Respirable aerosol exposures of nicotine dry powder formulations to in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo pre-clinical models demonstrate consistency of pharmacokinetic profiles.
Conclusions: The data generated with the three experimental models provided a comprehensive picture of the inhalation PK of the two nicotine formulations. In particular, the results showed a very rapid dissolution and absorption of the two nicotine formulations and these results could be highly useful for improving the design and calibration of physiologically based PK models to produce more robust predictions. Abbreviations: AED: animal equivalent dose; BW: body weight; HPLC: high-performance liquid chromatography; IPL: isolated, ventilated, and perfused lung; PK: pharmacokinetics; SEM: scanning electron microscopy; USP: ...
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - September 10, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Computational investigation of dust mite allergens in a realistic human nasal cavity.
Conclusions: The numerical results revealed the roles of different nasal cavity regions in filtering various types of dust mite allergens with consideration of breathing conditions. PMID: 31431101 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - August 23, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Smoldering and flaming biomass wood smoke inhibit respiratory responses in mice.
Conclusion: These data show that exposure to smoldering eucalyptus or oak smoke inhibits respiratory responses to a greater degree than peat smoke. Anti-inflammatory effects of CO may possibly contribute to smoke-induced suppression of allergic inflammatory responses. PMID: 31431109 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - August 23, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Occupational exposures to cosmetic talc and risk of mesothelioma: an updated pooled cohort and statistical power analysis with consideration of latency period.
Conclusions: The epidemiological evidence from the cosmetic talc miner/miller cohort studies does not support the hypothesis that exposure to cosmetic talc is associated with the development of pleural cancer/mesothelioma. PMID: 31380702 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - August 7, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Lung damage following whole body, but not intramuscular, exposure to median lethality dose of sarin: findings in rats and guinea pigs.
Conclusions: These data clearly point out the importance of using the appropriate route of administration in studying the deleterious effects of volatile nerve agents, as well as the selection of the appropriate animal species. Since airways form major target organs for the development of injury following inhalation toxicity, they should be included in any comprehensive evaluation of countermeasures efficacy. PMID: 31359796 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - August 1, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Inhalation exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes alters the pulmonary allergic response of mice to house dust mite allergen.
Conclusions: Inhalation pre-exposure to MWCNTs inhibited HDM-induced TH2 immune responses, yet this combined exposure resulted in vascular inflammation and airway fibrosis, indicating that MWCNT pre-exposure alters the immune response to allergens. PMID: 31345048 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - July 28, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Empirical model of mesothelioma potency factors for different mineral fibers based on their chemical composition and dimensionality.
Authors: Korchevskiy A, Rasmuson JO, Rasmuson EJ Abstract Context: The potency of various mineral fiber types to produce mesothelioma was previously evaluated for numerous cohorts, but the differences in potencies for distinct fiber types have yet to be explained. Objective: To develop an empirical model that would reconstruct mesothelioma potency factors for various types of fiber based on their chemical composition and dimensionality. Methods: Typical chemical composition and dimensionality metrics (aspect ratios) were obtained and combined with mesothelioma potency factors estimated by Hodgson and Darnton method...
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - July 24, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Acute exposure of mice to hydrochloric acid leads to the development of chronic lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the initial inflammatory response and pro-fibrotic biomarker upregulation may be linked to the progression of pulmonary fibrosis and airway dysfunction and may represent valuable therapeutic targets. PMID: 31232121 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - June 25, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Correction.
Authors: PMID: 31232127 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - June 25, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Correction.
Authors: PMID: 31232128 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - June 25, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Correction.
Authors: PMID: 31232130 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - June 25, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Correction.
Authors: PMID: 31232141 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - June 25, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

In vitro toxicity assessment of emitted materials collected during the manufacture of water pipe plastic linings.
Conclusions: Together these findings demonstrate potential risks associated with the CIPP procedure as well as variations between worksites regarding emissions and toxicity. Our evaluation identified biological pathways that require a future evaluation and also demonstrates that exposure assessment of CIPP worksites should examine multiple chemical components beyond styrene, as many cellular responses were styrene-independent. PMID: 31187656 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - June 14, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Guanidine-based disinfectants, polyhexamethylene guanidine-phosphate (PHMG-P), polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), and oligo(2-(2-ethoxy)ethoxyethyl guanidinium chloride (PGH) induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 alveolar epithelial cells.
