Commentary: Mendelian randomization and education –Challenges remain
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - October 8, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to: Interrupted time series regression for the evaluation of public health interventions: a tutorial
First published online: 8 June 2016,Int J Epidemiol 2017; 46: 348 –55. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyw098 (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - September 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Commentary: Health insurance and children ’s survival after cancer diagnosis: mediation or confounding?
Improvements in diagnosis and treatment of paediatric cancer have achieved dramatic increases in expected survival.1 However, such medical advances risk exacerbating health inequalities along lines of class or socio-economic status (SES).2 Arguably, patients of high SES benefit from earlier diagnosis and earlier or more definitive treatment, resulting in improved clinical outcomes.2 Using health insurance type (private insurance compared with need-based public Medicaid insurance) as the measure of SES, Wanget al. demonstrate this disparity when considering 5-year all-cause mortality among children and adolescents diagnosed...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - September 2, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Multidimensional penalized splines for incidence and mortality-trend analyses and validation of national cancer-incidence estimates
The objectives of this study were to (i) promote the use of multidimensional penalized splines (MPS) for trend analyses; (ii) estimate the national cancer-incidence trends, using MPS, from only local-registry data; and (iii) propose a validation process of these estimates.MethodsWe used an MPS model of age and year for trend analyses in France over 1990 –2015 with a projection up to 2018. Validation was performed for 22 cancer sites and relied essentially on comparison with reference estimates that used the incidence/health-care ratio over the period 2011–2015. Alternative estimates that used the incidence/mort...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - August 24, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

COVID-19 in South Korea: epidemiological and spatiotemporal patterns of the spread and the role of aggressive diagnostic tests in the early phase
This study reports how COVID-19 has spread in South Korea and examines the effects of rapid widespread diagnostic testing on the spread of the disease in the early epidemic phase.MethodsWe collected daily data on the number of confirmed cases, tests and deaths due to COVID-19 from 20 January to 13 April 2020. We estimated the spread pattern with a logistic growth model, calculated the daily reproduction number (Rt) and examined the fatality pattern of COVID-19.ResultsFrom the start date of the epidemic in Korea (18 February 2020), the time to peak and plateau were 15.2 and 25  days, respectively. The initial Rt was ...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - August 4, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile Update: The Isle of Wight Whole Population Birth Cohort (IOWBC)
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - July 8, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cross-sectional and prospective relationship between occupational and leisure-time inactivity and cognitive function in an ageing population: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) study
ConclusionsThe relationship between inactivity and cognition is strongly confounded by education, social class and occupation. Physical activity during leisure may be protective for cognition, but work-related physical activity is not protective. A greater understanding of the mechanisms and confounding underlying these paradoxical findings is needed. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - July 6, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Common misconceptions about validation studies
We present an example of misclassification of a dichotomous exposure to elucidate some important misunderstandings about how to conduct validation studies to generate valid information. We demonstrate that careful attention to the design of validation studies is central to determining how the bias parameters (e.g. sensitivity and specificity or positive and negative predictive values) can be used in quantitative bias analyses to appropriately correct for misclassification. Whether sampling is done based on the true gold standard measure, the misclassified measure or at random will determine which parameters are valid and t...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - July 2, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Recognizing, reporting and reducing the data curation debt of cohort studies
AbstractGood data curation is integral to cohort studies, but it is not always done to a level necessary to ensure the longevity of the data a study holds. In this opinion paper, we introduce the concept of data curation debt—the data curation equivalent to the software engineering principle of technical debt. Using the context of UK cohort studies, we define data curation debt —describing examples and their potential impact. We highlight that accruing this debt can make it more difficult to use the data in the future. Additionally, the long-running nature of cohort studies means that interest is accrued on thi...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - July 2, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Epidemiological characteristics of the first 100 cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China, a city with a stringent containment policy
ConclusionTimely stringent containment policies minimized the importation and transmission of COVID-19 in HK. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - June 30, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Comparisons between countries are essential for the control of COVID-19
