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Enhancement of drug permeability across blood brain barrier using nanoparticles in meningitis
AbstractThe central nervous system, one of the most delicate microenvironments of the body, is protected by the blood –brain barrier regulating its homeostasis. Blood–brain barrier is a highly complex structure that tightly regulates the movement of ions of a limited number of small molecules and of an even more restricted number of macromolecules from the blood to the brain, protecting it from injuries and dis eases. However, the blood–brain barrier also significantly precludes the delivery of drugs to the brain, thus, preventing the therapy of a number of neurological disorders. As a consequence, severa...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - May 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Influence of corticosteroid therapy on IL-18 and nitric oxide production during Beh çet’s disease
ConclusionCollectively, our results suggest that concomitant high production of IL-18 and NO in na ïve-active BD patients is related to an increased risk of mucocutaneous lesions and vascular involvement. Moreover, the relationship between these two inflammatory markers could constitute a predictable tool of BD clinical presentations and an early factor of therapy efficiency. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - May 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Oxidative stress as a possible mechanism of statin-induced myopathy
AbstractStatins, inhibitors of hydroxy methyl glutaryl coenzyme-A (HMG-CoA) reductase, are the most widely used drugs for treating hypercholesterolemia. However, statins can cause disabling myopathy as their main adverse effect. Several molecular mechanisms underlie the statin-induced myopathy including the decrease in the levels of essential mevalonate and cholesterol derivatives. This review discusses a further mechanism involving the loss of other anti-oxidant defenses besides ubiquinone (Co-Q) in skeletal muscles which produce a significant amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, to maintain their function,...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - May 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Efficacy of punarnavine in restraining organ-specific tumour progression in 4T1-induced murine breast tumour model
AbstractMost of the breast cancer deaths occur when cancer cells depart from their tumour of origin and spread systemically and colonise distant organs. The present study was to find out whether punarnavine, the quinolizidine alkaloid, with already proven antimetastatic effect on spontaneous B16F10 pulmonary metastasis has got any effect on a drastic organ-specific breast cancer spread. For the study, we selected a syngenic mouse 4T1 breast tumour model that mimics stage four of human breast cancer. The metastatic progression of 4T1 to lymph nodes, lungs, and liver was reduced by punarnavine (40  mg/kg body weight) ad...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - May 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chronic low back pain: a mini-review on pharmacological management and pathophysiological insights from clinical and pre-clinical data
AbstractGlobally, low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common health problems affecting humans. The lifetime prevalence of non-specific LBP is approximately 84%, with the chronic prevalence at about 23%. Chronic LBP in humans is defined as LBP that persists for more than 12  weeks without a significant pain improvement. Although there are numerous evidence-based guidelines on the management of acute LBP, this is not the case for chronic LBP, which is regarded as particularly difficult to treat. Research aimed at discovering new drug treatments for alleviation of chron ic mechanical LBP is lacking due to the paucity ...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - May 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

W.E.W. Roediger: Causative factors of ulcerative colitis and Crohn ’s disease: an exploratory guide
AbstractThis monograph provides the background for new developments in gastroenterological pharmacology, particularly focussing on the two chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn ’s disease (CD). These currently cause significant morbidity but largely elude satisfactory treatment. This is a challenge to drug designers and experimental physiologists alike. Their efforts will be much enhanced by further understanding the aspects of molecular pathogenesis and physiological dy sregulation outlined in this valuable and timely survey. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - May 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Propolis modulates NOS2/arginase-1 pathway in tropomyosin-induced experimental autoimmune uveitis
