Exploring the therapeutic promise of targeting Rho kinase in rheumatoid arthritis
AbstractRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a prevalent systemic autoimmune disease caused by dysregulated inflammatory reactions, T lymphocyte invasion into the joints, and articular thickening. Immune cells, primarily tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α) and chemokines (interleukin or IL-1), which are predominantly generated by activated macrophages cells, have also been involved with the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Rho GTPases are integral factors of biochemical cascades utilized by antigens, and also by cellular receptors, cytokines, and chemokines, to modulate inflammatory reactions, according to growing data...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 26, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Free fatty acid receptor 1: a ray of hope in the therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus
AbstractFree fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1) is a G-protein coupled receptor with prominent expression on pancreatic beta cells, bones, intestinal cells as well as the nerve cells. This receptor mediates a multitude of functions in the body including release of incretins, secretion of insulin as well as sensation of pain. Since FFAR1 causes secretion of insulin and regulates glucose metabolism, efforts were made to unfold its structure followed by discovering agonists for the receptor and the utilization of these agonists in the therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Development of such functional FFAR1 agonists is a necessity...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 20, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Dexmedetomidine attenuates haemorrhage-induced thalamic pain by inhibiting the TLR4/NF- κB/ERK1/2 pathway in mice
ConclusionOur findings suggest that DEX alleviates the inflammatory response during thalamic pain through the TLR4/NF- κB/ERK1/2 signalling pathway and might be a potential therapeutic agent for thalamic pain. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 13, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in brain cancer: challenges and therapeutic strategies
This study aimed to review MDSC function in brain cancer, as well as possible treatments and related challenges. In brain cancer and glioma, sev eral differences in the context of MDSCs have been reported, including disagreements about the MDSC subtype that has the most inhibitory function in the brain, or inhibitory function of regulatory B cells (Bregs). There are also serious challenges in treating glioma patients. In addition to the cold nature of glioma, there are reports of an increase in MDSCs following conventional chemotherapy treatments. As a result, targeting MDSCs in combination with other therapies, such as IC...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 6, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Terpene-rich fractions of Ficus mucoso (Welw) modulate lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory mediators and aberrant permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane in murine animal model
This study compared the efficacy of terpene-rich fractions ofF. mucoso root bark on lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced inflammation, liver mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT), an index of mitochondrial health, and associated pathological alterations. Terpene-Rich Fractions of Dichloromethane (TRDF) and Ethylacetate Fractions ofF. mucoso (TREF) were obtained according to standard procedures. To induce systemic inflammation, a single intraperitoneal injection of 1mgLPS/kgbw was given to mice. Spectrophotometric techniques were used to evaluate the effects of the oral administration of TRDF and TREF (3  days) on lev...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 6, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Venlafaxine demonstrated anti-arthritic activity possibly through down regulation of TNF- α, IL-6, IL-1β, and COX-2
AbstractVenlafaxine is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor used to treat depression. Previous studies demonstrated its anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities through the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Present research aimed to explore its anti-arthritic potential. Differentin-vitro assays including egg albumin, bovine serum albumin denaturation and human red blood cell (RBC) membrane stabilization assays along with in-vivo models of formaldehyde and complete Freund ’s adjuvant-induced arthritis were used to study its anti-arthritic effect. Venlafaxine inhibited egg albumin and bovine ...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 1, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Recent updates on immunological, pharmacological, and alternative approaches to combat COVID-19
AbstractThe pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is instigated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is mainly transmitted via the inhalation route and characterized by fever, coughing and shortness of breath. COVID-19 affects all age groups with no single cure. The drug discovery, manufacturing, and safety studies require extensive time and sources and, therefore, struggled to match the exponential spread of COVID-19. Yet, various repurposed drugs (antivirals, immune-modulators, nucleotide analogues), and convalescent plasma therapy have been authorized for emergency use against COVI...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 1, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Kaempferol potentiates the sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells to erlotinib via inhibition of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and epidermal growth factor receptor
