Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-fermenting Gram-negative pathogens isolated from cystic fibrosis patients
Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are regularly colonized by opportunistic microorganisms. In adult patients, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the main pathogen, but in recent years, other non-fermenting bacteria from different genera, such as Stenotrophomonas, Burkholderia, Achromobacter, Ralstonia, and Pandoraea, are increasingly being isolated [1 –3]. This could be potentially due to the aggressive antimicrobial therapy used against P. aeruginosa, to the apparition of new techniques for the bacterial identification and improvement in life expectancy for people with CF [4]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - September 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mar ía Díez-Aguilar, Miquel Ekkelenkamp, María-Isabel Morosini, Irene Merino, Juan de Dios Caballero, Mark Jones, Mireille van Westreenen, Michael M. Tunney, Rafael Cantón, Ad C. Fluit Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Effects of prophage regions in a plasmid carrying a carbapenemase gene on survival against antibiotic stress
In gram-negative bacteria, carbapenem resistance is primarily mediated by the production of carbapenemases hydrolyzing the β-lactam ring of carbapenem antibiotics. Since the first identification in Klebsiella pneumoniae, the blaNDM-1 gene has been detected in a wide range of bacterial species in many countries worldwide [1,2]. Generally, blaNDM is carried by a plasmid and is horizontally transferred within and between species, contributing to the rapid dissemination of NDM-producing pathogens [3]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - September 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: So Yeon Kim, Kwan Soo Ko Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

An alternative strategy for combination therapy: Interactions between polymyxin B and non-antibiotics
The emergence of antibiotic resistance is an important issue. Annual reports by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control show that an increasing percentage of infections is caused by resistant pathogens, rendering current drug therapies increasingly ineffective [1]. A September 2017 report by the WHO [2] shows the discovery and development of new antibiotics and antibiotic classes has slowed down substantially. Alternative strategies are necessary to ensure bacterial infections remain treatable. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - September 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Robin G. Otto, Elke van Gorp, Wendy Kloezen, Joseph Meletiadis, Sanne van den Berg, Johan W. Mouton Source Type: research

An update on Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis from the International Society of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (ISAC)
Staphylococcus aureus remains one of the dominant pathogens in infective endocarditis (IE) causing 25% to 30% of all cases [1,2] including healthcare-associated IE which comprises about 30% of IE [3]. Most IE involve the aortic or mitral valves, with tricuspid valve involvement accounting for fewer than 10% of cases, often in association with injection drug use [1,4,5]. Prosthetic valve IE (PVE) and IE related to cardiovascular implantable electronic devices accounts for approximately one-third of all cases and is most commonly caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci [1,5]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - September 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kordo Saeed, Abhijit Bal, Ian M Gould, Michael Z. David, Matthew Dryden, Efthymia Giannitsioti, Karolin Hijazi, Jessica A. Meisner, Silvano Esposito, Francesco Scaglione, Pierre Tattevin, Andreas Voss Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

Bacteriophage therapy as an alternative treatment for human infections. A comprehensive review
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global, increasing and major health problem. The World Health Organization, on its first global report on antibiotic resistance, has highlighted the danger of an upcoming post-antibiotic era, where simple infections could once again be lethal [1]. The Centre for Disease Control (CDC) estimates that at least 23000 deaths per year in the USA are a result of infection by resistant bacteria [2], while in Europe growing levels of antibiotic resistance are being reported, especially in countries with existing high levels of multi-drug resistance, resulting in the limitation of therapeutic opti...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - September 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Athanasios Kakasis, Gerasimia Panitsa Tags: Review Source Type: research

Predicting antibiotic combination effects on the selection of resistant Staphylococcus aureus: in vitro model studies with linezolid and gentamicin
Global increases in antimicrobial resistance among common bacterial pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus are now threatening successful use of available antibiotics such as linezolid. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - September 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Stephen H. Zinner, Maria V. Golikova, Elena N. Strukova, Yury A. Portnoy, Alexander A. Firsov Source Type: research

