PPAR γ Agonist PGZ Attenuates OVA-Induced Airway Inflammation and Airway Remodeling via RGS4 Signaling in Mouse Model
In conclusion, the protective effect of PGZ on OVA-induced airway inflammation and remodeling might be partly regulated by RGS4 expression through ERK and Akt/mTOR signaling. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - July 19, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Pannexin-1 Channel Inhibitor Probenecid Attenuates Skeletal Muscle Cellular Energy Crisis and Histopathological Injury in a Rabbit Endotoxemia Model
This study aimed to investigate the effect of probenecid (Pro) as an inhibitor of the pannexin-1 (Panx-1) channel-mediated release of intracellular ATP to the extracellular compartment on inflammation, cellular energy crisis, and organ injury in a rabbit sepsis model induced byEscherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS). A total of 24 anesthetized and ventilated rabbits were randomly assigned to receive one of four treatments: infusion of LPS without Pro (LPS group), infusion of LPS with Pro (LPS + Pro group), sham operation without Pro (normal group), and sham operation with Pro (normal + Pro group). The LPS group had sign...
Source: Inflammation - July 16, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Resolvin D1 Promotes SIRT1 Expression to Counteract the Activation of STAT3 and NF- κB in Mice with Septic-Associated Lung Injury
AbstractResolvin D1 (RvD1) is a novel endogenous docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived lipid mediators, which possesses a dual role of anti-inflammation and promotes inflammation resolution. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of RvD1 on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis and explore the underlying mechanism. Six-to-eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into following three groups: sham-operated group (SO), CLP model group (CLP), and CLP+RvD1 group (RvD1). The SO group underwent the sham operation. The RvD1 groups were administered RvD1 (10-ng/g body weight) by penile vein in...
Source: Inflammation - July 16, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The In Vitro Impact of Glycyrrhizic Acid on CD4+ T Lymphocytes through OX40 Receptor in the Patients with Allergic Rhinitis
This study aimed to investigate thein vitro anti-allergic effect of GA through the OX40 receptor in patients with allergic rhinitis. Purified naive CD4+ T cells of patients with allergic rhinitis (n = 12) were activated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 with and without anti-OX40 agonist mAbs and then treated with 50, 100, and 200 μM GA and 0.1 μM dexamethasone. Cells were incubated (72 h) to measure cell proliferation. Expression of OX40 in anti-OX40 mAb stimulated CD4+ T cells was evaluated b y flow cytometry. mRNA expression of the OX40 receptor and T-bet, GATA-3, and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) tra...
Source: Inflammation - July 12, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Protective Effects of Terpinen-4-ol on LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury via Activating PPAR- γ
In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that terpinen-4-ol inhibited LPS-induced ALIvia activating PPAR- γ, which subsequently attenuated LPS-induced NF-κB activation and inflammatory response. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - July 12, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate Prevents Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice and Inhibits the Proliferation of Lung Fibroblasts
AbstractPulmonary fibrosis is a specific form of interstitial pneumonia. In addition to the idiopathic cause, it may be caused by drugs such as bleomycin (BLM) —used in the treatment of tumors. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) is a high-energy endogenous glycolytic compound that has antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of FBP on both BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice and i n a human embryonic lung fibroblast (MRC-5) culture system. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: control, FBP, BLM, and BLM plus FBP. A single dose of bleomyc...
Source: Inflammation - July 11, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Progranulin Is Positively Associated with Intervertebral Disc Degeneration by Interaction with IL-10 and IL-17 Through TNF Pathways
This study aims to determine the role of PGRN in the intervertebral disc degeneration process. We collected intervertebral discs (IVDs) from humans and mice with different gen etic backgrounds. We examined the expression of PGRN in IVD tissues by immunohistochemistry staining and Western blotting assay. We examined the peripheral serum level of PGRN by ELISA assay. Murine IVD tissue samples were taken to undergo safranin O, HE, and immunohistochemistry staining. Primary h uman nucleus pulposus cells were used for ELISA and RT-PCR assays. PGRN as well as interlukin-10 (IL-10) and interlukin-17 (IL-17) expressions were eleva...