In this study, we evaluated the preventive and curative effects of ethanolic extract of Propolis (EEP) during α-Tropomyosin-induced uveitis in an experimental model using Wistar rats, through the regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) and arginase-1. In this context, rats received daily injection of EEP (100 mg/kg) for 5 days prior to immunization or for 9 days commencing 5 days post immu nization with α-Tropomyosin extract, then were sacrificed at day 14. Histological examination, NOS2, arginase-1, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression were evaluated in the...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - May 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory effects of ivy leaves dry extract: influence on transcriptional activity of NF κB
AbstractEA 575® is an ivy leaves dry extract (DER 5-7.5:1, 30% ethanol) used against diseases of the lower respiratory tract associated with productive cough. EA 575® improves symptoms associated with chronic inflammatory bronchial conditions. Compared to its bronchospasmolytic and secretolytic properties, the anti-inflammatory effects of EA 575® are mostly untried. Therefore, we addressed the question of whether the anti-inflammatory effect of EA 575® is due to an impact on the NF κB pathway. NFκB nuclear translocation was visualized by immunofluorescence in J774.2 as well as HEK293 cells. In t...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - May 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The cytotoxic effects of propolis on breast cancer cells involve PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways, mitochondrial membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species generation
AbstractPropolis has been extensively used to improve health and prevent inflammatory diseases. Different types of Cuban propolis (red, brown and yellow) have been documented. The purpose of this research was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of Cuban red propolis (CP) on MDA MB-231 cell line, since breast cancer is considered one of the most common causes of mortality among women. Antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity of CP against MDA MB-231 cells were determined by the 3-[4,5-dimethylth-iazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Apoptosis/necrosis, involvement of PI3K...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - May 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase gene expression in the inflammogenesis of breast cancer
We examined the expression of major inflammatory genes, cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 (COX1, COX2) and arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) in 1090 tumor samples of invasive breast cancer from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Mean cyclooxygenase expression (COX1  + COX2) ranked in the upper 99th percentile of all 20,531 genes and surprisingly, the mean expression of COX1 was more than tenfold higher than COX2. Highly significant correlations were observed between COX2 with eight tumor-promoting genes (EGR2, IL6, RGS2, B3GNT5, SGK1, SLC2A3, SFRP1 and ETS 2) and between ALOX5 and ten tumor promoter genes (CD33, MYOF1, N...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - May 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Protective effects of conventional and colon-targeted lycopene and linalool on ulcerative colitis induced by acetic acid in rats
AbstractObjectiveTo compare the potential protective effects of conventional and colon-targeted lycopene (TLC) and linalool (TLN) on acetic acid (AA)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats.MethodsConventional and colon-targeted LC (10  mg/kg) and LN (200 mg/kg) were administered in vivo orally for 7 days and sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg) was also used as reference drug. Then, 4% AA was administered intrarectally to induce UC. Subsequently, the colon tissues were taken as samples for biochemical and histopathological analysis.ResultsMalondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin 1 β (IL-1β), IL-6, cyclooxygen...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - May 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Is the pharmaceutical industry ’s preoccupation with the monotherapy drug model stifling the development of effective new drug therapies?
