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New prospects of mesenchymal stem cells for ameliorating temporal lobe epilepsy
AbstractTemporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is present in 30% of epileptic patients and does not respond to conventional treatments. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) induce endogenous neural stem cells, inhibit neurodegeneration, and promote brain self-repair mechanisms. The present study addresses the feasibility of BMSCs transplantation against pilocarpine-induced TLE experimentally. BMSCs were injected either intravenously (IV) or in hippocampus bilaterally (IC). Increased cell count of BMSCs was achieved via IC route. BMSCs treatment ameliorated the pilocarpine-induced neurochemical and histological changes,...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - February 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic and analgesic activities of 2-(5-mercapto-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)- N -propylbenzenesulphonamide (MOPBS) in rodents
AbstractChronic inflammation is pathologically associated with various clinical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Several anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs currently available in market presents a wide range of problems. Therefore, the current study was aimed to evaluate anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of newly synthesized compound 2-(5-mercapto-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)-N-propylbenzenesulphonamide (MOPBS). Carrageenan and CFA-induced models were developed for evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to determine the mRNA expression levels ...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - February 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Targeting oxidative stress, acetylcholinesterase, proinflammatory cytokine, dopamine and GABA by eucalyptus oil ( Eucalyptus globulus ) to alleviate ketamine-induced psychosis in rats
AbstractEssential oil of eucalyptus species is among the most common traded essential oils in the world. There is an increasing interest in the application of eucalyptus oil as a natural additive in food and pharmaceutical industry. The present study was undertaken to identify the phytoconstituents present in the essential oil ofEucalyptus globulus leaves (EO) and ascertain their protective effect against ketamine-induced psychosis in rats. GC –MS technique was used for analysis of phytoconstituents present in EO. Ketamine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was used to induce psychosis in rats. Photoactometer, forced swim test an...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - February 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Labisia pumila prevented osteoarthritis cartilage degeneration by attenuating joint inflammation and collagen breakdown in postmenopausal rat model
AbstractThe tropical herbLabisia pumila is traditionally used in facilitating childbirth and post-partum care. The effects ofL. pumila leaf extract (LP) in explant cartilage culture and on postmenopausal osteoarthritis (OA) rat model were assessed. The LP (10, 25 and 50  µg/ml) or diclofenac (10 µg/ml) was added to the cartilage explants containing bovine IL-1β (20 ng/ml), to evaluate their direct effects on cartilage degradation. In the preclinical study, rats were grouped (n = 8) into: non-treated OA; OA + diclofenac (5 mg/kg); OA + LP extract (150 and 30...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - February 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Orofacial antinociceptive effect of sulphated polysaccharide from the marine algae Hypnea pseudomusciformis in rodents
This study aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of sulphated polysaccharide from the marine algaeHypnea pseudomusciformis (PLS) using rodent models of orofacial pain. Acute pain was induced by formalin, capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, acidified saline or glutamate (cutaneous modes) and hypertonic saline (corneal model). In one experiment, animals were pretreated with ruthenium red, glibenclamide, naloxone, L-NAME, methylene blue or ketamine to investigate the mechanism of antinociception. In another experiment, animals pretreated with PLS or saline were submitted to the temporomandibular joint formalin test. In yet anot...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - February 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Short-term treatment with metformin reduces hepatic lipid accumulation but induces liver inflammation in obese mice
AbstractThe study aimed to evaluate the metabolic and inflammatory effects of short-term treatments (10  days) with metformin (MET) on the NAFLD caused by a high-fat diet (HFD) in C57BL/6 mice. After the treatment, histological liver slices were obtained, hepatocytes and macrophages were extracted and cultured with phosphate buffered saline, LPS (2.5 µg/mL) and MET (1 µM) for 24 h. Cytokine leve ls were determined by ELISA. NAFLD caused by the HFD was partially reduced by MET. The lipid accumulation induced by the HFD was not associated with liver inflammation; however, MET seemed to promote...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - February 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Prunus cerasoides fruit extract ameliorates inflammatory stress by modulation of iNOS pathway and Th1/Th2 immune homeostasis in activated murine macrophages and lymphocytes
