Models to crack the code of organ regeneration.
Authors: Mercader N, Serras F Abstract In recent years, there has been a growing, widespread interest in tissue regeneration, with all its medical and social implications, such as, for example, the recovery from illness and wellbeing of humans. Yet, some of the most noticeable features of regeneration were discovered using a purely biological perspective with experimental biology on animal models. We are proud to introduce this Special Issue of The International Journal of Developmental Biology (Int. J. Dev. Biol.) on Regeneration Biology, which is devoted to the different animal models currently used to study rege...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 27, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Regeneration: sooner rather than later.
Authors: Bryant SV, Gardiner DM Abstract The explosive growth of information from genetics and genomics has led to an appreciation of the conservation of gene regulatory networks between organisms, and between development and regeneration. With ever increasing knowledge, it will be possible to intervene therapeutically to regulate these networks, which will lead to new therapies to induce regeneration. The question then becomes how to do this, rather then when to try. Our thesis is that the time is now, and that this feat can be achieved by combining the insights provided by developmental biologists with the techno...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 27, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

The evolution of regeneration - where does that leave mammals?
Authors: Maden M Abstract This brief review considers the question of why some animals can regenerate and others cannot and elaborates the opposing views that have been expressed in the past on this topic, namely that regeneration is adaptive and has been gained or that it is a fundamental property of all organisms and has been lost. There is little empirical evidence to support either view, but some of the best comes from recent phylogenetic analyses of regenerative ability in Planarians which reveals that this property has been lost and gained several times in this group. In addition, a non-regenerating species h...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 27, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Non-developmental dimensions of adult regeneration in Hydra.
Authors: Galliot B, Buzgariu W, Schenkelaars Q, Wenger Y Abstract An essential dimension of 3D regeneration in adult animals is developmental, with the formation of organizers from somatic tissues. These organizers produce signals that recruit surrounding cells and drive the restoration of the missing structures (organs, appendages, body parts). However, even in animals with a high regenerative potential, this developmental potential is not sufficient to achieve regeneration as homeostatic conditions at the time of injury need to be "pro-regenerative". In Hydra, we identified four distinct homeostatic pro...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 27, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Can broken hearts be mended? Ken Poss, a pioneer on heart regeneration research.
Authors: Mercader N, Serras F Abstract In 2002, Ken Poss discovered that zebrafish, at that time an emerging vertebrate model organism in basic research, were able to regenerate their heart upon resection of the ventricular apex. This finding set in motion a new field of research on heart regeneration, which has recently expanded in other model organisms including mammals. We interviewed Ken Poss to find out more about his motivation and vision for the future of tissue regeneration research. PMID: 29938751 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology)
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 27, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Elly Tanaka's passion for exploring animal regeneration.
Authors: Mercader N, Serras F Abstract This interview, performed by the guest editors of this Int. J. Dev. Biol. Special Issue on Regeneration, narrates the story of Elly M. Tanaka on her regeneration research journey. The main goal is to get a glimpse of the thoughts and scientific history of this leading figure in regeneration biology. In addition to her scientific history, we will learn about her captivating determination to ask relevant questions in science and her use of animal models for solving complex problems. PMID: 29938752 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology)
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 27, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Role of the immune response in initiating central nervous system regeneration in vertebrates: learning from the fish.
Authors: Bosak V, Murata K, Bludau O, Brand M Abstract The mammalian central nervous system is not able to regenerate neurons lost upon injury. In contrast, anamniote vertebrates show a remarkable regenerative capacity and are able to replace damaged cells and restore function. Recent studies have shown that in naturally regenerating vertebrates, such as zebrafish, inflammation is a key processes required for the initiation of regeneration. These findings are in contrast to many studies in mammals, where the central nervous system has long been viewed as an immune-privileged organ with inflammation considered one o...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 27, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Kidney regeneration in fish.
Authors: Bates T, Naumann U, Hoppe B, Englert C Abstract Age-related diseases, such as kidney diseases, are becoming more prevalent in aging societies. Currently, patients with reduced kidney function require dialysis or organ transplants. Those who suffer from kidney disease would benefit from regenerative therapies. Thus, one of the ultimate goals of regeneration research is to enhance an individual's capacity of self-repairing damaged tissue; something that fish models can contribute towards. Kidney structures are conserved among vertebrates highlighting the opportunities for fish to act as human disease models....
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 27, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Plasticity of human adipose-derived stem cells - relevance to tissue repair.
Authors: Guasti L, New SE, Hadjidemetriou I, Palmiero M, Ferretti P Abstract In contrast to cold blooded vertebrates, the ability to regenerate morphologically and functionally complex structures is limited in adult mammals. Recruitment of progenitor cells is a key step in the regenerative process. The possibility of repairing missing or diseased tissues in humans has been potentiated by the increasing understanding of somatic stem cells, their plasticity and the possibility of modulating it, that could be harnessed either to stimulate endogenous repair or to engineer the required tissue. Here, we focus on human me...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 27, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Revisiting the liver: from development to regeneration - what we ought to know!
Authors: López-Luque J, Fabregat I Abstract The liver is structurally and functionally heterogeneous and complex, and it accomplishes crucial functions for the organism. Its most remarkable potential is its capacity to regenerate after injury in order to maintain whole body homeostasis and guarantee the survival of the individual. Under normal conditions, liver regeneration (LR) is attributed to adult hepatocytes, the main cells in the liver which are able to proliferate in response to different stimuli or injuries. Nevertheless, when liver injury is severe and/or hepatocytes are prevented from proliferation...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 27, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

