Recovery of metabolic impairment of patients who cleared HCV infections after direct-acting antiviral therapy
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single strained RNA virus identified as the causative agent of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) on April 1989. It is estimated that about 71 million individuals around the world are chronically infected with HCV. CHC is a major public health issue and it is associated with degenerative liver process dominated by necro-inflammatory damage leading to fibrosis, progressive decay of liver function, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and, eventually, the death [1]. In many geographical settings HCV associated end-stage liver disease is the main reason of liver transplant [2]. (Source: International Journal of...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - December 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Simone Lanini, Paola Scognamiglio, Raffaella Pisapia, Claudia Minosse, Alessandro Agresta, Giuseppe Ippolito Tags: Review Source Type: research

Impact of zinc uptake regulator Zur on the sensitivity and oxidative stress response of Acinetobacter baumannii to antibiotics
Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative and opportunistic pathogen responsible for nosocomial infections including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, burn infections, secondary meningitis and systemic infections [1]. Ever increasing rates of resistance to antibiotics [2 –5] make A. baumannii a significant human pathogen with critical needs for new antibiotic development [6]. Its ability to tolerate desiccation and disinfection [7] and to form biofilms [8] contribute to morbidity and mortality [3]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - December 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: T.O. Ajiboye, E. Skiebe, G. Wilharm Source Type: research

Impact of a multimodal strategy combining a new standard of care and restriction of carbapenems, fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, on antibiotic consumption and resistance of P.aeruginosa in an ICU
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria cause hospital epidemics and are associated with therapeutic failures and an increased morbidity and mortality [1,2]. Mastering the consumption of antibiotics is a critical point since the link between the use of antibiotics and the emergence of antibiotic resistance has been well established, particularly in intensive care units (ICUs) where broad-spectrum antibiotics are frequently prescribed [3,4]. Especially, quinolones, cephalosporins and carbapenems are said to have a high “ecologic impact”, by favoring the selection of drug-resistant bacteria to both the antibiotic used and ...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - December 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Salam Abbara, Aur élia Pitsch, Sébastien Jochmans, Kyann Hodjat, Dr Pascale Cherrier, Mehran Monchi, Christophe Vinsonneau, Sylvain Diamantis Source Type: research

Treatment of chronic osteomyelitis with multi-dose oritavancin: a case series and literature review
Osteomyelitis occurs when microorganisms gain access to bone through contiguous dissemination, hematogenous seeding, or direct inoculation, leading to inflammatory changes and bone necrosis, hallmarks of the disease [1,2]. Compared to acute, chronic osteomyelitis is characterized by sinus tract and sequestrum development with vague symptoms. Although it was among the first infectious processes recorded, chronic osteomyelitis remains one of the most difficult to diagnose relying on a combination of clinical suspicion, laboratory, radiographic, and microbiologic findings. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - December 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Daniel B. Chastain, Anthony Davis Source Type: research

Reviewer thank you list 2018
(Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - December 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Recent advances in antimicrobial and bacterial resistance
The emergence of bacterial strains resistant to one or more antibiotics has been observed over the last decades at increasing rates. Antimicrobial resistance is a complex global phenomenon that is constantly changing, despite the fact that it does not affect all countries to the same degree. Several countries have implemented corrective measures to prevent the spread of antimicrobial resistance, with variable results. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - December 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chedly Chouchani, Jean-Marc Rolain, Taoufik Ghrairi Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Title Page & Editorial Board
(Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - December 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Occurence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Togo, West Africa
Carbapenems are considered as last-resort therapy for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria. Unfortunately, resistance to carbapenems emerged during the last decade mostly due to the dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). In Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenemases belong to (i) Ambler class A enzymes, mostly KPC, (ii) metallo- β-lactamases of NDM-, VIM- and IMP-types and (iii) Amber Class D carbapenem-hydrolysing β-lactamases of OXA-48 familly. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 24, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sika Dossim, R émy A. Bonnin, Mounerou Salou, Kpatcha Tanga, Virginie Godonou, Anoumou Yaotsè Dagnra, Mireille Prince David, Thierry Naas, Laurent Dortet Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Extracellular and intracellular activity of iclaprim against Listeria monocytogenes
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, non-spore-forming bacillus causing food-borne, life-threatening infections including sepsis and meningoencephalitis in neonates, pregnant women and immunocompromised patients [1]. Approximately one-third of patients with listeriosis die as a result of their infection. Therapeutic failure is probably not due to antimicrobial resistance of this pathogen but rather to the ability of L. monocytogenes to actively penetrate into a wide range of host cells [1]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: David B. Huang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Why do arthropods secrete β-lactams?
Most of the antibiotics we use have been generated by bacteria or fungi, illustrating the continuous war of the microbiological worlds [1]. Interestingly, until recently, the ability of animals to secrete β-lactams, especially penicillin, was completely unknown. Recent work has shown that Collembola springtails, especially Folsomia candida, are capable of producing penicillin (isopenicillin N and two cephamycin C), although this seemed completely unlikely before [2]. The origin of these β-lactams i s unknown, but the non-ribosomal proteins synthetase encoding these β-lactams appear to be extremely archaic an...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Pierre Pontarotti, Didier Raoult Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

Intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics of antibiotics used to treat nosocomial pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacilli: a systematic review
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), a subset of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), affects between 17 and 38% of critically-ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation, with an attributable mortality of approximately 13%, which may be reduced by timely recognition and appropriate antibiotic therapy [1 –4]. Current guidelines formulated by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society recommend that while the choice of empiric therapy is influenced by the local hospital epidemiology of health-care associated pathogens, it should also include agents active against S taphylococcus aur...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Aaron J Heffernan, Fekade B Sime, Jeffrey Lipman, Jayesh Dhanani, Katherine Andrews, David Ellwood, Keith Grimwood, Jason A Roberts Tags: Review Source Type: research

Class 1 integrons in Acinetobacter baumannii: a weak expression of gene cassettes to counterbalance the lack of LexA-driven integrase repression
The genus Acinetobacter, and principally Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex, has emerged over the past two decades as a cause of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The WHO lists A. baumannii among critical antibiotic-resistant "priority pathogens" (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2017/bacteria-antibiotics-needed/en/). Treatment of Acinetobacter infections is increasingly difficult, as these bacteria are intrinsically resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents and have a remarkable ability to adapt rapidly to environmental selection pressure, acquiring new resistance determi...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Elodie Couv é-Deacon, Thomas Jové, Pamela Afouda, Olivier Barraud, Valentin Tilloy, Erwan Scaon, Bastien Hervé, Christophe Burucoa, Marie Kempf, Javier Yugueros Marcos, Marie-Cécile Ploy, Fabien Garnier Source Type: research

Cefazolin versus anti-staphylococcal penicillins for the treatment of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections in acutely-ill adult patients: results of a systematic review and meta-analysis
Staphylococcus aureus (SA) bloodstream infections (BSI) continue to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality within healthcare-systems and the intensive-care unit (ICU), in particular [1-3]. The extensive use of intravascular catheters in critically ill patients is a major risk factor in the acquisition of ICU-BSI, with SA representing one of the most commonly isolated organisms in ICU-BSI [3-7]. Prompt initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is essential to reduce the risk of mortality in BSI, especially in the presence of sepsis and septic shock [8-10]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Benjamin J. Lee, Sheila K. Wang, Janie K. Constantino-Corpuz, Kristel Apolinario, Barbara Nadler, Jennifer S. McDanel, Marc H. Scheetz, Nathaniel J. Rhodes Source Type: research

Identification of an anti-Gram-negative bacteria agent disrupting the interaction between LPS transporters LptA and LptC
The emergence of drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial strains causes significant clinical problems because the available antibiotics for the treatment of these infections are limited [1,2]. However, the discovery of new antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria has slowed down in recent years and cannot keep pace with the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria [3,4]. Therefore, it is urgent to identify new antimicrobial compounds against Gram-negative bacteria with novel targets [5]. The envelope of Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, consists of inner membrane (IM), peptidoglycan, outer membrane (OM), and t...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Xuelian Zhang, Yan Li, Weiwei Wang, Jing Zhang, Yuan Lin, Bin Hong, Xuefu You, Danqing Song, Yanchang Wang, Jiandong Jiang, Shuyi Si Source Type: research