Bacteriophage Sb-1 enhances antibiotic activity against biofilm, degrades exopolysaccharide matrix and targets persisters of Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of both community- and hospital-acquired infections and represents a significant burden on the healthcare system. In addition, S. aureus is also involved in infections of medical implants and host tissue due to its ability to form biofilms, which play an important role in the persistence of chronic infections [1, 2]. A biofilm is defined as a sessile microbial community in which microorganisms live attached to a surface in a highly hydrated extracellular matrix [3], which in case of S. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - September 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tamta Tkhilaishvili, Lisa Lombardi, Ann-Brit Klatt, Andrej Trampuz, Mariagrazia Di Luca Source Type: research

Incidence and Risk Factors for Acquisition of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Newborns after Birth in Seville, Spain: a Prospective Cohort Study
Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) confer resistance to penicillins and cephalosporins except cephamycins; bacteria producing ESBL are also frequently resistant to non β-lactam antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and aminoglycosides, and therefore are multidrug-resistant. ESBLs a re mostly produced by Enterobacteriaceae and have spread worldwide over the last 20 years both in the community and in hospitals [1, 2]. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are responsible for an increasing number of cases of nosocomial and community sepsis in newborns, and of outbreaks in ne on...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - September 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mar ía Jesús Rodríguez-Revuelta, Lorena López-Cerero, Lara Serrano, Salud Luna-Lagares, Alvaro Pascual, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño Source Type: research

Active monotherapy and combination therapy for extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is amongst the most common causes of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) worldwide [1]. Since the past decade, P. aeruginosa has become resistant to the commonly-used antipseudomonal agents, including carbapenems with an incidence of 7-44% depending on geographical regions [2]. The emergence of extensively drug-resistant P. aeruginosa (XDR-PA) pneumonia is increasingly recognized as a major threat to patients and healthcare systems given its associated morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs [3,4]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - September 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Thana Khawcharoenporn, Alan Chuncharunee, Chailat Maluangnon, Thitiporn Taweesakulvashra, Pimsiri Tiamsak Source Type: research

Rapid emergence of highly variable and transferable oxazolidinone and phenicol resistance gene optrA in German Enterococcus spp. clinical isolates
Enterococci are considered the 2nd to 3rd most common nosocomial pathogen causing life-threatening diseases amongst elderly and immunocompromised patients (https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/portal/files/documents/AER_for_2015-healthcare-associated-infections.pdf). The oxazolidinone linezolid represents one of the few remaining treatment options for infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) [1]. Shortly after the approval of linezolid in 2000 and following therapy, emergence of linezolid resistance has been reported for vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE) and VRE [2, 3]. (Source: International Journal ...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - September 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jennifer K. Bender, Carola Fleige, Dominik Lange, Ingo Klare, Guido Werner Source Type: research

Net Emergence of Substitutions at Position 28 on NS5A of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 4 in Patients Failing Direct-Acting Antivirals by Next-Generation Sequencing
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of morbidity and deaths worldwide. Despite the considerable reduction in number of HCV infections recently, there are still approximately 399  000 deaths each year largely due to hepatitis C-related liver diseases [1]. Remarkable advances have been made in treatment of HCV infection, notably with the introduction of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). However, as a highly variable virus with many quasispecies, HCV can select in vitro and in vivo Resistance-Associated Substitutions (RASs) to antivirals in particular to anti-NS5A owing to their low genetic barrier [2]. (Source: In...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - September 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Thuy Nguyen, Sepideh Akhavan, Fabienne Caby, Luminita Bonyhay, Lucile Larrouy, Anne Gervais, Pascal Lebray, Thierry Poynard, Yvon Calmus, Anne Simon, Marc-Antoine Valantin, Vincent Calvez, Anne-Genevi ève Marcelin, Eve Todesco Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Synergistic and bactericidal activities of mecillinam, amoxicillin and clavulanic acid combinations against ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in 24-h time-kill experiments
The increasing prevalence of Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) has become a major challenge in the management of patients with urinary tract infections (UTI) [1]. Therapeutic options are limited, especially for oral administration, due to the frequent co-resistance to multiple β-lactam antibiotics, quinolones and trimethoprim in these strains [1]. Therefore, there is a need to re-evaluate old antibiotics that are still active against ESBL-producing E. coli and to learn more about how the efficacy of these drugs can be enhanced by optimal dosing or use of combination ther apy. (Source...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - September 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kari-Pekka Skarp, Ayda Shams, Hanna Montelin, Pernilla Lagerb äck, Thomas Tängdén Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