The triumvirate of beta-cell regeneration: solutions and bottlenecks to curing diabetes.
Authors: Singh SP, Ninov N Abstract On 11 January 1922 insulin injection was used for the first time in the treatment of diabetes. Even today, daily insulin injections are the life-saving treatment for patients with Type 1 diabetes and advanced Type 2 diabetes. However, insulin injections often fail to achieve full glucose control, which in the long-term leads to multiple complications and mortality. Beta-cells, the natural producers and secretors of insulin, remain the gold-standard in regulating blood glucose levels. In this review, we focus on three strategies aiming at counteracting beta-cell loss in order to g...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 27, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Reservoirs for repair? Damage-responsive stem cells and adult tissue regeneration in Drosophila.
Authors: Schwartz S, Rhiner C Abstract Adult stem cells in mammals are important for normal tissue renewal (homeostasis) and regeneration after injury. In the past ten years, different types of homeostatic adult stem cells have also been identified in the genetically accessible fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), among which intestinal stem cells have taken centre stage. Recent studies provide evidence that adult fly tissues may also harbor quiescent stem cells, which can enter cell cycle upon injury to regenerate compromised tissue. Such damage-responsive stem cells have been described in flight muscles, the adul...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 27, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Linking wound response and inflammation to regeneration in the zebrafish larval fin.
Authors: Roehl HH Abstract The study of regenerative biology aims to elucidate the innate ability of organisms to replace tissues or organs after they have been removed or damaged. The zebrafish is a powerful model for the analysis of intracellular signalling and cell behaviour and as such has made major contributions to our understanding of regenerative biology. The larval fin fold is an emerging model to understand how different signalling pathways interact to coordinate regeneration. Tissue damage causes the immediate release of signals that initiate wound closure and inflammation. Following this, regenerative c...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 27, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Crawling wounded: molecular genetic insights into wound healing from Drosophila larvae.
Authors: Tsai CR, Wang Y, Galko MJ Abstract For animals, injury is inevitable. Because of this, organisms possess efficient wound healing mechanisms that can repair damaged tissues. However, the molecular and genetic mechanisms by which epidermal repair is accomplished remain poorly defined. Drosophila has become a valuable model to study epidermal wound healing because of the comprehensive genetic toolkit available in this organism and the similarities of wound healing processes between Drosophila and vertebrates. Other reviews in this Special Issue cover wound healing assays and pathways in Drosophila embryos, pu...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 27, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Wound healing, cellular regeneration and plasticity: the elegans way.
Authors: Vibert L, Daulny A, Jarriault S Abstract Regeneration and wound healing are complex processes that allow organs and tissues to regain their integrity and functionality after injury. Wound healing, a key property of epithelia, involves tissue closure that in some cases leads to scar formation. Regeneration, a process rather limited in mammals, is the capacity to regrow (parts of) an organ or a tissue, after damage or amputation. What are the properties of organs and the features of tissue permitting functional regrowth and repair? What are the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these processes? Th...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 27, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Regenerative response of different regions of Drosophila imaginal discs.
Authors: Martín R, Morata G Abstract Thanks to the introduction of new methods to induce massive damage under controlled conditions, much information about regeneration in Drosophila imaginal discs has accumulated in recent years. In this review, we discuss results concerning primarily the wing disc, putting emphasis on the different regenerative responses of the wing appendage, which exhibits a robust regenerative potential, and the trunk region, the notum, which regenerates very poorly. The wing disc may be a paradigm of a tissue in which a common original lineage generates cells with distinct regenerative...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 27, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