The antimetabolite 3-bromopyruvate selectively inhibits Staphylococcus aureus
Antibiotic resistance is a serious public health problem at the global level. Available antibiotics have saved millions of lives, but are progressively losing their efficacy against many bacterial pathogens. While very few new antibiotics are being developed by the pharmaceutical industry, mainly due to the inherent low reward and high risk of antibiotic research, the rapid spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens both in hospitals and in the community calls for new investments in antibacterial drug discovery. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Paolo Visca, Federica Pisa, Francesco Imperi Source Type: research

Emergence of NDM-7-Producing Multidrug-Resistant Enterobacter hormaechei sequence type ST78 in Spain, a high-risk international clone
Enterobacter cloacae complex (ECC) is an important nosocomial pathogen that is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics and harbours clonal lineages of increased epidemic potential that may be associated with resistance spread [1]. In recent years, a global emergence of carbapenem-resistant E. cloacae complex (CR-ECC) has been observed mainly due to carbapenemase type VIM, followed by NDM, KPC, OXA-48, and IMP [1]. In Spain, VIM is the most common carbapenemase in ECC, although KPC and OXA-48 have also been detected [2,3]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jennifer Villa, Octavio Carretero, Esther Viedma, Jaime Lora-Tamayo, Jes ús Mingorance, Fernando Chaves Tags: Letter to Editor Source Type: research

Antibiotic discovery: History, methods and perspectives
Antibiotic resistance is considered a major public health concern by several international organizations and by local agencies [1 –3]. As a matter of fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention claim 23,000 deaths each year in the US related to antibiotic resistance and some studies predict millions of deaths in the coming decades [4–6]. The United Nations then created a group in order to coordinate the fight agai nst antibiotic resistance [7]. Interestingly, the global mortality related to infectious diseases is decreasing every year, from 10,7 million deaths in 2005 to 8,6 million in 2015 [8]. (Sourc...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Guillaume Andr é Durand, Didier Raoult, Grégory Dubourg Tags: Review Source Type: research

Fecal microbiota transplantation shortens the colonization period and allows the re-entry of patients carrying carbapenamase-producing bacteria into medical care facilities
Since the first description of a plasmidic Enterobacteriaceae carbapenemase, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) in the USA [1], a wide variety of plasmid-borne resistance mechanisms have been described, mainly through metalloenzymes such as, New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM), or oxacillinases type OXA-48-like carbapenemases. Current epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriacae (CPE) shows a global dissemination with endemic distributions and outbreaks, leading to public health concerns [2,3]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nadia SA ÏDANI, Jean-Christophe LAGIER, Nadim CASSIR, Matthieu MILLION, Sophie BARON, Grégory DUBOURG, Carole ELDIN, Jad KERBAJ, Camille VALLES, Didier RAOULT, Philippe BROUQUI Source Type: research

Population pharmacokinetics and dosing optimization of latamoxef in neonates and young infants
Latamoxef (moxalactam) is a second-generation semi-synthetic oxacephem antibiotic that has been primarily used against Gram-positive and -negative aerobic, as well as anaerobic, bacteria [1]. This drug has been used for the treatment of adults, children, infants, and neonates since it was first introduced to clinical medicine in 1981 [2]. With the development of other novel antibiotics, use of latamoxef for treatment of infectious diseases in newborns was reduced. However, as the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has increased significantly, there has been recent renewed interest in historical antibiotic...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hui Qi, Chen Kou, Yu-Jie Qi, Bo-Hao Tang, Yue-E Wu, Fei Jin, Xiao-Jing Luo, Yan-Hua Shen, Ya-Jie Guo, Xue Qi, Ya-Cui Wang, Qian Dong, Xing-Kai Chen, Hai-Yan Shi, Yi Zheng, Wei Zhao, A-Dong Shen Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Population pharmacokinetic modelling of total and unbound flucloxacillin in non-critically ill patients to devise a rational continuous dosing regimen
With antibiotic drug pipelines rapidly drying up [1], we need to optimally use the available drugs to retain our antimicrobial armamentarium. [2] In Europe, flucloxacillin is one of the clinically important anti-staphylococcal penicillins. Flucloxacillin is widely used and recommended for penicillin-resistant methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcal aureus (MSSA) infections, such as bacteremia [3], infective endocarditis [4], skin and soft tissue infections. [5] (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: S. Wilkes, I. van Berlo, J. ten Oever, F. Jansman, R. ter Heine Source Type: research

