Log in to search using one of your social media accounts:

 

NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in a Transgenic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Model
In conclusion, our results showed the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the brain of SOD1G93A rats, indicating that inflammation plays a main role in ALS. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - January 10, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Poly(I:C) Priming Exacerbates Cecal Ligation and Puncture-Induced Polymicrobial Sepsis in Mice
In this study, we examined the role of TLR3 priming in the immunopathology of sepsis using cecal-ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis in mice. Mice injected with vehicle or poly(I:C) were subjected to sham or CLP surgery and various parameters of sepsis, including mortality, inflammation, and bacterial clearance were assessed. Poly(I:C) pre-treatment significantly enhanced mortality in mice subjected to CLP. Consistent with this, inflammatory cytokines including TNF α, IL-12p40, IFNγ, and MCP-1 were enhanced both systemically and locally in the poly(I:C)-treated group compared to the vehicle control. In ...
Source: Inflammation - January 10, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Chymostatin on Paraquat-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice
This study aims to evaluate the role of chymostatin in paraquat-induced acute lung injury. Institute of Cancer Research mice were randomly distributed into the NS, DMSO, chymostatin, paraquat or chymostatin treatment groups. Six mice from each group were intraperitoneally injected with chloral hydrate at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48  h after treatment administration. Blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture. Lung tissues were stained with haematoxylin and eosin for the observation of lung histology. The degree of pulmonary oedema was determined on the basis of lung wet-to-dry ratio (W/D). The serum activi...
Source: Inflammation - January 10, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Combination Therapy with Pirfenidone plus Prednisolone Ameliorates Paraquat-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis
AbstractPirfenidone is known to slow the decline in vital capacity and increase survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Besides, administration of glucocorticoids,e.g., prednisolone has been the conventional strategy to the treatment of patients with this disease, although their efficacy is under debate. Since multiple coactivated pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of IPF, combination therapy is a foundation strategy to cover many more synergetic mechanisms and increase response. The aim of the present study was to compare the therapeutic efficacy of prednisolone plus pirfenidone with pirfenidone alone in P...
Source: Inflammation - January 10, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

RX-207, a Small Molecule Inhibitor of Protein Interaction with Glycosaminoglycans (SMIGs), Reduces Experimentally Induced Inflammation and Increases Survival Rate in Cecal Ligation and Puncture (CLP)-Induced Sepsis
AbstractThe fused quinazolinone derivative, RX-207, is chemically and functionally related to small molecule inhibitors of protein binding to glycosaminoglycans (SMIGs). Composed of a planar aromatic amine scaffold, it inhibits protein binding to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). RX-207 reduced neutrophil migration in thioglycollate-induced peritonitis (37%), inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema (32%) and cerulein-induced pancreatitis (28%), and increased animal survival in the mouse model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis (60%). The mechanism of RX-207 action, analyzed by UV spectroscopy, confirmed that whic...
Source: Inflammation - January 10, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Artesunate Inhibits Renal Ischemia Reperfusion-Stimulated Lung Inflammation in Rats by Activating HO-1 Pathway
ABSTRACTArtesunate (AS), a semi-synthetic derivative of Artemisia, has been shown to exert a wide range of pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions. However, the protective functions of AS on renal ischemia reperfusion injury (RIR)-stimulated lung inflammation remain unclear. In this research, acute lung injury (ALI) was stimulated by renal ischemia reperfusion injury (RIR). AS (15  mg/kg) was intraperitoneal administrated to rat 1 h before RIR stimulation. Serum and pulmonary NO, MDA, IL-6, MIP-2, and PGE2 levels, arterial blood gas and biochemistry, lung wet/dry weight ratio ...
Source: Inflammation - January 10, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-IL-33 Antibody Has a Therapeutic Effect in an Atopic Dermatitis Murine Model Induced by 2, 4-Dinitrochlorobenzene
In this study, we evaluated the potential on the inhibition of atopic dermatitis (AD) of anti-mouse IL-33 antibody ( αIL-33Ab) using 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD mice model. We treated mice with αIL-33Abvia subcutaneous injection of each DNCB treatment 1  h later from day 1 to day 33 for 14 times. A control group received tacrolimus. Skin lesion and scratching behavior were compared. Ear thickness, dermatitis score, eosinophils and mast cells infiltration, and serum IgE levels were also analyzed. Correlations between serum IL-33 as well as soluble( s) ST2 and AD disease activity index in hum...
