Acute Diallyl Disulfide Administration Prevents and Reveres Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Depression-Like Behaviors in Mice via Regulating Neuroinflammation and Oxido-Nitrosative Stress
AbstractNeuroinflammation and oxidative stress play critical roles in pathogenesis of depression. Diallyl disulfide (DADS), an active compound in garlic oil, has been shown to exhibit obvious anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. Preliminary evidence indicates that depression is associated with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative markers, suggesting that inhibition of neuroinflammatory response and oxidative stress may be beneficial for depression interruption. Here, we investigated the antidepressant effect of DADS as well as it mechanisms in a depression-like model induced by lipopolysaccha...
Source: Inflammation - July 16, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Modulations of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 Channels in Monosodium Urate –Induced Gouty Arthritis in Mice
AbstractThe aim of the present study was to observe the changes of TTX-R, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 Na+ currents in MSU-induced gouty arthritis mice, and to explore the possibility of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 channels as potential targets for gout pain treatment. Acute gouty arthritis was induced by monosodium urate (MSU) in mice. Swelling degree was evaluated by measuring the circumference of the ankle joint. Mechanical allodynia was assessed by applying the electronic von Frey. Na+ currents were recorded by patch-clamp techniques in acute isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. MSU treatment significantly increased the swelling d...
Source: Inflammation - July 16, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Umbelliferone Ameliorates Complete Freund Adjuvant –Induced Arthritis via Reduction of NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Osteoclast Differentiation
AbstractOsteoclasts, bone-resorbing somatic cells, are directly responsible for bone destruction during rheumatoid arthritis. Complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) is a widely used animal model using rodents for studying rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which effectively manifests serious cartilage destruction and progressive bone erosion, affecting synovial joints and serious joint dysfunction. It was considered that joint injury in RA is induced through systemic inflammation pathway. Umbelliferone (UF), a coumarin derivative ofAgele marmilosa, possesses anti-inflammatory activity. In the current study, we scrutinize the effect of umb...
Source: Inflammation - July 16, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

MicroRNA 21 Elicits a Pro-inflammatory Response in Macrophages, with Exosomes Functioning as Delivery Vehicles
This study validates the pro-inflammatory property of miR-21 with a tendency to foster an inflammatory milieu. Our findings also reinforce the dual importance of exosomal miR-21 as a biomarker and therapeutic target in inflammatory conditions. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - July 16, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Correction To: Aspergillus fumigatus-Stimulated Human Corneal Epithelial Cells Induce Pyroptosis of THP-1 Macrophages by Secreting TSLP
(Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - July 12, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Rosuvastatin on Asthmatic, Hyperlipidemic, and Asthmatic-Hyperlipidemic Rat Models
This study aimed to examine the possible interaction of serum lipids, and evaluate the effect of rosuvastatin treatment on asthma. Seven groups of rats, namely control (C), asthmatic (A), hyperlipidemic (H), asthmatic-hyperlipidemic (AH), rosuvastatin (40 mg/kg)-treated asthmatic (AR), rosuvastatin-treated hyperlipidemic (HR), and rosuvastatin-treated hyperlipidemic-asthmatic (AHR) groups, were studied. Total and differential WBC counts, serum oxidative stress markers, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were evaluated. In the A and AH groups, total and differential WBC counts, and IL-6 and IL-...
Source: Inflammation - July 5, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Effects of NF-kB Inhibition with p65-TMD-Linked PTD on Inflammatory Responses at Peri-implantitis Sites
The objective of this study was to find out if suppression of NF-kB complex function by p65-TMD-linked PTD could reduce host inflammation and bone resorption at peri-implantitis sites in rats. Twenty-one male 5-week-old SD rats were divided into three groups: untreated control group (A), silk-induced peri-implantitis group (B), and nt (nucleus transducible)-p65-TMD-treated, silk-induced peri-implantitis group (C). Implant sulcus of a rat in group C were divided into two groups, namely group Cp and Cb. Palatal implant sulcus where nt-p65-TMD solution was applied with an insulin syringe were assigned to group Cp. Buccal impl...
