One size does not fit all — application of accelerometer thresholds in chronic disease
We would like to congratulate Barkeret al.1 on their recent publication comparing physical activity (PA) of those with and without chronic disease among the UK Biobank participants. The authors conclude that those with chronic disease have lower PA levels than their healthy peers. However, we would like to draw attention to what we believe is a key limitation of this study. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - August 2, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Response to: One size does not fit all —application of accelerometer thresholds in chronic disease
We thank Dibbenet al. for their comments on our paper.1 A concern was raised that our analysis might introduce differential bias between those with vs those without chronic disease, through the use of a fixedy-axis threshold (100  mg) to determine whether an individual is likely to be moderately active at any given time. In an ideal scenario, we would have access to validation datasets in a large sample of healthy and diseased individuals. Unfortunately, such datasets simply do not exist at present. The heart failure validation data shared by Dibben and colleagues is potentially relevant but currently unpublished. A...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - August 2, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Physical activity of UK adults with chronic disease: cross sectional analysis of accelerometer measured physical activity in 96  706 UK Biobank participants
First published online: 5 February 2019,Int J Epidemiol, doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyy294 (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - July 5, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile: The National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS)
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - June 25, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Fine particulate air pollution and adult hospital admissions in 200 Chinese cities: a time-series analysis
AbstractBackgroundThe association between short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and morbidity risk in developing countries is not fully understood. We conducted a nationwide time-series study to estimate the short-term effect of PM2.5 on hospital admissions in Chinese adults.MethodsDaily counts of hospital admissions for 2014 –16 were obtained from the National Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance database. We identified more than 58 million hospitalizations from 0.28 billion insured persons in 200 Chinese cities for subjects aged 18 years or older. Generalized additive...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - June 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Spillover effects on health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review
Int J Epidemiol, 2017; 46: 1251 –76. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyx039. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - June 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Early-life exposure to ambient fine particulate air pollution and infant mortality: pooled evidence from 43 low- and middle-income countries
ConclusionOur results suggest that the current World Health Organization guideline of limiting the overall ambient PM2.5 level to less than 10  µg/m³ should be augmented with a lower limit for harmful carbonaceous PM2.5. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - May 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Evaluating vaccination policies to accelerate measles elimination in China: a meta-population modelling study
First published online: 11 April 2019,Int J Epidemiol 2019, doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyz058 (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - May 5, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Data resource profile: Household Influenza Vaccine Evaluation (HIVE) Study
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - April 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile: The Ageing Trajectories of Health – Longitudinal Opportunities and Synergies (ATHLOS) project
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - April 24, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Are cities good for health? A study of the impacts of planned urbanization in China
First published online: 18 March 2019,Int J Epidemiol 2019, doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyz031 (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - April 23, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Data Resource Profile: The ALSPAC birth cohort as a platform to study the relationship of environment and health and social factors
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - April 21, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Driving status, travel modes and accelerometer-assessed physical activity in younger, middle-aged and older adults: a prospective study of 90  810 UK Biobank participants
AbstractBackgroundAssociations between driving and physical-activity (PA) intensities are unclear, particularly among older adults. We estimated prospective associations of travel modes with total PA, sedentary time (ST), light-intensity PA (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) among adults aged 39 –70 years.MethodsWe studied 90  810 UK Biobank participants (56.1 ± 7.8 years). Driving status, specific travel modes (non-work travel; commuting to/from work) and covariates were assessed by questionnaire (2006–10). PA was assessed over 7 days by wrist-w...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - April 19, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Using healthcare-seeking behaviour to estimate the number of Nipah outbreaks missed by hospital-based surveillance in Bangladesh
ConclusionsOur findings suggest hospital-based surveillance missed nearly half of all Nipah outbreaks. This analytical method allowed us to estimate the underlying burden of disease, which is important for emerging diseases where healthcare access may be limited. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - April 11, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Evaluating vaccination policies to accelerate measles elimination in China: a meta-population modelling study
