Polyphenol-associated oxidative stress and inflammation in a model of LPS-induced inflammation in glial cells: do we know enough for responsible compounding?
AbstractCyanidin and chlorogenic acid are polyphenols from plant origin that are present in many common fruits, particularly in berries. To corroborate the protective or detrimental effects of both compounds from a neuro-inflammatory perspective, in vitro experiments were carried out in human astrocytes (U-373). Astrocytes were pre-treated with a range of concentrations of either cyanidin, chlorogenic acid or a combined treatment for a period of 30  min, before exposure toEscherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge for 23.5  h, after which cytotoxicity (propidium iodide exclusion assay), cytoprotective ef...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - December 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Berberis lycium Royle fruit extract mitigates oxi-inflammatory stress by suppressing NF- κB/MAPK signalling cascade in activated macrophages and Treg proliferation in splenic lymphocytes
AbstractAlthoughBerberis plant species have been advocated as immune modulators, information regarding their mechanism(s) of action is limited. Therefore, in the present study we assessed the efficacy ofBerberis lycium Royle fruit extract (BLFE) in the attenuation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxi-inflammatory aggravation and concanavalin A (Con-A)-induced proliferation in murine peritoneal macrophages and lymphocytes, respectively. BLFE strongly suppressed production of the oxidative and inflammatory effector molecules nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), inflamma...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - December 6, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Intranasal curcumin protects against LPS-induced airway remodeling by modulating toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) and matrixmetalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression via affecting MAP kinases in mouse model
ConclusionOur results strongly suggest that intranasal curcumin effectively protects LPS-induced airway inflammation and structural changes by modulating genes involved in airway remodeling in safer way; hence, it can be considered as supplementary alternative towards asthma treatments. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - November 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Stress as an immunomodulator: liver X receptors maybe the answer
AbstractStress is a reflex response, both psychological and physiological, of the body to a difficult situation that requires adaptation. Stress is at the intersection of the objective event and the subjective event. The physiological mechanisms involved in chronic stress are numerous and can contribute to a wide variety of disorders, in all systems including the immune system. Stress modifies the Th1/Th2 balance via the HPA axis and a set of immune mediators. This will make the body more vulnerable to external infections in a scientific way while others claim the opposite, stress could be considered immune stimulatory. Th...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - November 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Inhibitory effects of Clematis orientalis aqueous ethanol extract and fractions on inflammatory markers in complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in Sprague –Dawley rats
This study is intended to evaluate the curative efficacy ofClematis orientalis in treating polyarthritis in rats. Aqueous ethanolic extract and fractions (hexane, butanol and aqueous) were administered orally at 200  mg/kg for 28 days after CFA immunization. Paw swelling, paw diameter, arthritic score, body weight, hematological parameters, radiographic and histological analysis of ankle joints were evaluated. Moreover, levels of various inflammatory markers through RT-PCR and ELISA were measured. DPPH and re ducing power assays were used to appraise antioxidant capacity. Qualitative phytochemical analysis, deter...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - November 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Plantago squarrosa Murray extracts inhibit the growth of some bacterial triggers of autoimmune diseases: GC –MS analysis of an inhibitory extract
AbstractAnkylosing spondylitis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and rheumatic fever are autoimmune inflammatory diseases that may be triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by specific bacterial pathogens. Inhibiting the growth of these bacteria with high antioxidant plant extracts may inhibit the aetiology of these diseases, as well as inhibiting the later phase symptoms.P. squarrosa extracts were analysed for antioxidant activity using a DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Bacterial growth inhibitory activity was evaluated using disc diffusion assays and the activity was quantified by MIC determination....