Source: Inflammation - June 25, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CTRP-3 Regulates NOD1-mediated Inflammation and NOD1 Expression in Adipocytes and Adipose Tissue
AbstractThe anti-inflammatory adipokine CTRP-3 might affect innate immune reactions such as NOD1. The impact of CTRP-3 on NOD1-mediated inflammation in adipocytes and monocytic cells as well as on NOD1 expression was investigated. Murine 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and adipocytes as well as human THP-1 monocyte-like cells were co-stimulated with the synthetic NOD1 agonist Tri-DAP and recombinant CTRP-3. Gonadal adipose tissue and primary adipocytes were obtained from a murine model carrying a knockout (KO) of CTRP-3 in adipocytes but not in stroma-vascular cells. Wildtype mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced elevated NOD1 ...
Source: Inflammation - June 24, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

miR-483-3p Promotes IL-33 Production from Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes by Regulating ERK Signaling in Rheumatoid Arthritis
AbstractOur previous studies have identified miR-483-3p to be highly expressed in synoviocytes from patients with rheumatoid arhtirits (RA); however, its effects on inflammation of RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) have remained unclear. The expression of miR-483-3p and cytokines in RA FLSs was detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent was conducted to determine interleukin (IL)-33 production from RA FLSs. Western blotting was employed to quantify the levels of p-ERK and total ERK. Overexpressed miR-483-3p significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression of IL-...
Source: Inflammation - June 23, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Glutamine Supplementation Attenuates the Inflammation Caused by LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice by Regulating the TLR4/MAPK Signaling Pathway
This study aims to explore the potential protective effects and mechanisms of GLN on acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. Forty ICR mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10): a PBS intratracheal instillation group, a LPS intratracheal instillation group, a GLN gavage group, and a LPS+GLN group (GLN was given 1 h before the LPS stimulation). Twelve hours after LPS administration, the lung tissue and blood were collected. The results showed that the concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1 β; the protein abundance of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), phosphorylated p38 (p-p38), ph...
Source: Inflammation - June 23, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Schisandrin B Attenuates Airway Inflammation and Airway Remodeling in Asthma by Inhibiting NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Reducing Pyroptosis
In conclusion, SB inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and reduced pyroptosis via the miR-135a-5p/TRPC1/STAT3/NF-κB axis, thus alleviating airway inflammation a nd airway remodeling in asthma. This study may confer novel insights for the management of asthma. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - June 18, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Granzyme B –Producing B Cells Function as a Feedback Loop for T Helper Cells in Liver Transplant Recipients with Acute Rejection
AbstractGranzyme B –producing B cells have been reportedly reported to be an important regulatory B cell subset in the pathogenesis of many diseases. However, its role in liver transplant recipients with acute rejection has never been well elucidated. Seventeen liver transplant recipients with acute rejection and 25 controls with stable liver function were enrolled in this study to determine the function of granzyme B–producing B cells via flow cytometry. Liver transplant recipients with acute rejection had higher expression of granzyme B in CD19+B cells when compared with controls. Following rejection, the gra...
Source: Inflammation - June 12, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Blocking SphK1/S1P/S1PR1 Signaling Pathway Alleviates Lung Injury Caused by Sepsis in Acute Ethanol Intoxication Mice
AbstractAcute ethanol intoxication increases the risk of sepsis and aggravates the symptoms of sepsis and lung injury. Therefore, this study aimed to explore whether sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1)/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1) signaling pathway functions in lung injury caused by acute ethanol intoxication-enhanced sepsis, as well as its underlying mechanism. The acute ethanol intoxication model was simulated by intraperitoneally administering mice with 32% ethanol solution, and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was used to construct the sepsis model. The lung tissue damage was observed by hematoxylin-e...
Source: Inflammation - June 9, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Penta-acetyl Geniposide Suppresses Migration, Invasion, and Inflammation of TNF- α-Stimulated Rheumatoid Arthritis Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes Involving Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway
This study aimed to demonstrate the effects of (Ac)5GP on migration, invasion, and inflammation of TNF- α-stimulated rheumatoid arthritis (RA) FLS (MH7A cell) and to explore the involved mechanisms. MTT assay was used to determine the applied non-cytotoxic doses of (Ac)5GP (12.5, 25, 50 μM)in vitro. Results of wound-healing, transwell, and phalloidin staining assays indicated that (Ac)5GP reduced the migration, invasion, and F-actin cytoskeletal reorganization of TNF- α-stimulated MH7A. Results of ELISA and western blot assays confirmed that (Ac)5GP reduced TNF- α-induced production of pro-inflammatory...