Source: Inflammation - January 10, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Irisin Alleviates Advanced Glycation End Products-Induced Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction via Inhibiting ROS-NLRP3 Inflammasome Signaling
AbstractThe activation of NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome have been implicated in the initiation or progression of atherosclerosis. Recent research showed that irisin, a newly discovered adipomiokine, alleviates endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes partiallyvia reducing oxidative/nitrative stresses, suggesting that irisin may be a promising candidate for the treatment of vascular complications of diabetes. However, the association between irisin and NLRP3 inflammasome in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unclear. In the present study, we cultured human umbilical vein endothelial ce...
Source: Inflammation - January 10, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Hydrogen-Rich Saline Ameliorates Allergic Rhinitis by Reversing the Imbalance of Th1/Th2 and Up-Regulation of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Regulatory T Cells, Interleukin-10, and Membrane-Bound Transforming Growth Factor- β in Guinea Pigs
AbstractIt is well known that CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg cells play an important role in the development of allergic rhinitis (AR); the defect of cell numbers and functions contribute to AR. Hydrogen has been proven effective in alleviating symptoms of AR. We herein aim to verify the protective effects of hydrogen on CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg cells in guinea pigs with AR and to explore the effect of hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) on CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg cells in animals with AR and investigate the underlying anti-inflammatory mechanism. Eighteen guinea pigs were randomly divided into three groups (control group/AR group/AR-HRS group). The g...
Source: Inflammation - January 10, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Correction to: Combination Therapy with Pirfenidone plus Prednisolone Ameliorates Paraquat-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis
AbstractUnfortunately, the original publication of this article contained mistakes, and the authors would like to correct them. The corrected details are given below: (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - January 10, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Changes in Neutrophil Metabolism upon Activation and Aging
AbstractNeutrophil activation is an important mechanism of host defense against pathogens. Chronic inflammation and autoimmunity are often associated with abnormalities in phenotype and functions of neutrophils. Since effector functions of immune cells during inflammation are tightly linked to their metabolic state, changes in neutrophil metabolome upon activation have been investigated in this study. Human neutrophils from healthy blood donors (n = 6) were treated either with tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), whereas untreated neutrophils were used as control. Since apo...
Source: Inflammation - January 10, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

ZEB2 Attenuates LPS-Induced Inflammation by the NF- κB Pathway in HK-2 Cells
AbstractAs a transcription factor, zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2) includes multiple functional domains which interact with kinds of transcriptional co-effectors. It has been reported that ZEB2 was involved in signal transduction and multiple cellular functions. However, the functional role of ZEB2 in inflammation is still obscure. The aim of the current study is to explore the function of ZEB2 in inflammation cytokine secretion and the role of the nuclear factor- κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human proximal tubule cell line (HK-2) cells. Our result demonstrated th...
Source: Inflammation - January 9, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Rosmarinic Acid Mitigates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammatory Responses through the Inhibition of TLR4 and CD14 Expression and NF- κB and NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation
AbstractThe excessive activation of microglia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. The neuroprotective properties of rosmarinic acid have been reported in a variety of disease models bothin vitro andin vivo; however, the mechanism underlying its anti-neuroinflammatory activity has not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of rosmarinic acid in conditions of neuroinflammatory injuryin vitro andin vivo. The results indicated that rosmarinic acid reduced the expression of CD11b, a marker of microglia and macrophages, in the brain and dramatical...
Source: Inflammation - January 9, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) Mediates Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Primary Human Osteoarthritic Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes
AbstractTransient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a membrane-associated cation channel, widely expressed in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Recently, emerging evidences suggested the crucial role of TRPA1 in the disease progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether TRPA1 mediate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in primary human OA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (OA-FLS). The expression of TRPA1 in LPS-treated OA-FLS was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot (WB), and the functionality of TRPA1 channel by Ca2+ influx measurements. Meanwhil...
