Neuroprotective potential of Myrciaria plinioides D. Legrand extract in an in vitro human neuroblastoma model
AbstractNeurodegenerative diseases are multifactorial debilitating disorders of the nervous system affecting approximately 30 million individuals worldwide. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have also been implicated in causing neurodegeneration. As life expectancy is increasing, neurodegenerative disorders are becoming a major social issue. None of the drugs currently available for treatment are capable of healing the patient. This means that new molecules should be explored. Plants have been used for treatment of countless medical conditions and extensive research is being carried out on species of the Myrta...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 15, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Therapeutic potential of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in autoimmunity
AbstractAryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a type of transcriptional factor, is widely expressed in immune cells. The activation of AhR signaling pathway depends on its ligands, which exist in environment and can also be produced by metabolism. Normal expressions of AhR and AhR-mediated signaling may be essential for immune responses, and effects of AhR signaling on the development and function of innate and adaptive immune cells have also been revealed in previous studies. Recent studies also indicate that aberrant AhR signaling may be related to autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus eryth...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 15, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pericytes, inflammation, and diabetic retinopathy
AbstractDiabetic retinopathy (DR) is a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus, and a common cause of vision impairment and blindness in these patients, yet many aspects of its pathogenesis remain unresolved. Furthermore, current treatments are not effective in all patients, are only indicated in advanced disease, and are associated with significant adverse effects. This review describes the microvascular features of DR, and how pericyte depletion and low-grade chronic inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis of this common ophthalmic disorder. Existing, novel and investigational pharmacological strategies aimed at m...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Efficacy of preemptive analgesia versus postoperative analgesia of celecoxib on postoperative pain, patients ’ global assessment and hip function recovery in femoroacetabular impingement patients underwent hip arthroscopy surgery
In conclusion, preemptive analgesia of celecoxib decreases short-term postoperative pain and PGA, but without effect on long-term hip function recovery than postoperative analgesia of celecoxib in FAI patients who underwent HAS. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - October 8, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

VPR-254: an inhibitor of ROR-gamma T with potential utility for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease
ConclusionOur results support the concept that an inhibitor of ROR-gamma T may have potential utility for the treatment of IBD. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 23, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Significant action of Tridax procumbens L. leaf extract on reducing the TNF- α and COX-2 gene expressions in induced inflammation site in Swiss albino mice
In this study, the ethanol extract of the leaves ofTridax procumbens L. was analysed for the phytochemicals by GC –MS. The anti-inflammatory activity was then studied with the extract of 10, 50, and 100 mg/kg b.wt in carrageenan-induced mice model by measuring the inflammatory oedema and by analysing the histopathology. The mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and COX2 genes were studied in the inflammatory site to explore the molecular action by reverse transcription PCR and qPCR analyses. A significant (P ≤ 0.01) reduction in mice paw inflammation and a recovered histology were observed in tr...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 5, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Phytochemicals as potential IKK- β inhibitor for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in plant preservation: terpenoids, alkaloids, and quinones
In this study, the interactions between different classes of inhibitors and IKK-β were investigated, through the application of SystemsDock. Molecular docking results showed that Diosgenin and Ginsenoside Re were the top docking score compounds. Diosgenin and Ginsenoside Re are the most promising IKK-β inhibitors in terpenoids, alkaloids, and quinones. Diosgenin and Ginsenoside Re could be helpful to find the lead compou nds on designing and developing novel cardioprotective agents. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 5, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Moringa oleifera leaf extracts attenuate Complete Freund ’s adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar rats via modulation of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers
In our article entitled “Moringa rivae leaf extracts attenuate Complete Freund ’s adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar rats via modulation of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers”, we described the anti-arthritic effects of the plant leaves from Pakistan that we referred to asMoringa rivae (Saleem et al. 2019). Unfortunately, the identity of the plant material was incorrect. In fact, the plant leaves under study were later identified as belonging to wild typeMoringa oleifera Lam. rather thanMoringa rivae Chiov. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 4, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

In vivo antiulcer activity, phytochemical exploration, and molecular modelling of the polyphenolic-rich fraction of Crepis sancta extract