ConclusionsThese results are largely due to indirect effects (i.e. fewer infections than immunized people might otherwise cause), which meta-population models with realistic mixing are uniquely capable of reproducing accurately. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - April 11, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile: The DynaHEALTH consortium – a European consortium for a life-course bio-psychosocial model of healthy ageing of glucose homeostasis
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - April 10, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Unmasking herd protection by an oral cholera vaccine in a cluster-randomized trial
AbstractBackgroundSeveral studies have shown that inactivated, whole-cell oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) confer both direct protection on vaccinees and herd protection on populations. Because our earlier cluster-randomized effectiveness trial (CRT) in urban Bangladesh failed to detect OCV herd protection, we reanalysed the trial to assess whether herd effects were masked in our original analysis.MethodsA total of 267  270 persons were randomized to 90 approximately equal-sized clusters. In 60 clusters persons aged 1 year and older were eligible to receive OCV and in 30 clusters persons received no intervention and serve...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - April 9, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Socio-economic inequalities in life expectancy of older adults with and without multimorbidity: a record linkage study of 1.1 million people in England
ConclusionsThe association between social disadvantage and multimorbidity is complex. By quantifying socio-demographic and smoking-related contributions to multimorbidity onset and subsequent survival, we provide evidence for more equitable allocation of prevention and health-care resources to meet local needs. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - April 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort profile: The LoewenKIDS Study – life-course perspective on infections, the microbiome and the development of the immune system in early childhood
First published online: 27 February 2019,Int J Epidemiol 2019, doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyz001 (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - April 1, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Heatwaves and diabetes in Brisbane, Australia: a population-based retrospective cohort study
ConclusionHeatwaves may lead to hospitalizations of diabetics and their premature deaths. Heat-related diabetes burden in children may increase as climate warms and with increasing obesity rates in adolescents. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - March 29, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Comparison of 1-week and 2-week recall periods for caregiver-reported diarrhoeal illness in children, using nationally representative household surveys
ConclusionsFor nationally representative household surveys assessing childhood diarrhoea period prevalence, a 2-week recall period may underestimate diarrhoea prevalence compared with a 1-week period. The household sanitation facility and practices remain key risk factors for diarrhoeal disease in children under five. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - March 25, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Response to: Prenatal smoke exposure, DNA methylation and a link between DRD1 and lung cancer
We thank Ryan and Robles for their interesting comment on our finding that prenatal smoke exposure was associated with DNA methylation levels in adulthood at a CpG site annotated toDRD1.1 In their previous study,2 Ryan and Robles found evidence for a gene –environment interaction between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) inDRD1 and second-hand smoke exposure in relation to lung cancer. They speculate that their observed interaction could be mediated by DNA methylation atDRD1. The SNP they mention (rs686) is located 245  766 base pairs downstream of the identified CpG site (cg22807681) inDRD1. (Source: Inter...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - March 21, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Are cities good for health? A study of the impacts of planned urbanization in China
ConclusionsUrbanization in China has, on average, had an independent and positive effect on health and well-being. Planned urbanization could benefit people ’s health in developing countries. It is likely that improved infrastructure is a key driver. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - March 18, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Accounting for missing data in statistical analyses: multiple imputation is not always the answer
ConclusionsChoice of method for dealing with missing data is crucial for validity of conclusions, and should be based on careful consideration of the reasons for the missing data, missing data patterns and the availability of auxiliary information. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - March 16, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Integrated approach for triple elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis is highly effective and cost-effective: an economic evaluation
ConclusionsThe integrated approach, using antenatal, perinatal and postnatal care as a platform in Cambodia for triple EMTCT of HIV, HBV and syphilis, is highly cost-effective and efficient. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - March 16, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Update on the global epidemiology of intussusception: a systematic review of incidence rates, age distributions and case-fatality ratios among children aged & lt;5  years, before the introduction of rotavirus vaccination
AbstractBackgroundIn some countries that have introduced oral rotavirus vaccines, a small but elevated risk of intussusception —a rare bowel disorder—has been reported. Updated estimates on the global epidemiology of intussusception are needed to help predict the potential number of intussusception cases that could be caused by the vaccine in different settings.MethodsWe estimated incidence rates, age distributions and case-fatality ratios (CFRs) for intussusception hospital admissions among children aged