AbstractThe present investigation assessed the potential ofPrunus cerasoides fruit extract (PCFE) in alleviation of inflammatory stress in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon- γ (IFN-γ)-stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages as well as in concanavalin A (Con A)-activated splenic lymphocytes. We observed a strong inhibition in production of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α/IL-6/IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iN OS), and NF-kB in macrophages treated with PCFE. Splenic lymphocytes treated with PCFE also showed a reduction in Con-...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - February 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Essential oil from waste leaves of Curcuma longa L. alleviates skin inflammation
ConclusionThese findings of topical anti-inflammatory properties of EOCl provide a scientific basis for medicinal use of this plant material against inflammatory disorders.Graphical Abstract (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - February 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ginger rhizome enhances the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of paracetamol in an experimental mouse model of fibromyalgia
This study was designed to compare the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of dried powdered ginger rhizome (GR) and paracetamol (APAP) on an experimental mouse model of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) induced by intermittent cold stress (ICS).MethodsForty-eight female C57BL/6  J mice were used for the experiments. The animals were allocated in six groups (n = 8). Each group received one of the following treatments for 8 weeks: healthy control, ICS group, ICS + APAP (40 mg/Kg/day), ICS + GR (0.5%); ICS + GR (1%), and ICS + GR (0.5%) + APAP (40...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - February 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory activity of nanoemulsions of essential oil from Rosmarinus officinalis L.: in vitro and in zebrafish studies
This study was accomplished in a quantitative format through tests with diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2 ′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), cellular antioxidant activity (CCA), determination of nitric oxide production, cellular viability and anti-inflammatory activity in zebrafish. OERO’s were submitted to the analysis-coupled gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–M S), which highlighted 1,8-cineol and camphor as major compounds. NOEROs were obtained by a low-energy method and presenting the medium size smaller than 200 nm. The efficiency of encapsulation by s...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - February 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The peripheral corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-induced analgesic effect on somatic pain sensitivity in conscious rats: involving CRF, opioid and glucocorticoid receptors
This article serves as an overview of the role of CRF-R1 and CRF-R2, as well as glucocorticoid and opioid receptors in peripheral CRF-induced analgesia in conscious rats, while we focused on the data obtained under normal (non-pathological) conditions including results of our studies in r ats. The involvement of CRF-R1 and CRF-R2, glucocorticoids and opioid receptors was studied under the same experimental conditions following pretreatment with appropriate antagonists: NBI 27914, astressin2-B, naltrexone and RU 38486, respectively. Somatic pain sensitivity was measured by the tail flick latencies induced by thermal stimulu...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - February 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of the hydroalcoholic fractions from the leaves of Annona crassiflora Mart. in mice
ConclusionsThe experimental data demonstrated that hydroalcoholic fractions ofAnnona crassiflora Mart. leaves have remarkable anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - January 25, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Oral prednisolone versus non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of acute gout: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
ConclusionsOral prednisolone may be of similar efficacy and a slightly safer strategy for treatment of active, acute gout compared with NSAIDs. Further clinical studies are still warranted to investigate its long-term efficacy and safety. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - January 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Helicobacter pylori LPS-induced gastric mucosal spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) recruitment to TLR4 and activation occurs with the involvement of protein kinase C δ
AbstractSpleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) has emerged recently as a major effector of proinflammatory genes expression induced by LPS-elicited TLR4 activation, and manifested by the up-amplification in the production of inflammatory mediators, including PGE2 and NO. Here, we investigated the nature of factors involved in the recruitment and interaction of Syk with TLR4 in gastric mucosa in response toH. pylori LPS. We show that stimulation of gastric mucosal cells with the LPS leads to localization of Syk with the membrane-associated TLR4 complex and its activation through phosphorylation on Tyr. Furthermore, we reveal that the...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - January 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

High-salt- and cholesterol diet-associated cognitive impairment attenuated by tannins-enriched fraction of Emblica officinalis via inhibiting NF-kB pathway
