Metallo- β-lactamases and class D carbapenemases in South-East of Tunisia: Implication of mobile genetic elements in their dissemination
The emergence and spread of multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections constitute a major public health problem worldwide [1]. Indeed, several studies have demonstrated an association of infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria with a high mortality rate and a long period of hospitalization [2]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - June 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Olfa DZIRI, Carla Andrea ALONSO, Raoudha DZIRI, Haythem GHARSA, Abderrahmen MARAOUB, Carmen TORRES, Chedly CHOUCHANI Tags: Themed Issue: Recent Advances in Antimicrobial and Bacterial Resistance Source Type: research

Vancomycin or Linezolid Empiric MRSA Coverage with potential Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (pVAP) Has No Benefit or Effect on Outcomes: Antibiotic Stewardship Implications
Clinically, MRSA VAP is rare. However, MRSA is a common colonizer of respiratory secretions in ventilated adults in ICUs. The classic clinical features of bona fide S. aureus pneumonia are well known from experience with S. aureus pneumonia with influenza. In a pVAP ICU patient, without the clinical findings of S. aureus pneumonia, i.e., otherwise unexplained new high fevers/chills, hemorrhagic tracheobronchitis, elastin fibers in bronchial secretions, hypotension, rapidly cavitation, and thick walled cavities in one/both lungs [1,2]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - June 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Burke A. Cunha, Nora Jaber, Sharon Blum Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Assessment of posaconazole salvage therapy in chronic pulmonary aspergillosis by using predefined response criteria
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a slowly progressive infection mainly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, characterized by inflammatory destruction of lung tissue with cavitation, pleural thickening and/or fibrosis, and associated with significant respiratory and constitutional symptoms [1 –3]. CPA usually affects patients with underlying structural airway disease with air-filled cavities or bullae, such as tuberculosis (TB), non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), pneumothorax and sarcoid osis. (Source: International...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - June 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Isabel Rodriguez-Goncer, Chris Harris, Chris Kosmidis, Eavan G. Muldoon, Pippa J. Newton, David W. Denning Source Type: research

Resveratrol enhances the efficacy of aminoglycosides against Staphylococcus aureus
The rise of antibiotic resistant bacteria is causing concern worldwide regarding the potential inability to cure bacterial infections [1]. Clinical introduction of new antibiotics based on novel chemical scaffolds has been limited [2], which has necessitated a search for other approaches to counter the problems of antibiotic resistance. An approach suggested is to re-sensitize resistant bacteria by targeting mechanisms that aid bacteria to resist higher concentrations of an antibiotic [3]. Antibiotic resistance may arise due to acquisition of resistance genes, spontaneous mutations or the bacterium may be intrinsically res...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - June 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Katrine N øhr-Meldgaard, Armen Ovsepian, Hanne Ingmer, Martin Vestergaard Source Type: research

XDRB carriers among travelers: One-third were never hospitalized previously
Since the 2000s, the spread of extensively drug-resistant bacteria (XDRB) is a worldwide phenomenon that represents an important public health issue. Several studies have suggested a higher risk of infection in previously colonized patients [1,2] and a higher risk of morbidity and mortality [3,4], usually related to little antibiotic resources. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - June 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lou Macaux, Oulimata Ndoye, Hugues Cordel, Typhaine Billard Pomares, Delphine Seytre, Olivier Bouchaud, Yves Cohen, Jean-Ralph Zahar, Etienne Carbonnelle Source Type: research

High mortality among patients infected with hypervirulent antimicrobial-resistant capsular type K1 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in Taiwan
Klebsiella pneumoniae are usually responsible for urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bacteraemia, and intra-abdominal infections worldwide [1]. These infections are usually considered classic K. pneumoniae infections and may occur in the community and hospital settings [1]. K. pneumonia strains causing classic infections are also able to acquire antimicrobial resistance, which is usually associated with nosocomial infection. Nevertheless, during the last several decades, K. pneumoniae has emerged as a major cause of community-acquired pyogenic liver abscesses in East Asian countries (especially Taiwan, Korea, and Singapo...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - June 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yi-Tsung Lin, Yi-Hsiang Cheng, Chih-Han Juan, Ping-Feng Wu, Yi-Wei Huang, Sheng-Hua Chou, Tsuey-Ching Yang, Fu-Der Wang Source Type: research

