causal inference in the absence of genetic data
AbstractStudying the long-term causal effects of alcohol drinking is notoriously difficult. Epidemiological studies that use conventional analytical approaches are likely to be confounded and affected by reporting/recall bias and reverse causality, specifically in the form of the sick quitter effect (individuals quitting or never starting to consume alcohol due to underlying ill health).1 Decades of observational data showing J-shaped relationships of alcohol with risk of disease and in particular cardiovascular disease,2 fuelled by confirmation bias, have resulted in alcohol policies such that individuals are recommended ...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 26, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

An introduction to multiplicity issues in clinical trials: the what, why, when and how
AbstractIn clinical trials it is not uncommon to face a multiple testing problem which can have an impact on both type I and type II error rates, leading to inappropriate interpretation of trial results. Multiplicity issues may need to be considered at the design, analysis and interpretation stages of a trial. The proportion of trial reports not adequately correcting for multiple testing remains substantial. The purpose of this article is to provide an introduction to multiple testing issues in clinical trials, and to reduce confusion around the need for multiplicity adjustments. We use a tutorial, question-and-answer appr...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 26, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Commentary: Delay discounting and smoking: robust correlation, but uncertain causation
In their systematic review, Barlow and colleagues1 report robust evidence that steep delay discounting (also known as time discounting), the tendency to prefer smaller short-term rewards over larger long-term rewards, is a risk factor for smoking and, more tentatively, for unsuccessful cessation. This extends previous work,2,3 in particular by incorporating evidence across the life course which captures different stages of smoking behaviour, from initiation through to cessation. Smokers discount the future more than non-smokers, and this predicts future smoking, and in particular decreased likelihood of successful smoking ...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 24, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Commentary: Fundamental limitations of meta-analysis of cohort studies, epidemiological challenges and the stage of obesity epidemic
Meta-analysis can generate useful results but can be controversial or confusing. Flegal ’s meta-analysis showed that overweight did not increase mortality risk,1 but a much larger meta-analysis found that overweight did increase risk when the analysis was restricted to nonsmokers at baseline.2 Both were based on baseline body mass index (BMI) and did not account for health and obesity status before and after baseline; but both showed clearly that obesity kills. The World Health Organization (WHO) advocates for healthy diet and physical activity to halt the rise of global obesity, but weight reduction is not highlight...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 24, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Caesarean section and risk of autism across gestational age: a multi-national cohort study of 5 million births
Conclusion: Across the five countries, emergency or planned CS is consistently associated with a modest increased risk of ASD from gestational weeks 36 to 42 when compared with vaginal delivery. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 24, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile: Alberta ’s Tomorrow Project
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 21, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Effects of invitation to participate in health surveys on the incidence of cardiovascular disease: a randomized general population study
Conclusions: Repeated general health checks offered to the general population had no beneficial effects on the development of IHD, stroke or all-cause mortality during 30 years of follow-up. An increased incidence of stroke was observed in the group offered health checks. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 21, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Pooled analysis of active cigarette smoking and invasive breast cancer risk in 14 cohort studies
Conclusions: Smoking, particularly if initiated before first birth, was modestly associated with ER+ breast cancer risk that was not confounded by amount of adult alcohol intake. Possible links with breast cancer provide additional motivation for young women to not initiate smoking. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 19, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Physical assault in the previous year and total and cause-specific mortality in Russia: a case –control study of men aged 25–54 years
Conclusions: We found that, in our population of working-aged Russian men, there was a strong association between physical assault and mortality from a wide range of causes. Other than direct effects of physical assault on mortality, residual confounding is an important possibility. The association between assault and mortality, particularly from cardiovascular and alcohol-related causes requires replication and further investigation. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 19, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Exposure to out-of-home care in childhood and adult all-cause mortality: a cohort study
Conclusions: Children in OHC constitute a high-risk group for subsequent mortality. In order to narrow the mortality gap, interventions may need to monitor not only health aspects but also to target the cognitive and social development of these children. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 19, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Implementing medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol in Norway 1998 –2013
Conclusions: Norwegian women have gained access to more treatment modalities and simplified protocols for medical abortion. At the same time they obtained abortions at an earlier gestational age and the waiting time has been reduced. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 19, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile: The China Metal-Exposed Workers Cohort Study (Jinchang Cohort)
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 14, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The effects of New York City ’s coordinated public health programmes on mortality through 2011
ConclusionsNYC ’s gains in survival relative to the rest of the nation were not linked to the city’s innovative and coordinated health policy efforts. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 12, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Life course models: improving interpretation by consideration of total effects
AbstractLife course epidemiology has used models of accumulation and critical or sensitive periods to examine the importance of exposure timing in disease aetiology. These models are usually used to describe the direct effects of exposures over the life course. In comparison with consideration of direct effects only, we show how consideration of total effects improves interpretation of these models, giving clearer notions of when it will be most effective to intervene. We show how life course variation in the total effects depends on the magnitude of the direct effects and the stability of the exposure. We discuss interpre...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 12, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Metformin and cancer in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and comprehensive bias evaluation
Conclusions: Observational studies on metformin and cancer varied in design, and the majority were at risk of a range of biases. The studies least likely to be affected by bias did not support a causal effect of metformin on cancer risk. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 12, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Moist smokeless tobacco (Snus) use and risk of Parkinson ’s disease
Conclusions: Non-smoking men who used snus had a substantially lower risk of Parkinson's disease. Results also indicated an inverse dose-response relationship between snus use and Parkinson's disease risk. Our findings suggest that nicotine or other components of tobacco leaves may influence the development of Parkinson's disease. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 8, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Epidemiology, the International Epidemiological Association and the International Journal of Epidemiology : a personal chronicle
Two main dates stand out in the more than 40-year life of the International Journal of Epidemiology (IJE): 1972, the year the journal was established by the International Epidemiological Association (IEA) and 2000, the entry into the new century coinciding, as it happened, with the first year in office of the Editors-in-Chief, George Davey Smith and Shah Ebrahim, both of whom will terminate their tenure at the end of 2016. It is convenient to take these dates as signposts for two periods in the IJE history. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 8, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research