AbstractBioactivity-guided investigation of the methanol extract ofCrepis sancta aerial parts, collected off Al-Tafilah, South Jordan, was applied, and in this study, the extract was explored for its phytochemical components and in vivo antiulcer activity. In addition, a docking study involving the purified compounds with the newly crystalized gastric proton pump (PDB # 5YLU) was performed. In-depth phytochemical investigation using the state-of-the-art chromatographic and analytical techniques was implemented resulting in the identification of two eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids, 3-oxo-γ-costic acid (1) and its meth...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Possible involvement of metformin in downregulation of neuroinflammation and associated behavioural changes in mice
This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of MET on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic and neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and behavioural changes. The study consisted of six groups, where three selected doses of MET (100, 200, and 300  mg/kg) were employed in male Swiss albino mice, with one group of imipramine (IMI), saline, and LPS each. Systemic inflammation was induced by injecting LPS (1.5 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal route. A battery of behavioural tests including open field, forced swim, and tail suspension tests were emplo yed to assess the impact of systemic inflammation on exploratory beh...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

IL-1 β, IL-17A, CRP and biologics history might serve as potential markers for clinical response to etanercept in rheumatoid arthritis patients
In conclusion, IL-1β, IL-17A, CRP and biologics history would serve as potential markers for clinical response to ETN in RA patients. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 28, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Flavonoids from Rhynchosia minima root exerts anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells via MAPK/NF- κB signaling pathway
In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory property of an ethanol fraction (EEF6) fromR. minima root on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells, as well as its underlying mechanism. The compound composition of EEF6 was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The result showed that five flavonoids compounds, 2 ′,4′,5,7-tetrahydroxyisoflavone, genistein-8-C-glucopyranoside, tricin, genistein, and daidzein, were identified in EEF6. In addition, EEF6 exhibited potent anti-inflammatory ability against LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells via MAPK/NF- κB signaling pathwa...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 24, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Polygalasaponin F treats mice with pneumonia induced by influenza virus
AbstractBackgroundInfluenza is an acute viral respiratory illness that causes high morbidity and mortality globally. Therapeutic actions are limited to vaccines and a few anti-viral drugs.Polygala(P.) japonica herba is rich in Polygalasaponin F (PSF, C53H86O23), used for acute bronchitis, pharyngitis, pneumonia, amygdalitis, and respiratory tract infections treatment in China. Hypercytokinemia is often correlated with severe pneumonia caused by several influenza viruses. PSF was reported to have anti-inflammatory effects and its mechanism is associated with the nuclear factor (NF)- κB signaling pathway. The action of...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 24, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Tocilizumab attenuates acute lung and kidney injuries and improves survival in a rat model of sepsis via down-regulation of NF- κB/JNK: a possible role of P-glycoprotein
The objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of tocilizumab (TCZ), an IL-6 receptor inhibitor, in sepsis-induced ALI and AKI using the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) rat model of sepsis. Clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated the importance of IL-6 in sepsis; however, the role of TCZ has not been investigated. Rats subjected to CLP developed histological evidence of ALI and AKI at 24  h. We found that TCZ alleviated sepsis-induced ALI and AKI as evidenced by improvements in various pathological changes, a significant reduction in the lung wet/dry weight ratio and total protein content in bronch...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 22, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Hydrolysable tannin-rich fraction from Terminalia chebula Retz. fruits ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in BALB/c mice
AbstractTerminalia chebula Retz. (Fam: Combretaceae) (TC) is widely used in traditional system for the treatment of fever, asthma, urinary diseases, and rheumatism. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of hydrolysable tannin-rich fraction (HTF) isolated fromTC fruits in collagen-induced arthritic BALB/c mice. Type II collagen-induced arthritis was attained in BALB/c mice. HTF treatment at three gradual doses (100, 200, and 400  mg/kg) was started from 24th day on daily administration up to 4 weeks. Body weight, food intake, and increase in hind paw were monitored at weekly basis. At the end of...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Curcumin: a modulator of inflammatory signaling pathways in the immune system
Unfortunately, the 4th author name was incorrectly published in the original article. The complete correct name is given below. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Jasonia glutinosa (L.) DC., a traditional herbal medicine, reduces inflammation, oxidative stress and protects the intestinal barrier in a murine model of colitis
In conclusion, daily administration of RT showed therapeutic properties in the DSS-model of UC. The benefits of RT can likely be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant phenolic and flavonoid constituents. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 13, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Functional improvement and immune-inflammatory cytokines profile of ischaemic stroke patients after treatment with boswellic acids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial
AbstractIschaemic stroke represents one of the main causes of disability. According to the broad investigations, it is widely assumed that the contribution of inflammatory mediators is strongly involved in its pathogenesis. Hence, it seems that stroke treatment needs more efficient and inflammatory-targeted compounds to modulate inflammatory-related pathways. Such strategies paved the way to achieve better clinical outcomes along with conventional therapies. Boswellic acids (BAs), the main bioactive compounds ofBoswellia sp. resin; are triterpenoids with well-documented anti-inflammatory properties. Compared with NSAIDs, B...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 12, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pharmacological effects of ginseng on infectious diseases
AbstractGinseng has been traditionally used as an herbal nutritional supplement in Asian countries, including Korea, China, Japan, and Vietnam for several millennia. Most studies have focused on the role of ginseng on anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. Recently, modulator activities of ginseng on the immune responses during pathogenic bacterial and viral infections and beneficial effects of ginseng in infectious diseases have been elucidated.In vivo and in vitro studies revealed the potential of ginseng extracts and ginsenosides Rg1, Rg3, Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, compound K, Re, Rd, Rh2 for treatme...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 12, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Thiamine, riboflavin, and nicotinamide inhibit paclitaxel-induced allodynia by reducing TNF- α and CXCL-1 in dorsal root ganglia and thalamus and activating ATP-sensitive potassium channels
In conclusion, thiamine, riboflavin, and nicotinamide exhibit antinociceptive activity in the neuropathic pain model induced by paclitaxel. Inhibition of TNF-α and CXCL-1 production in DRG and thalamus, as well as activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels, underly their antinociceptive activity. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 6, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Microglial-induced apoptosis is potentially responsible for hyperalgesia variations during CFA-induced inflammation
In this study, we investigated the possible effect of microglial activation on PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and apoptosis in an inflammatory  rat model of Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA).MethodsPersistent peripheral inflammation was induced by a subcutaneous injection of CFA into the rats ’ right hind paw on day 0. Minocycline (a potent selective inhibitor of microglial) was administered intraperitoneally during days 1–21 after CFA injection. Hyperalgesia was assessed on days 0, 7, and 21 using plantar test, then lumbar spinal cord segments were isolated, and the amount of spi...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - August 6, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Dose-dependency of the cardiovascular risks of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
AbstractNon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used to treat pain and inflammatory conditions such as arthritis. However, both arthritis and many NSAIDs increase cardiovascular (CV) risks. The dose-dependency of the elevated CV risks of NSAIDs has not been well-studied. We tested the hypothesis that low but still effective doses of these drugs are void of CV side effects. As the model drug, we chose diclofenac because of its known high CV toxicity, as markers of CV risks, we assessed concentrations of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolites of arachidonic acid (ArA), and we used adjuvant arthritis as an e...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 29, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Betulinic acid attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced vascular hyporeactivity in the rat aorta by modulating Nrf2 antioxidative function
AbstractBetulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, has been reported to inhibit cardiovascular dysfunction under sepsis-induced oxidative stress. Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor-2 (Nrf2) is regarded as a key transcription factor regulating expression of endogenous antioxidative genes. To explore the preventive effects of BA against vascular hyporeactivity and the related antioxidative mechanism in sepsis, contraction and relaxation in aortas isolated from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged rats were performed. Male Sprague –Dawley rats were pretreated with brusatol (Bru, 0.4 mg/kg/2 days, i...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Phenolic rich Cocos nucifera inflorescence extract ameliorates inflammatory responses in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and toxin-induced murine models
AbstractAnti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of the acetone extract ofCocos nucifera (CnAE), an important ingredient in several traditional drugs, have been studied using different in vitro and in vivo models. CnAE did not show any observable toxicity in RAW264.7 macrophages by MTT assay. The calorimetric analysis (total COX, 5-LOX, MPO, iNOS and NO), ELISA (IL-1 β, IL-6, TNF-α and PGE2) and qRT-PCR (IL-1 β, IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB) were performed in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages. Phosphorylation of NF-κBp65 and IκB was determined by western blotting. CnAE (100 µ...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

PD123319, angiotensin II type II receptor antagonist, inhibits oxidative stress and inflammation in 2, 4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rat and ameliorates colonic contractility
In conclusion, our data have demonstrated previously that undescribed proinflammatory effects for the AT2 receptors in DNBS-induced colitis in rats in which they are mediated likely by NF-κ B activation and reactive oxygen species generation. Moreover, when the inflammatory process is mitigated by the AT2 receptor antagonist treatment, the smooth muscle is able to recover its functionality. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonism: a promising pharmacological strategy for lowering the severity of arthritis