Source: Inflammation - January 9, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Effect of DNA Polymeric Molecules in a Cell Model of Osteoarthritis
In this study, we investigated the effect of PDRN and PN on gene-expression profiles in a cell model of OA using transcriptome analysis. Under hypoxic conditions, human chondrosarcoma cells were stressed for 24  h in the presence of interleukin (IL)-1β and subsequently treated with PDRN, PN, or hyaluronic acid (HA) for another 24 h, followed by transcriptome analysis. The results of the transcriptome study comprising differentially expressed genes were analyzed using the Database of Annotation Visualiza tion and Integrated Discovery program, which yielded Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Tol...
Source: Inflammation - January 4, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protein Disulfide Isomerase Silence Inhibits Inflammatory Functions of Macrophages by Suppressing Reactive Oxygen Species and NF- κB Pathway
In this study, we tested the effects of PDI on inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Using CRISPR/Cas9 system, we found that PDI knockout suppressed migration, M1 polarization, and secretion of tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) and interluekin-6 (IL-6). The repression of these inflammatory processes was accompanied by decreased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PDI ablation also inactivated the phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and activated th e phosphorylation of NF-κB inhibitor al...
Source: Inflammation - January 2, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

MicroRNA-21-Mediated Inhibition of Mast Cell Degranulation Involved in the Protective Effect of Berberine on 2,4-Dinitrofluorobenzene-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Rats via p38 Pathway
AbstractThe study aimed to investigate the effect of berberine on allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in rats and explore its underlying mechanisms. Firstly, ACD model was established by sensitizing and challenging with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) topically, and the rats were treated with berberine. Ear swelling was assessed, and cytokine, IgE, and histamine productions were measured. The ear biopsies were obtained for histology analysis. Additionally, rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs) were isolated for detection of microRNA-21 (miR-21) expression, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, and MC degranulation. ...
Source: Inflammation - December 27, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Association of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Toll-Like Receptor 3-Mediated Immune Response with COPD Exacerbation Frequency
The objective of the study is to explore the role of respiratory syncytial virus Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-mediated immune response in the pathogenesis of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). A total of 20 AECOPD patients and 10 normal volunteers were studied. TLR3 was detected by RT-PCR, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was detected by nested RT-PCR. Then, A549 cells were infected by RSV at different time points and at different viral titers. TLR3 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR, the protein of TLR3 and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) were detected by western blot, and IRF3 prote...
Source: Inflammation - December 21, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inhibitory Effects of Toll-Like Receptor 4, NLRP3 Inflammasome, and Interleukin-1 β on White Adipocyte Browning
We report that TLR4 activation by lipopolysaccharide repressed white adipocyte browning in response to β3-adrenergic receptor activation and caused ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction, while genetic deletion of TLR4 protected mitochondrial function and thermogenesis. In addition, activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages attenuated UCP1 induction and mitochondrial respiration in cultu res of primary adipocytes, while the absence of NLRP3 protected UCP1 in adipocytes. The effect of NLRP3 inflammasome activation on browning was mediated by IL-1β signaling, as blocking IL-1 receptor in adipocytes prot...
Source: Inflammation - December 21, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Deficiency of IL-18 Aggravates Esophageal Carcinoma Through Inhibiting IFN- γ Production by CD8 + T Cells and NK Cells
AbstractTo investigate the potential role of interleukin-18 (IL-18) in immunomodulation during tumorigenesis of esophageal carcinoma and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism, we employed IL-18 knockout mice for this purpose. Carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) was administrated in drinking water to induce occurrence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). T cell activation as indicated by the surface CD molecules was analyzed with flow cytometry. The serous content of interferon- γ (IFN-γ) along with other cytokines was determined by inflammatory human cytokine cytometric bead array. The cy...