Source: Inflammation - July 11, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Luteoloside Protects the Uterus from Staphylococcus aureus -Induced Inflammation, Apoptosis, and Injury
AbstractLuteoloside is a flavonoid extracted from several natural herbs that exhibits anti-microbial and anti-inflammation properties. Our study mainly identified the anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of luteoloside inStaphylococcus aureus-induced endometritis. Histopathological observations and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity showed that luteoloside could protect the uterus fromS. aureus-induced damage and ameliorate the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and ELISA analysis also revealed that luteoloside could decrease the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF- α, IL-1β, a...
Source: Inflammation - July 9, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

IDH2 Deficiency in Microglia Decreases the Pro-inflammatory Response via the ERK and NF- κB Pathways
In this study, we demonstrate that IDH2 contributes to the regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in microglia. The downregulation of IDH2 decreased the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory response in BV-2 and primary microglial cells. Furthermore, IDH2 deficiency downregulated pro-inflammatory mediatorsvia modulation of the ERK and NF- κB pathways. These results indicate that IDH2 is a potential target for the regulation of pro-inflammatory responses in LPS-activated microglial cells. Our findings also provide a basis for the development of new therapies for pro-inflammatory responses in dysfunction-...
Source: Inflammation - July 9, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Novel Anti-arthritic Mechanisms of Polydatin in Complete Freund ’s Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats: Involvement of IL-6, STAT-3, IL-17, and NF-кB
This study was designed to figure out the possible therapeutic potential of polydatin on experimentally induced arthritis in rats. Polydatin (POLY) was administered (200  mg/kg,p.o.) for 21  days to complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA; 0.1 ml, s.c.)-induced arthritic rats. Meanwhile, methotrexate (MTX; 0.75 mg/kg, i.p.) was given as a reference standard disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD). Both POLY and MTX significantly attenuated articular damage associated with CFA-induce d arthritis. This was manifested by reducing levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
Source: Inflammation - July 7, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

p38 Inhibition Ameliorates Inspiratory Resistive Breathing-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation
AbstractInspiratory resistive breathing (IRB), a hallmark of obstructive airway diseases, is associated with strenuous contractions of the inspiratory muscles and increased negative intrathoracic pressures that act as an injurious stimulus to the lung. We have shown that IRB induces pulmonary inflammation in healthy animals. p38 kinase is activated in the lung under stress. We hypothesized that p38 is activated during IRB and contributes to IRB-induced pulmonary inflammation. Anesthetized, tracheostomized rats breathed spontaneously through a two-way valve. Resistance was connected to the inspiratory port to provoke a peak...
Source: Inflammation - July 4, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Iron Chelator and Anticancer Agent Dp44mT Relieves Allergic Inflammation in Mice With Allergic Rhinitis
In conclusion, these results indicate that Dp44mT also has potential antiinflammatory effectsin vivo as well asin vitro. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - July 2, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mitophagy Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Diseases
AbstractMitophagy is a metabolic process to remove excessive or damaged mitochondria in eukaryotic cells. It is well-known that mitochondria are one of the major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondrial ROS and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) can activate inflammasomes to induce inflammatory responses. Once the activation is regulated improperly, excessive inflammation will bring about various tissue injuries, resulting in a series of diseases. However, the selective mitochondrial autophagy can specifically eliminate dysfunctional mitochondria to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis and protect ag...
Source: Inflammation - June 30, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Curcumin Attenuates Airway Inflammation and Airway Remolding by Inhibiting NF- κB Signaling and COX-2 in Cigarette Smoke-Induced COPD Mice
AbstractThe purpose of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effects of curcumin on airway inflammation using LPS and cigarette smoke (LC)-induced COPD murine models and LPS-stimulated human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. In this research, COPD murine models were established after challenged with LPS for 2  days and exposed to cigarette smoke for 35 days. Treatment with curcumin for 10 days distinctly alleviated airway inflammation and airway remolding in LC-induced COPD mice according to the lung H&E histopathological examination. The number of neutrophils and lymphocytes in broncho alveolar ...