Source: Inflammopharmacology - November 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Losartan suppresses the inflammatory response in collagen-induced arthritis by inhibiting the MAPK and NF- κB pathways in B and T cells
AbstractThe angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist losartan has been confirmed to have a moderate anti-inflammatory effect in vitro and in vivo. However, how it affects immune cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is still unknown. We found that in human synovial tissues, AT1R is significantly expressed on T cells and B cells. Treatment with losartan (15  mg/kg) alone and in combination with a low dose of methotrexate (MTX 0.25 mg/kg/3 days) significantly suppressed the progression of CIA. Secondary paw swelling, joint destruction and the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α a...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - November 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Intraarticular injection of dexamethasone promotes bone erosion in collagen-induced arthritis in mice through up-regulation of RANKL expression
ConclusionIntraarticular injection of DEX could exacerbate bone erosion in CIA model via up-regulation of RANKL expression. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Black pepper and its bioactive constituent piperine: promising therapeutic strategies for oral lichen planus
AbstractOral lichen planus (OLP) is a common T cell-mediated chronic inflammatory disease with malignant potential and unclear etiology. The present study suggests that antigen-specific mechanisms in which dentritic cells, T lymphocytes and NF- κB signaling pathway play critical roles, are involved in the pathogenesis of OLP. Additionally, it has been indicated that altered expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and imbalanced oxidant-antioxidant status as well as psychological issue may act as promoters to the development of OLP. Therapi es for OLP are primarily aimed to control symptoms and a specific cure is not y...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The effects of melatonin supplementation in adjunct with non-surgical periodontal therapy on periodontal status, serum melatonin and inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with chronic periodontitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
AbstractBackgroundDiabetes mellitus (DM) and periodontitis are two common chronic diseases with bidirectional relationship. Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of these two diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin supplementation in adjunct with non-surgical periodontal therapy on periodontal status, serum melatonin and inflammatory markers in type 2 DM patients with chronic periodontitis (CP).Materials and methodsIn this double-blind clinical trial study, 50 type 2 DM patients with CP were randomly allocated to the intervention and control groups. The intervention and c...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Involvement of central opioid receptors in protective effects of methadone on experimental colitis in rats
ConclusionsThe  opioid receptors mainly the central opioid receptors may mediate the protective actions of methadone on the experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease in rat. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Interleukin-1beta in synergism gabapentin with tramadol in murine model of diabetic neuropathy
AbstractNeuropathic pain is a complication of cancer and diabetes mellitus and the most commonly used drugs in the treatment of the diabetic neuropathic pain have only limited efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the biomarker interleukin-1beta (IL-1 ß) in the pharmacological interaction of gabapentin with tramadol in a model of diabetic neuropathic pain. CF-1 male mice, pretreated with 200 mg/kg i.p. of streptozocin (STZ), were used and at day 3 and 7 were evaluated by the hot plate test and the spinal cord level of IL-1ß was determined. Ant inociceptive interaction of the coadminis...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Avidekel Cannabis extracts and cannabidiol are as efficient as Copaxone in suppressing EAE in SJL/J mice
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease leading to the destruction of myelin with consequent axonal degeneration and severe physical debilitation. The disease can be treated with immunosuppressive drugs that alleviate the symptoms and retard disease aggravation. One such drug in clinical use is glatiramer acetate (Copaxone). The non-psychotropic immunosuppressive cannabinoid compound cannabidiol (CBD) has recently been shown to have beneficial effects on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy of CBD and standardized extracts from a CBD-rich, ∆9-T...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Immunomodulatory properties of captopril, an ACE inhibitor, on LPS-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis as well as oxidative stress
AbstractBackgroundThe role of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors on the inflammation process has been demonstrated previously. In the present study, the effects of captopril on lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were investigated.MethodsControl, LPS, 12.5, 25 and 50  mg/kg captopril-treated before LPS administration and captopril 50 mg/kg before saline administration groups of rats were studied. Total and percentage of differential WBC, the levels of MDA, total thiol groups, the activities of SOD and CAT, the levels of IFN-γ, PGE2, TGF-β1 and IL-4 in the BA LF were evaluated.ResultsM...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Luteolin suppresses inflammation through inhibiting cAMP-phosphodiesterases activity and expression of adhesion molecules in microvascular endothelial cells