The intrinsic resistome of Klebsiella pneumoniae
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a member of the so-called ESKAPE group, which includes six of the most significant antibiotic resistant microorganisms (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, K. pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp.) responsible of nosocomial infections all around the world [1]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - September 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Alejandra Bernardini, Trinidad Cuesta, Anna Tom ás, José A. Bengoechea, José L. Martínez, María B. Sánchez Source Type: research

Structure Analysis of Transposons Carrying aac(6 ’)-aph(2’’) Gene in Enterococcus faecalis Isolated in Beijing China and Comparison of Their Transfer Efficiency
Enterococcus faecalis, the most clinical relevant isolate in Enterococcus group, is increasingly recognized as an important cause of nosocomial infections, especially in intensive care units. Severe enterococcal infections are usually treated by combination use of a cell wall active agent ( β-lactam or vancomycin) with aminoglycoside (typically gentamicin). However, this synergistic bactericidal activity was abolished by the emergence of High-Level Gentamicin Resistance (HLGR). Enterococcus faecalis with HLGR was first reported clinically in France in 1979 [1], and was quickly followe d by numerous reports from a dive...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - September 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jian-Mei Zhang, Qing Wang, Tong-Yan Han, Jian-Hua Liu, Xin-Xin Hu, Feng Qiao, Xin-Yi Yang, Cong-Ran Li, Xue-Fu You Source Type: research

Title Page & Editorial Board
(Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Do raspberry extracts and fractions have antifungal or anti-adherent potential against Candida sp.?
The oral cavity is inhabited by a rich and varied microbial flora ecosystem. Both bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans or Staphyloccocus epidermidis and fungi such as Candida spp. are present and coexist, especially in the dental plaque, commonly growing in biofilms. Candida species, in particular Candida albicans but also C. glabrata and sometimes C. parapsilosis, are among the main colonizers of the oral cavity and unfortunately play an important role in many oral diseases [1]. Various Candida species are involved with oral candidiasis in patients with cancer and irradiated in the head and neck region and transplanted b...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - September 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lucile Dutreix, Cl ément Bernard, Camille Juin, Christine Imbert, Marion Girardot Tags: Themed Issue: Recent Advances in Antimicrobial and Bacterial Resistance Source Type: research

Isovalerylshikonin, a new resistance-modifying agent from Arnebia euchroma, supresses antibiotic resistance of drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
The extensive and unrestricted use of antibiotics has imposed selective pressure on bacteria, resulting in the development of antimicrobial resistance [1]. Antibiotic resistance is considered the greatest threat to the treatment of bacterial diseases by the World Health Organization (WHO) [2]. Among these problematic bacteria, drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are responsible for a large number of hospital-acquired infections in many countries [3, 4]. The major mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antibacterial drugs include drug inactivation, target modification, alteration of accessibility to the target through drug ...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 31, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jian-Ming He, Shi-Chang Sun, Zhong-Lin Sun, Jie-Tao Chen, Qing Mu Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Epidemiology and molecular characterization of colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from immunocompromised patients in Tunisia
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important pathogen involved in nosocomial outbreaks. Increased resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents including β-lactams, aminoglycosides and quinolones is associated to this microorganism. Outbreaks of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing K. pneumoniae have been extensively reported worldwide [1]. Thus, carbapenems were used for infections caused by ESBL-producing pathogens leading to the emerg ence of resistant carbapenem K. pneumoniae [2]. Consequently, carbapenem resistance emerged and become a significant problem in terms of public health and clinical outcome [3]....
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 31, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Farah Ben Tanfous, Anis Raddaoui, Yosra Chebbi, Wafa Achour Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Inactivation of multidrug-resistant pathogens and Y. enterocolitica with cold atmospheric pressure plasma on stainless steel surfaces
The use of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a new nonthermal decontamination method. Plasma is the fourth state of matter and includes a lot of different bactericidal species such as NO, NO2, N2O, CO, CO2, H2O2 and ozone [1, 2]. Plasma is generated by applying an electric field to a working gas, in our study to the inexpensive ambient air. The generated plasma-species cause oxidative stress and damage bacterial cells [3]. If the amount of reactive species exceeds the capacity of cellular repair mechanisms, cell death occurs. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 31, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Karolina A. Lis, Corinna Kehrenberg, Annika Boulaaba, Maren von K öckritz-Blickwede, Sylvia Binder, Yangfang Li, Julia L. Zimmermann, Yvonne Pfeifer, Birte Ahlfeld Source Type: research