Source: Inflammation - June 30, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Spilanthol Inhibits COX-2 and ICAM-1 Expression via Suppression of NF- κB and MAPK Signaling in Interleukin-1β-Stimulated Human Lung Epithelial Cells
This study evaluated its effects on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and inflammation-related mediators in IL-1 β-stimulated human lung epithelial A549 cells. Human lung epithelial A549 cells were pretreated with various concentrations of spilanthol (3–100 μM) followed by treatment with IL-1β to induce inflammation. The protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) were measured using ELISA. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), heme oxygenase (HO-1), nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP...
Source: Inflammation - June 30, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CIDEC Is Involved in LPS-Induced Inflammation and Apoptosis in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells
In conclusion, the results demonstrated that CIDEC/AMPK signaling pa thway played an important role in LPS-induced inflammation and epithelial cells apoptosis. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - June 30, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Astragaloside IV Inhibits Cigarette Smoke-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation in Mice
AbstractThe aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Astragaloside IV (AS) on cigarette smoke (CS)-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our results showed that AS alleviated CS-induced pathological injury in lung tissue. AS also increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and lung. AS also reduced cytokines including tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in serum and lung. More, AS significantly reduced the protein expression of JAK3/STAT3/NF-κB pathway in CS-induced mice.In ...
Source: Inflammation - June 29, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Combination Therapy with Curcumin Alone Plus Piperine Ameliorates Ovalbumin-Induced Chronic Asthma in Mice
In this study, protective effects of curcumin alone and in combination with piperine were evaluated in mouse model of allergic asthma. Balb/c mice were sensitized on days 0, 7, and 14 and challenged from days 16 –30 on alternate days with ovalbumin (OVA). Mice were pretreated with curcumin (Cur; 10 and 20 mg/kg) and piperine (Pip; 5 mg/kg) alone and in combinationvia the intraperitoneal route on days 16 –30 and compared with intranasal curcumin (5 mg/kg) treatment. Blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lungs were collected after mice were sacrificed on day 31st. Mice immunized with OVA ...
Source: Inflammation - June 29, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Hemolysis During Sepsis
AbstractCell-free hemoglobin is increasingly playing a more central role in the pathogenesis of sepsis being proved to be a potent predictor of patient ’s outcome. It is crucial, hence, to further investigate the mechanisms of sepsis-induced hemolysis with the aim of deriving possible therapeutic principles. Herein, we collected the most important previously known triggers of hemolysis during sepsis, which are (1) transfusion reactions and comple ment activation, (2) disseminated intravascular coagulation, (3) capillary stopped-flow, (4) restriction of glucose to red blood cells, (5) changes in red blood cell membran...
Source: Inflammation - June 28, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

PI3K/AKT and CD40L Signaling Regulate Platelet Activation and Endothelial Cell Damage in Sepsis
In this study, we identified PI3K/Akt pathway as a key regulator of CD40L secretion by platelets. Significantly, inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway by Ly294002 attenuated platelet activation and CD40L production. Moreover, PI3K/Akt pathway blocking suppresses vascular endothelial cellsin vivo. Furthermore, the expression of biomarkers that represent the severity of sepsis, such as ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin, was also suppressed by Ly294002. Altogether, our results confirm the pivotal role of PI3K/Akt pathway in sepsis and its inhibition might be a potential therapeutic target. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - June 28, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Partial Depletion of Regulatory T Cells Enhances Host Inflammatory Response Against Acute Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection After Sepsis
AbstractImmune dysfunction contributes to secondary infection and worse outcomes in sepsis. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been implicated in sepsis-induced immunosuppression. Nevertheless, the role of Tregs in secondary infection after sepsis remains to be determined. In the present study, a two-hit model which mimics clinical conditions was used and the potential role of Tregs in secondaryPseudomonas aeruginosa infection post-sepsis was investigated. Results showed that mice were susceptible to secondaryP. aeruginosa infection 3  days, but not 7 days, post-cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The levels of IL-17...