In Vitro Activity of Cefiderocol, a Siderophore Cephalosporin, Against Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolated by Clinical Laboratories in North America and Europe in 2015-2016: SIDERO-WT-2015
The prevalence of pathogenic multidrug-resistant (MDR) and carbapenem-nonsusceptible Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) is increasing in frequency worldwide [1 –3]. Therapeutic options available to treat patients with MDR and carbapenem-resistant GNB infections are currently limited [4, 5]. New β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations have recently been approved (ceftazidime-avibactam, ceftolozane-tazobactam, meropenem-vaborbactam), however, none of these agents is active against isolates of GNB carrying Ambler class B metallo-β-lactamases and their activity against Class D (OXA) β-lactamases may be l...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: James A. Karlowsky, Meredith A. Hackel, Masakatsu Tsuji, Yoshinori Yamano, Roger Echols, Daniel F. Sahm Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics and prognosis of infections caused by oxa-48 carbapenemase producing enterobacteriaceae in patients treated with ceftazidime-avibactam
Ceftazidime-avibactam has in vitro activity against Gram-negative bacilli that produce class A, C and some class D β-lactamases, and has been successfully used in the treatment of infections caused by cephalosporin and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. However, actual experience in the treatment of OXA-48 carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is limited. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: C. De la Calle, O. Rodr íguez, L. Morata, F. Marco, C. Cardozo, C. García-Vidal, A. Del Río, C. Feher, M. Pellicé, P. Puerta-Alcalde, J. Mensa, A. Soriano, J.A. Martínez Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Safety and efficacy of colistin alone or in combination in adults with Acinetobacter baumannii infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important Gram negative opportunistic nosocomial bacterial, which is listed as one of the six most important multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens in hospitals worldwide by the Infectious Diseases Society of America in 2006 [1,2]. 2017, A. baumannii is also classified in the highest level of “critical” by WHO because it is resistant to a great deal of antibiotics, including carbapenems [3]. A. baumannii can cause a broad range of severe infections, including ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP), bloodstream infections, skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infections, woun ...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jin Wang, Hui Niu, Rui Wang, Yun Cai Tags: Review Source Type: research

Repurposing azithromycin and rifampicin against Gram-negative pathogens by combination with peptide potentiators
The objective of this study was to identify peptides that at low concentrations induce susceptibility to these antibiotics in multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative strains of clinical relevance. A pairwise screening of 34 diverse peptides and four antibiotics (erythromycin, linezolid, rifampicin and vancomycin) with primary activity against Gram-positive bacteria identified four peptides that at sub-micromolar concentrations conferred susceptibility to rifampicin or erythromycin in Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kristin R. Baker, Bimal Jana, Anna Mette Hansen, Karina Juul Vissing, Hanne M ørck Nielsen, Henrik Franzyk, Luca Guardabassi Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Anti-persister activity of squalamine against Acinetobacter baumannii
Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen responsible for many infections usually localized on skin and in urinary or respiratory tracts. The emergence of multi-drug resistance in this bacterium obviously complicates the treatment efficiency.1 However, the resistant character of A. baumannii is not the sole cause of therapeutic failure. Indeed, dormant cells, i.e. persisters and Viable But Non Culturable cells (VBNCs), are known to survive to high amounts of antimicrobials, and play an important role in the infection relapse and chronic diseases. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Marion Nicol, Mohamed Amine Ben Mlouka, Thierry Berthe, Patrick Di Martino, Thierry Jouenne, Jean-Michel Brunel, Emmanuelle D é Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Groups of coevolving positions provide drug resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a study using targets of first-line antituberculosis drugs
The coevolving groups detected in this study will be useful to get new insight on the molecular and evolutionary basis of drug resistance. Apart from this, the present work provides an important first step towards finding solutions of multidrug resistance problem through coevolution analysis of proteins which in-turn help to develop new drug regimen against pathogens including M. tuberculosis. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sharad Vats, Asheesh Shanker Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