AbstractBackground and aimsThough cyclooxygenase inhibitors are employed in rheumatoid arthritis treatment, modulators of leukotrienes are underexplored. We investigated the therapeutic potential of montelukast, a known cysteinyl leukotriene receptor-1 (CysLT1) inhibitor in an experimental rat model of arthritis.MethodsArthritis was induced in rats, and montelukast (5  mg/kg body wt.) was administered prophylactically (PAM) and therapeutically (TAM) through oral route.Results and discussionBlood and joint tissue markers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, and nitric oxides) were significantly (p 
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor type 1 antagonist montelukast protects against injury of blood –brain barrier
AbstractThe blood –brain barrier (BBB) is formed by tightly connected cerebrovascular endothelial cells. Injury of human brain endothelial cells can cause disruption of the BBB and severe injury to brain tissue. Signals mediated cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) and their receptors are involved in a variety of pathol ogical conditions. In the current study, our results show that oxygen glucose-deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) induced the expression of leukotriene receptor type 1 (cysLT1R) in brain endothelial cells. Blockage of cysLT1R by its specific antagonist montelukast suppressed OGD/R-induced altered perm eabili...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Paeoniflorin inhibits Th1 and Th17 cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues to produce anti-arthritis activities
AbstractPaeoniflorin shows distinct anti-arthritis and immunoregulatory activities, but its rather low bioavailability via oral administration greatly challenges its known mechanism of in vivo activity. Our data showed that oral administration, instead of intraperitoneal injection, of paeoniflorin significantly reduced the polyarthritis index by 44.4%, reduced paw swelling by 18.4% and delayed the onset of arthritis in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. Oral paeoniflorin treatment also downregulated the systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 (by 52.2%), TNF- α (by 57.7%) and IL-1β (by 34.1%). A pharmacokin...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 15, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Role of flavonoids in thrombotic, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases
AbstractThe failure of mechanisms of natural anti-coagulation either due to genetic impairment or due to severe external injuries may result in a condition called thrombosis. This is believed to be the primary cause for a variety of life-threatening conditions such as: heart attack, stroke, pulmonary embolism, thrombophlebitis, and deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The growing number of these incidents requires an alternative anti-coagulant or anti-thrombotic agent that has minimal side effects and improved efficiency. For decades, plant polyphenols, especially flavonoids, were known for their vital role in preventing various ...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 15, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The investigation of possible roles of central 5-HT 7 receptors in antipyretic effect mechanism of paracetamol in LPS-induced hyperthermia model of mice
ConclusionThe 5-HT7 receptor is a potential defense mechanism in stopping fever and the antipyretic property of paracetamol is not due to the 5-HT7 receptor. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 15, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Microglial polarization: novel therapeutic mechanism against Alzheimer ’s disease
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease that results in progressive dementia, and exhibits high disability and fatality rates. Recent evidence has demonstrated that neuroinflammation is critical in the pathophysiological processes of AD, which is characterized by the activa tion of microglia and astrocytes. Under different stimuli, microglia are usually activated into two polarized states, termed the classical ‘M1’ phenotype and the alternative ‘M2’ phenotype. M1 microglia are considered to promote inflammatory injury in AD; in contrast, M2 microglia e...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Preemptive meloxicam achieves a better effect on postoperative pain control and similar tolerance compared with postoperative meloxicam in patients receiving arthroscopic knee surgery
In conclusion, preemptive meloxicam is more effective in posto perative pain control and equally tolerated compared with postoperative meloxicam in patients receiving AKS. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - June 28, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effect of tranexamic acid in improving the lifespan of naturally aging mice
AbstractAn effective method to improve lifespan is not known. Therefore, in this study, we examined the lifespan-extending effect of tranexamic acid in normal mice. We bred hairless mice without exposure to ultraviolet radiation and psychical stress until they died naturally. During the study period, the mice were orally administered tranexamic acid (12  mg/kg/day) three times weekly. An increase in the lifespan of mice was observed by tranexamic acid administration. Furthermore, age-related diseases of the skin were ameliorated by tranexamic acid administration. Moreover, the blood level of tumor necrosis factor-&alp...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - June 24, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Protective anti-inflammatory activity of tovophyllin A against acute lung injury and its potential cytotoxicity to epithelial lung and breast carcinomas