Source: Inflammation - June 8, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Differential Expression and Copy Number Variation of Gasdermin (GSDM) Family Members, Pore-Forming Proteins in Pyroptosis, in Normal and Malignant Serous Ovarian Tissue
AbstractGasdermins (GSDM) are members of a family of pore-forming effector proteins which lead to membrane permeabilization and pyroptosis, a lytic cell death with pro-inflammatory characteristics. Recently, two members of the gasdermin family, gasdermin B (GSDMB) and gasdermin E (GSDME), were shown to suppress tumor growth, through the involvement of cytotoxic lymphocytes. Other studies also reported the important functions of gasdermins in various cancer types including gastric cancer, hepatocarcinoma, and cervix and breast cancer. However, gasdermins have not been previously studied in the context of serous ovarian canc...
Source: Inflammation - June 6, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CircELK4 Contributes to Lupus Nephritis by Acting as a miR-27b-3p Sponge to Regulate STING/IRF3/IFN-I Signaling
AbstractSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease and a common complication of SLE is lupus nephritis (LN) during which lupus autoantibodies and proinflammatory cytokines attack the kidney and cause renal dysfunction. The current treatments to LN are limited due to a poor understanding of the pathogenesis. Here, we studied the molecular mechanisms of LN by investigating the function of circELK4/miR-27b-3p axis. MRL/lpr mice and LPS-treated HK-2 cells were used as the mouse model and cell model of LN, respectively. Blood samples were collected from LN patients. qRT-PCR and western blot were used ...
Source: Inflammation - June 5, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Circular RNA circHIPK3 Activates Macrophage NLRP3 Inflammasome and TLR4 Pathway in Gouty Arthritis via Sponging miR-561 and miR-192
This study aims to investigate the role and underlying mechanism of circHIPK3 in inflammatory response of gouty arthritis. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect the expressions of circHIPK3, miR-192 and miR-561. Western blot was used to detect the protein levels of TLR4, NLRP3, nuclear factor- κB (NF-κB) related proteins, and Caspase-1. Dual luciferase reporter assay, RNA pull-down assay, and FISH assay were used to confirm the interaction between circHIPK3 and miR-192/miR-561. ELISA was used to detect interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. circHIPK3 was elevate d in sy...
Source: Inflammation - June 4, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Vanillin Attenuates Cadmium-Induced Lung Injury Through Inhibition of Inflammation and Lung Barrier Dysfunction Through Activating AhR
AbstractVanillin, the main constituents of vanillin beans, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effects of vanillin on the cadmium-induced lung injury are still unclear. Therefore, we assay whether vanillin has potential preventive activity on cadmium-induced lung injury in mice. Mice were given vanillin (5, 10, 20 mg/kg) and treated with cadmium for 7 days. The detection data of vanillin on lung tissue changes were analyzed after the cadmium treatment. The results displayed that vanillin obviously decreased the lung histological alterations and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Vanillin also ...
Source: Inflammation - June 3, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Propofol Regulates the TLR4/NF- κB Pathway Through miRNA-155 to Protect Colorectal Cancer Intestinal Barrier
This study mainly analyzed whether propofol (PPF) could protect the intestinal mucosal barrier damage caused by CRC surgery, and explored its molecular mechanism. A mouse CRC model was constructed using azomethane and dextran sulfate sodium. During anesthesia, continuous intravenous injection of PPF was used for intervention. The influences of PPF on intestinal mucosal permeability and bacterial invasion were detected. The levels of microRNA (miR)-155, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/NF- κB in the intestinal mucosa, and the location of miR-155 were detected by fluorescencein situ hybridization (FISH). Mouse macrophages w...
Source: Inflammation - June 3, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Ubiquitin-Specific Protease 14 (USP14) Aggravates Inflammatory Response and Apoptosis of Lung Epithelial Cells in Pneumonia by Modulating Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1)
This study aims to identify the precise function and elaborate the regulatory mechanism of USP14/PARP-1 in the injury of lung epithelial cells. Human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells received lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (0, 1, 5, and 10  mg/L) treatment for 16 h, establishingin vitro pneumonia model. USP14 protein and mRNA levels in LPS-injured lung epithelial cells were separately assessed using western blot and RT-qPCR analysis. Lung epithelial cells were transfected with siRNA-USP14 or OV-USP14 to perform gain- or loss-of-function experiments. CCK-8 assay was applied to assess cell viability. TUNEL staining and ...