The cellular and molecular bases of the sponge stem cell systems underlying reproduction, homeostasis and regeneration.
Authors: Funayama N Abstract The evolution of multicellular organisms is generally thought (and seems likely) to have been accompanied by the evolution of a stem cell system. Sponges, some of the early-evolved metazoans, have totipotent/pluripotent stem cells. Thus, uncovering the cellular and molecular bases of the sponge stem cells will not only be crucial for understanding the ancestral gene repertoire of animal stem cells, but will also give us clues to understanding the evolution of molecular mechanisms for maintaining multipotency (pluripotency) and differentiation ability during animal evolution. Sponges (Po...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 27, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Myths vs. FACS: what do we know about planarian stem cell lineages?
Authors: Molinaro AM, Pearson BJ Abstract Historically, planarian neoblasts were thought to be a homogeneous population of pluripotent stem cells; however, recent population and single-cell level analyses have refuted this idea. Evidence for lineage commitment at the neoblast level has been provided via a number of independent studies using a variety of methods. In situ hybridization experiments first demonstrated the co-expression of lineage-specific markers in neoblasts (marked by piwi-1 expression) isolated by FACS. Subsequently, single cell transcriptomic analyses of FACS-isolated neoblasts uncovered broad line...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 27, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Rebuilding a planarian: from early signaling to final shape.
Authors: Cebrià F, Adell T, Saló E Abstract Why some animals can regenerate and others not has fascinated biologists since the first examples of regeneration were reported. Although many animal phyla include species with some regenerative ability, mainly restricted to particular cell types or tissues, there are some other species capable of regenerating complex structures, such as the vertebrate limb and heart. More remarkably, there are some examples of animals that can regenerate the whole body from a tiny piece of them. Understanding how regeneration is triggered and achieved in these animals is fu...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 27, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

The regenerative flatworm Macrostomum lignano, a model organism with high experimental potential.
Authors: Mouton S, Wudarski J, Grudniewska M, Berezikov E Abstract Understanding the process of regeneration has been one of the longstanding scientific aims, from a fundamental biological perspective, as well as within the applied context of regenerative medicine. Because regeneration competence varies greatly between organisms, it is essential to investigate different experimental animals. The free-living marine flatworm Macrostomum lignano is a rising model organism for this type of research, and its power stems from a unique set of biological properties combined with amenability to experimental manipulation. Th...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 27, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms of limb regeneration: insights from regenerating legs of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.
Authors: Bando T, Mito T, Hamada Y, Ishimaru Y, Noji S, Ohuchi H Abstract This review summarizes recent advances in leg regeneration research, focusing on the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Recent studies have revealed molecular mechanisms on blastema formation, establishment of positional information, and epigenetic regulation during leg regeneration. Especially, these studies have provided molecular bases in classical conceptual models such as the polar coordinate model, the intercalation model, the boundary model, the steepness model, etc., which were proposed to interpret regeneration processes of the cockroach l...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 27, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Homeostasis, regeneration and tumour formation in the mammalian epidermis.
Authors: Belokhvostova D, Berzanskyte I, Cujba AM, Jowett G, Marshall L, Prueller J, Watt FM Abstract The epidermis is the outer covering of the skin and provides a protective interface between the body and the environment. It is well established that the epidermis is maintained by stem cells that self-renew and generate differentiated cells. In this review, we discuss how recent technological advances, including single cell transcriptomics and in vivo imaging, have provided new insights into the nature and plasticity of the stem cell compartment and the differing roles of stem cells in homeostasis, wound repair an...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 27, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