AbstractDrug discovery and development is heavily biased towards the development of monotherapies. Screening, testing, and evaluation of mono-entity drugs are generally much simpler than drug combinations, and are generally easier to get approval from the regulatory authorities for their clinical use. However, monotherapy drugs may not have optimal activity, may have associated toxicities, or may lose activity over time as their target develops resistance. Drug combinations, often developed from existing monotherapies, may have improved efficacy and/or be less toxic. Furthermore, the existing drugs which have lost efficacy...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - May 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Osthole ameliorates neurogenic and inflammatory hyperalgesia by modulation of iNOS, COX-2, and inflammatory cytokines in mice
This study provides promising insights and prospects for application of osthole in pain management. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - May 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Antineoplastic influence of nimesulide in chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma by inhibition of DNA synthesis
AbstractHepatocellular carcinoma is emerging as one of the most common forms of cancer resulting in thousands of death worldwide. The purpose of this study was to screen nimesulide for anticancer activity in chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in Wistar rats as well as in BEL 7402 and HEP G2 cell lines. HCC in rats was induced by administering a single dose of diethyl nitrosamine (150  mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Duration of the in vivo study was 12 weeks and the anticancer potential was further confirmed by in vitro cell line study. Administration of DENA in Wistar rats significantly elevated the levels of...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - May 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Emerging role of semaphorin-3A in autoimmune diseases
AbstractAutoimmune diseases (ADs) are featured by the body ’s immune responses being directed against its own tissues, resulting in prolonged inflammation and subsequent tissue damage. Currently, the exact pathogenesis of ADs remains not fully elucidated. Semaphorin-3A (Sema3A), a secreted member of semaphorin family, is a potent immunoregulator during al l immune response stages. Sema3A has wide expression, such as in bone, connective tissue, kidney, neurons, and cartilage. Sema3A can downregulate ADs by suppressing the over-activity of both T-cell and B-cell autoimmunity. Moreover, Sema3A shows the ability to enhan...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - April 25, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A phase I/II randomized, controlled, clinical trial for assessment of the efficacy and safety of β- d -mannuronic acid in rheumatoid arthritis patients
ConclusionTreatment with M2000 in combination with conventional therapy showed a significantly superior efficacy along with a high safety profile compared to conventional-treated patients. Thereby, M2000 might be suggested as a suitable option in the treatment of RA. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - April 25, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

HPLC –DAD identification of polyphenols from ethyl acetate extract of Amaranthus spinosus leaves and determination of their antioxidant and antinociceptive effects
In this study, the phytochemical composition, antioxidant and analgesic activities of an ethyl acetate extract ofA. spinosus leaves (ASEA) were evaluated. The ASEA had the highest concentrations of total phenols (462.2  mg GAE/g DW), condensed tannin (5.01 mg CE/g DW) and total flavonoid contents (30.07 mg CE/g DW) compared to the chloroform,n-hexane,n-butanol and water extracts. Similarly, ASEA showed the most effective total antioxidant activity (45.45  µg/mL), DPPH scavenging activity (27.32 µg/mL) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity (30.60 µg/mL). ASE...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - April 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of terpenes via suppression of superoxide and nitric oxide generation and the NF- κB signalling pathway
This study aimed to investigate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity ofl-carveol,l-carvone, andm-cimene (monoterpenes) and of valencene and guaiene (sesquiterpenes).MethodsThe influence on intracellular nitric oxide (NO) and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine (TNF- α, IL-1α and IL-10) production and on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity was determined using Griess reagent, immunoenzymatic assay kits (ELISA) and chemiluminescence measurements in cell-based assays, respectively. Antioxidant activity was assayed through the protective effect against cellu lar oxidative damage produced by superoxide ...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - April 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

β 2 -adrenoceptor signaling reduction is involved in the inflammatory response of fibroblast-like synoviocytes from adjuvant-induced arthritic rats
ConclusionThe activation of β2-AR signaling exerts its anti-inflammatory activities on FLS. β2-AR signaling decreased in the AA model, which might be related to the increased membrane expression of GRK2 and β-arrestin2, and promoted the excessive desensitization of β2-AR. Decreased β2-AR signaling may be relevant to the exacerbation of arthritis inflammation. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - April 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Flavonoid quercetin –methotrexate combination inhibits inflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinase expression, providing protection to joints in collagen-induced arthritis