Emergence of tet(A) variant and blaKPC-2 co-carrying plasmid from a ST11 hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate in patient's gut
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) are increasingly reported worldwide and CRKP infections are often associated with high morbidity and mortality. Tigecycline is among the few drugs of choice for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant bacterial infections. However, tigecycline-resistant CRKP isolates have been reported in several regions with the detection rates from 9.1%-14.5% [1,2]. Until now, the mechanisms conferring tigecycline resistance in K. pneumoniae are not well characterized and elucidated. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - June 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Danxia Gu, Huoyang Lv, Qiaoling Sun, Lingbin Shu, Rong Zhang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Prevalence of pSCFS7-like vectors among cfr positive staphylococcal population in Spain
Sir, (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - June 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Le Thuy Thi Nguyen, Federico Rom án, Kazuya Morikawa, Pilar Trincado, Carmen Marcos, María Dolores Rojo-Martín, Fabio Cafini Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Title Page & Editorial Board
(Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - June 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Clonal transmission of NDM-5-producing Escherichia coli belonging to high-risk sequence type ST405
Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae are a critical public-health problem. The European Survey on Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae (EuSCAPE) reported that 19% of carbapenem-non-susceptible Escherichia coli isolates produced carbapenemases [1]. In Spain, an upward trend in carbapenemase-producing E. coli has been observed, mainly due to the dissemination of OXA-48 [2]; however, sporadic occurrence of NDM-producers has been reported [2,3]. The success of high-risk E. coli clones might be due to factors such as increased transmission and colonisation capacity, antibiotic multiresistance and enhanced virulence....
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - June 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Laura Barrado, Mar ía Pérez-Vázquez, José Luis del Pozo, Carmen Martín-Salas, José Leiva, Ana Mazón, Carmen Ezpeleta, Jesús Oteo Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Review and Mapping of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Africa: Using Diverse Data to Inform Surveillance Gaps
: Comprehensive, customized search strategies with analysis and mapping of defined data elements provide an enhanced view of carbapenem resistant E. coli and Klebsiella in Africa. These CRE are widely distributed and generally present at low to moderate levels. While use of diverse and largely clinically derived data has limitations, and cannot substitute for surveillance, it can enhance situational awareness. The approaches utilized can support improved risk understanding and prioritization and may be applied to other organisms and areas where surveillance remains inadequate. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - June 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Elizabeth A. Mitgang, David M. Hartley, Marissa D. Malchione, Michala Koch, Jesse L. Goodman Source Type: research

A Case Study on Soil Antibiotic Resistome in an Urban Community Garden
Environmental antibiotic resistance is drawing extensive research and public health attention nowadays because there is increasing evidence showing that the evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment contribute to the occurrence of antibiotic resistance in the clinical environment [1 –4]. Besides, many antibiotic resistance genes found in pathogenic bacteria have evolved or are acquired from environmental microbial communities [5], suggesting an urgent need to understand the environmental reservoir of antibiotic resistance. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 29, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Abdullah Ibn Mafiz, Liyanage Nirasha Perera, Yingshu He, Wei Zhang, Shujie Xiao, Weilong Hao, Shi Sun, Kequan Zhou, Yifan Zhang Source Type: research

Whole genome sequencing of NDM-1-producing ST85 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Tunisia
Acinetobacter baumanni is becoming in the last decade the most threatening pathogen in hospital settings belonging to the ESKAPE pathogens [1]. The high-level of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAb) are more commonly mediated by production of acquired class D carbapenem-hydrolysing β-lactamases and in a lesser extent class A and B carbapenemases [2,3]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 29, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nadia jaidane, Thierry Naas, Saoussen Oueslati, Sandrine Bernabeu, Noureddine Boujaafar, Olfa Bouallegue, R émy A. Bonnin Source Type: research