Source: Inflammation - December 21, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Apolipoprotein M Protects Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury via Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Signaling
AbstractIt had been demonstrated that apolipoprotein M (apoM) is an important carrier of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in blood, and the S1P has critical roles in the pathogenesis of sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI). In the present study, we investigated whether apoM has beneficial effects in a mouse model after lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Forty-eight mice were divided into two groups: male C57BL/6 wild-type (apoM+/+) group (n = 24) and apoM gene-deficient (apoM−/−) group (n  = 24) and then randomly subdivided into four subgroups (n = 6 each) according t...
Source: Inflammation - December 19, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

IL-21 Enhances the Degradation of Cartilage Through the JAK-STAT Signaling Pathway During Osteonecrosis of Femoral Head Cartilage
This study aims to investigate the role of interleukin-21 (IL-21) in the mechanism of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. The serum content of IL-21 in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) and with femoral neck fracture (FNF) was examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cartilage specimens were stained with safranin-O. The expression of IL-21, tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 4 (ADAMTS-4), matrix metalloproteinase-13(MMP-13), and aggrecan in the cartilage was detected, by immunohistochem...
Source: Inflammation - December 15, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Sinapic Acid Inhibits the IL-1 β-Induced Inflammation via MAPK Downregulation in Rat Chondrocytes
AbstractOsteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease frequently seen in the elderly population. Sinapic acid (SA), a commonly found phenolic acid, has been pharmacologically evaluated for its anti-inflammation effects in various studies. To explore its potential therapeutic role for OA, rat chondrocytes were treated with IL-1 β (10 ng/ml) with different concentrations of SAin vitro. Our study revealed that SA could inhibit the IL-1 β-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Consistent with these findings, the increased protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS...
Source: Inflammation - December 14, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Curc-mPEG454, a PEGylated Curcumin Derivative, Improves Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities: a Comparative Study
AbstractWe previously demonstrated that a PEGylated curcumin (Curc-mPEG454) significantly inhibited cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression and improved the progression of liver fibrosis. The current study systematically evaluates its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activitiesin vitro in a comparative study with curcumin, aspirin, NS-398, and vitamin C. RAW264.7 murine macrophages were pretreated with Curc-mPEG454, curcumin, aspirin, NS-398, or vitamin C at the indicated concentration for 2  h; then, the cells were stimulated with 1 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 h. The levels of pro-inflammatory cyt...
Source: Inflammation - December 13, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Overexpression of SIRT2 Alleviates Neuropathic Pain and Neuroinflammation Through Deacetylation of Transcription Factor Nuclear Factor-Kappa B
In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential role of SIRT2 in regulating neuropathic pain in a rat model induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI). We found that SIRT2 was downregulated in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in CCI rats. Intrathecal injection of a recombinant adenovirus expressing SIRT2 markedly alleviated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in CCI rats. This also inhibited the expression of tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 in the DRG of CCI rats. Moreover, our results showed that overexpression of SIRT2 inhibited the acetylation of th...
Source: Inflammation - December 8, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

PI3K Is a Linker Between L-selectin and PSGL-1 Signaling to IL-18 Transcriptional Activation at the Promoter Level
Abstract L-selectin and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) are adhesion molecules which induce similar physiological events. Our previous paper showed that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) played a crucial role in L-selectin- and PSGL-1-mediated F-actin redistribution and assembly during neutrophil rolling on E-selectin. However, it is not clear whether L-selectin and PSGL-1 induce other similar physiology events by PI3K. Here, we investigated the possibility of PI3K linking the signaling pathways of L-selectin and PSGL-1 to IL-18 transcription. We first demonstrated that L-selectin and PSGL-1 stimulation upregu...
Source: Inflammation - December 7, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Oxymatrine Sensitizes the HaCaT Cells to the IFN- γ Pathway and Downregulates MDC, ICAM-1, and SOCS1 by Activating p38, JNK, and Akt
AbstractDecreased interferon (IFN)- γ levels and increased levels of macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 are known to be involved in allergic skin diseases, such as eczema and atopic dermatitis. Activation of the IFN-γ and its downstream interleukin-12 (IL-12) pathway can correct these dis eases. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) is a cytokine signaling inhibitor that blocks downstream pathways of IFN-γ by blocking the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathways. Oxymatrine (OMT), a quinolizidine alkaloid extrac...