The original article can be found online. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - April 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Quinazoline clubbed 1,3,5-triazine derivatives as VEGFR2 kinase inhibitors: design, synthesis, docking, in vitro cytotoxicity and in ovo antiangiogenic activity
AbstractA series of quinazoline clubbed 1,3,5-triazine derivatives (QCT) were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activity against HeLa (human cervical cancer), MCF-7 (human breast cancer cell), HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia cell), HepG2 (human Hepatocellular carcinoma cell), and one normal cell line HFF (human foreskin fibroblasts). In vitro assay result encouraged to further move towards in ovo anticancer evaluation using chick embryo. The series of QCT derivatives showed higher anticancer and antiangiogenic activity against HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines. In the series, synthetic molecule8d,8l, and8...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - April 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Professor Giampaolo Velo 31.4.1943 –17.8.2017
(Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - April 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A mechanistic approach to explore the neuroprotective potential of zonisamide in seizures
In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the mechanisms behind the strong neuroprotective potential of zonisamide against seizures by attenuating the oxidative stress, inflammatory cascade and neuronal death associated with progression of seizures. It can be further developed as a neuroprotective agent for epilepsy and other neurodegenerative disorders. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - April 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Curcumin ameliorates palmitate-induced inflammation in skeletal muscle cells by regulating JNK/NF-kB pathway and ROS production
In this study, we examined the effect of curcumin on the inflammatory responses stimulated by palmitate in C2C2 cells. The results showed that palmitate upregulated the mRNA expression and protein release of IL-6 and TNF- α cytokines in C2C12 cells, while pretreatment with curcumin was able to attenuate the effect of palmitate on inflammatory cytokines. The anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin was associated with the repression of phosphorylation of IKKα-IKKβ, and JNK. Palmitate also caused an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) level that curcumin abrogated it. Collectively, these findings suggest t...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - April 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Probiotic mixture of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium alleviates systemic adiposity and inflammation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rats through Gpr109a and the commensal metabolite butyrate
AbstractAimsThe study explored the systemic adiposity and inflammation through Gpr109a and the commensal metabolite butyrate during the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rats with the probiotic mixture ofLactobacillus andBifidobacterium for 16  weeks.MethodsFifteen male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups of five rats each: normal control group (basal feed), high-fat diet (HFD) feeding group (83% basal feed  + 10% lard oil + 5% sucrose + 1.5% cholesterol + 0.5% cholate), and probiotic mixture intervention group (HFD + 0.6&nb...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - April 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Curcumin –galactomannoside complex inhibits pathogenesis in Ox-LDL-challenged human peripheral blood mononuclear cells
AbstractOxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a pro-atherogenic molecule, which induces inflammatory response and contributes to the pathogenesis of vascular dysfunction to atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to explore the anti-inflammatory effect of a novel bioavailable formulation of curcumin as ‘curcumagalactomannosides’ (CGM) against ox-LDL-induced inflammatory responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs). Curcumagalactomannosides was made from natural curcumin using the soluble dietary fibre (galactomannans) derived from fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenumgracum) and ...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - April 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Brazilian green propolis hydroalcoholic extract reduces colon damages caused by dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice
This study investigated the effects of Brazilian green propolis hydroalcoholic extract (BPE) in 3% w/v dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced  colitis in mice. The effects of BPE (3, 30 and 300 mg/kg, p.o, by 7 days) on the morphological (colon length and colon weight), clinical (disease activity index and weight loss), microscopic (histological score and mucin levels) and biochemical parameters were determined. The effects of BPE (30 0 mg/kg, p.o) in the gastrointestinal transit of mice were also evaluated. As expected, the DSS ingestion damaged the colonic tissue, lowered the body weight, decreased...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - April 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Inosine improves cognitive function and decreases aging-induced oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in aged female rats