New mechanisms driving muscle stem cell regenerative decline with aging.
Authors: Sousa-Victor P, García-Prat L, Muñoz-Cánoves P Abstract Stem cells must preserve their function in order to sustain organ and tissue formation, homeostasis and repair. Adult stem cells, particularly those resident in tissues with little turnover, remain quiescent for most of their life, activating only in response to regenerative demands. Among the best studied long-lived quiescent stem cells are skeletal muscle stem cells, which are fully equipped to sustain repair in response to tissue trauma. Recent evidence indicates that the preservation of muscle stem-cell quiescence and regenera...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 27, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Cellular senescence in tissue repair: every cloud has a silver lining.
Authors: Yun MH Abstract Cellular senescence, a form of stable cell cycle arrest induced by cellular stress, constitutes a major factor leading to the promotion of pathologies and physiological decays that take place during ageing. However, in recent years evidence has started to emerge supporting a positive role for senescent cells in various physiological processes, from embryonic development to tissue injury responses such as wound healing and tissue repair. Here, we provide an overview of cellular senescence, its negative as well as positive outcomes, with a focus on its impact on tissue repair. Furthermore, we...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 27, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Lens regeneration: a historical perspective.
Authors: Vergara MN, Tsissios G, Del Rio-Tsonis K Abstract The idea of regenerating injured body parts has captivated human imagination for centuries, and the topic still remains an area of extensive scientific research. This review focuses on the process of lens regeneration: its history, our current knowledge, and the questions that remain unanswered. By highlighting some of the milestones that have shaped our understanding of this phenomenon and the contributions of scientists who have dedicated their lives to investigating these questions, we explore how regeneration enquiry evolved into the science i...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 8, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Deletion of etoposide-induced 2.4 kb transcript (ei24) reduced cell proliferation and aggregate-size in Dictyostelium discoideum.
Authors: Gupta N, Saran S Abstract The etoposide-induced 2.4 kb transcript (ei24) gene is induced both by p53 and etoposide, an anti-cancer tumour drug. There is no p53 gene present in Dictyostelium discoideum. Thus, the functions of ei24 in the absence of p53 were analysed. Both overexpressor (ei24OE) and knockout (ei24-) mutants were made to study its role during growth, development and differentiation. Additionally, cell cycle and its response to DNA-damage were also analysed. We identified, characterized and elucidated the functions of the ei24 gene in Dictyostelium. In silico analyses demonstrated the conserva...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 8, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Mutation of frizzled8a delays neural retinal cell differentiation and results in microphthalmia in zebrafish.
Authors: Cheng XN, Shao M, Shi DL Abstract Eye formation in vertebrates involves highly coordinated processes, and the differentiation of various eye tissues is regulated by conserved transcription factors and signalling pathways. Mutations in key genes of the regulatory hierarchy lead to congenital disorders and ocular diseases. The Wnt signalling pathway plays a key role in different aspects of eye development, and several Wnt receptors of the Frizzled family are required for eye specification and differentiation. However, their precise function in these processes remains elusive. Here we show that mutation of th...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 8, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Migration of lymphatic endothelial cells and lymphatic vascular development in the craniofacial region of embryonic mice.
This study aimed to examine the origin of craniofacial lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and the developmental process of lymphatic vessels in the mouse craniofacial region. Serial sections from ICR mouse embryos at E9.5-E14.5 were immunolabeled with LEC and venous endothelial cell (VEC) markers. These markers included prospero homeobox protein 1 (Prox1), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (Vegfr3), lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (Lyve1), and C-C motif chemokine 2 (Ccl21) for LEC, and COUP transcription factor 2 (CoupTF2) and endomucin (Emcn) for VEC. LECs were monitored as an index in Prox1...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 8, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Dynamic patterns of mononucleated myogenic cell populations in the developing rat hindlimb.
Authors: Lee ASJ, Yoon N, Gould M, Zhang M Abstract Formation of an organ is governed by both the genetic programming of individual cells and dynamic interactions amongst different cell communities or the 'community effect'. Using the developing vertebrate limb muscle, we identified myogenic stem cell communities derived from migratory somitic cells. These cells express Pax3, a gene from the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors and Pax7, a paralog of Pax3. Both Pax genes act upstream of myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) whose activation marks a specified myogenic lineage and subsequent differentiation. Q...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 8, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Real time dynamics of β-catenin expression during Hydra development, regeneration and Wnt signalling activation.
Real time dynamics of β-catenin expression during Hydra development, regeneration and Wnt signalling activation. Int J Dev Biol. 2018;62(4-5):311-318 Authors: Iachetta R, Ambrosone A, Klimovich A, Wittlieb J, Onorato G, Candeo A, D'andrea C, Intartaglia D, Scotti N, Blasio M, Tino A, Bassi A, Tortiglione C Abstract Understanding the dynamic cellular behaviours driving morphogenesis and regeneration is a long-standing challenge in biology. Live imaging, together with genetically encoded reporters, may provide the necessary tool to address this issue, permitting the in vivo monitoring of the spatial...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 8, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