AbstractMetabolic disorders are closely associated with dietary habits and seem to be related to neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative disease in humans.Emblica officinalis (EOT) fruits not only have good nutritional value but also have excellent therapeutic potential. We used a tannins-enriched fraction of EOT fruit with the expectation of controlling diet-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in rats. A high-salt and cholesterol diet (HSCD) was used to induce neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in rats. The diet of the rats was then supplemented with EOT (100 and 200  mg/kg b.w.) for 7&nbs...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - January 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Persea americana Mill. crude extract exhibits antinociceptive effect on UVB radiation-induced skin injury in mice
AbstractPersea americana, popularly known as avocado, has been empirically used as analgesic and anti-inflammatory including in the skin disorder treatment. Species of the genus Persea also show a photoprotective effect against UVB radiation. We investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects from a topical formulation containing theP. americana leaf extract in a UVB irradiation-induced burn model in mice and performed a  gel-formulation stability study. The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated through mechanical allodynia, paw oedema, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Phenolic c...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - January 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effect of early natal supplementation of paracetamol on attenuation of exotoxin/endotoxin induced pyrexia and precipitation of autistic like features in albino rats
AbstractThe present study was aimed to test the hypothesis that paracetamol (PCM) can precipitate autistic like features when used to counteract vaccine-induced fever using experimental rat pups. The pups were treated with measles mumps rubella (MMR) vaccine, diphtheria tetanus and pertussis (DPT) vaccines and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with subsequent PCM treatment. The pups were evaluated for postnatal growth (weight gain, eye opening) and behavior alterations (swimming performance, olfactory discrimination, negative geotaxis, nociception, and locomotor activity) by performing battery of neurobehavioral test. Significant c...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - January 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ziziphus spina - christi leaf extract pretreatment inhibits liver and spleen injury in a mouse model of sepsis via anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects
AbstractSepsis is a systemic response to infection that can result in acute hepatic and splenic damage.Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) is a wild tree used as a medicinal plant by ancient Egyptians. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying its effects on sepsis. The current study investigated the protective effects of aZ. spina-christi leaf extract (ZSCLE) on liver and spleen damage in a male C57BL/6 mouse model of sepsis, induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Prior to CLP, ZSCLE was administered daily for five consecutive days via oral gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300  mg/kg. The mice were euthan...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - January 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Polar extract of Curcuma longa protects cartilage homeostasis: possible mechanism of action
ConclusionsNR-INF-02 protects cartilage homeostasis by maintaining the balance between synthesis and degradation of cartilage matrix. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - January 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The efficacy of probiotic supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials
AbstractProbiotics are considered as -immunomodulatory agents; their efficacy as an adjunct therapy option for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), however, remains controversial. The main aim of the present meta-analysis, therefore, was to compare available data from the published randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) recruiting adults with RA which compared probiotics with placebo. The English literature search was performed using Ovid version of Medline, EmBase, Web of Science, and the Central Cochrane library through October 2016 and supplemented by hand searching reference lists. Among 240 citations identified, 4 RCTs (153 parti...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - January 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Molecular signature of nitric oxide on major cancer hallmarks of colorectal carcinoma
AbstractColorectal cancer (CRC) is the one of the most important diseases throughout the world. Several aetiological risk factors, viz. sedentary life style, smoking, alcohol intake, less physical activity, red meat, and microbiota, are associated with the development of CRC. Molecular pathophysiology of CRC implies inflammation, metastasis, apotosis and angiogenesis. Inflammation involves interaction between various immune cells, inflammatory cells, chemokines, cytokines, and pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways, which may lead to signalling towards, tumour cell prolifer...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - December 30, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

As a painkiller: a review of pre- and postnatal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug exposure effects on the nervous systems