In conclusion, these results demonstrate that luteolin suppresses inflammation, at least in part, through inhibiting both cAMP-PDEs or PDE4 activity and the expression of VCAM-1 (in vitro) and sICAM-1 (in vivo) in endothelial cells. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Inosine improves cognitive function and decreases aging-induced oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in aged female rats
In conclusion, inosine significantly improved learning and memory of aged female rats possibly through its antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory effect and improvement of neuronal survival in the hippocampal CA1 region. However, additional studies are required to further expl ore the downstream signaling pathways involved in the neuroprotective effect of inosine in aged animals. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Labisia pumila prevented osteoarthritis cartilage degeneration by attenuating joint inflammation and collagen breakdown in postmenopausal rat model
AbstractThe tropical herbLabisia pumila is traditionally used in facilitating childbirth and post-partum care. The effects ofL. pumila leaf extract (LP) in explant cartilage culture and on postmenopausal osteoarthritis (OA) rat model were assessed. The LP (10, 25 and 50  µg/ml) or diclofenac (10 µg/ml) was added to the cartilage explants containing bovine IL-1β (20 ng/ml), to evaluate their direct effects on cartilage degradation. In the preclinical study, rats were grouped (n = 8) into: non-treated OA; OA + diclofenac (5 mg/kg); OA + LP extract (150 and 30...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Flavonoid quercetin –methotrexate combination inhibits inflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinase expression, providing protection to joints in collagen-induced arthritis
This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of the flavonoid quercetin on arthritis in mice immunized with type II collagen (CII). An arthritis model was established in C57/BL6 mice by intradermal administration of chicken CII mixed with Freund ’s complete adjuvant. Quercetin (30 mg/kg orally) and methotrexate (0.75 mg intraperitoneally twice a week) were administered to investigate their protective effects against collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), 3, and 9 were detec...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Neuropsychiatric clinical manifestations in elderly patients treated with hydroxychloroquine: a review article
AbstractLittle is known about the development of psychosis during hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) treatment, especially in elderly patients affected by rheumatic diseases, with multiple comorbidities and treatments. To summarize the available evidence on HCQ-induced psychosis in elders, we performed a literature review. Additionally, individual case safety reports sent to the European Pharmacovigilance database (EudraVigilance) with HCQ as suspected drug and related to adverse events belonging to the System Organ Class ‘Psychiatric disorders’ were shown. Over the years, evidence was published about the risk of neurops...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Essential oil from waste leaves of Curcuma longa L. alleviates skin inflammation
ConclusionThese findings of topical anti-inflammatory properties of EOCl provide a scientific basis for medicinal use of this plant material against inflammatory disorders.Graphical Abstract (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Influence of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs on oxidative and nitrosative stress in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
ConclusionsThe majority of the studies reported in this work showed an improvement in the redox state, which could be related to success of the therapy. Thus, oxidative and nitrosative stress markers may be useful to early evaluate the response of DMARDs in patients with RA. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Interferon- β inhibits inflammatory responses mediators via suppression of iNOS signaling pathway in PBMCs from patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome
ConclusionOur findings highlight a consistent ex vivo inhibitory effect of IFN- β on pro-inflammatory cytokine production and NO pathway in pSS patients. Our data suggest that IFN-β could represent a potential candidate for targeting inflammation during pSS. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Curcumin –galactomannoside complex inhibits pathogenesis in Ox-LDL-challenged human peripheral blood mononuclear cells
AbstractOxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a pro-atherogenic molecule, which induces inflammatory response and contributes to the pathogenesis of vascular dysfunction to atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to explore the anti-inflammatory effect of a novel bioavailable formulation of curcumin as ‘curcumagalactomannosides’ (CGM) against ox-LDL-induced inflammatory responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs). Curcumagalactomannosides was made from natural curcumin using the soluble dietary fibre (galactomannans) derived from fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenumgracum) and ...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Regulatory effects of dexamethasone on NK and T cell immunity
AbstractGlucocorticoids (GCs) act via the intracellular glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which can regulate the expression of target genes. With regard to the immune system, GCs may affect both innate and adaptive immunity. Our study analyzed the immunoregulatory effects of dexamethasone (Dex) treatment on splenic T, Treg, NK and NKT cells by treating C57Bl6 mice with various doses of Dex. We observed that treatment with Dex decreased the number of NK cells in the spleen and suppressed their activity. In particular, the expression of both Ly49G and NKG2D receptors was decreased by Dex. However, Dex did not affect the populati...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Efficacy analysis of hydroxychloroquine therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus: a study on disease activity and immunological biomarkers