Ceftolozane/tazobactam for the treatment of serious P. aeruginosa infections: a multicenter nationwide clinical experience
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of nosocomial infections, which are often severe [1, 2] and difficult to treat because of their increasing resistance to several antibiotics, including carbapenems [3-6]. For such infections, there are limited therapeutic options, and old antibiotics such as colistin, aminoglycosides or fosfomycin are frequently prescribed [7]. Clinical failure [8], emergence of in vivo resistance [9], superinfection, and nephrotoxicity [10, 11] represent the main limitations of the currently available drugs, leading to the search of new treatment options. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Matteo Bassetti, Nadia Castaldo, Annamaria Cattelan, Cristina Mussini, Elda Righi, Carlo Tascini, Francesco Menichetti, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Mario Tumbarello, Paolo Grossi, Stefania Artioli, Novella Carrannante, Ludovica Cipriani, Davide Coletto, Al Source Type: research

Impact of Piperacillin/Tazobactam on Nephrotoxicity in Patients with Gram-negative Bacteremia
This study aims to evaluate piperacillin/tazobactam's impact on nephrotoxicity in patients with GNB. Our retrospective cohort included patients ≥18 years of age who received ≥48 hours of therapy for bacteremia due to Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter sp., Klebsiella sp., Acinetobacter sp., or Stenotrophomonas maltophila from 1/1/2008-8/31/2011. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ronald G. Hall, Eunice Yoo, Andrew Faust, Terri Smith, Edward Goodman, Eric M. Mortensen, Jaffar Raza, Farbod Dehmami, Carlos A. Alvarez Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Stability of cefiderocol against clinically significant broad-spectrum oxacillinases
Production of carbapenemases is a major concern in Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. since those enzymes do usually confer resistance to carbapenems. Three main ß-lactamase classes gather carbapenemases, the most common being the KPC-type Ambler class A, the class B (metallo-enzymes) NDM-1, VIM-1, IMP-1 and SPM-1), and the class D (OXA-48-like, OXA-40, OXA-23) with extended geographic spread worldwide. The OXA-48-like ß-lactamases are the most prevalent c arbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae in Europe. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Laurent Poirel, Nicolas Kieffer, Patrice Nordmann Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Population-level transition of capsular polysaccharide types among sequence type 1 group B Streptococcus isolates with reduced penicillin susceptibility during their long-term hospital epidemic
Group B Streptococcus (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) is one of the most important causes of life-threatening infections such as sepsis or meningitis in neonates [1]. GBS is also associated with invasive infections in nonpregnant adults, particularly in elderly and immunocompromised individuals [2]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Noriyuki Nagano, Shota Koide, Wataru Hayashi, Yui Taniguchi, Hayato Tanaka, Yoshihiko Maeyama, Masahiro Suzuki, Kouji Kimura, Yoshichika Arakawa, Yukiko Nagano Source Type: research

Increase in prevalence of PVL and clonal shift in community onset -MRSA causing skin and soft tissue infections in the Rhine-Neckar-region, Germany, 2012-2016
The importance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a nosocomial pathogen is indisputable [1, 2]. Infection with MRSA is a major clinical burden and has been associated with high morbidity [2]. Current treatment options are limited and often suboptimal. Of particular importance is the acquisition of resistance to second-line agents, which restricts the antimicrobial therapy and jeopardize treatment success. In addition, MRSA is causing great public concern due to the transmissibility and asymptomatic carriers in the community [3]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 6, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sabrina Klein, Monja-Dorina Menz, Philipp Zanger, Klaus Heeg, Dennis Nurjadi Source Type: research

Multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) Gram negative prosthetic joint infections (PJI): Role of surgery and impact of colistin administration.
An increasing number of prosthetic joints (arthroplasties) are being performed globally almost doubling within the last decade [1].Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most devastating complications with rates ranging between 1-2 % and is associated with substantial patient morbidity and cost of treatment. [2-4]. Treatment of PJI is highly challenging as more than one surgical intervention and long-term antibiotic treatment are often required [4,5]. Although Gram positive bacteria (mostly Staphylococci) account for 60-80% of causative agents, Gram negative bacteria (GNB) are also detected in the context of mono- ...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Antonios Papadopoulos, Alba Ribera, Andreas Mavrogenis, Dolors Rodriguez-Pardo, Eric Bonnet, Mauro Jos é Salles, María Dolores del Toro, Sophie Nguyen, Antonio Blanco García, Gábor Skaliczki, Alejandro Soriano, Natividad Benito, Sabine Petersdorf, Mar Source Type: research