lrpap1 as a specific marker of proximal pronephric kidney tubuli in Xenopus laevis embryos.
Authors: Neuhaus H, Gaul F, Hollemann T Abstract LRPAP1, also known as receptor associated protein (RAP) is a small protein of 40 kDa associated with six of the seven members of the evolutionary conserved family of LDL receptors. Numerous studies showed that LRPAP1 has a dual function, initially as a chaperone insuring proper formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds during biogenesis of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors and later as an escort protein during trafficking through the endoplasmic reticulum and the early Golgi compartment, preventing premature interaction of receptor and ligand. Because of the ...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 8, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Pou3f transcription factor expression during embryonic development highlights distinct pou3f3 and pou3f4 localization in the Xenopus laevis kidney.
Authors: Cosse-Etchepare C, Gervi I, Buisson I, Formery L, Schubert M, Riou JF, Umbhauer M, Le Bouffant R Abstract The POU (Pit-Oct-Unc) genes encode a large transcription factor family comprising 6 classes (pou1f to pou6f ) involved in many developmental processes, such as cell commitment and differentiation. The pou3f class contains four members (pou3f1, pou3f2, pou3f3, pou3f4) characterized by expression in ectodermal tissue derivatives, such as nervous system and otic vesicle, during mammalian development. In order to obtain insights into the potential conservation of this class of transcription factors in vert...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 8, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Matrix remodeling associated 5 expression in trunk and limb during avian development.
Authors: Robins JE, Capehart AA Abstract Matrix remodeling associated 5 (MXRA5) is an extracellular protein that is upregulated in several cancers, but little is known regarding its spatial and temporal localization in the developing embryo. The present study was undertaken to investigate MXRA5 transcript expression in the trunk and limb of the embryonic chick to provide groundwork for future investigation of its developmental function. In situ hybridization utilizing digoxigenin-labeled sense control and experimental antisense probes was performed in paraffin sections of chick embryos from Hamburger and Hamilton (...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 8, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Expression of transcription factors during area pellucida formation in intrauterine chicken embryos.
Authors: Han JY, Lee HG, Hwang YS, Lee HC, Kim SK, Rengaraj D Abstract Initial embryological development in avian species, consisting of cleavage and area pellucida formation, occurs prior to oviposition. In chickens, the first lineage segregation is known to occur during the last 10 hours of intrauterine development, a finding which has primarily been identified on the basis of morphological perspectives. We traced the early expression of the transcription factors NANOG, POUV and EOMES at Eyal-Giladi and Kochav (EGK) stages VI through X using in situ hybridization. At EGK.VI, NANOG and EOMES were heterogeneously e...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - June 8, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