Source: Inflammation - June 3, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Alendronate Augments Lipid A –Induced IL-1α Release via Activation of ASC but Not Caspase-11
AbstractNitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBPs), such as alendronate (ALN), are anti-bone-resorptive drugs that have inflammatory side effects. We previously reported that ALN augmented lipid A –induced interleukin (IL)-1β production and NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3)/apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC)-dependent cell death. The present study aimed to examine whether ALN augments lipid A–induced IL-1α release and necroptosis, which is induced by the activation of receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK) 3. Treatment of J774.1 cells with ALN augmen...
Source: Inflammation - June 2, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Baicalin Inhibits NLRP3 Inflammasome Activity Via the AMPK Signaling Pathway to Alleviate Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury
AbstractBaicalin has been reported to have ameliorative effects on nerve-induced hypoxic ischemia injury; however, its role in the NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent inflammatory response during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion remains unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in baicalin alleviating cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, we investigated the AMPK signaling pathway which regulates NLRP3 inflammasome activity. SD rats were treated with baicalin at doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively, after middle cerebral artery occlusion at 2 h and reperfusion for 24 h (MCAO/R). MCAO/R treatment significant...
Source: Inflammation - June 2, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory and Hepatoprotective Effects of Quercetin in an Experimental Model of Rheumatoid Arthritis
This study aimed to investigate the effects of quercetin (QT) and/or MX on inflammation and systemic toxicity in a rat model of RA. Male Wistar rats were divided into control (C), RA, QT, MX, and QT + MX groups (n=6). The RA induction consisted of three intra-articular injections of methylated bovine serum albumin (1 ×/week) in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). QT (25 mg/kg) and/or MX (0.75 mg) administration occurred by oral gavage daily. We performed mechanical hyperalgesia in TMJ, leukocyte recruitment in synovial fluid, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry (TNF-α, IL-17, and IL-10) in synovial membran ...
Source: Inflammation - June 2, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

MicroRNA-181b Inhibits Inflammatory Response and Reduces Myocardial Injury in Sepsis by Downregulating HMGB1
AbstractMicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short endogenous noncoding RNAs regulating protein translation. However, the specific mechanism by which miR-181b influences sepsis via high-mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) still remains unknown. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism of miR-181b in regulating inflammatory response in sepsis-induced myocardial injury through targeting high-mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1). Through cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), the rat model of sepsis was established. Then, the effect of altered expression of miR-181b and HMGB1 on cardiomyocytes was investigated. The positive...
Source: Inflammation - June 2, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

LncRNA CASC9 attenuates lactate dehydrogenase-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation in spinal cord injury via sponging miR-383-5p
In conclusion, lncRNA CASC9 exerted a protective role against oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell apoptosis in SCI, providing a novel therapeutic target or prognostic factor for SCI. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - May 21, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

TGR5 Attenuated Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Activating the Keap1-Nrf2 Signaling Pathway in Mice
In conclusion, the results indicated that TGR5 could effectively alleviated inflammation responsevia accelerating the activation of Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway during hepatic IRI, which may be meaningful in reducing related inflammatory molecules and adjusting inherent immunity. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - May 21, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Melatonin Alleviates Cardiac Dysfunction Via Increasing Sirt1-Mediated Beclin-1 Deacetylation and Autophagy During Sepsis
In conclusion, increased Beclin-1 acetylation was involved in impaired autophagy in septic hearts, while melatonin contributed to Beclin-1 deacetylation via Sirt1, leading to improved autophagy and cardiac function in sepsis. Our study sheds light on the important role of Beclin-1 acetylation in regulating autophagy in sepsis and suggests that melatonin is a potential candidate drug for the treatment of sepsis. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - May 21, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Diosgenin Inhibits Excessive Proliferation and Inflammatory Response of Synovial Fibroblasts in Rheumatoid Arthritis by Targeting PDE3B
AbstractRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammation that can lead to loss of range of joint abnormalities in severe cases. Diosgenin has anti-inflammatory effects. This paper discussed the effect and mechanism of diosgenin on excessive proliferation and inflammatory response of synovial cells in RA. CCK-8 detected the cell viability, TUNEL assay detected the apoptosis of cells and western blot detected the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. Wound healing was used to detect cell migration and western blot detected the expression of migration-related proteins. ELISA kits were used to detect the levels of infla...