AbstractErlotinib (ERL) is an epidermal  growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of pancreatic cancer (PC). However, the clinical efficacy of ERL is limited due to the activation of alternative pathways that bypass the EGFR signaling. Kaempferol (KAE), a natural flavonoid compound, has been reported to posses s potent anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties, and in this study, we aimed at identifying the sensitization effect of KAE on ERL monotherapy in PC cells and mouse models. Briefly, the CCK-8, colony formation, and flow cytometry were used to assess th...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 1, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Diabetic neovascularization defects in the retina are improved by genistein supplementation in the ovariectomized rat
This study investigated the angiogenesis, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effect of genistein on the retinas in ovariectomized diabetic rats. In this study, 40 female albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 8 per group): sham, ovariectomized group (OVX), OVX + diabetes (OVX.D), and OVX.D + genistein (OVX.D.G). OVX induced by removal of bilateral ovaries and then high-fat diet (HFD) and a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (1 mg/kg; intraperitoneal (IP) injection) was used for diabetes ind uction (OVX.D) with 8 weeks of genistein treatment (OVX.D.G). At the ...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 28, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Comparison of individual and combination treatments with naproxen, prednisolone and hydroxychloroquine to treat Complete Freund ’s Adjuvant induced arthritis
AbstractAim of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of anti-arthritic drugs (naproxen, prednisolone, and hydroxychloroquine) alone and in combination. The in vitro anti-arthritic activity was evaluated by stabilization of human erythrocytes (HRBCs) membrane assays. In vivo activity was carried out using Complete Freund ’s Adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritic model in Wistar rat. Individual and combination drugs were administered for 21 days in rats 8 days post inoculation with CFA (0.15 ml injected in right hind paw). Body weight and paw edema were measured at different intervals. Combinatio...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 22, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Beneficial effects of secretome derived from mesenchymal stem cells with stigmasterol to negate IL-1 β-induced inflammation in-vitro using rat chondrocytes—OA management
AbstractOsteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent joint disease predominantly characterized by inflammation which drives cartilage destruction. Mesenchymal stem cells-condition medium (MSC-CM) or the secretome is enriched with bioactive factors and possesses anti-inflammatory and regenerative effects. The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of combining MSC-conditioned medium with stigmasterol compared with the individual treatments in alleviating interleukin-1  beta (IL-1β)-induced inflammation in rat chondrocytes. Stigmasterol is a phytosterol exhibiting anti-inflammatory effects. IL-1β (10 ...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 21, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Alternanthera brasiliana improve cutaneous wound healing in rats
AbstractAlternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze is recognized for its healing properties; however, its therapeutic effects remain unclear. Therefore, our study aimed to elucidate the wound healing activities ofA. brasiliana using in vitro and in vivo assays. In vitro assays were used to evaluate the antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects ofA. brasiliana extract. For the in vivo study, two dorsal excisions were established in Wistar rats using a punch (1.5  cm in diameter), which were topically treated daily with 2% carbopol gel (Ctrl group) or 20% hydroalcoholic plant extract with 2% carbopol gel (A. b...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 21, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Honorary Professor Garry Graham
AbstractAn appreciation of the contribution of Professor Gary Graham to anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic pharmacology and clinical pharmacology. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 17, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effects of nitro-butoxyl- and butyl-esters of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs compared with parent compounds on the contractility of digital arterial smooth muscle from the fallow deer (Dama dama)
ConclusionsR-( −)-ibuprofen and R-(−)-flurbiprofen, along with the nitro-butoxyl esters of the NSAIDs examined, produce relaxation of segments of deer digital artery smooth muscle in vitro. The evidence presented suggests that their mechanism involves the release of NO or its products. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 16, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Beneficial effect of dimethyl fumarate on experimental autoimmune uveitis is dependent of pro-inflammatory markers immunomodulation
AbstractAutoimmune uveitis is an inflammatory disease of the eye and is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) constitutes an animal disease model of human endogenous uveitis. In our study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of dimethyl fumarate (DMF) using bovine retinal extract-induced uveitis in a FemaleWistar rats. To evaluate the in vivo efficacy, FemaleWistar rats were divided into seven experimental groups: control group (n = 5), consisting of non-immunized animals; Uveoretinitis (n = 5), and DMF/Uveoretinitis groups (n ...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 13, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Comparative assessment of proliferation and immunomodulatory potential of Hypericum perforatum plant and callus extracts on mesenchymal stem cells derived adipose tissue from multiple sclerosis patients
ConclusionsHigh concentrations of HP extracts showed effectiveness on AT-MSCs proliferation and immunomodulatory properties with a certain consequence in callus extract. HP extracts may be considered as supplementary treatments for the patients who receiving MSCs transplantation. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 12, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The role of dorsal root ganglia alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in complete Freund ’s adjuvant-induced chronic inflammatory pain