In conclusion, inosine significantly improved learning and memory of aged female rats possibly through its antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory effect and improvement of neuronal survival in the hippocampal CA1 region. However, additional studies are required to further expl ore the downstream signaling pathways involved in the neuroprotective effect of inosine in aged animals. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - April 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Gastrodin microinjection suppresses 6-OHDA-induced motor impairments in parkinsonian rats: insights into oxidative balance and microglial activation in SNc
In this study, we appraised the effect of pre-treatment with intra-cerebro ventricular (i.c.v) microinjection of gastrodin (Gst) on catalepsy, motor imbalance, substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation levels, nitric oxide (NO) production and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rats model of PD.Materials and methodsMale Wistar rats were pre-treated with i.c.v microinjections of Gst (20, 40 and 80  μg/3 μl/rat) for five consecutive days. Then, catalepsy and motor balance were induced by unilateral infusion of 6-OHDA (8 μg/2 ...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - April 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Flavonoid quercetin –methotrexate combination inhibits inflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinase expression, providing protection to joints in collagen-induced arthritis
This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of the flavonoid quercetin on arthritis in mice immunized with type II collagen (CII). An arthritis model was established in C57/BL6 mice by intradermal administration of chicken CII mixed with Freund ’s complete adjuvant. Quercetin (30 mg/kg orally) and methotrexate (0.75 mg intraperitoneally twice a week) were administered to investigate their protective effects against collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), 3, and 9 were detec...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - April 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Enoxaparin pretreatment effect on local and systemic inflammation biomarkers in the animal burn model
This study shows that enoxaparin has local and systemic anti-inflammatory effects and should be considered as a potential adjuvant drug for the treatment of burns. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - March 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pharmacological mechanisms underlying gastroprotective activities of binapthyl diselenide in Wistar rats
AbstractSelenium (Se) is a dietary essential trace element with important biological roles. It is a nutrient related to the complex metabolic and enzymatic functions. Organoselenium compounds have been reported to have anti-ulcer activity and used as drug for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The antiulcer activity of binapthyl diselenide (NapSe)2 was investigated in ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. A number of markers of oxidative stress were examined in rats stomach including thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), non-protein thiol groups (NPSH) and as...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - March 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Predicting methotrexate resistance in rheumatoid arthritis patients
AbstractRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an incurable, systemic autoimmune disease that decreases quality of life and can lead to severe disability. While there are many medications available to treat RA, the first-line of therapy is low-dose methotrexate (MTX), a small molecule disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD). MTX is the recommended therapy due to its affordability and efficacy in reducing symptoms in most RA patients. Unfortunately, there is great person-to-person variability in the physiological response to MTX, with up to 50% of patients showing little response to the medication. Thus, many RA patients initia...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - March 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease via green tea polyphenols: possible application and protective approaches
This article highlights the green approach regarding the defensive effects of GTP review-related studies concerning the contrary effects and the key therapeutic targets application of GTPs in biomedical field to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its complications.Graphical abstract. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - March 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic and analgesic activities of 2-(5-mercapto-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)- N -propylbenzenesulphonamide (MOPBS) in rodents
AbstractUnfortunately, Fig.  1 was incorrectly published in the original publication. The corrected Fig. 1 is given as below (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - March 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The tissue distribution and excretion study of paeoniflorin-6 ′-O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25) in rats
AbstractPaeoniflorin-6 ′-O-benzene sulfonate (code: CP-25) is a novel ester derivative of paeoniflorin (Pae). Compared to Pae, CP-25 has higher lipid solubility, bioavailability and better bioactivity. However, the tissue distribution and excretion of CP-25 still remain unknown. The LC–MS method was applied to investi gate the tissue distribution and excretion of CP-25 in rats. As such, 50 mg/kg of CP-25 and Pae were administered to rats in multiple doses via an oral route. CP-25 and Pae were distributed widely and rapidly in all the tested tissues. Compared with Pae, the concentrations of CP-25 were almos...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - March 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ex vivo immunomodulatory effect of ethanolic extract of propolis during Celiac Disease: involvement of nitric oxide pathway