On 6 May 2020, the UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson quoted statistician David Spiegelhalter, arguing that it was not appropriate to compare the COVID-19 death rate in the UK with other countries.1 Within a few hours, Spiegelhalter tweeted a request for the Prime Minister to stop quoting him and affirmed that ‘of course we should now use other countries to try and learn why our numbers are high’.2 (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - June 29, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Genetic evidence that higher central adiposity causes gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a Mendelian randomization study
ConclusionsThese results provide strong evidence that a higher waist –hip ratio leads to GORD. Our study suggests that central fat distribution is crucial in causing GORD rather than overall weight. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - June 26, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 671 COVID-19 patients in Henan Province, China
ConclusionsLymphocyte percentage was a sign of severe COVID-19 in general but was not a good diagnostic index. Longer time from illness onset to diagnosis was associated with higher COVID-19 severity, older age, higher likelihood of having coexisting cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, and being male. Farming was found to be a high-risk occupation in Henan province, China. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - June 26, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The effect of insurance status on overall survival among children and adolescents with cancer
We examined associations between insurance status at initial diagnosis or treatment and diagnosis stage; any treatment received; and mortal ity using logistic regression, Cox proportional hazards (PH) regression, restricted mean survival time (RMST) and mediation analyses.ResultsRelative to privately insured individuals, the hazard of death (all-cause) was increased and survival months were decreased in those with Medicaid [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22 to 1.33; and −1.73 months, 95% CI: −2.07 to −1.38] and no insurance (HR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.46; and −2.1...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - June 23, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Higher risk of dementia in English older individuals who are overweight or obese
ConclusionsOur results suggest that having an increased body weight or abdominal obesity are associated with increased dementia incidence. These findings have significant implications for dementia prevention and overall public health. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - June 23, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile: The Iganga-Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, Uganda (IMHDSS, Uganda)
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - June 18, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Commentary: Compositional data call for complex interventions
In their article,1 Arnoldet al. describe the unique complexities of causal inference in the setting of compositional exposures. To interpret an association causally, one must make untestable assumptions.2 Perhaps the most fundamental of these is causal consistency, which links the world of observations to the world of potential outcomes.3 –5 One way in which causal consistency can be violated is when there are relevant variations in the treatment or intervention of interest.4 Thus, specifying a clear and well-defined intervention of the exposure of interest is the best way to justify the assumption of consistency.6 T...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - June 12, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to: An examination of multivariable Mendelian randomization in the single-sample and two-sample summary data settings
The caption submitted for Figure 1 was the same as the caption for Figure 2, and incorrect. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - June 12, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Inference about causation from examination of familial confounding (ICE FALCON): a model for assessing causation analogous to Mendelian randomization
ConclusionsThere are conceptual similarities between ICE FALCON and MR, but empirically they are giving similar conclusions with possibly more information per subject from ICE FALCON. ICE FALCON can be applied to circumstances in which MR cannot be applied, such as when there is no a priori genetic knowledge and/or data available to create a valid instrumental variable, or when the assumptions underlying MR analysis are suspect. ICE FALCON could provide insights into causality for a wide range of public health questions. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - June 4, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The contribution of tissue-grouped BMI-associated gene sets to cardiometabolic-disease risk: a Mendelian randomization study
ConclusionsOverrepresentation tests revealed differential expression of BMI-associated genes in 17 different tissues. However, with our biology-based approach using tissue-grouped MR analyses, we did not identify different risks of T2DM or CAD for the BMI-associated gene sets, which was reflected by similar effect estimates obtained by randomly sampled gene sets. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - June 4, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Data Resource Profile: The Philippine National Nutrition Survey (NNS)
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - May 15, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Genetic instrument selection for Mendelian randomization explorations of drug target effects