A Comparison of Composition and In Vitro Activity of Polymyxin B Products
Polymyxins are cationic cyclic polypeptides derived from various strains of Bacillus polymyxa, and have broad-spectrum activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Polymyxin B contains a mixture of polypeptides [1] and is manufactured by several companies in accordance with United States Pharmacopeia (USP) standards. Current USP polymyxin tests and assays evaluate its biological activity, and manufacturers report polymyxin B biological activity in Units (using cylinder-plate methods) and potency in Units/mg [2, 3]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 25, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: John K. Diep, Jenna Covelli, Rajnikant Sharma, Donna M. Ruszaj, Keith S. Kaye, Jian Li, Robert M. Straubinger, Gauri G. Rao Source Type: research

Outbreak of IMI-1 Carbapenemase-producing colistin-resistant Enterobacter cloacae on the French island of Mayotte (Indian Ocean)
The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is currently a worldwide public health issue [1]. Significant population flows from southern Africa and the Indian sub-continent to the Indian Ocean islands can contribute to the dissemination of these multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR) in the Mayotte and Reunion islands, two French overseas departments located in the Southwest Indian Ocean, close to Madagascar, with a population of 250,000 and 850,000 inhabitants, respectively. The MDR screening program carried out at the Mayotte Medical Center (MMC) and F élix Guyon University Hospital (FGUH) of Reu...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 25, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Guillaume Miltgen, R émy A. Bonnin, Catherine Avril, Thierry Benoit-Cattin, Daniel Martak, Alexandre Leclaire, Nicolas Traversier, Bénédicte Roquebert, Marie-Christine Jaffar-Bandjee, Nathalie Lugagne, Laurent Filleul, Marion Subiros, Anne-Marie de Mon Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

The GISA call to action for the appropriate use of antimicrobials and the control of antimicrobial resistance in Italy
The spread of antibiotic resistance is one of the leading public health problems in Italy. An ECDC country-site visit recently confirmed the major challenges and made important suggestions. In response, the Ministry of Health published the National Plan for Antimicrobial Resistance Containment, and a group of experts belonging to the Italian Group of Antimicrobial Stewardship (GISA), convened to develop a summary of practical recommendations. The GISA document is intended for use by practising physicians; it aims to increase the rational use of antimicrobials and in the treatment of infections, and to change the culture of...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Francesco Menichetti, Marco Falcone, Pierluigi Lopalco, Carlo Tascini, Angelo Pan, Luca Busani, Bruno Viaggi, Gian Maria Rossolini, Fabio Arena, Andrea Novelli, Francesco De Rosa, Stefania Iannazzo, Jonathan Cohen, for the GISA1 (Italian Group for Antimic Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated from food and environmental sources in Western Australia
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of life-threatening infectious diarrhoea in humans, and a major public health issue in many developed countries [1]. C.  difficile causes a wide range of symptoms, from mild diarrhoea to severe pseudomembranous colitis and, in rare cases, fulminant colitis that may lead to intestinal perforation or megacolon and sepsis [1]. The major risk factor for developing CDI is exposure to antimicrobials, particularly agents w ith activity against commensal bowel flora such as clindamycin, aminopenicillins, extended-spectrum cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones [1]. (Sour...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Su-Chen Lim, Grace O. Androga, Daniel R. Knight, Peter Moono, Niki F. Foster, Thomas V. Riley Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Rapid resolution of MDR bacterial genome harboring mcr-1 and blaCMY-2 using MinION sequencing platform
Sir, (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ruichao Li, Miaomiao Xie, Edward Wai Chi Chan, Sheng Chen Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae infections in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: epidemiology and molecular characterization
Bacterial infections are common complications in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. They represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality in this severely immunocompromised population. These infections are mainly caused by Gram-positive cocci. But, in recent years, we noticed the reemergence of Gram-negative rods (GNR) and the increasing of antibiotimicrobial resistance [1]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Molka Kharrat, Yosra Chebbi, Farah Ben Tanfous, Amel Lakhal, Saloua Ladeb, Tarek Ben Othmen, Wafa Achour Source Type: research