AbstractCeliac Disease (CeD) is a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy, in which dietary gluten induces an inflammatory reaction, predominantly in the duodenum. Propolis is a resinous hive product, collected by honeybees from various plant sources. Propolis is well-known for its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory effects, due to its major compounds, polyphenols and flavonoids. The aim of our study was to assess the ex vivo effect of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) upon the activity and expression of iNOS, along with IFN- γ and IL-10 production in Algerian Celiac patients. In this context, PBMCs i...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - March 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

IL-6 signalling pathways and the development of type 2 diabetes
AbstractInterleukin 6 (IL-6), a multifunctional cytokine, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The elevated circulating level of IL-6 is an independent predictor of T2D and is considered to be involved in the development of inflammation, insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. On the other hand, an increasing number of evidence suggests that IL-6 has an anti-inflammatory role and improves glucose metabolism. The complex signal transduction mechanism of IL-6 may help explain the pleiotropic nature of the cytokine. IL-6 acts via two distinct signalling pathways called classic signallin...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - March 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Antiviral effects and mechanisms of Yinhuapinggan granule against H1N1 influenza virus infection in RAW264.7 cells
In this study, we investigated the antiviral effects of YHPG by means of pre-, post-, and co-treatment, and its underlying mechanisms on regulating the levels of inflammatory-related cytokines, modulating the mRNA expressions of interferon-stimulated genes in influenza virus-infected murine macrophage cells (RAW264.7), and evaluating the protein expressions of key effectors in the Type I IFN and pattern recognition receptor (PRRs) signaling pathways. The results showed that YHPG markedly inhibited influenza virus (IFV) replication in pre-, post- and co-treatment assay, especially in post-treatment assay. Antiviral mechanis...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - March 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New prospects of mesenchymal stem cells for ameliorating temporal lobe epilepsy
AbstractTemporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is present in 30% of epileptic patients and does not respond to conventional treatments. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) induce endogenous neural stem cells, inhibit neurodegeneration, and promote brain self-repair mechanisms. The present study addresses the feasibility of BMSCs transplantation against pilocarpine-induced TLE experimentally. BMSCs were injected either intravenously (IV) or in hippocampus bilaterally (IC). Increased cell count of BMSCs was achieved via IC route. BMSCs treatment ameliorated the pilocarpine-induced neurochemical and histological changes,...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - February 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic and analgesic activities of 2-(5-mercapto-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)- N -propylbenzenesulphonamide (MOPBS) in rodents
AbstractChronic inflammation is pathologically associated with various clinical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Several anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs currently available in market presents a wide range of problems. Therefore, the current study was aimed to evaluate anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of newly synthesized compound 2-(5-mercapto-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)-N-propylbenzenesulphonamide (MOPBS). Carrageenan and CFA-induced models were developed for evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to determine the mRNA expression levels ...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - February 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Targeting oxidative stress, acetylcholinesterase, proinflammatory cytokine, dopamine and GABA by eucalyptus oil ( Eucalyptus globulus ) to alleviate ketamine-induced psychosis in rats
AbstractEssential oil of eucalyptus species is among the most common traded essential oils in the world. There is an increasing interest in the application of eucalyptus oil as a natural additive in food and pharmaceutical industry. The present study was undertaken to identify the phytoconstituents present in the essential oil ofEucalyptus globulus leaves (EO) and ascertain their protective effect against ketamine-induced psychosis in rats. GC –MS technique was used for analysis of phytoconstituents present in EO. Ketamine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was used to induce psychosis in rats. Photoactometer, forced swim test an...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - February 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Labisia pumila prevented osteoarthritis cartilage degeneration by attenuating joint inflammation and collagen breakdown in postmenopausal rat model
AbstractThe tropical herbLabisia pumila is traditionally used in facilitating childbirth and post-partum care. The effects ofL. pumila leaf extract (LP) in explant cartilage culture and on postmenopausal osteoarthritis (OA) rat model were assessed. The LP (10, 25 and 50  µg/ml) or diclofenac (10 µg/ml) was added to the cartilage explants containing bovine IL-1β (20 ng/ml), to evaluate their direct effects on cartilage degradation. In the preclinical study, rats were grouped (n = 8) into: non-treated OA; OA + diclofenac (5 mg/kg); OA + LP extract (150 and 30...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - February 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Orofacial antinociceptive effect of sulphated polysaccharide from the marine algae Hypnea pseudomusciformis in rodents