ConclusionsThe findings of this study suggest that α7 nAChR may be potentially utilized as a therapeutic target for therapeutics of chronic inflammatory pain. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 12, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Limitations of drug concentrations used in cell culture studies for understanding clinical responses of NSAIDs
AbstractIn this review, the in vitro cellular effects of six nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), salicylate, ibuprofen, naproxen, indomethacin, celecoxib and diclofenac, are examined. Inhibition of prostanoid synthesis in vitro generally occurs within the therapeutic range of plasma concentrations that are observed in vivo, consistent with the major action of NSAIDs being inhibition of prostanoid production. An additional probable cellular action of NSAIDs has been discovered recently, viz. decreased oxidation of the endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and arachidonyl ethanolamide. Many effects of NSAIDs, ...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 12, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Fatty ethanolamide of Bertholletia excelsa triglycerides (Brazil nuts): anti-inflammatory action and acute toxicity evaluation in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
AbstractFatty amides (N-alkylamides) are bioactive lipids that are widely distributed in microorganisms, animals, and plants. The low yield in the extraction process of spilantol, a fatty amide, which is mainly related to its diverse biological effects, compromises its application on a large scale. Thus, this study proposes an alternative method to synthesise fatty amides fromBertholletia excelsa (AGBe) oil, with a chemical structure similar to that of spilantol. Carrageenan-induced abdominal oedema in vivo models were used in zebrafish (Danio rerio). In in vivo studies, oral AGBe produced no signs of toxicity. In the hist...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 9, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory activity of palmitoylethanolamide ameliorates osteoarthritis induced by monosodium iodoacetate in Sprague –Dawley rats
AbstractNovel treatment strategies are urgently required for osteoarthritis (OA). Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a naturally occurring fatty acid amide with analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. We aimed to examine its effect on OA and elucidate the molecular mechanism of actions in monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced OA Sprague –Dawley rats. The experimental animals were divided into normal control group (injected with saline + treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), NOR), control group (injected with MIA + treated with PBS, CON), 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day PEA-tr...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 1, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evaluation of antioxidant and anti-ulcerogenic effects of Eremurus persicus (Jaub & amp; Spach) Boiss leaf hydroalcoholic extract on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats
This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and protective effect ofE. persicus leaf hydroalcoholic extract (EPE) in preventing gastric ulcers induced by ethanol in rats. Wistar rats weighing 180 –220 g were randomly divided into five groups. These groups included negative control (normal) group, positive control (ethanolic) group, comparative control (ranitidine recipient) group, group recipient the dose of 250 mg/kg plant extract, and group recipient the dose of 500 mg/kg plant extrac t. One hour after gavage of the drug and extract, the gastric ulcer was induced by feeding 1 ml of 96% ethan...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 25, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Melatonin reduces inflammation in intestinal cells, organoids and intestinal explants
AbstractInflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic and recurrent diseases that often occur in young people and place a heavy burden on public health in both developed and developing countries. Melatonin has been confirmed to be useful in various diseases, including Alzheimer ’s disease, liver injuries and diseases, and cancers, while its role in IBDs remains unclear. To uncover the function of melatonin in IBDs, three intestinal models, including Caco-2 cells, 3D intestinal organoids and intestinal explants, were used. It was found that different concentrations of mel atonin could significantly inhibit the expres...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 24, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Bortezomib: a proteasome inhibitor for the treatment of autoimmune diseases
AbstractAutoimmune diseases (ADs) are conditions in which the immune system cannot distinguish self from non-self and, as a result, tissue injury occurs primarily due to the action of various inflammatory mediators. Different immunosuppressive agents are used for the treatment of patients with ADs, but some clinical cases develop resistance to currently available therapies. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BTZ) is an approved agent for first-line therapy of people with multiple myeloma. BTZ has been shown to improve the symptoms of different ADs in animal models and ameliorated symptoms in patients with systemic lupus ...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 23, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evaluating the mucoprotective effects of glycyrrhizic acid-loaded polymeric nanoparticles in a murine model of 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis via suppression of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress
ConclusionMorphological, behavioral, histological, and biochemical results suggested that GA-PLGA nanoparticles were efficient, biocompatible, targeted, and sustained release drug delivery nano-vehicle for enhanced mucoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects in 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis.Graphic abstract (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 22, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Colchicine effectively attenuates inflammatory biomarker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
AbstractMyocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation (NSTEMI) is considered an inflammatory disorder associated with a high mortality rate worldwide. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is an important inflammatory marker for NSTEMI and related to cardiovascular events. Colchicine, as a potent anti-inflammatory drug, is frequently prescribed for the treatment of gout and pericarditis. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of colchicine, as an anti-inflammatory drug, on hs-CRP levels in NSTEMI patients. We performed a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 150 NSTEMI patients r...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 21, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A review of the biological and pharmacological activities of mesalazine or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA): an anti-ulcer and anti-oxidant drug
AbstractMesalazine, also known as 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is a synthetic drug from the family of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) used for inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. However, 5-ASA has also been used for various other diseases due to its pharmacological effects, but they are usually scattered across various publications, which may limit further research and clinical use of this drug. This review is a summary of published information on the biological and pharmacological effects of 5-ASA with the aim of identifying its anti-oxidant role and medicinal use. 5-ASA data have been co...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 19, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Long noncoding RNA intersectin  1-2 gradually declines during adalimumab treatment, and its reduction correlates with treatment efficacy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis
AbstractPrevious studies show that long noncoding RNA intersectin  1-2 (lnc-ITSN1-2) promotes the inflammation process and serves as a potential biomarker in autoimmune diseases, except for ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Therefore, this study aimed to explore the correlation of baseline lnc-ITSN1-2 expression with disease risk and activity of AS, and to investigate its longitudinal change with treatment response to a tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor in patients with AS. In total, 63 patients with AS receiving 12-week adalimumab treatment were included and their baseline clinical features were collecte...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 18, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory actions of aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) in bronchial epithelial cells infected with Cryptococcus neoformans
ConclusionAT-RvD1 demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory effects in bronchial epithelial cells infected with C. neoformans without affecting the development of C. neoformans infection in the airways.Trial registrationNot applicable. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 17, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Management of COVID-19-induced cytokine storm by Keap1-Nrf2 system: a review
AbstractThe natural pathway of antioxidant production is mediated through Kelch-like erythroid cell-derived protein with Cap and collar homology [ECH]-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) system. Keap1 maintains a low level of Nrf2 by holding it in its protein complex. Also, Keap1 facilitates the degradation of Nrf2 by ubiquitination. In other words, Keap1 is a down-regulator of Nrf2. To boost the production of biological antioxidants, Keap1 has to be inhibited and Nrf2 has to be released. Liberated Nrf2 is in an unbound state, so it travels to the nucleus to stimulate the antioxi...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 9, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Acteoside isolated from Colebrookea oppositifolia attenuates I/R brain injury in Wistar rats via modulation of HIF-1 α, NF-κB, and VEGF pathways
The objective of this study was to assess the anti-stroke activity of acteoside isolated from methanolic root extract ofC. oppositifoliaMethodsIschemia –reperfusion(I/R) brain injury was induced in Wistar rats to assess the anti-stroke activity of acteoside. Rats were pretreated with acteoside (10, 25& 50  mg/kg, p.o.) before the induction of I/R injury. Parameters such as neurological, motor-cognitive functions were evaluated along with morphological (brain volume, infarct size), biochemical (SOD, Catalase, GSH, lipid peroxidation, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, ICAM-1, HIF-1α, VEGF, and NF-κB),...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 7, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A pilot safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic study of an oro-buccal administered cannabidiol-dominant anti-inflammatory formulation in healthy individuals: a randomized placebo-controlled single-blinded study
ConclusionThe oro-buccal nanoparticle formulation achieved plasma concentrations that were largely comparable to other commercial and investigated formulations relative to the concentrations administered. Moreover, there were no reports of adverse effects associated with unfavorable inflammatory sequalae. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 6, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Methotrexate and theaflavin-3, 3 ′-digallate synergistically restore the balance between apoptosis and autophagy in synovial fibroblast of RA: an ex vivo approach with cultured human RA FLS
ConclusionDisruption in homeostasis between apoptosis and autophagy infd-FLS might be an underlying phenomenon in the progression of pathophysiology in RA. Co-administration of MTX  + TF3 successfully restored the homeostasis by inducing apoptosis. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 5, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) as a target for Alzheimer ’s disease: flavonoids and phenols