Source: Inflammation - June 28, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

IL-1 β Enhances Wnt Signal by Inhibiting DKK1
In this study, we explored the potential role of IL-1β on the expression ofWNT genes and the Wnt antagonistDickkopf-1 (DKK1). The expression ofWNT andDKK1 in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), which are articular resident cells, was quantified by quantitative PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additionally, we used T cell factor (TCF) reporter assays to evaluate the activity of the canonical Wnt signal pathway in the presence or absence of the supernatant of cultured FLS treated with or without IL-1 β and IL-6. Anti-DKK1 antibodies were used to neutralize DKK1. The expression of both canonical and non-ca...
Source: Inflammation - June 28, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Interleukin-37 Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation and Fibrosis in Mice
In this study, we investigated the effect of IL-37 on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. A lentivirus expressing IL-37 was administered intranasally to bleomycin-induced C57BL/6 mice. We found that IL-37 improved the survival of mice and reduced the body weight loss of mice caused by bleomycin. Furthermore, IL-37 significantly attenuated pulmonary inflammatory infiltration and collagen deposition and decreased the hydroxyproline content in bleomycin-treated mice. Finally, IL-37 treatment inhibited the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor- α, but increased the ex...
Source: Inflammation - June 28, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Cyclic Stretching Exacerbates Tendinitis by Enhancing NLRP3 Inflammasome Activity via F-Actin Depolymerization
AbstractModern molecular techniques have highlighted the presence of inflammation throughout the spectrum of tendinopathy. Previous studies have suggested that excessive inflammation in the tendon is a major factor leading to poor clinical treatment. Furthermore, the NLRP3 inflammasome, as a new term, is closely associated with the pathogenesis of many diseases. In the present study, we examined whether the NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to the development of tendinitis and whether cyclic stretching plays a prominent role in inflammation in the tendon. In the present study, we showed that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) remarkabl...
Source: Inflammation - June 27, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CD8 + Foxp3 + T Cells Affect Alveolar Bone Homeostasis via Modulating Tregs/Th17 During Induced Periodontitis: an Adoptive Transfer Experiment
AbstractPeriodontitis is a dysbiotic bacteria-mediated disease characterized by periodontal inflammations and alveolar bone damage. Its mechanisms were complicated, involving an inflammation-mediated bone destruction. We sought to determine roles and rules that CD8+ regulatory T cells (CD8+ Tregs) affect alveolar bone homeostasis during periodontitis. Presence of CD8+ Tregs in the gingiva, cervical lymph nodes (CLNs), and spleens of healthy or periodontitis animals was analyzed. CD8+ regulatory T cells from periodontitis animals were sorted by magnetic-activated cell sorting and fluorescent-activated cell sorting technique...
Source: Inflammation - June 27, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Time Course Pathological Changes After Burn Injury
AbstractIn the present study, we aimed to explore the time course pathological changes after burn injury. The time course microarray data of burn injury from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) was further analyzed through bioinformatics analysis. The differential expression genes (DEGs) were identified in the early-stagevs. control groups, middle-stagevs. control groups, and early-stagevs. middle-stage groups after burn injury, followed by pathway enrichment analysis. Gene modules associated with burn injury progression were identified through weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), and hub genes were identifi...
Source: Inflammation - June 27, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Clindamycin Administration Increases the Incidence of Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice Through the Prolonged Impact of Gut Immunity
AbstractThe profound influence of gut flora on host immune system and its link with autoimmune disorders have been established. However, the role of certain antibiotic in progression of autoimmune disorder is still confusing. Here, we employed a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model to explore the role of clindamycin administration in different scenarios. In the first scenario, mice treated with antibiotics for 4  weeks were performed with the induction of CIA immediately. The results showed that clindamycin administration promoted the incidence and severity of CIA, while the recipients of vancomycin showed completed...
Source: Inflammation - June 27, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Erythropoietin Treatment Ameliorates Lupus Nephritis of MRL/lpr Mice
In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of EPO on LN in MRL/lpr mice, a well-studied animal model for lupus. MRL/lpr mice were randomly divided into an EPO and control group. Mice in the EPO group were treated with EPO; saline was given to the control group. Both groups were treated for 10  weeks. We analyzed the differences of general disease condition, histopathologic changes, Th lymphocytes subsets, and the expression of inflammatory factors of mice between the groups. Compared to the control group, mice in the EPO group showed less spleen hyperplasia, less urinary protein, and lo wer serum anti-dsDN...