This study was performed to investigate the efficacy of HCQ therapy by serial assessment of disease activity and serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines in SLE patients.MethodsIn this prospective cohort study, 41 newly diagnosed SLE patients receiving 400  mg HCQ per day were included. Patients requiring statins and immunosuppressive drugs except prednisolone at doses lower than 10 mg/day were excluded. Outcome measures were assessed before commencement of HCQ therapy (baseline visit) as well as in two follow-up visits (1 and 2 months after beginn ing the HCQ therapy). Serum samples of 41 age-matched healt...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Luteolin suppresses inflammation through inhibiting cAMP-phosphodiesterases activity and expression of adhesion molecules in microvascular endothelial cells
In conclusion, these results demonstrate that luteolin suppresses inflammation, at least in part, through inhibiting both cAMP-PDEs or PDE4 activity and the expression of VCAM-1 (in vitro) and sICAM-1 (in vivo) in endothelial cells. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Diagnostic value of salivary CRP and IL-6 in patients undergoing anti-TNF-alpha therapy for rheumatic disease
AbstractIntroductionSaliva has been increasingly used as a diagnostic medium for disease detection and monitoring. The aim of this observational, prospective, pilot study was to investigate whether salivary concentrations of CRP and IL-6 correlate with those in serum and with the clinical course of a rheumatic disease.Materials and methodsNineteen patients with rheumatic disease newly scheduled for anti-TNF α therapy were included. Patients received anti-TNFα treatment (adalimumab, certolizumab, golimumab or infliximab) as per standard protocols. CRP and IL-6 were measured with high-sensitivity immunoassays bef...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Curcumin ameliorates palmitate-induced inflammation in skeletal muscle cells by regulating JNK/NF-kB pathway and ROS production
In this study, we examined the effect of curcumin on the inflammatory responses stimulated by palmitate in C2C2 cells. The results showed that palmitate upregulated the mRNA expression and protein release of IL-6 and TNF- α cytokines in C2C12 cells, while pretreatment with curcumin was able to attenuate the effect of palmitate on inflammatory cytokines. The anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin was associated with the repression of phosphorylation of IKKα-IKKβ, and JNK. Palmitate also caused an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) level that curcumin abrogated it. Collectively, these findings suggest t...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Gastrodin microinjection suppresses 6-OHDA-induced motor impairments in parkinsonian rats: insights into oxidative balance and microglial activation in SNc
In this study, we appraised the effect of pre-treatment with intra-cerebro ventricular (i.c.v) microinjection of gastrodin (Gst) on catalepsy, motor imbalance, substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation levels, nitric oxide (NO) production and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rats model of PD.Materials and methodsMale Wistar rats were pre-treated with i.c.v microinjections of Gst (20, 40 and 80  μg/3 μl/rat) for five consecutive days. Then, catalepsy and motor balance were induced by unilateral infusion of 6-OHDA (8 μg/2 ...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Grape polyphenols corrects ageing-related detriments in neutrophil functionality via modulation of specific molecular targets
AbstractOxidative stress and inflammation are intricately interlinked as aetiological factors in the context of ageing and chronic disease-related accelerated ageing. Previous research by our group has highlighted the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of grape-derived polyphenols in the context of acute inflammation and oxidative stress. The aim here was to add to this by assessing efficacy of the treatment (acutely) to address ageing-associated cumulative pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory changes in an in vitro model. Blood from young and aged humans was analysed for baseline oxidative stress and inflammatory st...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

TMEM88 mediates inflammatory cytokines secretion by regulating JNK/P38 and canonical Wnt/ β-catenin signaling pathway in LX-2 cells
In conclusion, these results indicated that TMEM88 plays a significant role in TNF-α-enhanced cytokine (IL-6 and IL-1β) secretion of LX-2 cells via regulating JNK/P38 and canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Polar extract of Curcuma longa protects cartilage homeostasis: possible mechanism of action
ConclusionsNR-INF-02 protects cartilage homeostasis by maintaining the balance between synthesis and degradation of cartilage matrix. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effects of a novel curcumin derivative on the functions of kidney in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats
ConclusionThese results suggested B6 could protect the renal function of diabetic rats. This study provided scientific basis for the further researches and clinical applications of B6. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Propolis modulates NOS2/arginase-1 pathway in tropomyosin-induced experimental autoimmune uveitis