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - March 16, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Prenatal smoke exposure, DNA methylation and a link between DRD1 and lung cancer
We read with interest the recent work by Richmondet al.1 where they describe changes in DNA methylation that persist into adulthood among individuals exposed to second-hand smokein utero. Among the genes affected wasDRD1, also known as dopamine receptor, D1. We were struck by this finding as we previously published work describing a gene –environment interaction between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) inDRD1 with risk of lung cancer, specifically among individuals exposed to second-hand smoke during childhood, but not adulthood.2 We detected this gene –environment interaction in both ever and never smoke...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - March 15, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile: The Danish Longitudinal Study of Ageing (DLSA)
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - March 14, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Outlier detection for questionnaire data in biobanks
ConclusionsWe confirm through the results of the simulation and the application that our methods showed good performance. The proposed methods are useful for many practical analysis scenarios. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - March 8, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Prevalence of behavioural risk factors for road-traffic injuries among the Iranian population: findings from STEPs 2016
ConclusionsIn Iran, existing disease-prevention and health-promotion programmes should be expanded to target vulnerable subgroups that have more prevalent human risk factors for road-traffic injuries. Further research is required to investigate the context-specific proximal human risk factors and vulnerability patterns in Iran. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - March 6, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Risk of acute respiratory infection from crop burning in India: estimating disease burden and economic welfare from satellite and national health survey data for 250 000 persons
ConclusionsInvestments to stop crop burning and offer farmers alternative crop-residue disposal solutions are likely to improve population-level respiratory health and yield major economic returns. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 28, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

How urban characteristics affect vulnerability to heat and cold: a multi-country analysis
ConclusionsThis represents the largest study to date assessing the effect modification of temperature –mortality relationships. Evidence from this study can inform public-health interventions and urban planning under various climate-change and urban-development scenarios. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 27, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile: The LoewenKIDS Study – life-course perspective on infections, the microbiome and the development of the immune system in early childhood
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 27, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Association of menopausal characteristics and risk of coronary heart disease: a pan-European case –cohort analysis
AbstractBackgroundEarlier age at menopause has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but the shape of association and role of established cardiovascular risk factors remain unclear. Therefore, we examined the associations between menopausal characteristics and CHD risk; the shape of the association between age at menopause and CHD risk; and the extent to which these associations are explained by established cardiovascular risk factors.MethodsWe used data from EPIC-CVD, a case –cohort study, which includes data from 23 centres from 10 European countries. We included only women, of whom 1...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 22, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Network multipliers and public health
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 21, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Physical activity of UK adults with chronic disease: cross-sectional analysis of accelerometer-measured physical activity in 96 706 UK Biobank participants
ConclusionsThe cross-sectional association of physical activity with chronic disease is broad. Given the substantial health benefits of being physically active, clinicians and policymakers should be aware that their patients with any chronic disease are at greater health risk from other diseases than anticipated because of their physical inactivity. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 5, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The impact of bicycle helmet legislation on cycling fatalities in Australia
ConclusionsIn the absence of robust evidence showing a decline in cycling exposure following helmet legislation or other confounding factors, the reduction in Australian bicycle-related fatality appears to be primarily due to increased helmet use and not other factors. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - February 5, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Reflection on modern methods: years of life lost due to premature mortality —a versatile and comprehensive measure for monitoring non-communicable disease mortality
AbstractThe analysis of causes impacting on premature mortality is an essential function of public health surveillance. Diverse methods have been used for accurately assessing and reporting the level and trends of premature mortality; however, many have important limitations, particularly in capturing actual early deaths. We argue that the framework of years of life lost (YLL), as conceptualized in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), is a robust and comprehensive measure of premature mortality. Global Burden of Disease study is systematically providing estimates of YLL; however, it is not widely adopted at country leve...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 9, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile: The ASPREE Longitudinal Study of Older Persons (ALSOP)