In conclusion, TA ameliorates LPS-induced ALI through the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation. These findings suggest the potential use of this compound as a future treatment for ALI. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - June 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Selected TLR7/8 agonist and type I interferon (IFN- α) cooperatively redefine the microglia transcriptome
ConclusionIn conclusion, the systematic approach presented herein could be important to the understanding microglial activation-mediated molecular signatures induced by inflammatory stimuli related to TLR7/8, IFN- α or co-signaling, and associated transcriptional machinery of microglial functions and neuroinflammatory mechanisms. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - June 12, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The role of magnesium in different inflammatory diseases
In this study, we review some inflammatory diseases, in which the magnesium has a role in their pathophysiology. Among these diseases, diabet es, asthma, preeclampsia, atherosclerosis, heart damage, and rheumatoid arthritis have been highlighted. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - June 6, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Urotensin-#receptor antagonist SB-706375 protected isolated rat heart from ischaemia –reperfusion injury by attenuating myocardial necrosis via RhoA/ROCK/RIP3 signalling pathway
AbstractSB-706375 is a selective receptor antagonist of human urotensin-II (hU-II), which can block the aorta contraction induced by hU-II in rats. The effect of SB-706375 on myocardial ischaemia –reperfusion (I/R) injury is unclear. The major objective of this study was to investigate whether SB-706375 has a protective effect on myocardial I/R injury in rats and explore its possible mechanisms. Isolated hearts of Adult Sprague–Dawley were perfused in a Langendorff apparatus, and haemody namic parameters, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase-MB (CK-MB), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), RhoA, and the pr...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - June 5, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ginsenoside compound-K inhibits the activity of B cells through inducing IgD-B cell receptor endocytosis in mice with collagen-induced arthritis
AbstractPreviously, ginsenoside metabolite compound K (C-K) was able to reduce B cell proliferation and serum anti-type II collagen (anti-CII) antibody to normal levels in mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA); however, the mechanism by which C-K restores B cell balance is unclear. In the present work, C-K treatment not only alleviated the polyarthritis index, swollen joint count, pathological scores of spleen and joints, spleen index, B cell proliferation and the level of serum antibodies (IgG1, IgG2a and anti-collagen II), but C-K treatment also restored B cell subsets including regulatory B cells, plasma cells, mem...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - June 4, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ponicidin inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF- α-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells via suppressing the AKT/GSK-3β/Snail pathway
AbstractPonicidin (PON), a natural diterpenoid compound, has been shown to exhibit potent anticancer activities in a wide variety of cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Nevertheless, the precise mechanisms underlying the anti-metastasis effect of PON have not yet been completely defined. The present study was designed to uncover the inhibitory effect of PON on epithelial –mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration and invasion of HCT116 cells induced by pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in vitro, and liver metastasis in vivo. Briefly, cell proliferation was assessed by Cell Co...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - June 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

25-hydroxycholesterol reduces inflammation, viral load and cell death in ZIKV-infected U-87 MG glial cell line
AbstractZika virus (ZIKV) infection is a global health issue due to its worldwide diffusion and to the related effects on neural progenitor cells with severe consequences on developing brain as well as on the central nervous system of adults. Previous studies showed that ZIKV infection induces an increment ofIL1B expression in the central nervous system and also in the blood. IL-1 β is a pro-inflammatory cytokine essential for cellular defence, tissue repair and neuroinflammation, a mechanism seen to be associated with several neuroinflammatory diseases. 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) is a natural oxysterol, derived fr...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - June 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory effects of Chinese propolis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells by suppressing autophagy and MAPK/NF- κB signaling pathway
This study aimed to investigate the possible benefits of Chinese poplar propolis (CP) in inhibiting inflammation using vascular endothelial cells (VECs) cultured in a nutrient-rich condition exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cell proliferation was detected by sulforhodamine B assay and EdU kit. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and level of mitochondrial membrane potential were determined with fluorescent probe DCHF and JC-1, respectively. Protein expression was examined by immunofluorescence staining and western blotting. The results showed that CP (6.25, 12.5, and 25  μg/mL) significantly reduced...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - June 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pitfalls in meta-analysis
AbstractSystematic reviews with meta-analyses are powerful instruments to synthesize research. If done correctly, they may constitute the highest level of evidence by combining several individual studies. As high-quality evidence is scarce in the field of complementary medicine, meta-analyses of randomized trials may shed new light on both efficacy and safety, but they must be properly conducted. In this commentary to a recently published paper we elaborate on methodological pitfalls in meta-analysis that every researcher should avoid to gain true high-quality evidence. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - May 28, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Curcumin: a modulator of inflammatory signaling pathways in the immune system