In this study, we evaluated the preventive and curative effects of ethanolic extract of Propolis (EEP) during α-Tropomyosin-induced uveitis in an experimental model using Wistar rats, through the regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) and arginase-1. In this context, rats received daily injection of EEP (100 mg/kg) for 5 days prior to immunization or for 9 days commencing 5 days post immu nization with α-Tropomyosin extract, then were sacrificed at day 14. Histological examination, NOS2, arginase-1, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression were evaluated in the...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Brazilian green propolis hydroalcoholic extract reduces colon damages caused by dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice
This study investigated the effects of Brazilian green propolis hydroalcoholic extract (BPE) in 3% w/v dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced  colitis in mice. The effects of BPE (3, 30 and 300 mg/kg, p.o, by 7 days) on the morphological (colon length and colon weight), clinical (disease activity index and weight loss), microscopic (histological score and mucin levels) and biochemical parameters were determined. The effects of BPE (30 0 mg/kg, p.o) in the gastrointestinal transit of mice were also evaluated. As expected, the DSS ingestion damaged the colonic tissue, lowered the body weight, decreased...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Molecular docking and pharmacological/toxicological assessment of a new compound designed from celecoxib and paracetamol by molecular hybridization
AbstractNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used worldwide; however, they have several adverse effects, evidencing the need for the development of new, more effective and safe anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs. This research aimed to design, synthesize and carry out a pharmacological/toxicological investigation of LQFM-102, which was designed from celecoxib and paracetamol by molecular hybridization. To evaluate the analgesic effect of this compound, we performed formalin-induced pain, hot plate and tail flick tests. The anti-inflammatory effect of LQFM-102 was evaluated in carrageenan-induced paw oedema ...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Influence of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs on oxidative and nitrosative stress in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
ConclusionsThe majority of the studies reported in this work showed an improvement in the redox state, which could be related to success of the therapy. Thus, oxidative and nitrosative stress markers may be useful to early evaluate the response of DMARDs in patients with RA. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Diagnostic value of salivary CRP and IL-6 in patients undergoing anti-TNF-alpha therapy for rheumatic disease
AbstractIntroductionSaliva has been increasingly used as a diagnostic medium for disease detection and monitoring. The aim of this observational, prospective, pilot study was to investigate whether salivary concentrations of CRP and IL-6 correlate with those in serum and with the clinical course of a rheumatic disease.Materials and methodsNineteen patients with rheumatic disease newly scheduled for anti-TNF α therapy were included. Patients received anti-TNFα treatment (adalimumab, certolizumab, golimumab or infliximab) as per standard protocols. CRP and IL-6 were measured with high-sensitivity immunoassays bef...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effects of a novel curcumin derivative on the functions of kidney in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats
ConclusionThese results suggested B6 could protect the renal function of diabetic rats. This study provided scientific basis for the further researches and clinical applications of B6. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The significant impact of apigenin on different aspects of autoimmune disease
AbstractAutoimmune diseases are among the highest diseases to diagnose and treat. The current “gold standard” of care for these diseases is immunosuppressive drugs which interfere with overall immune responses; their long-term high-dose treatments would expose the patient to opportunistic, life-threatening and long-term malignant infections. Considering the side effects and toxicity of t hese drug and also the beneficial effects of herbal compounds among their consumers, the professional investigation on the exact mechanism of the plant’s major element has grown much attention in the last years. Apigenin ...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Phytofabricated silver nanoparticles of Phyllanthus emblica attenuated diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic cancer via knock-down oxidative stress and inflammation
AbstractOxidative stress and inflammation play a pivotal role in the expansion and progression of hepatic cancer. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery can quickly enhance the restorative capability of hepatic cancer. Silver nanoparticles synthesized from plant source are of great importance due to their small size, economic, non-hazardous and different biomedical applications. In the current study, we have evaluated the impacts of oxidative stress and proinflammatory markers of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles ofPhyllanthus emblica (PE) leaves against diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in wistar ra...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Nimbolide ameliorates fibrosis and inflammation in experimental murine model of bleomycin-induced scleroderma
AbstractBackgroundClinical manifestations of skin fibrosis are very variable and ambiguous, making its management quite critical and challenging. The lack of appropriate established pharmacological interventions make its treatment even more complicated. Intricate details of the underlying pathogenesis are thus imperative to further explore different treatment possibilities. Of note, the TGF- β/Smad signaling axis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) are the principal offenders in this fibrotic disorder.ObjectiveOur current study is aimed at demonstrating the antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory potential of ni...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Serum P-glycoprotein level: a potential biomarker of DMARD failure in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