A Pooled Analysis of the Phase 3 REVIVE Trials: Randomized, Double-blind Studies to EValuate the Safety and Efficacy of Iclaprim Versus Vancomycin for trEatment of Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections
Up to 1.8% of all hospitalizations are for an acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) [1]. Often these serious skin infections require intravenous antibiotics, hospitalization, and/or surgical intervention [2,3]. The majority of ABSSSI are caused by Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), and beta-hemolytic streptococci [3,4]. Although many antibiotics are available to treat ABSSSI, only a few are available for ABSSSI caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria, and some of these are limited by safety, tolerability...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: David B Huang, G. Ralph Corey, Thomas L Holland, Thomas Lodise, William O'Riordan, Mark H Wilcox, Thomas M File, Matthew Dryden, Barbara Balser, Eve Desplats, Antoni Torres Source Type: research

Plant nutraceuticals as antimicrobial agents in food preservation: terpenoids, polyphenols and thiols
A wide range of synthetic preservatives and antibacterial physical treatments are used to extend food shelf life by inhibiting bacterial growth. Also, some foods require special protection against microbial spoilage during their preparation, storage or distribution in order to increase their shelf life and organoleptic properties, avoiding microbial spoiling, which usually changes taste, odor, color and sensory or texture food properties [1]. Presence of specific microorganisms such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ignacio Guti érrez-del-Río, Javier Fernández, Felipe Lombó Source Type: research

Virulence determinants, biofilm production and antimicrobial susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus causing device-associated infections in a Tunisian hospital
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that causes a wide range of clinical infections. The increased use of indwelling medical devices has had considerable impact on the role of S. aureus in clinical medicine [1]. In fact, S. aureus strains causing device related infections (DRI) displayed the ability to form surface-attached communities of cells called biofilms on polymeric surfaces facilitating their persistence in the host, evading host defences mechanisms and allowing bacterial survival at high antimicrobial concentrations [2] (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: I Mesrati, M Saidani, M Jemili, S Ferjeni, A Slim, I Boutiba-Ben Boubaker Source Type: research

Antimicrobial resistance and genetic lineages of faecal enterococci of wild birds: Emergence of vanA and vanB2 harboring Enterococcus faecalis.
Enterococci are ubiquitous microorganisms of the human and animal gut microbiota, but they are also recognized as nosocomial pathogens [1]. Previous studies reported that Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were respectively the third and fourth most frequent pathogens involved in nosocomial infections [2]. In addition to their innate resistance to many antimicrobials, enterococci can carry and transfer a variety of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) via mobile genetic elements from/to other pathogenic bacteria. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Houssem BEN YAHIA, Sarra CHAIRAT, Nabil HAMDI, Haythem GHARSA, Rym BEN SALLEM, Sara CEBALLOS, Carmen TORRES, Karim BEN SLAMA Source Type: research

The comparative efficacy of antiseptics against Candida auris biofilms
Since its first report in 2009, the emerging multidrug-resistant pathogenic yeast Candida auris has attracted considerable attention as a source of healthcare associated infections. Alarmingly, it has been attributable for a number of nosocomial outbreaks globally, including a UK intensive care unit, whereby almost 20% of colonised patients developed candidaemia [1]. High transmission within critical care units has been reported, with environmental sampling yielding C. auris from beds and chairs, in addition to multiuse patient equipment [2,3]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ryan Kean, Emily McKloud, Eleanor M Townsend, Leighann Sherry, Christopher Delaney, Brian L Jones, Craig Williams, Gordon Ramage Source Type: research

Phenotypic and genetic resistance traits in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains infecting cystic fibrosis patients: a French cohort study
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium of the aquatic environment and a major opportunistic human pathogen [1]. This organism is responsible for nosocomial infections, which may be life-threatening especially in immunosuppressed patients [1]. It is also the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, causing chronic respiratory tract infections with acute exacerbations, which progressively impair the respiratory functions [1]. This bacterium is naturally resistant to many antibiotics [2], and can develop multi-drug resistance that represents a therapeutic challenge [3]...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nathalie Courtois, Yvan Caspar, Max Maurin Source Type: research