The chick model system: a distinguished past and a great future.
Authors: Stern C Abstract When I was asked by the Chief Editor of the Int. J. Dev. Biol. to consider editing a Special Issue about "the chick", I was first hesitant, because I had already edited such an issue for another journal in 2004 (Mech. Dev. volume 121), when the sequence of the chick genome was first released (Stern, 2004, 2005). But at the same time I was surprised that this journal, well known for its Special Issues of which many have become important historical and literary land-marks to the developmental biology literature, had not yet produced a volume on what is probably the oldest developme...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - April 5, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Chick midgut morphogenesis.
Authors: Huycke TR, Tabin CJ Abstract The gastrointestinal tract is an essential system of organs required for nutrient absorption. As a simple tube early in development, the primitive gut is patterned along its anterior-posterior axis into discrete compartments with unique morphologies relevant to their functions in the digestive process. These morphologies are acquired gradually through development as the gut is patterned by tissue interactions, both molecular and mechanical in nature, involving all three germ layers. With a focus on midgut morphogenesis, we review work in the chick embryo demonstrating how these...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - April 5, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

A snail tale and the chicken embryo.
Authors: Nieto MA Abstract Some 25 years ago, a clone was identified that contained the chicken Slug sequences (now called Snail2 ). How could we anticipate at that time how much the chick embryo would help us to understand the ins and outs of cell migration during development and in disease? Indeed, the chick embryo helped us identify Snail2 as the first transcription factor that could induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), key for the migration of embryonic and cancer cells. PMID: 29616719 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology)
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - April 5, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Chick muscle development.
Authors: Scaal M, Marcelle C Abstract Striated muscle is the most abundant tissue in the body of vertebrates and it forms, together with the skeleton, the locomotory system required both for movement and the creation of the specific body shape of a species. Research on the embryonic development of muscles has a long tradition both in classical embryology and in molecular developmental biology. While the gene networks regulating muscle development have been discovered mostly in the mouse through genetics, our knowledge on cell lineages, muscle morphogenesis and tissue interactions regulating their formation is to a ...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - April 5, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Early hematopoietic and vascular development in the chick.
Authors: Nagai H, Shin M, Weng W, Nakazawa F, Jakt LM, Alev C, Sheng G Abstract The field of hematopoietic and vascular developmental research owes its origin to the chick embryo. Many key concepts, such as the hematopoietic stem cell, hemangioblast and hemogenic endothelium, were first proposed in this model organism. Genetically tractable models have gradually replaced the chick in the past two decades. However, advances in comparative genomics, transcriptomics and promoteromics promise a re-emergence of the chick embryo as a powerful model for hematopoietic/vascular research. This review summarizes the current s...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - April 5, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

The early development of germ cells in chicken.
Authors: Kim YM, Han JY Abstract Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the founder cells for mature gametes, the vehicles by which individuals transmit genetic and epigenetic information to later generations. Since the 19th century, avian species (chickens in particular) have been widely used for germ cell research. Previous studies have used chicken PGCs for a variety of research applications, including as a model for studies focusing on germline development. Other applications of chicken PGCs, including conservation efforts for avian species and methods of producing transgenic birds, have further reinforced the import...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - April 5, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