I read with interest the recent work by Zhouet al., where the authors aimed to explore the causal relationship between metformin use and risk of lung cancer with Mendelian randomization (MR).1 Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) circulating levels increase as a result of metformin use. Following this rationale, the authors use single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with GDF-15 levels as genetic proxies (instruments) for metformin use. Employing two-sample MR, which uses information on genetic variants from one sample and explores associations with outcomes in another independent sample, the authors then ex...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - May 11, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Commentary on: “The contribution of tissue-specific BMI-associated gene sets to cardiometabolic disease risk: a Mendelian randomization study”
Mendelian randomization is an instrumental variable technique to estimate the causal effects of risk factors on an outcome. Each genetic variant fulfilling certain conditions can be used as an instrument and leveraged to provide such an estimate. In cases where distinct processes underlie a causal relationship, the resulting estimates may differ substantially, and hence such discrepancies could be detected. An article in this issue, by Verkouteret al., proposes an approach to define groups of instruments a priori —based on their potential tissue-specific mechanism—and examine whether tissue-grouped causal effec...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - May 9, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Commentary: Improving our statistical inferences requires meta-research
In the past few years, there has been renewed interest in the use of thresholds for declaring statistical significance and, if we decide to use thresholds, what alpha value is optimal. Should we lower the threshold for claiming statistical significance fromP
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - May 9, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Reflection on modern methods: when is a stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial a good study design choice?
AbstractThe stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial (SW-CRT) involves the sequential transition of clusters (such as hospitals, public health units or communities) from control to intervention conditions in a randomized order. The use of the SW-CRT is growing rapidly. Yet the SW-CRT is at greater risks of bias compared with the conventional parallel cluster randomized trial (parallel-CRT). For this reason, the CONSORT extension for SW-CRTs requires that investigators provide a clear justification for the choice of study design. In this paper, we argue that all other things being equal, the SW-CRT is at greater risk of bias ...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - May 9, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

On the use of Mendelian randomization to assess the consequences of metformin exposure
In a recent letter to theIJE, Zhouet al. attempt to assess whether metformin exposure would affect lung cancer incidence, using Mendelian randomization (MR).1 The authors should be commended for considering MR as a means to address this important question. MR may circumvent some of the biases inherent in conventional pharmacoepidemiology, such as confounding by indication, and thus has the potential to complement the evidence base on the issue. Zhouet al. conducted sound MR models to assess the effect of a long-term increase in circulating growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) on lung cancer. However, this is not equiva...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - May 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Long-term risk of tuberculosis among migrants according to migrant status: a cohort study
ConclusionAll migrant groups experienced an initial high TB risk, but long-term risk remained high in key migrant groups. Most European countries focus TB screening on or soon after arrival. Our study suggests that approaches to TB screening should be adapted, with migrant populations benefiting from long-term access to preventive health services. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - May 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Inequalities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality across the life course by wealth and income in Sweden: a register-based cohort study
ConclusionsWealth is strongly associated with mortality throughout the adult life course, including early adulthood. Income redistribution may be insufficient to narrow health inequalities —addressing the increasingly unequal distribution of wealth in high-income countries should be considered. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - May 7, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cleft lip/palate and educational attainment: cause, consequence or correlation? A Mendelian randomization study
ConclusionsCommon variants are unlikely to predispose individuals born with nsCL/P to low educational attainment or intelligence. This is an important first step towards understanding the aetiology of low educational attainment in this group. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - May 6, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile: The Finnish Gestational Diabetes (FinnGeDi) Study
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - May 6, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Childhood overweight and obesity and timing of puberty in boys and girls: cohort and sibling-matched analyses