Implementation of a two-point pharmacokinetic AUC-based vancomycin therapeutic drug monitoring approach in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the leading causes of community-onset and nosocomial bacteremia worldwide and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality [1-3]. Nearly 65,000 cases of MRSA bacteremia (MRSA-B) are reported annually in the United States alone with mortality rates often in excess of 25% [4,5]. While vancomycin remains a mainstay of treatment for MRSA-B [6], concern has been raised regarding suboptimal outcomes for patients in whom the pharmacodynamic target of therapy is not achieved [7,8]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 31, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bryan T. Mogle, Jeffrey M. Steele, Robert W. Seabury, Utkarsh J. Dang, Wesley D. Kufel Source Type: research

Carbapenems and alternative beta-lactams for the treatment of infections due to ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae: what impact on intestinal colonization resistance?
The incidence of infections due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLE) is globally on the rise owing to the successful spread of these pathogens in both community-based and healthcare-associated ecosystems [1]. This situation drives a dramatic increase in carbapenem consumption in high prevalence areas [2, 3], which is suspected to contribute to the on-going pandemic of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) [4]. Hence, and although clinical data are lacking to convincingly support a prominent role of carbapenem exposure on the hazard of CPE acquisition, restraining the consumpti...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 31, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Paul-Louis Woerther, Rapha ël Lepeule, Charles Burdet, Jean-Winoc Decousser, Étienne Ruppé, François Barbier Tags: Review Source Type: research

Corrigendum to ‘In vitro activity of artemisone and artemisinin derivatives against extracellular and intracellular Helicobacter pylori’ [International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 48/1 (2016) 101–105]
The authors regret that there was an error in the Table 1: The Metronidazole MIC value for the strain E17 should be 2 microg/ml. This is now corrected online. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 30, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Francesca Sisto, Maria Maddalena Scaltrito, Carla Masia, Arianna Bonomi, Valentina Cocc è, Giuseppe Marano, Richard K. Haynes, Alessandro Miani, Giampietro Farronato, Donatella Taramelli Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Insights into a novel Tn4401  deletion (Tn4401i) in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strain belonging to the high-risk Clonal Group 258 producing KPC-2
Sir, (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 27, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bruna Fuga Ara újo, Sabrina Royer, Paola Amaral Campos, Melina Lorraine Ferreira, Iara Rossi Gonçalves, Luiz Gustavo Machado, Nilton Lincopan, Miriam Rodriguez Fernandes, Louise Teixeira Cerdeira, Deivid William da Fonseca Batistão, Paulo P. Gontijo-Fi Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

High mortality impact of Staphylococcus argenteus on patients with community-onset staphylococcal bacteraemia
Staphylococcus aureus is an important human commensal bacterium with the potential for invasive infection as well as significant infection-associated morbidity and mortality [1-3]. The epidemiology, antimicrobial resistance, clinical characteristics and outcomes of S. aureus infections, therefore, have been extensively elaborated in numerous studies for the best treatment results [1-6]. Recently, this issue has been complicated by the recognition of an early branching, divergent lineage with approximately 10% nucleotide divergence compared to traditional S. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 24, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Shey-Ying Chen, Hao Lee, Xiao-Mei Wang, Tai-Fen Lee, Chun-Hsing Liao, Lee-Jene Teng, Po-Ren Hsueh Source Type: research