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by amyloid plaques and tangles that have become the fifth leading cause of death worldwide. Previous studies have found that thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) expression was increased during the development of AD neurons. TXNIP sep arates from the TXNIP-thioredoxin complex, and the TXNIP-NLRP3 complex assembles ASC and pro-caspase-1 to form the NLRP3 inflammasome, which triggers AD inflammation and apoptosis. CB-dock was used to explore whether 21 natural flavonoids and phenols target TXNIP based on references. Docking results showed...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 4, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Green-lipped (greenshell ™) mussel (Perna canaliculus) extract supplementation in treatment of osteoarthritis: a systematic review
ConclusionThe overall analysis showed that GSM provided moderate and clinically meaningful treatment effects on OA pain. However, the current evidence is limited by the number and quality of studies, and further larger and high-quality studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness and to identify the optimal GSM format. Nevertheless, it is worth considering using GSM extracts especially for patients seeking alternative pain relief treatments with fewer side effects compared to conventional treatment. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 22, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Tribute to David John Fluck: Pioneer in developing unique liposome-anti-trypanosomal drug systems
(Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 22, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Role of Myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) in autoimmunity and its potential as a therapeutic target
In this study, we have summarized the role of MDSCs in various autoimmune diseases, and the potential of targeting them for therapeutic benefits has been discussed. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 20, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

COVID-19 vaccines and decreased transmission of SARS-CoV-2
AbstractA massive COVID-19 vaccination campaign is underway worldwide. Epidemiological data from studies indicate excellent efficacy and safety profile for COVID-19 vaccines. However, there are few data from studies on the effect of decreasing the probability of infection of vaccinated subjects compared to unvaccinated subjects. In this short communication, we describe some evidence on this important and current topic providing useful personal reflections. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 19, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Association between metabolic associated fatty liver disease and osteoarthritis using data from the Korean national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES)
AbstractOsteoarthritis of the knee (knee OA) is on the rise due to the aging population and increasing obesity. In addition to mechanical stress attributed to weight and age, osteoarthritis is associated with obesity and metabolic dysregulation. Here, a cross-sectional study targeting retrospectively registered 17,476 adults aged 50  years or older who were enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (2010–2011) was performed to analyze the association between the newly named metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) and knee OA. Fatty liver index (FLI) ≥ 60 confirmed the presenc...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 16, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Longitudinal monitor of Jun N-terminal kinase pathway associated phosphatase reflects clinical efficacy to triple conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs treatment in rheumatoid arthritis patients
ConclusionLongitudinal monitor of JKAP might reflect clinical efficacy to the treatment of triple cDMARDs, which could improve outcomes in RA patients. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 12, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Active components from Lagotis brachystachya maintain uric acid homeostasis by inhibiting renal TLR4-NLRP3 signaling in hyperuricemic mice
In conclusion, these results indicated that luteolin, luteoloside and apigenin could attenuate hyperuricemia by decreasing the production and increasing the excretion of uric acid, which were mediated by inhibiting inflammatory signaling pathways. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 9, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Immunomodulatory properties of characellide A on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells
In conclusion, characellide A is a novel modulator of adaptative/innate immune responses. Further studies are needed to understand its potential pharmacological application. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 9, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 may trigger inflammasome and pyroptosis in the central nervous system: a mechanistic view of neurotropism
AbstractSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can enter the central nervous system and cause several neurological manifestations. Data from cerebrospinal fluid analyses and postmortem samples have been shown that SARS-CoV-2 has neuroinvasive properties. Therefore, ongoing studies have focused on mechanisms involved in neurotropism and neural injuries of SARS-CoV-2. The inflammasome is a part of the innate immune system that is responsible for the secretion and activation of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 β, interleukin-6, and interleukin-18. Since cytokine storm has be...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 9, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Real-world effectiveness of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine: a meta-analysis of large observational studies