Safe, high-throughput screening of natural compounds of MERS-CoV entry inhibitors using a pseudovirus expressing MERS-CoV spike protein
Sir, (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ji Yeun Kim, Young Il Kim, So Jung Park, In Ki Kim, Young Ki Choi, Sung-Han Kim Source Type: research

Unexpected mechanisms of resistance in Dutch Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected during fourteen years of surveillance
The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) has published several reports expressing their concern regarding the ESKAPE pathogens Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanii calcoaceticus complex, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species, which cause the majority of nosocomial hospital infections in the USA and which are able to “escape” antibiotic treatment due to intrinsic and acquired antibiotic resistance mechanisms. The therapeutic options for treating infections caused by these microorganisms are currently limited [1]. (Source: International Jou...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: P.D. Croughs, C.H.W. Klaassen, J. van Rosmalen, D.M. Maghdid, S.A. Boers, J.P. Hays, W.H.F. Goessens, On behalf of the Dutch Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance Group Source Type: research

Infant colonisation with Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains co-harbouring blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 carbapenemases genes: a case report
We have recently identified a case of colonisation by multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in a 7-week-old male baby admitted to the Istituto Mediterraneo per i Trapianti e Terapie ad Alta Specializzazione (IRCCS-ISMETT) (Palermo, Italy) for unrelated specialised treatment. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: F. Monaco, G. Di Mento, N. Cuscino, P.G. Conaldi, B. Douradinha Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Evaluation of a Risk-guided Strategy for Empiric Carbapenem Use in Febrile Neutropenia
Fever during a neutropenic episode in patients receiving chemotherapy or immunosuppressive therapy is a medical emergency requiring prompt administration of empiric antimicrobial therapy. Existing guidelines for management of febrile neutropenia like that of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) recommends that high risk patients be hospitalised and treated with intravenous antibiotic. Monotherapy is now preferred over combination antibiotics [1]. Piperacillin-tazobactam, carbapenems (meropenem or imipenem-cilastatin), and antipseudomonal cephalosporins (e.g. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ai Leng Khoo, Ying Jiao Zhao, Monica Teng, Ding Ying, Jing Jin, Yen Lin Chee, Li Mei Poon, Siew Eng Lim, Liang Piu Koh, Wee Joo Chng, Boon Peng Lim, Li Yang Hsu, Louis Yi Ann Chai Source Type: research

Infant colonization with Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains coharboring blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 carbapenemases genes: a case report
We have recently identified a case of colonization by strains of multidrug resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in a 7 week-old male baby admitted at the Istituto Mediterraneo per i Trapianti e Terapie ad Alta Specializzazione (IRCCS-ISMETT) for unrelated specialized treatment. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: F. Monaco, G. Di Mento, N. Cuscino, B. Douradinha, P.G. Conaldi Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Prevention of ESKAPE pathogen biofilm formation by antimicrobial peptides WLBU2 and LL37
ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species), represent a group of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria that demonstrate the ability to escape antimicrobial treatments. These organisms are highly responsible for nosocomial and community-acquired infections, such as ventilator-associated pneumonia and S. aureus induced diabetic foot infection. Notably, P. aeruginosa contributes directly to the high mortality rate of cystic fibrosis (CF) chronic lung infections. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Qiao Lin, Berthony Deslouches, Ronald C. Montelaro, Y. Peter Di Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Unraveling the Mechanisms of Nitrofurantoin Resistance and Epidemiological Characteristics among Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates
Escherichia coli is one of the most common Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that cause uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) and opportunistic infections in immunodeficient hosts within both hospital and community settings [1-2]. Recently, the separation rate of multi-drug resistant E. coli clinical isolates shows an increasing trend and brings greater attention and distress to clinicians and infectious disease practitioners [3-4]. In addition, the lack of effective clinical treatments against multi-drug resistant E. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Xiaoxiao Zhang, Yizhi Zhang, Fang Wang, Chong Wang, Lijiang Chen, Haiyang Liu, Hong Lu, Hong Wen, Tieli Zhou Source Type: research