The theory of "Eat me cake", or the genetic cannibalism of the enemy: a cause of vanishing antibiotic resistance
L évi-Strauss, quoted by M. Foucault (1), explained that in primitive civilizations, the way to fight against the enemies was either to eat their strength by cannibalism, or to exile them by ostracism. This analogy is also applicable to the immune defenses of individuals and populations, complementin g our analogy with another new punishment against enemies in humans which is jail, created to keep the enemies in a situation in which they cannot act-interact, or multiply (dormant virus or bacteria). (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 24, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Didier Raoult Tags: Hot Topic Source Type: research

Exploring the relationship between primary care antibiotic prescribing for urinary tract infections, Escherichia coli bacteraemia incidence and antibiotic resistance: an ecological study
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing problem within the UK and globally. Optimising the use of antibiotics is a high priority as one of the main drivers of AMR is their misuse [1,2]. For this reason, Antimicrobial Stewardship Programmes (ASPs) in secondary care [3,4] and in primary care [5,6] have been put in place in in the UK and globally in recent years. One component of ASPs is the provision of evidence-based guidelines for antimicrobial prescribing. The link between antibiotic exposure and antibiotic resistance (for urinary and respiratory tract infections) in primary care has been widely demonstrated in recent...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hannah Lishman, C éire Costelloe, Susan Hopkins, Alan P Johnson, Russell Hope, Rebecca Guy, Berit Muller-Pebody, Alison Holmes, Paul Aylin Source Type: research

Antibacterial activity of rhodomyrtone on Clostridium difficile vegetative cells and spores in vitro
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and colitis, and is associated with high mortality and soaring healthcare costs [1]. The recommended treatment of adults with severe CDI is oral vancomycin or oral fidaxomicin [2]. Oral vancomycin is also recommended for children with severe or fulminant CDI [2]. However, the rising incidence of CDI since 2000, together with the frequency of relapses and emergence of hypervirulent and antibiotic-resistant strains, has increased the urgency for new treatments [3,4]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sutthirat Srisuwan, Kate E. Mackin, Dianna Hocking, Dena Lyras, Vicki Bennett-Wood, Supayang P. Voravuthikunchai, Roy M. Robins-Browne Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics of patients with bacteraemia due to the emergence of mcr-1-harboring Enterobacteriaceae in humans and pigs in Taiwan
In the era of widespread antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the number of multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria has been continuously increasing [1-4]. Drug resistance in species belonging to Enterobacteriaceae is no exception, and the emergence of carbapenem resistance has been found among Enterobacteriaceae, and it is recognized as a global public health issue [5-7]. The therapeutic option for MDR organism is limited, and colistin is considered as the last drug of choice [11-14]. However, since the first identified mcr-1-encoding plasmid-mediated colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in China [11], many regions, i...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chih-Cheng Lai, Yi-Tsung Lin, Yu-Tzu Lin, Min-Chi Lu, Zhi-Yuan Shi, Yao-Shen Chen, Lih-Shinn Wang, Shu-Hui Tseng, Chao-Nan Lin, Yen-Hsu Chen, Wen-Chien Ko, Fu-Der Wang, Po-Ren Hsueh, Infection Control Society of Taiwan Source Type: research

Synergistic interactions of sulfamethoxazole and azole antifungal drugs against emerging multidrug-resistant Candida auris
C. auris is an emerging human fungal pathogen that has been recently implicated in several nosocomial outbreaks worldwide [1, 2]. Although outbreaks have been reported in many countries, the true prevalence of C. auris infections is likely to be underestimated. This is mainly because identification of C. auris requires special diagnostic tools such as MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry or more complicated molecular techniques such as multilocus sequence typing, which are not readily available in many countries [3-7]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hassan E. Eldesouky, Xiaoyan Li, Nader S. Abutaleb, Haroon Mohammad, Mohamed N. Seleem Source Type: research