Conclusions: Our study indicates that three guanidine-based disinfectants are potential fibrosis-inducing chemicals that induce EMT through cellular damage. Therefore, use of guanidine-based polymers should be strictly regulated by considering their potential adverse effects on the lungs. PMID: 31179775 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - June 12, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Influence of prenatal waterpipe tobacco smoke exposure on renal biomarkers in adult offspring rats.
Authors: Al-Sawalha NA, AlSari RR, Khabour OF, Alzoubi KH Abstract Background: Waterpipe tobacco smoke (WTS) is a popular form of tobacco consumption. Prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke altered kidney function and oxidative stress balance in offspring. However, the effect of prenatal WTS exposure on kidney function parameters, blood pressure and oxidative stress in adult offspring rats were unknown. Methods: Pregnant Wister rats were exposed to either WTS for 2 hours per day utilizing a whole body exposure system or fresh air from day 0 of gestation to day 21. Systolic blood pressure, histological analysis...
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - June 12, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Evaluation of the amount of nanoparticles emitted in LASER additive manufacture/welding.
Conclusion: It is concluded that the values of professional exposure to nanoparticles are high in these workstations and that the nanoparticles to which the workers are exposed are small in size (around 15 nm), thus having a strong capacity for alveolar penetration and, consequently, with a strong possibility of passing to the bloodstream, accumulating in the body. PMID: 31179784 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - June 12, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Radiological progression and lung function decrements among silica-exposed ceramic workers: a longitudinal study.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that one-third of Turkish ceramic workers with silicosis who were followed up to 8.9 years showed progression that was related to increasing age greater ILO category at time of initial visit and follow-up duration. PMID: 31074300 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - May 12, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes attenuate phosgene-induced acute lung injury in rats.
CONCLUSIONS: MSC-derived exosomes exerted beneficial effects on phosgene-induced ALI via modulating inflammation, inhibiting MMP-9 synthesis and elevating SP-C level. PMID: 31068039 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - May 11, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Inhalation toxicity profiles of particulate matter: a comparison between brake wear with other sources of emission.
Authors: Gerlofs-Nijland ME, Bokkers BGH, Sachse H, Reijnders JJE, Gustafsson M, Boere AJF, Fokkens PFH, Leseman DLAC, Augsburg K, Cassee FR Abstract OBJECTIVE: There is substantial evidence that exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) from road traffic is associated with adverse health outcomes. Although it is often assumed to be caused by vehicle exhaust emissions such as soot, other components may also contribute to detrimental effects. The toxicity of fine PM (PM2.5;
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - May 9, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Comparisons of acute inflammatory responses of nose-only inhalation and intratracheal instillation of ammonia in rats.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that intratracheal instillation can reproduce several early hallmarks of ALI. Our findings therefore support that the intratracheal instillation exposure regimen can be used for new medical countermeasure strategies for NH3-induced ALI. PMID: 31039646 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - May 3, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Editorial Announcement.
Authors: Holian A, Cohen M PMID: 31039668 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - May 3, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Waterpipe tobacco smoke distresses cardiovascular biomarkers in mice: alterations in protein expression of metalloproteinases, endothelin and myeloperoxidase.
Authors: Rababa'h AM, Bsoul RW, Alkhatatbeh MJ, Alzoubi KH, Khabour OF Abstract INTRODUCTION: Tobacco use is a major risk factor of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and atherosclerosis in particular. The use of waterpipe smoking (WPS) is increasing due to the misperception that it is less harmful than cigarette smoking due to its flavor and the use of water as a filter. Thus, research that investigates toxic effects of WPS is essential. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of WPS on major cardiovascular biomarkers that may develop atherosclerosis in mice. METHODS: BALB/c mice were exposed to WPS for...
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - May 3, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Development of a large-scale computer-controlled ozone inhalation exposure system for rodents.
CONCLUSION: Thus, we have created a large and robust ozone exposure system, facilitating future studies on the health effects of ozone in rodents. PMID: 31021248 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - April 26, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

A review on proteomics analysis to reveal biological pathways and predictive proteins in sulfur mustard exposed patients: roles of inflammation and oxidative stress.
Authors: Borna H, Hosseini Qale Noe SH, Harchegani AB, Talatappe NR, Ghatrehsamani M, Ghanei M, Shahriary A Abstract Sulfur mustard (SM) is a mutagenic compound that targets various organs. Although it causes a wide range of abnormalities, cellular and molecular mechanisms of its action are not-well-understood. Oxidation of DNA, proteins, lipids, as well as depletion of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), antioxidants and increase of intracellular calcium are the hypothesized mechanisms of its action at the acute phase of injury. In this review, the proteome analysis of SM toxicity has been considered...