Source: Inflammation - June 27, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Taraxasterol on LPS-Stimulated Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
AbstractIn the present study, we used the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of taraxasterol on vascular inflammation. HUVECs were pre-treated with taraxasterol 1  h before lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. The concentrations of TNF-α, IL-8, PGE2, and NO were measured. The expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, iNOS, COX-2, NF-κB, and LXRα was detected by western blot analysis. The results showed that taraxasterol not only reduced the production of TNF-α, IL-8, PGE2, and NO induced by LPS, but also reduced the expression of iNOS a...
Source: Inflammation - June 27, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Influence of LPS-Induced Maternal Inflammation on Postnatal Collagen-Induced Arthritis
In conclusion, maternal inflammation does not merely suppress inflammation; it may delay CIA in offspring. The analysis of inflammatory cytokines and leptin concentrations at 26 weeks suggests that the pathophysiology of arthritis was worsening. This study also suggests that maternal inflammation modulates postnatal inflammatory response patte rns in offspring. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - June 27, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Uroseptic Shock Can Be Reversed by Early Intervention Based on Leukocyte Count 2  h Post-operation: Animal Model and Multicenter Clinical Cohort Study
This study investigated whether early intervention based on leukocyte count (WBC) of less than 2.85  × 109/L obtained within 2  h post-operatively may ameliorate the uroseptic shock induced by upper urinary tract endoscopic lithotripsy (UUTEL). Urosepsis was induced in 30 rabbits and assigned to three groups: Control-I, WBC-I, and Shock-I. Control-I: Non-intervention control. WBC-I: Immediate resuscitation when there was a drastic drop of WBC within 2 h post-operatively but without signs or symptoms of shock. Shock-I: Resuscitation only when there were signs or symptoms of shock. In total, 107...
Source: Inflammation - June 22, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Drug Dexamethasone Treatment During the Remobilization Period Improves Range of Motion in a Rat Knee Model of Joint Contracture
AbstractJoint inflammation following remobilization is an important factor in the progression of arthrogenic contracture. We evaluated the effects of an anti-inflammatory treatment during the remobilization period of recovery after joint immobilization in rats. Three groups of rats had their right knee joints immobilized for 3  weeks using an external fixator at a flexion of 140° to generate flexion contracture. Next, the fixation device was removed, allowing immobilized knees to freely move again for 1 or 7 days. These rats were daily injected with either the steroidal anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone or...
Source: Inflammation - June 18, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inflammation-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and GM-CSF Treatment Stimulate Mesenteric Mesothelial Cells to Transdifferentiate into Macrophages
AbstractIn our previous work, we showed that during inflammation-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), mesenteric mesothelial cells express ED1 (pan-macrophage marker), indicating that they are transformed into macrophage-like cells. In this paper, we provide additional evidences about this transition by following the phagocytic activity and the TNF α production of mesenteric mesothelial cells during inflammation. Upon injection of India ink particles or fluorescent-labeled bioparticles (pHrodo) into the peritoneal cavity of rats pretreated with Freund‘s adjuvant, we found that mesothelial cells e...
Source: Inflammation - June 18, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

SOCS-1 Suppresses Inflammation Through Inhibition of NALP3 Inflammasome Formation in Smoke Inhalation-Induced Acute Lung Injury
In conclusion, SOCS-1 relieves smoke inhalation-induced pulmonary inflammation and injury by inhibiting NALP3 inflammasome formation. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - June 16, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Andrographolide Ameliorates Atherosclerosis by Suppressing Pro-Inflammation and ROS Generation-Mediated Foam Cell Formation
This study shows that andrographolide downregulates the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced expression of the pro-inflammatory molecules monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and interleukin (IL)-6 and blocks the nuclear factor- κB signaling pathway in macrophages. Additionally, andrographolide treatment decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in oxLDL-induced macrophages, indicating that the compound can decrease oxidative stress. The results also suggest that andrographolide suppresses oxLDL-induced foam cell formation and inhibits oxLDL-induced CD36 expressionin vitro. Furthermore,in vivo st...