AbstractBackgroundEarly puberty is a risk indicator for adult diseases. Identification of modifiable causes of earlier puberty is, therefore, warranted. We estimate the association between childhood body mass index (BMI) and pubertal timing in a cohort study and in a sibling-matched study to adjust for unobserved time-stable confounders shared within families.MethodsFor the cohort study, 11  046 of 22 439 (49%) invited children, born 2000–203, from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) had information on childhood BMI at 7 years and self-reported, half-yearly puberty information from 11&thinsp...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - May 5, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Commentary: SARS, MERS and COVID-19 —new threats; old lessons
Contrary to the widespread optimism of the mid-20th century, infectious diseases will never be relegated to history by antimicrobials and vaccines. ‘New’ human pathogens have emerged at intervals throughout human history but, until recently, emerging infectious diseases often remained unrecognized, and their causes unknown, long after they had become widespread. Now, scientists can often characterize emergent pathogens with astonishing spee d, using next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics. In December 2019, in Wuhan, China, only a few days elapsed between collection of respiratory specimens from patients ...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - May 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Commentary: Proxy gene-by-environment Mendelian randomization for assessing causal effects of maternal exposures on offspring outcomes
There is considerable interest in using the principles of Mendelian randomization (MR) to examine the causal effect of maternal environmental exposures (especially during pregnancy) on offspring health related outcomes. However, using MR in this context is challenging for a number of reasons, including the fact that traditional MR analyses require large numbers of mother –offspring pairs, where at the very least, the mothers and children have been genotyped and phenotype information has been gathered on the children. A major challenge in applying MR in these situations is that across the world there is a paucity of l...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - May 1, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Mendelian randomization applied to pharmaceutical use: the case of metformin and lung cancer
Zhouet al. recently reported findings from a Mendelian randomization analysis aiming to examine the causal relationship between metformin use and lung cancer risk.1 This is a topical question because of previously reported associations between use of metformin, a commonly prescribed drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, and lower cancer risk across several anatomical sites, including lung cancer.2,3 (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - May 1, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Dicamba use and cancer incidence in the agricultural health study: an updated analysis
AbstractBackgroundThe herbicide dicamba has been commonly used agriculturally and residentially. Recent approval of genetically engineered dicamba-resistant crops is expected to lead to increased dicamba use, and there has been growing interest in potential human health effects. A prior analysis in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) suggested associations between dicamba and colon and lung cancer. We re-evaluated dicamba use in the AHS, including an additional 12  years and 2702 exposed cancers.MethodsThe AHS is a prospective cohort of pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. At enrollment (1993 –199...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - May 1, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Characterizing the historical role of parenteral antischistosomal therapy in hepatitis C virus transmission in Egypt
ConclusionsPAT campaigns played an important role in HCV transmission, yet explain only 6% of infections —they appear to be a manifestation, rather than a cause, of the epidemic. A possible driver of the epidemic could be the mass expansion of inadequate-quality healthcare during PAT campaigns and subsequent decades. Despite a historic toll, the epidemic has been rapidly diminishing since the mid-199 0s. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - May 1, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Commentary: A One Health approach to coronaviruses
Peeriet al.1 have provided a comprehensive overview, comparing the epidemiological characteristics of and public health responses to three coronaviruses: severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and now SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which have emerged from animals into humans over the past 18  years. All three have been identified as betacoronaviruses. One Health is the concept that human, animal and environmental health are linked. It provides a useful framework for examining and dealing with emerging zoonotic diseases such as coronaviruses. In 2005, Lauet al.2 identified...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - April 29, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Area-level deprivation, childhood dental ambulatory sensitive hospitalizations and community water fluoridation: evidence from New Zealand
ConclusionsCWF was associated with a reduced dental ASH rate for children aged 0 –4 and 5–12 years. Children living in the most deprived areas showed the greatest effect of CWF on dental ASH rates, indicating that the greater health gain from CWF occurred for those with the highest socio-economic disadvantage. Variation in CWF contributes to structural inequities in oral-h ealth outcomes for children. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - April 29, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Modelling paternal exposure as a negative control