This study aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of sulphated polysaccharide from the marine algaeHypnea pseudomusciformis (PLS) using rodent models of orofacial pain. Acute pain was induced by formalin, capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, acidified saline or glutamate (cutaneous modes) and hypertonic saline (corneal model). In one experiment, animals were pretreated with ruthenium red, glibenclamide, naloxone, L-NAME, methylene blue or ketamine to investigate the mechanism of antinociception. In another experiment, animals pretreated with PLS or saline were submitted to the temporomandibular joint formalin test. In yet anot...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - February 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Short-term treatment with metformin reduces hepatic lipid accumulation but induces liver inflammation in obese mice
AbstractThe study aimed to evaluate the metabolic and inflammatory effects of short-term treatments (10  days) with metformin (MET) on the NAFLD caused by a high-fat diet (HFD) in C57BL/6 mice. After the treatment, histological liver slices were obtained, hepatocytes and macrophages were extracted and cultured with phosphate buffered saline, LPS (2.5 µg/mL) and MET (1 µM) for 24 h. Cytokine leve ls were determined by ELISA. NAFLD caused by the HFD was partially reduced by MET. The lipid accumulation induced by the HFD was not associated with liver inflammation; however, MET seemed to promote...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - February 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Prunus cerasoides fruit extract ameliorates inflammatory stress by modulation of iNOS pathway and Th1/Th2 immune homeostasis in activated murine macrophages and lymphocytes
AbstractThe present investigation assessed the potential ofPrunus cerasoides fruit extract (PCFE) in alleviation of inflammatory stress in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon- γ (IFN-γ)-stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages as well as in concanavalin A (Con A)-activated splenic lymphocytes. We observed a strong inhibition in production of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α/IL-6/IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iN OS), and NF-kB in macrophages treated with PCFE. Splenic lymphocytes treated with PCFE also showed a reduction in Con-...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - February 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Essential oil from waste leaves of Curcuma longa L. alleviates skin inflammation
ConclusionThese findings of topical anti-inflammatory properties of EOCl provide a scientific basis for medicinal use of this plant material against inflammatory disorders.Graphical Abstract (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - February 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ginger rhizome enhances the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of paracetamol in an experimental mouse model of fibromyalgia
This study was designed to compare the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of dried powdered ginger rhizome (GR) and paracetamol (APAP) on an experimental mouse model of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) induced by intermittent cold stress (ICS).MethodsForty-eight female C57BL/6  J mice were used for the experiments. The animals were allocated in six groups (n = 8). Each group received one of the following treatments for 8 weeks: healthy control, ICS group, ICS + APAP (40 mg/Kg/day), ICS + GR (0.5%); ICS + GR (1%), and ICS + GR (0.5%) + APAP (40...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - February 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory activity of nanoemulsions of essential oil from Rosmarinus officinalis L.: in vitro and in zebrafish studies
This study was accomplished in a quantitative format through tests with diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2 ′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), cellular antioxidant activity (CCA), determination of nitric oxide production, cellular viability and anti-inflammatory activity in zebrafish. OERO’s were submitted to the analysis-coupled gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–M S), which highlighted 1,8-cineol and camphor as major compounds. NOEROs were obtained by a low-energy method and presenting the medium size smaller than 200 nm. The efficiency of encapsulation by s...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - February 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The peripheral corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-induced analgesic effect on somatic pain sensitivity in conscious rats: involving CRF, opioid and glucocorticoid receptors
This article serves as an overview of the role of CRF-R1 and CRF-R2, as well as glucocorticoid and opioid receptors in peripheral CRF-induced analgesia in conscious rats, while we focused on the data obtained under normal (non-pathological) conditions including results of our studies in r ats. The involvement of CRF-R1 and CRF-R2, glucocorticoids and opioid receptors was studied under the same experimental conditions following pretreatment with appropriate antagonists: NBI 27914, astressin2-B, naltrexone and RU 38486, respectively. Somatic pain sensitivity was measured by the tail flick latencies induced by thermal stimulu...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - February 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research