Are there any challenges in HCV therapy of HIV infected patients left?
The introduction of highly effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced HIV-associated morbidity and mortality. Indeed, near to normal life expectancy can be expected in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections if antiviral therapy is started before the onset of AIDS or advanced immunodeficiency. Therefore, concomitant diseases are increasingly gaining importance. Coinfections with the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) are of substantial concern, as HIV is known to accelerate the progression of HCV related liver disease, which has emerged as a leading cause of death in HIV infected individuals [1]. (Source: I...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jenny Bischoff, J ürgen K Rockstroh Tags: Themed Issue: Therapeutics of hepatitis viruses Source Type: research

Cutibacterium acnes protects Candida albicans from micafungin effect in biofilms
Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast, a commensal organism of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal and genito-urinary tracts and skin [1]. Immunocompromised patients can develop superficial candidiasis (oropharyngeal, vaginal, etc.) and candidemia [2]. In the United States of America (USA), Candida spp. is the fourth leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSI) and 50.7 % of these infections are attributed to C. albicans [3]. In fact, many of these nosocomial BSI could involve more than one species of Candida and/or bacteria and half of them could be linked to implanted medical devices (IMD) [4,5]...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Cl ément Bernard, Noémie Renaudeau, Marie-Laure Mollichella, Nathalie Quellard, Marion Girardot, Christine Imbert Source Type: research

Genomic path to panresistance in a clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) have spread through tertiary hospitals worldwide during the last decades [1]. Some sequence types have been particularly successful producing outbreaks in clinical settings and leading to endemic situations, with hundreds of affected patients [2]. Over the years, antibiotic pressure has led to the rise and dissemination of strains with increased resistance spectra. These strains have been called multidrug resistant (MDR) when more than three antimicrobial families were affected or extensively drug resistant (XDR) when only one or two antimicrobial families remain active. (S...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Fernando L ázaro-Perona, Alma Sotillo, Paloma Troyano-Hernáez, Rosa Gómez-Gil, Ángela de la Vega-Bueno, Jesús Mingorance Source Type: research

Serum bactericidal activity of colistin and azidothymidine combinations against mcr-1 positive colistin-resistant Escherichia coli
Gram-negative bacteria, especially Enterobacteriaceae, are the major cause of both community and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI), which is worsened by the continuous antibiotic resistance emergence and a shortage of new antibiotics under development. The number of antimicrobial agents to medicate infections caused by antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is limited, and the polymyxins such as colistin are considered the last resort treatment [1]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Maria Loose, Kurt G. Naber, Yanmin Hu, Anthony Coates, Florian M.E. Wagenlehner Source Type: research

Assessing Antimicrobial Stewardship Initiatives: Clinical Evaluation of Cefepime or Piperacillin-tazobactam in Patients with Bloodstream Infections Secondary to AmpC Producing Organisms
The increasing threat of antibiotic resistance amongst Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter spp. identified in healthcare-associated infections is a grave public health concern [1]. Amongst the Enterobacteriaceae, AmpC beta-lactamases present a unique challenge. Commonly found on chromosomes and plasmids in Enterobacter spp, Serratia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., and Citrobacter spp., their presence raises concern due to rapid hydrolysis of commonly used antibiotics such as penicillins, second and third-generation cephalosporins, and monobactams [2,3]. (Source: International Jou...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lacie McKamey, Veena Venugopalan, Kartikeya Cherabuddi, Samuel Borgert, Stacy Voils, Kairav Shah, Kenneth P. Klinker Source Type: research

Mobile Colistin Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli from Pigs Affected by Colibacillosis
Sir, (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chiara Francesca Magistrali, Ludovica Curcio, Andrea Luppi, Giovanni Pezzotti, Serenella Orsini, Silvia Tofani, Claudia Feudi, Alessandra Carattoli, Laura Villa Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Comparative incidence and excess risk of acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients receiving vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam in combination or as monotherapy
Vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam are among the most commonly prescribed antibiotics in U.S. Hospitals [1, 2]. This particular combination of antibiotics may be useful empirically due to the broad Gram-positive activity of vancomycin (i.e. activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus) and the broad Gram-negative activity of piperacillin-tazobactam (i.e. activity against P. aeruginosa). Given the widespread use of these antibiotics, there is a need for an enhanced understanding of the safety of these two agents in combination or as monotherapy. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Joseph J. Carreno, Tori Smiraglia, Christopher Hunter, Ellis Tobin, Ben Lomaestro Source Type: research