AbstractDiclofenac sodium (DS) is commonly used for the treatment of acute and chronic pain, even for extended periods of time. Over the years, DS has been associated with toxicity in nervous tissue, in addition to its anti-inflammatory properties. Basic neurobiological research has enhanced our understanding of the biological and pathological outcomes of toxicity. Several studies have suggested DS-induced cytotoxicity in the nervous system. Prenatal toxicities of DS are thought to be capable of leading to postnatal defects. This review describes the morphoquantitative, histological and pathological effects of DS on the ce...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - December 27, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Tramadol ameliorates behavioural, biochemical, mitochondrial and histological alterations in ICV-STZ-induced sporadic dementia of Alzheimer ’s type in rats
In conclusion, our results indicate the effectiveness of tramadol in preventing ICV-STZ-induced cognitive impairment as well as mito-oxidative stress. Further, these findings reveal the possibility of MOR agonist as a therapeutic approach for sporadic Alzheimer disease. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - December 16, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

( −)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, the major green tea catechin, regulates the desensitization of β1 adrenoceptor via GRK2 in experimental heart failure
ConclusionsEGCG has therapeutic effects on the heart function of HF rats. The mechanism might be related to the inhibition of the transfer membrane of GRK2 and to the reduction of the desensitization of β1-AR. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - December 16, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory activity of anti-hyperlipidemic drug, fenofibrate, and its phase-I metabolite fenofibric acid: in silico , in vitro , and in vivo studies
Abstract Fenofibrate, an anti-hyperlipidemic drug and its phase-I biotransformed metabolite fenofibric acid, was studied for COX-1 (PDB ID: 3N8Y) and COX-2 (PDB ID: 1PXX) inhibition potentials in silico and in vitro for their effects on human recombinant COX-2 enzyme isolated from aBaculovirus expression system in sf21 cells (EC 1.14.99.1) using a conventional spectrophotometric assay. Furthermore, the compounds were also screened for their anti-inflammatory potentials in vivo using carrageenan-induced paw oedema method in Wistar rats. The test compounds fenofibric acid, fenofibrate, and the standard drug diclofenac exhi...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - December 13, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and urotoxicity ameliorative effects of γ-humulene containing active fraction of Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC.
AbstractIn folklore medicine, the plantEmilia sonchifolia, belonging to the family Asteraceae, is used for treating tumour and inflammation. In our previous studies, we have done a thorough phytochemical investigation ofE. sonchifolia with a report on its potent antimetastatic activity. Further, we isolated and characterised its active fraction (AFES) containing the major compound γ-humulene with an evaluation of the antiangiogenic effect of AFES (5 mg/kg b.wt.). In the first part of the present study, AFES in different concentrations was used for the assessment of its possible anti-inflammatory effect empl...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - December 9, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chrysophyllum cainito (apple-star): a fruit with gastroprotective activity in experimental ulcer models
AbstractThe gastroprotective potential of the methanolic extracts from peels (MEPe), seeds (MESe) and pulp (MEPu) ofChrysophyllum cainito L. (Sapotaceae) fruits was evaluated in mice using ethanol/HCl- and indomethacin-induced ulcer, as well as the antiulcer effect of the juice and flour from this fruit. The lowest oral gastroprotective dose of MEPe, MESe and MEPu against ethanol/HCl was 3, 3 and 10  mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, all extracts increased mucin secretion at 176, 198 and 193%. Intraperitoneal administration of MEPe (0.3 mg/kg), MESe (0.3 mg/kg) and MEPu (1 mg/kg) also promoted gastroprotec...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - December 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Silver oxide nanoparticles alleviate indomethacin-induced gastric injury: a novel antiulcer agent
AbstractSilver and silver oxides are gaining interest in medical applications for their prominent antibacterial and antimicrobial potentials. Recent studies suggest that nanosilver oxide has remarkable anti-inflammatory effects and enhances wound healing. Nevertheless, its effect on gastric ulcer has not yet been illustrated. Thus the current study aimed to explore the prospect protective effect of nanosilver oxide against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. A new approach has been followed to synthesize nanosilver oxide. X-ray diffraction, UV –Vis spectroscopy and transition electron microscope techniques have been ...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - December 4, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect of an anti-platelet agent crinumin on carrageenan-induced paw oedema and granuloma tissue formation in rats