We read with interest the article by Cohenet al. using the large Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) to assess the potential causal association between maternal anti-depressant use during pregnancy and shorter gestational length and child anxiety by using a paternal negative control.1 However, we have some concerns about the conclusion for child anxiety and about the causal diagram proposed for the negative control. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - April 28, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in offspring: a systematic review, meta-analysis and quasi-experimental family-based study
ConclusionPre-pregnancy overweight/obesity is associated with an increased risk of ADHD in offspring. The observed association is largely due to unmeasured familial confounding. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - April 26, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Response to: Modelling paternal exposure as a negative control
We agree with Brew,et al.1 that the way we presented the paternal negative control directed acyclic graph (DAG) has the potential for confusion, and appreciate the opportunity to clarify our reasoning. Lipsitch ’s original negative control DAG includes nodes for measured and unmeasured confounders L and U, with a dashed line between L and U indicating that either may cause the other, and they may share common causes.2 The utility of paternal exposure B as a negative control depends on the extent to which paternal exposure shares common causes with maternal exposure A. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - April 24, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cross-trait analyses with migraine reveal widespread pleiotropy and suggest a vascular component to migraine headache
We report multiple phenotypes with genetic correlation (P 
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - April 19, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Robust statistical methods with R, 2nd edition
.JureckovaJ, PicekJ, SchindlerM. CRC Press(Chapman& Hall)2019 (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - April 14, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The changing contribution of childhood social characteristics to mortality: a comparison of Finnish cohorts born in 1936 –50 and 1961–75
ConclusionsOur analyses show that the associations between childhood characteristics and mid-life mortality are substantial and almost fully mediated by achieved adult social characteristics. The increase in the contribution of childhood circumstances to mid-life mortality is driven by ever stronger associations with external causes of death. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - April 4, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Temporal recalibration for improving prognostic model development and risk predictions in settings where survival is improving over time
ConclusionPrognostic models are typically developed using a full cohort analysis that can result in out-of-date long-term survival estimates when survival has improved in recent years. Temporal recalibration is a simple method to address this, which can be used when developing and updating prognostic models to ensure survival predictions are more closely calibrated with the observed survival of individuals diagnosed subsequently. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - April 3, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

COVID-19 epidemic: disentangling the re-emerging controversy about medical facemasks from an epidemiological perspective
Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, there have been over 80  000 confirmed cases and 2700 deaths across 39 countries/ regions worldwide as of 25 February 2020, with case numbers outside China now rising at an unprecedented rate.1 This epidemic has induced concern worldwide and a sharp rise of demand for medical facemasks (surgical masks and respirators), especially in East Asia. Notably, China produced>50% of the world ’s supply of medical facemasks before the epidemic, but the daily production has now dropped from 20 million to 15 million, whereas the current demand...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - March 31, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Commentary: Complexities upon complexities in cluster-randomized trials: a commentary on incorporating truncation in outcomes
Mwandighaet al. have presented an interesting case and accompanying simulation studies to explore issues of truncation on count data in a cluster randomized setting.1 The results support the notion that researchers planning these complex cluster randomized trials (CRTs) consider exploring the impact of this truncation in sample size and power calculations early on to avoid underpowered studies. Although the overall results are not surprising and can likely be deduced from the theoretical underpinnings, or intuitively for the savvy researcher (i.e. more severe cases of this truncation will result in more severe consequences...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - March 30, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Commentary: Right truncation in cluster randomized trials can attenuate the power of a marginal analysis
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - March 25, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Negative controls to detect uncontrolled confounding in observational studies of mammographic screening comparing participants and non-participants
ConclusionsNegative-control associations indicated residual uncontrolled confounding when comparing breast-cancer mortality among screening participants and non-participants. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - March 25, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Estimating the relative probability of direct transmission between infectious disease patients
ConclusionsOur method is a novel way to infer transmission dynamics in any dataset when only a subset of cases has rich contact investigation and/or genetic data. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - March 24, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research