Development of colistin dependence in non-baumannii Acinetobacter species
In this study, we reveal that various species of Acinetobacter develop colistin dependence after exposure to colistin. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yoon-Kyoung Hong, Kwan Soo Ko Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

High prevalence of triazole resistance in clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolates in a specialist cardio-thoracic centre
Aspergillus fumigatus is a ubiquitous ascomycete mould that can cause a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes. The pathological effects of A. fumigatus depend largely on the interplay between the pathogen and host immune response ranging from asymptomatic colonisation to life-threatening infection. Invasive aspergillosis (IA), the most severe form of A. fumigatus infection, predominantly affects immunocompromised patients. In contrast, immune hyperactivity can lead to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and fungal sensitization in severe asthma (SAFS). (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Alireza Abdolrasouli, Andrew Scourfield, Johanna Rhodes, Anand Shah, J. Stuart Elborn, Matthew C. Fisher, Silke Schelenz, Darius Armstrong-James Source Type: research

First report of an mcr-1 harbouring Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 4,5,12:i:- strain isolated from blood of a patient in Switzerland
In the past, the use of colistin has been mostly limited to veterinary medicine due to its rather severe side effects, but given the increase in multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, the WHO recently relabelled colistin as a “critically important antibiotic”. The first description of a plasmid-borne mobilized colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in 2015 [1] caused great concern, as the ease of potential spread on a conjugative plasmid encoding resistance to polymyxins might change the resistance situation to colistin dras tically. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Laura M. Carroll, Katrin Zurfluh, Hyein Jang, Gopal Gopinath, Magdalena N üesch-Inderbinen, Laurent Poirel, Patrice Nordmann, Roger Stephan, Claudia Guldimann Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Rare Mold Infections Caused by Mucorales, Lomentospora Prolificans and Fusarium, San Diego: The Role of Antifungal Combination Therapy
Despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment, invasive mold infections (IMIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally, particularly in immunocompromised individuals [1]. The incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA), the most common IMI, is 10-20 cases per 1 million population overall, with an incidence of 0.2-0.6% in the intensive care unit (ICU), 0.5-3.9% after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), and 0.1-2.4% after solid organ transplant (SOT) [2]. Reported mortality rates from IA range from 30% to 60% at 12 weeks in patients with an underlying hematologic malignancy, HSCT, SOT or solid tum...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jeffrey D. Jenks, Sharon L. Reed, Danila Seidel, Philipp Koehler, Oliver A. Cornely, Sanjay R. Mehta, Martin Hoenigl Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Successful management with fosfomycin/ceftazidime of an infection caused by multiple highly related subtypes of MDR and XDR KPC-producing Serratia marcescens
Sir, (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 6, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Cecilia Rodr íguez, Silvina Brengi, Mariel Agustina Cáceres, Silvana Mochi, María Rosa Viñas, Constanza Antich Rizza, Graciela Merletti, Elena Bru, José Daniel Assa, Raúl Ricardo Raya, Daniela Centrón Source Type: research

Effective inhibition of rifampin-resistant Chlamydia trachomatis by the novel DNA-dependent RNA-polymerase inhibitor Corallopyronin A
Sir, (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 6, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kensuke Shima, Svea Ledig, Nathalie Loeper, Andrea Schiefer, Kenneth Pfarr, Achim Hoerauf, Simon Graspeuntner, Jan Rupp Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Overcoming challenges of treating extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii bacteraemic urinary tract infection
Sir, (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Leyland Chuang, Lasantha Ratnayake Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Beta-lactam/ beta-lactamase inhibitors versus carbapenem for bloodstream infections due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) are enzymes that hydrolyze the β-lactam ring conferring resistance to most beta-lactam antibiotics including the expanded-spectrum cephalosporins but precluding the cephamycins and aztreonam [1]. In addition, ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are often resistant to other classes of antibiotics e.g. fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim -sulfamethoxazole, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines making the treatment very challenging [1-4]. Temoniera, a Greek patient name, was the first plasmid-mediated β-lactamase isolated designed as TEM-1 in an Escherichia coli that grew in a blood cu...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Maroun Sfeir, Gulce Askin, Paul Christos Tags: Review Source Type: research