Source: Inflammation - June 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Quantification of Inflammasome Adaptor Protein ASC in Biological Samples by Multiple-Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry
AbstractInflammation is an integral component of many diseases, including chronic kidney disease (CKD). ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD, also PYCARD) is the key inflammasome adaptor protein in the innate immune response. Since ASC specks, a macromolecular condensate of ASC protein, can be released by inflammasome-activated cells into the extracellular space to amplify inflammatory responses, the ASC protein could be an important biomarker in diagnostic applications. Herein, we describe the development and validation of a multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) assay for the accu...
Source: Inflammation - June 9, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Ulinastatin Protects against CVB3-Induced Acute Viral Myocarditis through Nrf2 Activation
In this study, we investigated the role of Nrf2 in mediating UTI ’s cardioprotection in a mouse model of AVM. We found that UTI is an activator of Nrf2 signaling. It markedly increased Nrf2 nuclear translocation, Nrf2 transcription capacity, and the downstream protein expression. In addition, UTI possessed strong protective functions in coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) -induced AVM. UTI treatment effectively reduced the cardiac damage, decreased the expression of inflammatory cytokines, and balanced oxidative stressvia improving the activity of anti-oxidant and detoxifying enzymes. Even more impressively, UTI achieved its ca...
Source: Inflammation - June 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CX3CL1/CX3CR1 Axis Contributes to Angiotensin II-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Inflammatory Cytokine Production
In this study, we aim to explore whether Ang II has a role in the expression of CX3CL1/CX3CR1, thus contributing to the proliferation and pro-inflammatory status of VSMCs. Cultured mouse aortic VSMCs were stimulated with 100  nmol/L of Ang II, and the expression of CX3CR1 was assessed by western blot. The results demonstrated that Ang II significantly up-regulated CX3CR1 expression in VSMCs and induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, ROS, and AT1 receptor significantly reduced Ang II-induced CX3CR1 expression. Targeted disruption of CX3C...
Source: Inflammation - June 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Plantamajoside Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced MUC5AC Expression and Inflammation through Suppressing the PI3K/Akt and NF- κB Signaling Pathways in Human Airway Epithelial Cells
In conclusion, PMS inhib its LPS-induced MUC5AC expression and inflammation through suppressing the PI3K/Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways, indicating that PMS may be a potential therapy for the treatment of respiratory inflammatory diseases. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - June 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

TREM2 Ameliorates Neuronal Tau Pathology Through Suppression of Microglial Inflammatory Response
In this study, by employing a microglial-neuronal co-culture model, we showed that microglial inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide led to tau hyperphosphorylation in neuronsvia activation of a major tau kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3 β, confirming the pathogenic effects of activated microglia on the progression of tau pathology. More importantly, by manipulating TREM2 levels in microglia with a lentiviral-mediated strategy, we demonstrated that TREM2 ameliorated the pathological effects of activated microglia on neuronal tau hy perphosphorylationvia suppression of microglial inflammatory response. Ta...
Source: Inflammation - June 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Microenvironment of Immune Cells Within the Visceral Adipose Tissue Sensu Lato vs. Epicardial Adipose Tissue: What Do We Know?
AbstractThe chronic low-grade inflammation of the visceral adipose tissue is now fully established as one of the main contributors to metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, subsequently leading to metabolic syndrome and other associated cardiometabolic pathologies. The orchestration of immune response and the “ratio of responsibility” of different immune cell populations have been studied extensively over the last few years within the visceral adipose tissue in general sense (sensu lato). However, it is essential to clearly distinguish different types of visceral fat distribution. Visceral adipose tiss...