Source: Inflammation - May 21, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide on the Pyroptosis of Gingival Fibroblasts
AbstractPeriodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease induced byPorphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and other pathogens.P. gingivalis release various virulence factors including lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, whetherP. gingivalis–LPS inducing pyroptosis in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) remains unknown. In present study,P. gingivalis–LPS decreased the membrane integrity of HGFs, and pyroptosis-associated cytokines were upregulated at the mRNA level. In addition, pyroptosis proteins were highly expressed in gingival tissues of periodontitis.P. gingivalis–LPS induced gingivitis in the rat mode...
Source: Inflammation - May 21, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Correction to: Inhibition of C3a/C3aR Axis in Diverse Stages of Ulcerative Colitis Affected the Prognosis of UC by Modulating the Pyroptosis and Expression of Caspase-11
Following publication of our article [1], we noticed an error in Fig. 1. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - May 21, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Correction to: WISP1 and TLR4 on Macrophages Contribute to Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury
Following publication of our article [1], we noticed an error in the “Funding” section (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - May 21, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

PD-L1 Regulates Inflammation in LPS-Induced Lung Epithelial Cells and Vascular Endothelial Cells by Interacting with the HIF-1 α Signaling Pathway
In conclusion, downregulation of PD-L1 alleviated the inflammation in LPS-induced lung epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells by suppressing the HIF-1α signaling pathway. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - May 20, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Signaling Pathways Regulating NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation
AbstractThe NLRP3 inflammasome is a multi-molecular complex that acts as a molecular platform to mediate caspase-1 activation, leading to IL-1 β/IL-18 maturation and release in cells stimulated by various pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). This inflammasome plays an important role in the innate immunity as its activation can further promote the occurrence of inflammation, enhanc e the ability of host to remove pathogens, and thus facilitate the repair of injured tissues. But if the inflammasome activation is dysregulated, it will cause the development of var...
Source: Inflammation - May 19, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Isorhamnetin Alleviates High Glucose-Aggravated Inflammatory Response and Apoptosis in Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation and Reoxygenation-Induced HT22 Hippocampal Neurons Through Akt/SIRT1/Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway
This study is aimed at exploring the potential of isorhamnetin in protection against diabetes-exacerbated ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury and elucidating its action mechanism. After establishment of the model of high glucose (HG)-aggravated oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R), HT22 cell viability was detected by CCK-8. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, casapase-3 activity, and oxidative stress-related markers in HT22 cells were detected by corresponding commercial kits. The apoptosis of HG-treated HT22 cells following OGD/R was observed with TUNEL staining. The level of pro-inflammatory cytok...
Source: Inflammation - May 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mucus composition abnormalities in sinonasal mucosa of chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps
AbstractMucus secretion and its composition are vital in the maintenance of airway health, among which hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are thought to be involved in the regulation of mucin synthesis and regulation. Nasal mucus composition difference between healthy individuals and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients may contribute to the pathology of chronic nasal diseases, but so far, their role has yet to be completely understood. Nasal biopsy specimens were obtained from 24 healthy subjects and 99 patients with CRS without (CRSsNP,n=36) or with (CRSwNP,n=63) nasal polyps. Immunohistochemical (IHC) and immunofluoresce...
Source: Inflammation - May 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of B Cells in Regulation of Th Cell Differentiation in Coxsackievirus B3 –Induced Acute Myocarditis
In this study, we investigated the role of B cells in Th cell differentiation in myocardial damage in an animal model of VMC. C57BL/6 mice were infected with Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) intraperitoneally or injected with phosphate-buffered saline as a control condition. At day 7, samples from these mice were analyzed by histology, ELISA, flow cytometry, and gene expression assays. We found that TNF- α-, IL-6-, and IL-17-producing B cell numbers were significantly increased, while IL-4-producing B cell population was significantly reduced in acute VMC. Furthermore, we performed B cell knockout (BKO), SCID, and SCID+B cel...