Contributions of RecA and RecBCD DNA repair pathways to the oxidative stress response and sensitivity of Acinetobacter baumannii to antibiotics
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide anion radical ( •O2−), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical (•OH) are ubiquitous oxygen derivatives that have emerged as important players in antibiotic-mediated bacterial lethality [1–4]. They are inevitable toxic by-products of aerobic respiratory processes of living organisms [5], which are rest rained by bacterial ROS defense mechanisms such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidases and the glutathione system. These noxious species damage Fe-S clusters, releasing Fe2+ to catalyse the conversion of H2O2 to •OH via Fenton reaction...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: T.O. Ajiboye, E. Skiebe, G. Wilharm Source Type: research

Assessing antibiotic resistance gene load in vegan, vegetarian and omnivore human gut microbiota
Bacteria are transmitted between humans, animals and vegetables in a bidirectional way: from animals and vegetables to humans directly through food, from animals and humans to vegetables through manure and faeces dispersed in water and soil, and indirectly to human from vegetables through animals that feed on them [1]. The connection between human and environmental microflora through food increases the possibility of genetic exchange between their associated microbiomes (the collective genome of these microbial communities), thereby allowing for the transfer and selection of potentially novel genes to human gut, including ...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Losasso Carmen, Di Cesare Andrea, Mastrorilli Eleonora, Patuzzi Ilaria, Cibin Veronica, Eckert Ester M, Fontaneto Diego, Vanzo Angiola, Ricci Antonia, Corno Gianluca Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Profile of drug-resistant mutations in nucleos(t)ide analogue-experienced chronic hepatitis B patients in Tianjin, China
We read with great interest the recent study by Guo et  al [1] in this journal that aimed at evaluating the dynamic changes of the mutation patterns of hepatitis B virus resistance to nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) in North China. However, profile of HBV resistance mutations against NAs treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection in Tianjin, the biggest coastal city in northern China with a population of more than 14 million, is still largely unknown. Therefore, we want to contribute by reporting the drug-resistant mutations in NAs-experienced chronic hepatitis B patients in Tianjin, China. (Source: Internat...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wei Hou, Congdoanh Trieu, Yanan Du, Cindy Wang, Wing-Kin Syn Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Detection and characterization of methicillin resistant and susceptible coagulase-negative Staphylococci in milk from cows with clinical mastitis in Tunisia.
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) play a role as opportunistic nosocomial pathogens in human medicine. They are often involved in foreign body infections and catheter-related infections, but also in urinary tract infections and endocarditis, among others [1]. Nowadays, CNS are of great interest in veterinary medicine because they are currently considered emerging pathogens of bovine mastitis. In dairy farms, mastitis remains an important disease with high economic effect. Among the etiologic agents of mastitis bovine, staphylococci is the main type of microorganisms, with some coagulase-positive species (S. (Source: I...
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Amira Klibi, Abderrazek Maaroufi, Carmen Torres, Ahlem Jouini Tags: Themed Issue: Recent Advances in Antimicrobial and Bacterial Resistance Source Type: research

Loss of activity of ceftazidime-avibactam due to Mex-AB-OprM efflux and overproduction of AmpC cephalosporinase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from patients suffering from cystic fibrosis
Avibactam is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of β-lactamases approved in combination with ceftazidime for the treatment of Gram-negative infections with limited therapeutic options [1,2]. Since it shows in vitro activity against most class A and class C enzymes [3], including the chromosomally-encoded AmpC cephalosporinase of Pseudomonas aerugin osa [4], we previously assessed its activity against a large collection (n=334) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hussein Chalhoub, Yolanda S áenz, Wright W. Nichols, Paul M. Tulkens, Françoise Van Bambeke Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Title Page & Editorial Board
(Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - August 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research