Clonal dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: Two distinct sub-lineages of Sequence Type 11 carrying blaKPC-2 and blaOXA-48
Since the first isolation of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a North Carolina hospital (USA) in 1996 [1], the expanding distribution of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CR-Kp) has become a global threat to human health. The World Health Organization singled out CR-Kp as the leading priority area for research, drug development, and global surveillance in the coming years [2]. Because of CR-Kp ’s resistance to almost all available antibiotics, infections with CR-Kp significantly correlate to increased mortality rates, particularly among patients with prolonged hospitalization and those who are sever...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Min-Chi Lu, Hui-Ling Tang, Chien-Shun Chiou, Yao-Chen Wang, Ming-Ko Chiang, Yi-Chyi Lai Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Continuous beta-lactam intravenous antibiotic infusions for outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy
Sir, (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hani HABAYEB, Clive GRUNDY, Jayakeerthi RANGAIAH, Sebastien VAN DE VELDE Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Evaluation of dried blood spot sampling for pharmacokinetic research and therapeutic drug monitoring of anti-tuberculosis drugs in children
With an annual incidence over nine million, tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading public health problems worldwide. In children, the total estimated incidence of tuberculosis in 2015 was about 1 million. Different factors are known to affect TB treatment outcome, including adherence to TB drugs, co-morbidity and drug resistance. In addition, variability in the pharmacokinetics (PK) of first line TB drugs is a major determinant of treatment outcome [1]. From adult studies it is known that low plasma concentrations of TB drugs are related to treatment failure and to acquired TB drug resistance [2 –6]. (Source: Intern...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lisa C Martial, Jordy Kerkhoff, Nilza Martinez, Mabel Rodr íguez, Rosarito Coronel, Gladys Molinas, Myriam Roman, Roscio Gomez, Sarita Aguirre, Erwin Jongedijk, Justine Huisman, Daan J Touw, Domingo Pérez, Gilberto Chaparro, Felipe Gonzalez, Rob E Aarno Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Bacteriological relevance of linezolid versus vancomycin in postoperative empirical treatment of osteoarticular infections: a retrospective single-center study
Staphylococci remain the most frequent bacteria recovered and involved in osteoarticular infections [1]. Before the accurate and definitive bacteriological identification, vancomycin a glycopeptide antibiotic is widely used as a first-line empirical antibiotic treatment in the immediate postoperative period, usually in combination with piperacillin-tazobactam or a 3rd generation cephalosporin, to be active both on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria [2]. However, its use has several limitations - venous toxicity requiring a central line, narrow therapeutic index necessitating a close monitoring of serum concentrations...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: E. Takoudju, P. Bemer, S. Touchais, N. Asseray, S. Corvec, L. Khatchatourian, N. Serandour, D. Boutoille, Nantes Bone and Joint Infections Study Group Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Transcriptional analysis reveals the critical role of RNA polymerase-binding transcription factor, DksA, in regulating multi-drug resistance of Escherichia coli
The uncontrolled use of antibiotics in medicine and agriculture has resulted in the extensive antibiotic-resistant bacteria, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and detection of antibiotics in the environment worldwide. Especially concerning is the continued emergence of “superbugs” and untreatable infections. The Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli is a common intestinal microorganism of humans and animals [1]. The incidence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli infections is increasing globally [2–4]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jiawei Wang, Li Cao, Xiaowen Yang, Qingmin Wu, Lin Lu, Zhen Wang Source Type: research

Title Page & Editorial Board
(Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - May 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Predictive performance of a gentamicin population pharmacokinetic model in two Western populations of critically ill patients
Aminoglycosides and especially gentamicin is often included in empirical broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy for treatment of severe sepsis. Indeed, as administering the right dose of the right drug as soon as possible to a septic patient has been shown to decrease the mortality rate [1 –3]. In case of gentamicin, the dose is considered appropriate when a maximum gentamicin plasma concentration (Cmax) / minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio of 8-10 is classically targeted leading to faster clinical response and an increased probability of cure [4–6]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - April 25, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Laura H. Bukkems, Claire Roger, Caspar J. Hodiamont, Jean-Yves Lefrant, Nicole P. Juffermans, Jason A. Roberts, Reinier M. van Hest Source Type: research