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 8, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Welfare regimes modify the association of disadvantaged adult-life socioeconomic circumstances with self-rated health in old age
ConclusionsEarly-life SECs have a long-lasting effect on SRH in all welfare regimes. Adult-life SECs attenuated this influence differently across welfare regimes. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - January 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile: The OsteoLaus study
Profile in a nutshellOsteoLaus is an ongoing prospective population-based cohort studying bone health in the postmenopausal women in Lausanne, Switzerland. It aims to contribute to the early and accurate identification of increased fracture risk and to the development of strategies for optimizing bone health care in elderly women. OsteoLaus is nested to the CoLaus cohort.Data were collected during the baseline (March 2010-December 2012) (n = 1475), first follow-up (September 2012-June2015) (n = 1349) and second follow-up (March 2015-February 2018) (n = 1234) visits at the Centre for Bone Diseases, Lausanne University Hospi...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 24, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Shedding light on the link between early life sun exposure and risk of multiple sclerosis: results from the EnvIMS Study
ConclusionsOur analyses provide novel insights into the link between sun exposure and MS. We demonstrate that more time indoors during childhood and early adolescence is linked with MS risk, and that sun protection behaviours in those who spend most time indoors may play a key role in increasing risk. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 18, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Mean and variance of greenness and pregnancy outcomes in Tel Aviv during 2000 –14: longitudinal and cross-sectional approaches
ConclusionThis study adds to the limited information on when exposure to greenness is most beneficial, on the association with variance of greenness and the possible pathways. These observations require confirmation in other populations. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 13, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Examining associations between physical activity and cardiovascular mortality using negative control outcomes
ConclusionsInverse associations between physical activity and risk of CVD mortality are likely causal but of a smaller magnitude than commonly observed. Negative control studies have the potential to improve causal inference within the physical activity field. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Handwashing with soap after potential faecal contact: global, regional and country estimates
AbstractBackgroundLimited data have been available on the global practice of handwashing with soap (HWWS). To better appreciate global HWWS frequency, which plays a role in disease transmission, our objectives were to: (i) quantify the presence of designated handwashing facilities; (ii) assess the association between handwashing facility presence and observed HWWS; and (iii) derive country, regional and global HWWS estimates after potential faecal contact.MethodsFirst, using data from national surveys, we applied multilevel linear modelling to estimate national handwashing facility presence. Second, using multilevel Poisso...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 10, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Association between physical activity and scoliosis: a prospective cohort study
AbstractBackgroundLittle is understood about the causes of adolescent onset idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). No prospective studies assessing the association between physical activity and idiopathic adolescent scoliosis have been carried out. We aimed to carry out the first prospective population-based study of this association.MethodsThe Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) collected self-reported measures of physical ability/activity at ages 18  months and 10 years. Objective measures of physical activity were collected by accelerometry at age 11 years. scoliosis was identified using t...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Clinical interpretation of negative mediated interaction
ConclusionsWe aim to make researchers realize that negative-effect estimates might reflect relevant biological processes in the mechanism under study. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - December 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Improving epidemiological response: lessons learnt from successive outbreaks in Nigeria
A series of disease outbreaks in Nigeria demonstrated the need for countries to invest more in improving their health security capabilities.1 Nigeria experienced five major disease outbreaks in 2017 which stretched the response capacity of its epidemiologists and its public health system.2 There are three levels of public health delivery in Nigeria: national, state and local government levels. At the national level, the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) coordinates the response to disease outbreaks of public health importance. At the state and local levels, epidemiology teams and disease surveillance officers are r...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - November 29, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cohort Profile: TWINS study of environment, lifestyle behaviours and health
(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - November 13, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Habitual sleep quality, plasma metabolites and risk of coronary heart disease in post-menopausal women
AbstractBackgroundEpidemiologic studies suggest a strong link between poor habitual sleep quality and increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. Metabolomic profiling may elucidate systemic differences associated with sleep quality that influence cardiometabolic health.MethodsWe explored cross-sectional associations between sleep quality and plasma metabolites in a nested case –control study of coronary heart disease (CHD) in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI;n = 1956) and attempted to replicate the results in an independent sample from the N...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research