An obsession with the chick.
Authors: Bellairs R Abstract This paper provides a brief account of some aspects of the career of Ruth Bellairs using selected examples from her research publications, with the emphasis being placed on the early stages of chick embryo development, and in particular, on cell migration. Topics include the role of Hensen's node, the vitelline membrane, the structure and segmentation of somites, the tail bud and the Wolffian duct. Her research approach has involved embryo culture, experimental surgery, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, time-lapse filming and immunostaining techniques. PMID: 29616723 [P...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - April 5, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation in the chicken model.
Authors: Hirst CE, Major AT, Smith CA Abstract Our understanding of avian sex determination and gonadal development is derived primarily from the studies in the chicken. Analysis of gynandromorphic chickens and experimental chimeras indicate that sexual phenotype is at least partly cell autonomous in the chicken, with sexually dimorphic gene expression occurring in different tissue and different stages. Gonadal sex differentiation is just one of the many manifestations of sexual phenotype. As in other birds, the chicken has a ZZ male: ZW female sex chromosome system, in which the male is the homogametic sex. Most e...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - April 5, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Cell biological mechanisms regulating chick neurogenesis.
Authors: Kasioulis I, Storey KG Abstract Signalling pathways that regulate neural progenitor proliferation and neuronal differentiation have been identified. However, we know much less about how transduction of such signals is regulated within neuroepithelial cells to direct cell fate choice during mitosis and subsequent neuronal differentiation. Here we review recent advances in the experimentally amenable chick embryo, which reveal that this involves association of signalling pathway components with cell biological entities, including mitotic centrosomes and ciliary structures. This includes changing centrosomal ...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - April 5, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Segmentation of the chick central and peripheral nervous systems.
Authors: Keynes R, Cook G Abstract The chick embryo has provided a prominent model system for the study of segmental patterning in the nervous system. During early development, motor and sensory axon growth cones traverse the anterior/rostral half of each somite, so avoiding the developing vertebral components and ensuring separation of spinal nerves from vertebral bones. A glycoprotein expressed on the surface of posterior half-somite cells confines growth cones to the anterior half-somites by a contact repulsive mechanism. Hindbrain segmentation is also a conspicuous feature of chick brain development. We review ...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - April 5, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Insights into neural crest development from studies of avian embryos.
Authors: Gandhi S, Bronner ME Abstract The neural crest is a multipotent and highly migratory cell type that contributes to many of the defining features of vertebrates, including the skeleton of the head and most of the peripheral nervous system. 150 years after the discovery of the neural crest, avian embryos remain one of the most important model organisms for studying neural crest development. In this review, we describe aspects of neural crest induction, migration and axial level differences, highlighting what is known about the underlying gene regulatory mechanisms. Past and emerging technologies continue to ...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - April 5, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

A life in Science with the avian embryo.
Authors: Le Douarin NM Abstract My career in research was a second thought. I first (during 8 years) worked as a secondary school teacher and after 4-5 years, during which my two daughters were born, I found a way to escape from what was to be a lifetime job. For two years, my initiation to research was limited to the free time left by my teaching duties. This period of time was a bit "complicated" but not enough to prevent me to realize that research was really what I wanted to do for the rest of my life… And this was when I became acquainted with the chick embryo. This companionship later became ...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - April 5, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Specification of sensory placode progenitors: signals and transcription factor networks.
Authors: Streit A Abstract Sensory placodes contribute to much of the sensory nervous system in the vertebrate head. They give rise to parts of the eye, ear and nose, as well as to the sensory ganglia that innervate the face, tongue, oesophagus and visceral tissues. Despite their diversity, during development placodes arise from a population of common progenitor cells, which are first specified at the border of the neural plate. The chick has been particularly instrumental in dissecting the timing of these events, and recent evidence has highlighted the close relationship of placode progenitors and precursors for n...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - April 5, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Developmental studies of avian brain organization.
Authors: Puelles L Abstract Avian brain organization or brain Bauplan is identical with that of vertebrates in general. This essay visits avian studies that contained advances or discussions about brain organization, trying to explain critically what they contributed. In order to start from a specific background, the new prevailing paradigm as regards brain organization, the prosomeric model, is presented first. Next a brief historic survey is made of how ideas on this topic evolved from the start of modern neuromorphology at the end of the 19th century. Longitudinal zonal organization with or without transverse se...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - April 5, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

Sonic hedgehog in vertebrate neural tube development.
Authors: Placzek M, Briscoe J Abstract The formation and wiring of the vertebrate nervous system involves the spatially and temporally ordered production of diverse neuronal and glial subtypes that are molecularly and functionally distinct. The chick embryo has been the experimental model of choice for many of the studies that have led to our current understanding of this process, and has presaged and informed a wide range of complementary genetic studies, in particular in the mouse. The versatility and tractability of chick embryos means that it remains an important model system for many investigators in the field...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - April 5, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research

General principles of spinal motor circuit development: early contributions from research on avian embryos.
This article will review some of these contributions, highlighting several areas including the acquisition of motoneuron subtype identity and target selection, as well as the role of spontaneous rhythmic activity in circuit development. PMID: 29616732 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology)
Source: International Journal of Developmental Biology - April 5, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Int J Dev Biol Source Type: research