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - April 25, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Exploring the science, safety, and benefits of air care products: perspectives from the inaugural air care summit.
Authors: Johnson MB, Kingston R, Utell MJ, Wells JR, Singal M, Troy WR, Horenziak S, Dalton P, Ahmed FK, Herz RS, Osimitz TG, Prawer S, Yin S Abstract Seventy-one percent of US households purchase air care products. Air care products span a diverse range of forms, including scented aerosol sprays, pump sprays, diffusers, gels, candles, and plug-ins. These products are used to eliminate indoor malodors and to provide pleasant scent experiences. The use of air care products can lead to significant benefits as studies have shown that indoor malodor can cause adverse effects, negatively impacting quality of life, hygie...
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - April 19, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

A review of the fate of inhaled α-quartz in the lungs of rats.
A review of the fate of inhaled α-quartz in the lungs of rats. Inhal Toxicol. 2019 Apr 18;:1-10 Authors: Kawasaki H Abstract The distribution of dust particles within the lungs and their excretion are highly associated with their pulmonary toxicity. Literature was reviewed to discern pulmonary translocation pathways for inhaled α-quartz compared to those for inhaled TiO2. Accordingly, it was hypothesized α-quartz particles in the alveoli were phagocytized by alveolar macrophages but silica-containing macrophages remained in the alveoli for longer time in contrast to the rapid eliminat...
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - April 19, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Urinary mutagenicity and other biomarkers of occupational smoke exposure of wildland firefighters and oxidative stress.
CONCLUSION: Urinary mutagenicity may serve as a suitable measure of occupational smoke exposures among wildland firefighters, especially among those lighting fires for prescribed burns. PMID: 30985217 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - April 16, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Impact of cigarette smoking on kidney inflammation and fibrosis in diabetic rats.
CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoke might promote risk of kidney dysfunction in DM by augmentation of renal inflammation, oxidant radicals and fibrosis. The kidney promotes compensatory increase in MMP-2 in response to smoking probably to prevent pro-fibrotic factors induced-fibrosis. PMID: 30947565 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - April 6, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Correction.
Authors: PMID: 30950657 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - April 6, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Robert T. Drew, Ph.D. (1936-2018).
Authors: Costa D PMID: 30849249 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - March 10, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Involvement of PM2.5-bound protein and metals in PM2.5-induced allergic airway inflammation in mice.
CONCLUSIONS: PM2.5 collected by of the cyclone system induced allergic airway inflammation in mice. PM2.5-bound proteins and acid-soluble metals may be involved in the pathogenesis of PM2.5-induced allergic airway inflammation. PMID: 30849251 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - March 10, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Altered levels of GST activity, Vit C, TPX and Cu in individuals with long-term sulfur mustard-induced lung complications.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests a particular role for TPX, Cu, Vit C and GST in SM-induced pulmonary complications. Therefore, a special attention should be paid to these factors in designing therapeutic protocols, which can reduce the progression risk of the disease. PMID: 30849252 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - March 10, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Biological changes in C57BL/6 mice following 3  weeks of inhalation exposure to cigarette smoke or e-vapor aerosols.
In conclusion, 3-weeks of 3R4F exposure induced molecular and microscopic changes associated with smoking-related diseases in the respiratory tract, while e-vapor exposures showed substantially reduced biological activities. PMID: 30849254 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - March 10, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Repeated dose inhalation developmental toxicity study in rats exposed to cellulose insulation with boric acid additive.
Authors: Pleus RC, Bruce G, Klintworth H, Sullivan D, Johnson W, Rajendran N, Keenan J Abstract Cellulose insulation (CI), a common building material, is a mixture of cellulose fibers and borates. Borates are approximately 20% of the product weight and act as a flame retardant. Given possible exposure to workers and consumers, an inhalation toxicity study was conducted following Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 414 for Prenatal Development Toxicity to evaluate if CI is a developmental toxicant. Pregnant female rats were exposed by nose-only inhalation to CI aerosols containing 20% boric...
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - March 6, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Influence of tobacco smoke on zinc, cadmium, iron, iron-binding proteins, and low-weight anti-oxidant status in pregnancy.