Adverse events of fluoroquinolones vs. other antimicrobials prescribed in primary care: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents that are highly effective for the treatment of a variety of infections however, their use as a first-line treatment is limited at least in part due to antimicrobial resistance [1]. FQs are recommended as second-line treatment for urinary tract infections (UTIs) or respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in general practice [2 –5]. FQ are associated with common AEs impacting the gastrointestinal ((GI), such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain and central nervous system (CNS) (headache, dizziness) [6–8]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - April 24, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: M. Tandan, M. Cormican, A. Vellinga Tags: Review Source Type: research

High prevalence of multidrug resistant international clones among macrolide resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains in immunocompromised Patients in Tunisia
S. pneumoniae is one of the major pathogens responsible for meningitis and for respiratory tract infections, such as otitis and pneumonia. The prevalence of β-lactam resistance and the role of atypical pathogens in community-acquired respiratory tract infections led to the increase of macrolide prescription. However, macrolide resistant isolates increased considerably the last decade with important geographical variations among involved phenotypes and genotypes. This increase is due to antibiotic consumption and/or clonal diffusion of resistant strains [1]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - April 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Anis Raddaoui, Farah Ben Tanfous, Yosra Chebbi, Wafa Achour, Rekaya Baaboura, Assia Benhassen Source Type: research

Identification of the KPC plasmid pCY-KPC334: new insights on the evolution pathway of the epidemic plasmids harboring fosA3-blaKPC-2 genes
Sir: (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - April 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Junyan Liu, Jinhong Xie, Ling Yang, Dingqiang Chen, Brian M. Peters, Zhenbo Xu, Mark E. Shirtliff Source Type: research

Sequencing of pT5282-CTXM, p13190-KPC and p30860-NR, and comparative genomics analysis of IncX8 plasmids
Plasmids of the X incompatibility (IncX) group have been isolated dating back to the pre-antibiotic era, and the IncX group has been first identified in 1988 based on their ability to confer sensitivity to filamentous bacteriophage [1]. Sequenced IncX plasmids are predominantly from Enterobacteriaceae species, such as Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Morganella morganii and Salmonella enterica, indicating that IncX plasmids have a narrow host range. However, R6K (accession number LT827129; the archetypical plasmid of the IncX group [2]) has been shown to be transferrable from Escherichia coli ...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - April 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Haihong Fang, Jiao Feng, Yuanhong Xu, Ying Zhang, Zhe Zhan, Zhe Yin, Xiongbo Duan, Bo Gao, Yigang Tong, Jinglin Wang, Yanping Luo, Erhei Dai, Dongsheng Zhou Source Type: research

Simplification of first-line antibacterial regimen for complicated appendicitis in children was associated with better adherence to guidelines, and reduced use of antibiotics
Acute appendicitis is a common surgical condition that affects 0.3-0.4% of children, with a peak incidence between 8 and 13 years. Most common complications include perforation, peritonitis, and abscess, found in 25-39% of cases [1]. Treatment of acute appendicitis usually relies on early surgery (appendectomy, and management of complications when necessary), and a short course of antibiotics (4-7 days) [2], although highly selected patients with a well circumscribed focus of infection may be cured by antimicrobial therapy alone [3]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - April 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Marion Taleb, Nicolas Nardi, Alexis Arnaud, Nathalie Costet, Pierre-Yves Donnio, Charlotte Engrand, Edouard Habonimana, Eric Wodey, Pierre Tattevin Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Absence of TetB Identifies Minocycline-Susceptible Isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii
Acinetobacter spp. is one of the ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogens, for which there are limited treatment choices available [1]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - April 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Olga Lomovskaya, Dongxu Sun, Debora Rubio-Aparicio, Kirk J. Nelson, Visanu Thamlikitkul, Michael N. Dudley, Mark A. Redell Source Type: research