Source: Inflammation - May 7, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mono-macrophage-Derived MANF Alleviates Bacterial Myocarditis by Inhibiting NF-kappaB Activation and Myocardial Inflammation
This study is to explore the effect of MANF on LPS-induced myocardial inflammation and macrophage differentiation. The myocarditis mouse model was constructed by LPS treatment. Myocardial damage and serum inflammatory factors were evaluated by ELISA. RT-qPCR was used to detect mRNA of M1/M2 macrophage markers. Western blot, immunohistochemical, and immunofluorescent staining were used to examine myocardial M1/M2 macrophages and NF- κB activation. Mono-macrophage-derived MANF deficiency enhanced LPS-induced inflammatory response and increased M1 macrophages in myocardium tissues, further causing more severe myocardial...
Source: Inflammation - May 3, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

MLL3 Inhibits Apoptosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes and Promotes Secretion of Inflammatory Factors by Activating CCL2 and the NF- κB Pathway
This study investigated the mechanism of MLL3 in fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS) apoptosis and inflammatory factor secretion in RA. Expression of MLL3 in synovial tissue of RA patients and patients with bone trauma was detected. FLS was isolated and identified by flow cytometry. Expressions of TNF- α, IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-10 and apoptosis were measured by MTT, flow cytometry, and ELISA. Western blot and qRT-PCR were performed to detect MLL3 and CCL2 expressions, H3K4me3 level, and NF-κB pathway-related proteins in rat joints. MLL3 was highly expressed in the synovial tissue of RA patients, a nd silencing ...
Source: Inflammation - April 29, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Sweroside on LPS-Induced ALI in Mice Via Activating SIRT1
In conclusion, sweroside can protect LPS-induced ALI mice through inhibiting inflammation. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 29, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

MicroRNA: Could It Play a Role in Bovine Endometritis?
AbstractEndometritis in dairy cows is a major economic problem worldwide; without advances in lifestyle management and drug treatment, it causes high morbidity and death. Micro ribonucleic acid (miRNAs) these days is seen as an important part of gene control networks. It is a class of small nucleotides 20 –25, single-stranded RNA molecules. In endometritis, the inflammatory response caused by the gram-negative bacteriaEscherichia coli (E. coli) alters the expression of miRNA which can regulate the innate immune system. This manuscript reviews (1) the interaction of miRNAs with the signaling of NF- κB and dysreg...
Source: Inflammation - April 27, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Emerging Role of Interleukin 1 β (IL-1β) in Cancer Cachexia
AbstractTreatment of cancer cachexia remains an unmet need. The host-tumour interface and the resulting sequestration of the pro-inflammatory cytokine Il-1 β is critical in cachexia development. Neuroinflammation mediatedvia IL-1 β through the hypothalamic pituitary axis results in increased muscle proteolysis and adipose lipolysis, thus creating a prolonged stress-like environment with loss of appetite and increased resting energy expenditure. Recent trials using a monoclonal antibody targeting IL-1β, canakinumab, have sh own a potential role in lung cancer; however, a potential role of targeting IL-1β...
Source: Inflammation - April 27, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

EZH2 Promotes Extracellular Matrix Degradation via Nuclear Factor- κB (NF-κB) and p38 Signaling Pathways in Pulpitis
AbstractPulpitis is a complicated chronic inflammatory process which can be in a dynamic balance between damage and repair. The extracellular matrix plays an important regulatory role in wound healing and tissue repair. The aim of this study was to explore the role of the epigenetic mark, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) on the degradation of extracellular matrix during pulpitis. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and type I collagen in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) upon EZH2 and EI1 (EZH2 inhibitor) stimulation. The mechanism of EZH2 affecting e...
Source: Inflammation - April 21, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells-Derived Exosomes Carry MicroRNA-671 to Alleviate Myocardial Infarction Through Inactivating the TGFBR2/Smad2 Axis
This study suggested that adMSC-derived exosomal miR-671 directly targets TGFBR2 and reduces Smad2 phosphorylation to alleviate MI-like symptoms bothin vivo andin vitro. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 21, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

An immuno-blocking agent targeting IL-1 β and IL-17A reduces the lesion of DSS-induced ulcerative colitis in mice
This study aims to investigate the anti-colitis effects of bispecific antibody (FL-BsAb1/17) targeting IL-1 β and IL-17A comparing with TNF-α soluble receptor medicine etanercept. IBD model in mice was established by drinking 3% DSS (dextran sulfate sodium salt). On the first day of drinking DSS, treatments with etanercept (5 mg/kg) or different doses of FL-BsAb1/17 (1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg) were started by intraperitoneal injection every other day. The results demonstrated that FL-BsAb1/17 treatment was more effective than etanercept at the same dose (5 mg/kg) in relieving the typical symptom of ulcerati...