The PER extended-spectrum beta-lactamases originate from Pararheinheimera sp.
Enzymes belonging to the PER family of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) confer resistance to cephalosporins, penicillins and aztreonam, but are inhibited by clavulanic acid, tazobactam and sulbactam [1]. Since the discovery of PER-1 in 1993, seven new variants (PER-2 to PER-8) have been described in the literature. They can be divided into two distinct groups based on their similarity to PER-1. Whereas PER-3, 4, 5, 7 and 8 share 98-99% amino acid identity with PER-1, the amino acid sequences of PER-2 and 6 are only 86% similar to that of PER-1. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Stefan Ebmeyer, Erik Kristiansson, D. G. Joakim Larsson Source Type: research

Managing Invasive Aspergillosis in haematological patients in the era of resistance PCR and increasing triazole resistance: a modelling study of different strategies
Invasive Aspergillosis (IA) is an opportunistic fungal infection with rising incidence among various patient populations. Patients treated for haematological malignancy with intensive chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are the population with the highest risk of developing IA and often receive antifungal chemoprophylaxis throughout treatment. Despite the use of chemoprophylaxis, incidence rates in this population remain substantial and IA continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality [1]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: R.J. van de Peppel, M.T. van der Beek, L.G. Visser, M.G.J. de Boer, J. Wallinga Source Type: research

Development and validation of a multiplex PCR assay for the detection of the five families of plasmid-encoded colistin resistance
Currently, one of the most threatening issues in the human health is the rise of antimicrobial resistance. This increased prevalence of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria is of particular concern in Gram-negative bacteria for which the pipeline of new antimicrobials is extremely limited. Among these MDR Gram-negative bacteria, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have emerged in the 2000 ’s and have disseminated worldwide and sometimes become endemic in few countries (e.g. KPC producing-Klebsiella pneumoniae in Greece and Italy or NDM producers in India). (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Agn ès B. Jousset, Sandrine Bernabeu, Remy A. Bonnin, Elodie Creton, Garance Cotellon, Aimie Sauvadet, Thierry Naas, Laurent Dortet Source Type: research

Detection and prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria among European laboratories part of the COMBACTE network: a COMBACTE LAB-Net survey
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) causes numerous deaths in Europe and around the world, diminishes quality of life, and threatens to reverse many of the enormous strides modern medicine has made over the last century. Unless action is taken, some estimate that by 2050, up to ten million additional lives will be lost prematurely each because of AMR [1,2]. Prudent use of existing antibiotics and acceleration of development of new antimicrobial agents are desperately needed in order to preserve the effectiveness of these “wonder drugs”. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: T Kostyanev, T Vilken, C Lammens, L Timbermont, A van't Veen, H Goossens Source Type: research

Title Page & Editorial Board
(Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Investigation of unbound colistin A and B in clinical samples using a mass spectrometry method.
The objectives of this study were to develop a method to isolate unbound colistin in clinical samples by ultrafiltration and to quantify it. The association between unbound colistin and biological parameters (total protein, albumin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, and creatinine) was investigated. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: D. Fage, G. Deprez, F. Wolff, M. Hites, F. Jacobs, F. Van Bambeke, F. Cotton Source Type: research

Cysteine induces resistance of lactobacilli to erytromycin and azytromycin
The Laboratory of Microbial Genetics is dedicated to study the biology of Lactobacillus vini strains isolated from ethanol fermentation industries and their tolerance to different forms of environmental stresses. We have started the enterprise of producing recombinant strains for gene functional characterization in the Laboratory of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Prebiotics. The amino acids cysteine was thought to be added to the medium to increase aerobic growth rate and to increase efficiency of transformation. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Allyson Andrade Mendon ça, Marcos Antonio de Morais, Manuel Zúñiga Cabrera Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