AbstractThe present study was designed to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of an anti-platelet agent crinumin, by various in vitro and in vivo inflammation models. Firstly, crinumin protein was purified through cation exchange chromatography; then, in vitro activity was estimated by albumin denaturation assay and HRBC membrane stabilization assay. Carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models were used for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity assessment in rats. In both models, rats were pre-treated for 7  days with crinumin (25–50 µg/ml) and diclofenac sodium (50 ...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - December 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effect of simvastatin on sensorial, motor, and morphological parameters in sciatic nerve crush induced-neuropathic pain in rats
AbstractThe present study compares the effects of a low and high doses of simvastatin in a model of peripheral neuropathy by evaluating sensorial, motor, and morphological parameters. First, male Wistar rats were orally treated with vehicle (saline, 1  mL/kg), simvastatin (2 and 80 mg/kg) or morphine (2 mg/kg, s.c.), 1 h before 2.5% formalin injection. Neuropathic pain was induced by crushing the sciatic nerve, and mechanical and cold allodynia, nerve function, histology, MPO and NAG concentrations, as well as mevalonate induced-nociception w ere evaluated. Animals were orally treated with vehicle, simv...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - November 29, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Vasorelaxant activities and the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of Gynura procumbens Merr. leaf extracts on rat thoracic aorta
The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro vasorelaxant properties and the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of serial extracts and fractions ofGynura procumbens (GP). The leaves of GP were serially extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water using the maceration method. Suspended aortic ring preparations were pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE 1  µM), followed by cumulative addition of GP extracts (0.25–3 mg/mL). The petroleum ether extract (GPPE) was the most potent among the four extracts. Pre-incubation of endothelium-intact aorta with atropine (1 &micr...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - November 28, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of Combretin A and Combretin B isolated from Combretum fragrans F. HOFFM ( Combretaceae ) leaves
In this study, we investigate in vivo anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity and, in vitro anticancer, anti-TNF α, ROS and NO-inhibitory activities of Combretum A and Combretin B, two triterpenes cycloartane-type isolated from the leaves ofCombretum fragrans. The effect on ROS, TNF- α and NO production, anticancer activity and cytotoxicity assay were done using chemiluminescence technique, ELISA kit, colorimetric method, MCF-7 cells and MTT assay, respectively. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities were estimated using a model of acetic acid, formalin and carrageena n. Combretin A and Combre...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - November 20, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Rotula aquatica Lour attenuates secretion of proinflammatory mediators and cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages
AbstractRotula aquatica belongs to the family Boraginaceae, and is reported to contain baunerol, steroids and alkaloids. In Ayurveda,R. aquatica has been used for the treatment of various diseases such as diabetes, treatment of piles, venereal disease, and cancer. The current study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of methanolic extract ofR. aquatica (MERA) in RAW 264.7 cells. The cytotoxicity of MERA was analyzed by MTT assay. The total cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activity, myeloperoxidase activity, inducible nitric oxide synthase activity, nitrate level and reactive oxygen species...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - November 20, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effect of Kaempferol isolated from seeds of Eruca sativa on changes of pain sensitivity in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy
AbstractGeneration of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and cellular apoptosis are implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Present study was aimed to explore the effect ofEruca sativa and Kaempferol (KP) on hyperalgesia (thermal and mechanical); tactile allodynia, motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) and oxidative –nitrosative stress in streptozotocin (STZ) induced experimental diabetes. Neuropathy developed in diabetic rats was evident from a marked hyperalgesia and allodynia; reduced MNCV associated with excess formation of AGEs and ROS. Chronic tre...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - November 20, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Regulatory effects of dexamethasone on NK and T cell immunity
AbstractGlucocorticoids (GCs) act via the intracellular glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which can regulate the expression of target genes. With regard to the immune system, GCs may affect both innate and adaptive immunity. Our study analyzed the immunoregulatory effects of dexamethasone (Dex) treatment on splenic T, Treg, NK and NKT cells by treating C57Bl6 mice with various doses of Dex. We observed that treatment with Dex decreased the number of NK cells in the spleen and suppressed their activity. In particular, the expression of both Ly49G and NKG2D receptors was decreased by Dex. However, Dex did not affect the populati...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - November 20, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Does the administration of melatonin during post-traumatic brain injury affect cytokine levels?