Authors: Milnerowicz H, Wrześniak M, Królik M, Kowalska K Abstract Pregnancy and tobacco smoking (TS) each can cause increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; this, in turn, can lead to disorders in iron management and disruption of the pro- and anti-oxidant balance. The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of TS and Cd on Fe, Zn, and anti-oxidant levels (i.e. glutathione [GSH], metallothionein [MT]) in the blood of pregnant women. The study reported here evaluated 110 blood samples from pregnant women in their 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester. Concentrations of ferritin and transferrin were...
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - February 24, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

A new approach to estimate ultrafine particle respiratory deposition.
In this study, a set of physiologically representative human tracheobronchial airway replicas were made using high-resolution 3D printers, and a new approach that was distinct from the traditional methods was developed to apply these airway replicas in estimating UFP respiratory deposition. The results showed that UFP respiratory deposition could be readily and systematically measured by the differential-based approach. The results of this study imply the feasibility of developing a mobile aerosol lung deposition apparatus in the future for on-site workplace UFP respiratory deposition to evaluate the UFP inhalation dosimet...
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - February 21, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

An inhalational swine model for the characterization of physiological effects and toxicological profile associated with cyanide poisoning.
Authors: Rivera-Burgos D, Babin MC, Staugler JM, Vinci T, Perry MR Abstract Cyanides are highly toxic compounds that have been used as weapons of terrorism throughout history. Cyanide (CN) is acutely toxic by all routes of administration; however, inhalation is the main exposure route. To adequately test effective countermeasures against inhalational CN threats, robust and well-characterized animal models are needed. This paper describes the initial development of a hydrogen cyanide (HCN) exposure swine model for documenting the physiological effects and toxicological profile during and after HCN inhalation exposur...
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - February 14, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Comparison of the content of tobacco alkaloids and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in 'heat-not-burn' tobacco products before and after aerosol generation.
Authors: Jeong WT, Cho HK, Lee HR, Song KH, Lim HB Abstract Standardized methods for collecting smoke and for measuring smoke components in heat not burn tobacco product (HTP) are yet to be established, and there is a lack of consensus as to whether the content of HTP cigarettes can be assayed in the same manner as for conventional cigarettes. Since HTPcigarettes do not generate ash when smoked, we compared the levels of tobacco alkaloids (TAs) and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) of HTP cigarettes before and after aerosol generation. HTP cigarettes were smoked according to two international standardization me...
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - February 13, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Evaluation of the impact of waterpipe tobacco smoke exposure on the activity and expression of rat hepatic CYP450: a pharmacokinetic study.
This study assessed the effect of waterpipe smoke exposure on the activity and expression of CYP450 enzymes in rats. Animals (n = 10/group) were exposed to either waterpipe smoke or side-stream cigarette smoke for 1 h/day (6 days/week) for 31 days, or fresh air (control). An intragastric cocktail solution containing three probe drugs, phenacetin, chlorzoxazone and testosterone was administered to assess the activity of CYP1A2, CYP2E1 and CYP3A, respectively. Serum concentrations were determined using LC-MS/MS and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The mRNA expression of hepatic e...
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - February 10, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Cross-reactivity between halogenated platinum salts in an immediate-type respiratory hypersensitivity model.
Authors: Lehmann DM, Williams WC Abstract Halogenated platinum salts can trigger the development of occupational asthma. Until recently, laboratory research into the development and manifestation of platinum hypersensitivity responses were hindered by the lack of an animal model suitable for assessing the functional consequences of allergic sensitization. We employed a newly developed mouse model to assess the potential allergenicity of ammonium tetrachloroplatinate (ATCP), compare the relative potency of ATCP and another platinum salt, ammonium hexachloroplatinate (AHCP) and assess potential cross-reactivity. Mice...
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - January 20, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYBA gene with coal workers' pneumoconiosis in the Han Chinese population.
Authors: Yuan B, Yuan W, Wen X, Li C, Gao L, Li B, Wang D, Cui L, Li Y Abstract Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is caused by long-term exposure to inhaled coal dust; it is likely influenced by the interaction between environmental factors and multiple susceptibility genes, such as the CYBA (cytochrome b-245α polypeptide) gene that has recently been identified to be involved in the genetic susceptibility for several pulmonary diseases. The aim of this case-control study was to explore the association between CYBA gene polymorphisms and the development of CWP in coal miners belonging to the Han ethnic group ...
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - January 20, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Pulmonary exposure to peat smoke extracts in rats decreases expiratory time and increases left heart end systolic volume.