DAPTOMYCIN AS ADJUNCTIVE TREATMENT FOR EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION BY Acinetobacter baumannii WITH RESISTANCE TO COLISTIN
The emergence of Acinetobacter baumannii with resistance to colistin (ABRC) led to investigation if daptomycin can be used as adjunctive to colistin for these isolates. One ABRC carbapenemase-producing bloodstream isolate was studied; minimum inhibitory concentrations of imipenem was>512 μg/ml, of daptomycin>512 μg/ml and of colistin 8 μg/ml. First, a “humanized” model of pharmacokinetics of daptomycin and colistin was developed in 18 C57Bl6 male mice. Then, 112 mice were infected by the intraperitoneal injection of the ABRC isolate and randomly assigned into four groups of once daily treatment f...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - November 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Garyfallia Poulakou, Georgios Renieris, Labros Sabrakos, Olympia Zarkotou, Katherine Themeli-Digalaki, Efstathia Perivolioti, Eleni Kraniotaki, Evangelos J. Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Nikolaos Zavras Source Type: research

Corrigendum to ‘Repurposing the anticancer drug mitomycin C for the treatment of persistent Acinetobacter baumannii infections’ [International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 49/1 (2017) 88–92]
The authors regret that it was stated by mistake that all isolates were obtained from burned patients, however, the following isolates were obtained from a different source: A552, A571, A574 orthopedic patients, A573, A578 column surgery, A556 hip and knee surgery, A553 traumatology and A563 nasogastric aspirate. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - October 29, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Martha Yumiko Cruz-Mu ñiz, Luis Esau López-Jacome, Melissa Hernández-Durán, Rafael Franco-Cendejas, Paula Licona-Limón, Jose Luis Ramos-Balderas, Mariano Martinéz-Vázquez, Javier A. Belmont-Díaz, Thomas K. Wood, Rodolfo García-Contreras Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Dose Optimization of Moxifloxacin and Linezolid Against Tuberculosis Using Mathematical Modeling and Simulation
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading infectious disease killer globally, resulting in 1.8 million deaths a year [1]. A third of the world population is infected with TB today [2]. Global emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB (resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin) makes the TB epidemic an even greater problem as treatment outcomes among such patients are substantially worse than those for drug susceptible TB [1,2]. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports approximately half a million new cases of MDR TB per year [2]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - October 29, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: M. Tobias Heinrichs, George L. Drusano, David L. Brown, Michael S. Maynard, Sherwin K.B. Sy, Kenneth H. Rand, Charles A. Peloquin, Arnold Louie, Hartmut Derendorf Source Type: research

Infections by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative Bacteria: what's new in our arsenal and what's in the pipeline?
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are spreading fast and stealthily globally, having become an ever-increasing health concern. Some estimates suggest that currently 700,000 deaths per year can be attributed to antimicrobial resistance [1]. Although quantification of future excess morbidity and mortality is challenging, it is estimated that by 2050, mortality attributed to antibiotic resistance will increase to ten million deaths annually and a cost of 100 trillion USD [1, 2]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - October 27, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Despoina Koulenti, Andrew Song, Aaron Ellingboe, Mohd Hafiz Abdul-Aziz, Patrick Harris, Emile Gavey, Jeffrey Lipman Tags: Review Source Type: research