In this study, the effect of melatonin on pro-inflammatory (IL-1 ß, IL-6, and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines following TBI was investigated considering anti-inflammatory effect of melatonin. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Sham, TBI, TBI + VEH (vehicle), TBI + 5 mg dose of melatonin (MEL5), TBI + 20 mg dose of melatonin ( MEL20). Diffuse TBI was induced by Marmarou method. Melatonin was administered 1, 24, 48 and 72 h after TBI through i.p. Brain water content and brain levels of pro-inflammatory (IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α) and...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - November 20, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

TMEM88 mediates inflammatory cytokines secretion by regulating JNK/P38 and canonical Wnt/ β-catenin signaling pathway in LX-2 cells
In conclusion, these results indicated that TMEM88 plays a significant role in TNF-α-enhanced cytokine (IL-6 and IL-1β) secretion of LX-2 cells via regulating JNK/P38 and canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - November 20, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Identification of compounds from Palicourea rigida leaves with topical anti-inflammatory potential using experimental models
AbstractPalicourea rigida Kunth is traditionally used for the treatment of skin diseases, kidney pains and ovarian inflammation. Based on these traditional uses, this study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanol extract fromP. rigida leaves (EEPR) and identified bioactive compounds. Ear edema was induced in Swiss mice by the topical application of Croton oil, arachidonic acid, phenol and capsaicin. Histopathological analysis and myeloperoxidase andN-acetyl- β-d-glucosaminidase activities were determined. EEPR was characterized by UHPLC –UV–MS HPLC and the isolated compound was iden...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - November 14, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Potential usefulness of methyl gallate in the treatment of experimental colitis
This study demonstrates that methyl gallate exerts beneficial effects in a preclinical model of intestinal disorders. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - November 7, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

MicroRNA in gastrointestinal cell signalling
AbstractOur gut forms an important organ and its formation, functioning and homeostasis are maintained by several factors including cell signalling pathways and commensal microflora. These factors affect pathological, physiological and immunological parameters to maintain gut health and prevent its inflammation. Among these, different intracellular signalling pathways play an important role in regulating gut homeostasis. These pathways are in turn regulated by various microRNAs that play a key role in maintaining the balance between tolerance and inflammation. This review highlights the importance of various cell signallin...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - November 6, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Silymarin mitigates lung impairments in a rat model of acute respiratory distress syndrome
AbstractAcute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a deadly disease and lacks effective treatments. Inflammation and oxidative stress play key roles in ARDS development. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of pretreatment of silymarin, which has capacities of anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress, in ARDS. We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to generate an ARDS rat model, which was pretreated with silymarin. Lung wet/dry ratio and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analyses were performed. Histological changes of the lungs were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Cells and proteins in BALF were determined...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - November 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ameliorative potential of rutin in combination with nimesulide in STZ model of diabetic neuropathy: targeting Nrf2/HO-1/NF-kB and COX signalling pathway
AbstractEmerging role of Nrf-2/HO-1 in pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy has been suggested. Diabetic neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes and more than 50% patients of diabetes develop diabetic neuropathy. Rutin has been well documented to show protective effect in various complications, e.g., diabetic neuropathy. However, its mechanistic insight is still not completely understood. The present study has been designed to explore the protective effect of rutin and its interaction with COX-2 inhibitor, nimesulide in diabetic neuropathy. DN (diabetic neuropathy) rats were maintained with or without...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - November 1, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Plant-based chimeric HPV-virus-like particles bearing amyloid- β epitopes elicit antibodies able to recognize amyloid plaques in APP-tg mouse and Alzheimer’s disease brains
In this study, we expressed in plants two chimeric HPV16 L1 capsid proteins obtained by introduction of the β-amyloid 11–28 epitope (Aβ 11–28) into the h4 helix or into the coil regions of the L1 protein. The Aβ 11–28 epitope was chosen because it is present in the full-length Aβ 1–42 as well as in the truncated/modified amyloid peptide species. After expression, we assembled the chimerical L1/Aβ 11–28 into a VLP in which the Aβ 11–28 epitope is exposed at very high density (360 times) on the surface of the VLP. The chimeric VLPs elicited in mice Aβ-spe...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - November 1, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evaluation of cebranopadol, a dually acting nociceptin/orphanin FQ and opioid receptor agonist in mouse models of acute, tonic, and chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain
ConclusionCebranopadol may have significant potential for the treatment of various pain types, including inflammatory and chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 25, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Foeniculum vulgare essential oil ameliorates acetic acid-induced colitis in rats through the inhibition of NF-kB pathway
AbstractAimThe aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effects ofFoeniculum vulgare essential oil on intestinal inflammation through the inhibition of NF-kB pathway in acetic acid-induced rat colitis.MethodsAcute colitis was induced by intra-rectal administration of 2  mL of diluted acetic acid (4%) solution. Two hours after the induction of colitis, 0.2% tween 80 in normal saline, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) andF. vulgare essential oil (100, 200, 400  mg/kg) were administered to the animals by oral gavage and continued for 5 consecutive days. Assessment of macroscopic and microscopic lesions w...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 24, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Attenuation of nociceptive pain and inflammatory disorders by total steroid and terpenoid fraction of Euphorbia tirucalli Linn root in experimental in vitro and in vivo model
AbstractThe plantEuphorbia tirucalli Linn has been successfully used as a tribal folk medicine in India and Africa for the management of acute inflammatory, arthritic, nociceptive pain and asthmatic symptoms. The present study was conducted to assess the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-asthmatic and anti-arthritic role of the total steroid and terpenoid rich fractions of the hydro-alcoholic extract ofE.tirucalli root (STF-HAETR). STF-HAETR fraction demonstrated 71.25  ± 2.5 and 74.25 ± 5.1% protection against acetic acid-induced pain and central neuropathic pain at 75 and 100 mg/kg...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 23, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Targeting of circulating Th17 cells by β-D-mannuronic acid (M2000) as a novel medication in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
This study aimed at investigating the inhibitory effect of β-D-mannuronic acid (M2000) on the Th17 circulating levels and IL-17 a related cytokine in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients.MethodsThe study included 27 patients with RA who had failed response to treatment. All patients were treated orally by M2000 at a dose of 500  mg twice daily for 12 weeks (Clinical trial identifier: IRCT2014011213739N2). The patients based on anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) blocker treatment were classified into two groups (conventional group and etanercept group). They were then allowed to continue their treatm...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 23, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Mesenchymal stromal cells modulate gut inflammation in experimental colitis
In this study, we explored the immunomodulatory potential of ADMSC in a classical model of DSS-induced coli tis. First, we found that treatment of mice with ADMSC ameliorated the severity of DSS-induced colitis, reducing colitis pathological score and preventing colon shortening. Moreover, a prominent reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines levels (i.e., IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1) was observed in the colon of animals treated with ADMSC. We also observed a significant reduction in the frequencies of macrophages (F4/80+CD11b+) and dendritic cells (CD11c+CD103+) in the intestinal lamina propria of ADMSC-treated...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 23, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effects of glutamine, taurine and their association on inflammatory pathway markers in macrophages
AbstractThe immune system is essential for the control and elimination of infections, and macrophages are cells that act as important players in orchestrating the various parts of the inflammatory/immune response. Amino acids play important role in mediating functionality of the inflammatory response, especially mediating macrophages functions and cytokines production. We investigated the influence of glutamine, taurine and their association on the modulation of inflammatory pathway markers in macrophages. The RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line was cultivated in the presence of glutamine and taurine and proliferation rates, ce...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 20, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Curcumin affords neuroprotection and inhibits α-synuclein aggregation in lipopolysaccharide-induced Parkinson’s disease model
AbstractParkinson ’s disease (PD) pathology is characterized by the abnormal accumulation and aggregation of the pre-synaptic protein α-synuclein in the dopaminergic neurons as Lewy bodies (LBs). Curcumin, which plays a neuroprotective role in various animal models of PD, was found to directly modulate the aggrega tion of α-synuclein in in vitro as well as in in vivo studies. While curcumin has been shown to exhibit strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, there are a number of other possible mechanisms by which curcumin may alter α-synuclein aggregation which still remains obscure. The...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 12, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research