Source: Inflammation - December 7, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Geniposide Suppresses Interleukin-1 β-Induced Inflammation and Apoptosis in Rat Chondrocytes via the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB Signaling Pathway
In this study, we performedin vitro experiments on rat chondrocytes to examine the therapeutic effects of GPO on OA and investigated its effectsin vivo in a rat model of OA induced by medial meniscal tear (MMT). The results suggest that GPO can inhibit the expression of INOS, COX-2, and MMP-13in vitro, and promote the expression of collagen II in rat chondrocytes stimulated with interleukin-1 β (IL-1β). In addition, we also found that GPO can inhibit the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bax, Cyto-c, and C-caspase3 and increase the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These changes may be re...
Source: Inflammation - December 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Combat Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Sepsis in Rats via Amendment of P38-MAPK Signaling Cascade
This study investigated the curative effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) against hepatic, renal, and pulmonary responses caused by a single administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10  mg/kg, i.p) in rats. Treatment with BM-MSCs (5 × 105 in 0.1  ml PBS, i.p.) 3 h after LPS antagonized the LPS-induced increment of the liver enzymes (ALT, AST) and kidney functions (BUN, sCr). BM-MSCs decreased tissue levels of P38-MAPK, NF-κB, STAT-3, TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, Bax together with elevation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and the anti-ap optoti...
Source: Inflammation - December 4, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Rosmarinic Acid in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mastitis in Mice
AbstractRosmarinic acid (RA), a type of food additives mainly extracted from rosemary, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activities in some previous studies. However, the effects of RA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis have not been reported. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of RA on LPS-induced mastitis in mice and elucidated the potential mechanisms in mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMECs). RA treatment significantly ameliorated the mammary structural damage, and reduced the activity of myeloperoxidase. ELISA and qPCR results indicated that RA dose-dependently decreased the exp...
Source: Inflammation - December 4, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inhibition of Complement Drives Increase in Early Growth Response Proteins and Neuroprotection Mediated by Salidroside After Cerebral Ischemia
AbstractSalidroside is neuroprotective across a wide therapeutic time-window after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Here, we investigated the role of complement in mediating effects of salidroside after cerebral IRI in rats. Rats were administrated with vehicle or salidroside 50  mg/kg, given daily for either 24 or 48 h, after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h and reperfusion for 1 h. Levels of proteins in ischemic brain were measured by immunofluorescence and western blotting. We observed early increases in the deposition of immunoglobulin M, mannose-bind ing lectin 2, and anne...
Source: Inflammation - December 2, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Short- and Long-Term Protective Effects of Melatonin in a Mouse Model of Sepsis-Associated Encephalopathy
In conclusion, our study suggests the beneficial effects of both early and delayed melatonin treatment after sepsis development, which implicates melatonin has a potential therapeutic value in sepsis-associated organ damage including brain dys function. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - December 2, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Anti-inflammatory Effects of 4-((5-Bromo-3-chloro-2-hydroxybenzyl) amino)-2-hydroxybenzoic Acid in Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Primary Microglial Cells
AbstractOver-activated microglial cells are known to be implicated in various neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer ’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis. Our previous reports have shown that ZL006, a compound with a hydrophobic ring A and a hydrophilic ring B with a carboxyl group, exhibited stronger neuroprotective activityin vitro andin vivo. However, the directly anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds in the central nervous system (CNS) have not been elucidated. In the present study, as a part of our ongoing screening experiment to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects ...
Source: Inflammation - December 2, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

α7-nAChR Activation Has an Opposite Effect on Healing of Covered and Uncovered Wounds
In conclusion, this data demonstrated that α7-nAChR activation inhibited wound healing in covered wounds but played an opposite role in uncovered wounds. The opposite effect might be pr imarily due to inhibition of inflammation. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - December 1, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Intermedin 1 –53 Protects Cardiac Fibroblasts by Inhibiting NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation During Sepsis
AbstractSepsis is a disease that occurs as a result of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in response to an infection, contributing to multiple organ dysfunction and a high mortality rate. Interleukin-l β (IL-1β) is a cytokine that plays critical roles in inflammation and cardiac dysfunction during severe sepsis. Intermedin1 –53 (IMD1 –53) has been recently discovered to possess potential endogenous anti-inflammatory and strong cardiovascular protective effects. To investigate whether IMD1 –53 can inhibit the NLRP3/caspase-1/IL-1 β pathway to alleviate cardiac injury and rescue ...