Source: Inflammation - April 20, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Ramelteon Ameliorates LPS-Induced Hyperpermeability of the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) by Activating Nrf2
AbstractThe blood-brain barrier (BBB) is important for protecting the brain tissue by selectively exchanging substances between the blood and brain. The integrity of the BBB can be damaged by multiple factors, including oxidative stress and inflammation. Ramelteon is an oral hypnotic drug, and in the present study, we investigated its protective effect on BBB damage, as well as the underlying mechanism. LPS was used to induce BBB damage on mice and stimulate injury on endothelial cells. Evans blue staining assay was used to measure the brain permeability. The expressions of ZO-1 and Occludin were evaluated using immunostai...
Source: Inflammation - April 19, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

New Insights and Novel Therapeutic Potentials for Macrophages in Myocardial Infarction
AbstractCardiovascular disease (CVD) has long been the leading cause of death worldwide, and myocardial infarction (MI) accounts for the greatest proportion of CVD. Recent research has revealed that inflammation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of CVD and other manifestations of atherosclerosis. Overwhelming evidence supports the view that macrophages, as the basic cell component of the innate immune system, play a pivotal role in atherosclerosis initiation and progression. Limited but indispensable resident macrophages have been detected in the healthy heart; however, the number of cardiac macrophages significantly ...
Source: Inflammation - April 18, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Interferon Gamma-Mediated Oxidative Stress Induces Apoptosis, Neuroinflammation, Zinc Ion Influx, and TRPM2 Channel Activation in Neuronal Cell Line: Modulator Role of Curcumin
In conclusion, these results suggest that neuroinflammation via IFNg lead to the TRPM2 activation in the SH-SY5Y cells, whereas CRC prevents IFNg-mediated TRPM2 activation, cell death, and cytokine generations. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 17, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Induction of Exaggerated Cytokine Production in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by a Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein S1 and Its Inhibition by Dexamethasone
In this study, the effects of a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein S1 was investigated in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Stimulation of PBMCs with spike glycoprotein S1 (100 ng/mL) resulted in significant elevation in the production of TNF α, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-8. However, pre-treatment with dexamethasone (100 nM) caused significant reduction in the release of these cytokines. Further experiments revealed that S1 stimulation of PBMCs increased phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and IκBα, and IκBα degradation. DNA binding of NF-κB p6 5 was also significantly...
Source: Inflammation - April 16, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

PI3K/AKT/mTOR and TLR4/MyD88/NF- κB Signaling Inhibitors Attenuate Pathological Mechanisms of Allergic Asthma
AbstractAsthma is an inflammatory airway disease wherein bronchoconstriction, airway inflammation, and airway obstruction during asthma attacks are the main problems. It is recognized that imbalance of Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg is a critical factor in asthma pathogenesis. Manipulation of these with signaling molecules such as mTOR, PI3K, Akt, and MyD88 can control asthma. Mouse model of allergic asthma was produced and treated with ketamine, metformin, metformin and ketamine, triciribine, LY294002, and torin2. MCh challenge test, BALf's Eos Count, the IL-4, 5, INF- γ, eicosanoid, total IgE levels were determined. The MUC...
Source: Inflammation - April 16, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Atractylon Treatment Attenuates Pulmonary Fibrosis via Regulation of the mmu_circ_0000981/miR-211-5p/TGFBR2 Axis in an Ovalbumin-Induced Asthma Mouse Model
AbstractAsthma-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is an important public health concern that has few treatment options given its poorly understood etiology; however, the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of pulmonary epithelial cells has been implicated to play an important role in inducing PF. Although previous studies have found atractylon (Atr) to have anti-inflammatory effects, whether Atr has anti-PF abilities remains unknown. The purpose of the current study was to validate the protective efficiency of Atr in both an animal model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma and an EMT model induced by transforming growth ...
Source: Inflammation - April 14, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research