AbstractCurcumin is a natural compound derived from the spice, turmeric, that has been extensively reported for its efficacy in controlling or treatment of several inflammatory diseases. There is a growing body of literature that recognizes the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin in the immune system. On the other hand, the role of inflammatory signaling pathways has been highlighted in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, and signaling molecules involved in these pathways are considered as valuable targets for new treatment approaches. We aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the modulatory effects ...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - May 28, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Total flavonoids from Tetrastigma hemsleyanu m ameliorates inflammatory stress in concanavalin A-induced autoimmune hepatitis mice by regulating Treg/Th17 immune homeostasis
ConclusionThe anti-inflammatory effects of TFT was mediated by regulating Treg/Th17 immune homeostasis, which, therefore, suppressed the inflammatory immune response. This study provided scientific basis for the further researches and clinical applications ofTetrastigma hemsleyanum. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - May 23, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cilostazol add-on therapy for celecoxib synergistically inhibits proinflammatory cytokines by activating IL-10 and SOCS3 in the synovial fibroblasts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis
In conclusion, these observations suggest low concentrations of cilostazol and celecoxib cotreatment may ensure a synergistic anti-arthritic potential. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - May 23, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

4-Phenylbutyric acid protects against vasculitic peripheral neuropathy induced by ischaemia –reperfusion through attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress
This study demonstrated that ER stress and NF-κB-mediated neuroinflammation contribute to VPN induced by IR and that 4-PBA has protective potential against neuropathic pain associated with VPN. (Source: Inflammopharmacology)
Source: Inflammopharmacology - May 22, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pharmacological potential of alkylamides from Acmella oleracea flowers and synthetic isobutylalkyl amide to treat inflammatory pain
AbstractAcmella oleracea ( “jambu”) is an Amazonian plant rich in alkylamides. Its flowers are widely used in folk medicine to treat toothache due to tingling, numbness, and local anaesthesia caused in the mouth. Our group previously demonstrated that the intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of an alkylamide-rich hexane fractio n (HF) obtained from jambu flowers and a synthetic isobutylalkyl amide (IBA) displayed antinociceptive and anesthetic effects in acute pain models. Thus, here we evaluated the effects of HF and IBA on carrageenan-induced acute inflammation. Mice were pretreated with HF or IBA (0.01, 0.1, and 1...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - May 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Antinociceptive activity of Copaifera officinalis Jacq. L oil and kaurenoic acid in mice
AbstractCopaifera officinalis L. possesses traditional uses as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antiseptic. However, until now the antinociceptive effect and the mechanism of action were not described forCopaifera officinalis L. oil and no compound present in this oil was identified to be responsible for its biological effects. The goal of this study was to identify the presence of kaurenoic acid inCopaifera officinalis oil and investigate its antinociceptive effect, mechanism of action, and possible adverse effects in mice. The quantification of kaurenoic acid inCopaifera officinalis oil was done by HPLC –DAD te...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - May 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ouabain reduces the expression of the adhesion molecule CD18 in neutrophils
AbstractOuabain, a hormone that inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase, modulates many aspects of the inflammatory response. It has been previously demonstrated that ouabain inhibits neutrophil migration in several inflammation models in vivo, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this effect. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the effect of ouabain on molecules related to neutrophil migration. For this purpose, neutrophils obtained from mouse bone marrow were treated with ouabain (1, 10, and 100  nM) in vitro. Neutrophil viability was assessed by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. Ouabain treatment did not affect neut...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - May 13, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Zinc and iron complexes of oleanolic acid, (OA) attenuate allergic airway inflammation in rats
AbstractOleanolic acid (OA) is a hydroxyl pentacyclic triterpene acid (HTAs) used in various ailments. Inflammatory diseases may be profoundly influenced by iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) status. We studied the anti-asthmatic effects of two metal complexes (Fe and Zn) of OA in the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced rat model. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) was measured. Total and differential leucocyte count was done in blood as well as bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured in lung tissue by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The levels of cyclooxygenas...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - May 8, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research