Drug-Drug Interactions Potential of Direct Acting Antivirals for the treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C infection
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still a major global problem. Approximately, 71 million people were living with HCV worldwide in 2017 [1]. The primary objective of HCV treatment is to obtain a complete eradication of the virus, which is characterized as a sustained virological response (SVR). SVR is defined by an undetectable HCV RNA at 12 weeks after the end of treatment [2,3]. The management of HCV-infected patients has rapidly changed in the recent years. After the breakthrough of first-generation direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs), boceprevir and telaprevir, many DAAs targeting specific proteins of the HCV life...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - October 27, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nad ège Néant, Caroline Solas Tags: Themed Issue: Therapeutics of hepatitis viruses Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics of Candida tropicalis fungemia with reduced triazole susceptibilities in Taiwan: a multicenter study
Candidemia are one of the most common nosocomial infections and contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality. Although C. albicans remains the most commonly identified species, the prevalence of non-albicans Candida spp. have increased in recent decades following extensive usage of azoles and changing of patients characteristics [1 –3]. C. tropicalis is one of the leading non-albicans Candida species of candidemia in Taiwan and is now emerging globally [1, 2, 4]. Despite effective treatment, high mortality rates continue to be reported in fungemia caused by C. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - October 27, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wei-Lun Liu, Yu-Tsung Huang, Min-Han Hsieh, Ing-Moi Hii, Yu-Lin Lee, Mao-Wang Ho, Chun-Eng Liu, Yen-Hsu Chen, Fu-Der Wang Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Population pharmacokinetics and simulations of imipenem in critically ill patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy
Imipenem is a leading antibiotic of the carbapenem family with a broad antibacterial spectrum against gram-positive, gram-negative and anaerobic bacteria [1]. It is frequently used in the treatment of critically ill patients with severe infections due to its wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity. As a β-lactam, imipenem exhibits time-dependent bactericidal activity, and the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) index that best correlates with its clinical efficacy is the free plasma concentration remains above MIC of the pathogens (fT>MIC) with a target of fractional time at least 40% [2]. (Source: Internationa...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - October 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sanwang Li, Feifan Xie Source Type: research

Combination therapy with polymyxin B for carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infection
Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates are among the most common bacteria causing hospital acquired infections, including bloodstream infections (BSIs) [1, 2]. Carbapenems used to be the antimicrobials of last resort against Enterobacteriaceae, including K. pneumoniae; however, the activity of this class has been threatened by the emergence of carbapenemase producing isolates, notably KPC-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-KP) [1, 2]. Infections caused by KPC-KP usually affect patients with multiple comorbidities and are associated with higher mortality rates [3]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - October 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gregory Saraiva Medeiros, Maria Helena Rigatto, Diego Rodrigues Falci, Alexandre P Zavascki Source Type: research

Chemotherapeutic options for the treatment of human trichomoniasis
Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of human trichomoniasis, with an estimated worldwide prevalence of 170 million cases per year. This rate has significantly increased in the past 10 years [1]. Overall, trichomoniasis was estimated to have caused 198,000 years of life with disability in 2016 [1]. Reported percentages of asymptomatic cases vary from 11-85 % in women [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14] and 56.25-76.8 % in men [3, 15], and the estimated number of unreported cases of individuals exposed to infection can be assumed to be much higher. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - October 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Erik K üng, Ursula Fürnkranz, Julia Walochnik Tags: Review Source Type: research

In vitro activity of cefiderocol, a siderophore cephalosporin, against a recent collection of clinically relevant carbapenem-nonsusceptible Gram-negative bacilli, including serine carbapenemase- and metallo- β-lactamase-producing isolates (SIDERO-WT-2014 Study)
Cefiderocol is a siderophore cephalosporin in development for treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli including carbapenem-resistant and multidrug-resistant isolates. The β-lactamase carriage and in vitro activity of cefiderocol were determined against 1,272 meropenem-nonsusceptible isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii collected as part of the SIDERO-WT-2014 surveillance study. MIC values for cefiderocol were ≤4 µg/mL against 97.7% of tested isolates, including 100% of IMP-positive (range, 1-2 µg/mL), OXA-58-positive (MIC90, 1 µg/mL), K...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - October 25, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Krystyna M. KAZMIERCZAK, Masakatsu TSUJI, Mark G. WISE, Meredith HACKEL, Yoshinori YAMANO, Roger ECHOLS, Daniel F. SAHM Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Outcomes of Fosfomycin Use in Ceftriaxone-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Urinary Tract Infection in the Elderly
Fosfomycin is a cell-wall active antibiotic with bactericidal activity against many gram-positive and negative bacteria. One dose of 3g oral Fosfomycin is indicated for uncomplicated cystitis in females [1]. Increasingly, it is used to treat cystitis caused by drug-resistant organisms but data on patients with renal impairment are lacking. We conducted a retrospective study to determine the safety and efficacy of fosfomycin in treating cystitis caused by extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) Enterobacteriaceae in a 1400-bed teaching hospital. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - October 25, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wei Ming Quek, Christine B. Teng, Yan Zhi Tan, Kelly Chong, David C. lye, Tat Ming Ng Source Type: research