Source: Inflammation - December 1, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Roburic Acid Suppresses NO and IL-6 Production via Targeting NF- κB and MAPK Pathway in RAW264.7 Cells
AbstractIn the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of roburic acid on production of nitric oxide (NO) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. We found that roburic acid reduced production of NO and IL-6, and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS). Meanwhile, phosphorylation of inhibitor of κBα (IκBα) and IκB kinase α/β (IKKα/β), as well as translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) to the nucleus, was suppressed by roburic acid treatment. In addition, phosphorylation o...
Source: Inflammation - October 25, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Schisandrin B Ameliorates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Through Attenuation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Apoptosis
AbstractSchisandrin B (Sch B), an active composition isolated from the fruit ofSchisandra chinensis, has been proved to possess antiinflammatory, antioxidant and anti-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress effects in many rodent tissues. However, the exact mechanism of cardioprotective effect ofSch B still needs more study. Here, we detected the effects ofSch B on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury rats. I/R injury model in this study was established by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for 40  min followed by 1 h of reperfusion. Male healthy rats were randomly divided into five groups: the s...
Source: Inflammation - October 25, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Calcitriol Ameliorates AngiotensinII-Induced Renal Injury Partly via Upregulating A20
AbstractInflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play crucial roles in the progression of chronic kidney diseases. Vitamin D has been shown anti-inflammatory effects, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether calcitriol exerts protective effectsvia upregulating A20 in angiotensinII (AngII)-induced renal injury. Male C57BL/6 mice were infused with vehicle or AngII for 10  days. Calcitriol reduced infiltration of T lymphocytes and macrophages. This reduction of inflammatory cells was accompanied by elevated A20 and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and reactive o...
Source: Inflammation - October 25, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Vacuolar Protein Sorting 4B (VPS4B) Regulates Apoptosis of Chondrocytes via p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPK) in Osteoarthritis
This study may provide a novel insight into the pathophysiology of OA and a potential therapeutic target for its treatment. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 25, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Licochalcone A on IL-1 β-Stimulated Human Osteoarthritis Chondrocytes
In conclusion, our re sults suggested that Lico A showed anti-inflammatory effects in IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes by activating Nrf2 signaling pathway. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 25, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

NLRP3 Deletion Inhibits the Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis Development and Inflammation in Kupffer Cells Induced by Palmitic Acid
In conclusion, our novel findings demonstrate that NLRP3 plays a pivotal role in NASH development and pro-inflammatory cytokin es IL-1β and IL-18 secretion induced by PA stimulation, and NLRP3 might be an effective potential target for the treatment of liver inflammatory diseases associated with NLRP3 inflammasome activation. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 25, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Macrophage M1 Plays a Positive Role in Aseptic Inflammation-Related Graft Loosening After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Surgery
AbstractMacrophage-related inflammatory response is one of the main biological factors resulting in failure of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, although the specific pathomechanism remains to be clarified. Our aim was to investigate the association between graft loosening and macrophage-related inflammation in cases of loosening of reconstructed ACL autografts. Tissue samples were obtained from 21 patients who underwent a second-look arthroscopy within the first year after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction using single-bundle hamstring tendon autografts. Possible biological factors of graft loosening were ana...
Source: Inflammation - October 25, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Antiinflammation and Antioxidant Effects of Thalidomide on Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice and Human Lung Fibroblasts
In this study, the potential effects of thalidomide (Thal) on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis were investigated. BALB/C mice model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by an intratracheal instillation of BLM was adopted, and then was intraperitoneally injected with Thal (10, 20, 50  mg/kg) daily for 8 days, while the control and BLM-treated mouse groups were injected with a saline solution. The effects of Thal on pulmonary injury were evaluated by the lung wet/dry weight ratios and histopathological examination. Inflammation of lung tissues was assessed by measuring the leve ls of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tu...