Authors: Thompson LC, Kim YH, Martin BL, Ledbetter AD, Dye JA, Hazari MS, Gilmour MI, Farraj AK Abstract Exposure to wildland fire-related particulate matter (PM) causes adverse health outcomes. However, the impacts of specific biomass sources remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate cardiopulmonary responses in rats following exposure to PM extracts collected from peat fire smoke. We hypothesized that peat smoke PM would dose-dependently alter cardiopulmonary function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8/group) were exposed to 35 µg (Lo PM) or 350 µg (Hi PM) ...
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - January 17, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Changes in lipid profile parameters and PON1 status associated with L55M PON1 polymorphism, overweight and exposure to tobacco smoke.
CONCLUSIONS: L55M polymorphism, like exposure to tobacco smoke and overweight, disorders PON1 status and lipid profile parameters; therefore, it could be a crucial risk factor for the development of many metabolic disorders. PMID: 30618305 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - January 10, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Modification of nano-silver bioactivity by adsorption on carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide.
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest the bioactivity of silver composites may be related to the amount of Ag ions released, which can be dependent on the cell model under investigation. PMID: 30618316 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - January 10, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Particle and inhalation exposure in human and monkey computational airway models.
Authors: Lu Phuong N, Dang Khoa N, Inthavong K, Ito K Abstract Regional deposition of inhaled aerosols is essential for assessing health risks from toxic exposure. Upper airway physiology plays a significant role in respiratory defense by filtering micrometer particles, whose deposition mechanism is predominantly inertial impaction and is mainly controlled by airflow characteristics. The monkey is commonly used in tests that study inhalation toxicity as well as in preclinical tests as human surrogates due to their anatomical similarities to humans. Therefore, accurate predictions and an understanding of the inhaled...
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - January 10, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Engineered nanoparticle exposure and cardiovascular effects: the role of a neuronal-regulated pathway.
Authors: Kan H, Pan D, Castranova V Abstract Human and animal studies have confirmed that inhalation of particles from ambient air or occupational settings not only causes pathophysiological changes in the respiratory system, but causes cardiovascular effects as well. At an equal mass lung burden, nanoparticles are more potent in causing systemic microvascular dysfunction than fine particles of similar composition. Thus, accumulated evidence from animal studies has led to heightened concerns about the potential short- and long-term deleterious effects of inhalation of engineered nanoparticles on the cardiovascular ...
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - January 5, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Concentration-time extrapolation of short-term inhalation exposure levels: dimethyl sulfide, a case study using a chemical-specific toxic load exponent.
CONCLUSION: Emergency responders and health assessors may consider these computationally derived threshold levels as a supplement to traditional chemical risk assessment procedures in instances where AIHA developed public health advisory levels do not exist. PMID: 30600740 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - January 4, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Enhanced cerebellar myelination with concomitant iron elevation and ultrastructural irregularities following prenatal exposure to ambient particulate matter in the mouse.
Authors: Klocke C, Sherina V, Graham UM, Gunderson J, Allen JL, Sobolewski M, Blum JL, Zelikoff JT, Cory-Slechta DA Abstract Accumulating evidence indicates the developing central nervous system (CNS) is a target of air pollution toxicity. Epidemiological reports increasingly demonstrate that exposure to the particulate matter (PM) fraction of air pollution during neurodevelopment is associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These observations are supported by animal studies demonstrating prenatal exposure to concentrated ambient PM induces neur...
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - December 24, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Gene expression changes in rat brain regions after 7- and 28 days inhalation exposure to exhaust emissions from 1st and 2nd generation biodiesel fuels - The FuelHealth project.
The objective of the present work was to compare the gene expression patterns in rat frontal cortex and hippocampus after exposure to diesel exhaust emissions (DEE) from combustion of two 1st generation fuels, 7% fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) (B7) and 20% FAME (B20), and a 2nd generation 20% FAME/hydrotreated vegetable oil (SHB20: synthetic hydrocarbon biofuel), with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). The Fisher 344 rats (n = 7/treatment) were exposed to DEE for 7 days (6h/day), and for 28 days (6h/day, 5 days/week) in whole body exposure chambers. The controls were breathing room air. Brain histo...
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - December 22, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Quantum dot induced acute changes in lung mechanics are mouse strain dependent.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that susceptibility to QDs and similar ENM-induced changes in lung function may depend at least in part on genetic background. PMID: 30523721 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - December 15, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research