AbstractThis paper aims to summarize through meta-analyses the overall vaccine effectiveness of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine from observational studies. A systematic literature search with no language restriction was performed in electronic databases to identify eligible observational studies which reported the  adjusted effectiveness of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine to prevent RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19. Meta-analyses with the random-effects model were used to calculate the pooled hazard ratio (HR) and pooled incidence rate ratio (IRR) at 95% confidence intervals, and the vaccine effectiveness was indicated a s (pooled HR &m...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 9, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Protective effect of andrographolide against STZ induced Alzheimer ’s disease in experimental rats: possible neuromodulation and Aβ(1–42) analysis
AbstractSTZ is a glucosamine-nitrosourea compound, causes dysfunctioning of insulin receptors in the brain and disrupts glucose metabolism, produces cognitive decline and AD-like symptoms. ICV injection of STZ causes accumulation of A β and cognitive dysfunctions. Andrographolide (ANDRO) is a major bioactive constituent ofAndrographis paniculata, has various biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cholinesterase, and neuroprotective properties. The study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of ANDRO against ICV-STZ induced AD-like symptoms in rats. To conduct the study, the Wistar ra...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 7, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Boswellic acids/Boswellia serrata extract as a potential COVID-19 therapeutic agent in the elderly
In conclusion a small to moderate d oseB.  serrata extract may be useful in the enhancing adaptive immune response in mild to moderate symptoms of COVID-19. However, large doses of BA may be beneficial in suppressing uncontrolled activation of the innate immune response. More clinical results are required to determine with certainty whether there is sufficient evidence of the benefits against COVID-19. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 5, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pharmacological support to anti-arthritic prospective of physostigmine: a new approach
AbstractRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a slowly progressing inflammatory autoimmune disease. Several features are involved in the RA pathogenesis in addition to environmental and genetic factors. Previously it has been reported that acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity is enhanced in old age and may contribute in the progression of RA. The current experimental work was projected to assess the activity of physostigmine (a cholinesterase inhibitor) for treatment of RA. In vitro and in vivo approaches were used for such evaluation. However, enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) was performed to determine the concentration...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 5, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Revisiting bupropion anti-inflammatory action: involvement of the TLR2/TLR4 and JAK2/STAT3
AbstractThere are accumulating reports regarding poor response to common antidepressant therapy. Antidepressant resistance is often linked to inflammatory system activation and patients displaying inflammation prior to the treatment are less responsive to antidepressants. We hypothesized that the inefficacy of antidepressant therapy in some patients may be attributable to the drugs ’ inflammatory mode of action, which has been overlooked because of their substantial therapeutic benefit. Bupropion is a commonly prescribed antidepressant that is often used to treat seasonal affective disorders as well. Nevertheless, re...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 3, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Molecular and pathobiological involvement of fetuin-A in the pathogenesis of NAFLD
AbstractThe liver acts as a manufacturing unit for the production of fetuin-A, which is essential for various physiological characteristics. Scientific research has shown that a moderate upward push in fetuin-A serum levels is associated with a confirmed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) diagnosis. Fetuin-A modulation is associated with a number of pathophysiological variables that cause liver problems, including insulin receptor signaling deficiencies, adipocyte dysfunction, hepatic inflammation, fibrosis, triacylglycerol production, macrophage invasion, and TLR4 activation. The focus of the present review is on t...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - June 29, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Shedding light on vitamin D: the shared mechanistic and pathophysiological role between hypovitaminosis D and COVID-19 risk factors and complications
AbstractSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) is the culprit of the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), which has infected approximately 173  million people and killed more than 3.73 million. At risk groups including diabetic and obese patients are more vulnerable to COVID-19-related complications and poor outcomes. Substantial evidence points to hypovitaminosis D as a risk factor for severe disease, the need for ICU, and mortality. 1, 25(OH)D, a key regulator of calcium homeostasis, is believed to have various immune-regulatory roles including; promoting anti-inflammatory cytokines, down regulat...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - June 29, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Oxycodone –paracetamol tablet exhibits increased analgesic efficacy for acute postoperative pain, higher satisfaction and comparable safety profiles compared with celecoxib in patients underwent arthroscopic knee surgery
In conclusion, oxycodone –paracetamol tablet presents increased analgesic efficacy for acute postoperative pain, with higher patient satisfaction and comparable safety profiles compared with celecoxib in patients underwent AKS. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - June 28, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research