Source: Inflammation - October 25, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Erratum to: The Sesquiterpene Lactone, Budlein A, Inhibits Antigen-Induced Arthritis in Mice: Role of NF- κB and Cytokines
(Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 25, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Systemic Inflammatory Response and Multiple Organ Dysfunctions Following Crush Injury: a New Experimental Model in Rabbits
In this study, we aim to develop a new, reproducible crush injury (CI) model in rabbits. Anesthetized rabbits were compressed on both hind limbs using a special instrument for 6  h followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Blood samples and injured muscles were collected for biochemical analysis and morphological evaluation. Survival observation lasted for 72 h. Bilateral compressions with 10 kg/kg body weight (BW), but not with 5 kg/kg BW, reduced serious systemic impairment. B ilateral compressions with 10 kg/kg BW resulted in severe lactic acidosis; increased serum K+, creatine phosphokinase, asparta...
Source: Inflammation - October 25, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Fungal β-Glucan Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Through ROS Production
In this study, we first identified that c urdlan, a large particulate β-glucan, could activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in LPS-primed human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). RT-PCR and Western Blot showed that curdlan upregulate the mRNA as well as intracellular protein expression of NLRP3 and IL-1β in HBECs, along with the activity of ca spase-1, and the level of mature IL-1β in cell supernatants was higher by ELISA detection. Further studies demonstrated that the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome could be attenuated by NAC, an inhibitor of ROS. Thus, it indicated curdlan activate NLRP3 inflammasome through ...
Source: Inflammation - October 23, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Diesel Exhaust Particles and the Induction of Macrophage Activation and Dysfunction
AbstractDiesel exhaust particles (DEP) are an important component of air particulate matter, generated from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuel in diesel engines. Several epidemiological and experimental data have shown the ability of DEP to induce oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory response as mechanisms in macrophage activation and dysfunction. Macrophages are very important to immunity and immune response due to their ability to phagocyte microbes and parasites. They also respond to toxic chemicals, such as DEP, in the environment and studies have shown that their functions may be impaired by their exposure to D...
Source: Inflammation - October 19, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Regulatory Roles of Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Secretions of Type 1/Type 2 Relative Cytokines by Splenocytes and Dendritic Cells Exposed to Clonorchis sinensis Excretory/Secretory Products
In conclusion, these data suggest that TLR4 may play a regulatory role in type 1 immune responses duringC. sinensis infection. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 19, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Falconoid Luteolin Mitigates the Myocardial Inflammatory Response Induced by High-Carbohydrate/High-Fat Diet in Wistar Rats
AbstractLuteolin is a major component of many medicinal plants and traditional medicines. The current study aims at testing its protective effect against high-carbohydrate/high-fat (HCHF) diet-induced cardiac dysfunction in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups as follows: control group that received standard rat chow, group received HCHF diet (~  30% carbohydrate and 42% fat) daily for 16 weeks, and four groups received HCHF diet concurrently with luteolin (10, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg; 10%w/v suspension in 0.9% NaCl) daily from the first week by oral gavage. Body weight was measured weekly. At the...
Source: Inflammation - October 19, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CD80 Regulates Th17 Cell Differentiation in Coxsackie Virus B3-Induced Acute Myocarditis
AbstractThe cluster of differentiation protein complex, CD80/CD86, regulates Th1/Th2 differentiation in autoimmune disease. In order to establish the effects of CD80/CD86 on Th17 cell differentiation in acute viral myocarditis (VMC), we infected C57BL/6 mice with Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) and examined the effects of the treatment with anti-CD80/CD86 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) on Th17 cell differentiationin vivo. The effects of anti-CD80/CD86 mAbs on Th17 cell differentiation were further evaluatedin vitro. The treatment with anti-CD80 mAb induced marked suppression of Th17 cell differentiation and ROR- γt mRNA expr...
Source: Inflammation - October 16, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research