AbstractObjectivesTo evaluate the utility of elevated serum P-glycoprotein (P-gp) as a risk marker of therapeutic response failure in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients treated with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs).MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted in 151 RA patients. Patients were classified into two groups according to the response achieved in terms of the disease activity score (DAS)28 after ≥ 6 months: (1) patients with a therapeutic response to DMARDs, with DAS28 
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Early P2X7R-dependent activation of microglia during the asymptomatic phase of autoimmune encephalomyelitis
AbstractMicroglia-mediated neuroinflammation accompanies many central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), and is strongly dependent on the purinergic P2X7 receptor. The nature of the inflammatory response in MS is studied for decades indicating, that proinflammatory microgliosis is involved in advanced stages of MS and is associated with active tissue damage and neurological dysfunctions. Evidence on the role of microgliosis in initial stages of the disease is scarce. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the time course of microglial activation in rat brain subjected to experimental aut...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Antinociceptive action of Achillea biebersteinii methanolic flower extract is mediated by interaction with cholinergic receptor in mouse pain models
In conclusion, this study shows for the first time that the antinociceptive effect ofA. biebersteinii is mediated by the cholinergic receptor. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Preventive treatment with dizocilpine attenuates oedema in a carrageenan model of inflammation: the interaction of glutamatergic and nitrergic signaling
AbstractDizocilpine is a highly selective and potent non-competitive antagonist of theN-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor. It is well known that dizocilpine has different neuroprotective effects in animal models of pain, epilepsy and oedema during trauma. The search for alternative antiinflammatory drugs is ongoing. We investigated the anti-oedematous effects of dizocilpine and the probable mechanism of action in a rat model that mimics local and persistent inflammation without tissue injury or damage. Male Wistar rats were injected with 100  μL of 0.5% carrageenan to the plantar surface of the hind paw....
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Melatonin ameliorates TNBS-induced colitis in rats through the melatonin receptors: involvement of TLR4/MyD88/NF- κB signalling pathway
ConclusionsIt seems that the inhibition of TLR4/NF- κB signalling pathway may mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of melatonin in TNBS-induced rat colitis. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 24, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Rutin protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis by inhibiting the activation of the NF- κB signaling pathway and attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress
AbstractRutin, found widely in traditional Chinese medicine materials, is used to treat eye swelling and pain, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. In the present study, a mouse mastitis model induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was established to explore rutin ’s inhibitory mechanism on mastitis via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) inflammatory signaling and the relationship between NF-κB signaling and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Mice were divided into six groups: Control group, LPS model group, LPS + rutin (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) and LPS  + dexamethasone (DEX) group. D...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

SB203580 attenuates acute lung injury and inflammation in rats with acute pancreatitis in pregnancy
AbstractAcute pancreatitis in pregnancy (APIP) can lead to multiple maternal and fetal organ injury and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway may be involved in it; however, whether APIP can result in acute lung injury and P38MAPK signaling pathway is involved in the pathogenesis has not been elucidated. The present study was undertaken to investigate the participation of P38MAPK signaling pathway and the protective effect of SB203580, an inhibitor of P38MAPK on acute lung injury induced by APIP. Twenty-four late-gestation SD rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Sham operation (SO) group, SB30258...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Natural lavender oil ( Lavandula angustifolia ) exerts cardioprotective effects against myocardial infarction by targeting inflammation and oxidative stress
AbstractBackgroundThe study was conducted to examine therapeutic effects of lavender oil (LO) against myocardial infarction (MI) and its potential mechanisms.MethodsA rat model of MI was established and LO (100, 200 and 300  mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administrated immediately after ischemia. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of LO were evaluated by immunohistochemical assay and measurement of SOD, GSH, and MDA. The myocardial injury markers, apoptotic activity and infarct volume were examined by ELISA, TUN EL and TTC staining, respectively.ResultsCompared with the control I/R-Vehicle, the expression of tum...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research