Source: Inflammation - May 30, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Somatostatin Analogue Octreotide on Rheumatoid Arthritis Synoviocytes
AbstractSomatostatin and its analogues are known to have modulatory effects on immune response and their anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, and analgesic properties make them attractive candidates for a therapeutic use in immune-mediated diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we demonstrate the ability of the somatostatin analogue octreotide to inhibit interleukin-15 and to increase interleukin-10 production by rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synovial cells maintained in a chronic inflammatory state. We also prove that the inhibitory effect of octreotide on interleukin-15 and tumor necrosis factor- α pr...
Source: Inflammation - May 26, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Neutrophils as a Potential Source of Chitinase-3-like Protein 1 in Cystic Fibrosis
AbstractThe chitinase-3-like protein 1, also known as YKL-40, is an inflammatory marker increased in blood of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Systemic levels of YKL-40 are increased in dysglycemic patients with CF. Our objective is to determine if YKL-40 is expressed and released by CF neutrophils. We also assessed if specific stimulus, such as glucose and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), can induce the secretion of YKL-40. Neutrophil cells of healthy adults and patients with CF were isolated. Immunostaining of whole blood and neutrophils was done. CF and healthy neutrophils were cultured with either LPS or varying concentrat...
Source: Inflammation - May 26, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Sam68 Promotes Invasion, Migration, and Proliferation of Fibroblast-like Synoviocytes by Enhancing the NF- κB/P65 Pathway in Rheumatoid Arthritis
In this study, we analyzed the effect and possible mechanisms of Sam68 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). By western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, we found that the expression of Sam68 in synovial tissue of RA patients was increased compared with the cont rol group. Immunoflourescent staining demonstrated that Sam68 co-localized with fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) of RA patients. Additionally, the expression of Sam68 in FLS was increased by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulation, in a time-dependent manner. Upon TNF-α treatment, Sam68 transl ocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus where it interact...
Source: Inflammation - May 21, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

miR-199b-5p Regulates Immune-Mediated Allograft Rejection after Lung Transplantation Through the GSK3 β and NF-κB Pathways
In this study, we identified a novel anti-inflammatory effect of miR-199b-5p (miR-199b) through the GSK3 β and NF-κB pathways. THP-1 monocytes treated with LPS showed a significant decrease in miR-199b that is inversely correlated to GSK3β expression and NF-κB activation. Furthermore, the NF-κB-associated inflammatory response was reduced due to the overexpression of miR-199b targeting GSK3β, whi ch was rescued by the inhibition of miR-199b. These results indicated that miR-199b attenuated the inflammatory response at least partly through the GSK3β/NF-κB signaling pathways in mon...
Source: Inflammation - May 19, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Penehyclidine Hydrochloride Decreases Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Inflammatory Injury Through a Beta-Arrestin-1-Dependent Mechanism
AbstractPenehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC), a type of hyoscyamus drug, has both antimuscarinic and antinicotinic activities and retains potent central and peripheral anticholinergic activities. Compared with other hyoscyamine, the notable advantage of PHC is that it has few M2 receptor-associated cardiovascular side effects. Recent studies and clinical trials have suggested that treatment with penehyclidine hydrochloride may also possess good effects in the treatment of lung injury. The mechanism responsible for this effect has yet to be determined; however, one possibility is that they might do so by a direct effect on pul...
Source: Inflammation - May 15, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Corynoline Exhibits Anti-inflammatory Effects in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Stimulated Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells through Activating Nrf2
In conclusion, the results indicated that corynoline exhibited anti-inflammatory activity b y activating Nrf2. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - May 11, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Saikosaponin A Inhibits LPS-Induced Endometritis in Mice Through Activating Nrf2 Signaling Pathway
In this study, we reported the protective effects and mechanism of SSA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endometritis in mice. The pathological changes and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity of uterus tissues were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and MPO detection kit. Inflammatory cytokines TNF- α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 production were detected by ELISA. The expression of protein was measured by western blot analysis. The results showed that SSA administration inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration as confirmed by the decreased MPO activity. LPS-induced uterus histological changes were also s up...
Source: Inflammation - May 10, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Cyclic Tensile Strain Upregulates Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Expression Via FAK-MAPK Signaling in Chondrocytes
In conclusion, FAK appears to regulate infl ammation in chondrocytes under CTSvia MAPK pathways. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - May 8, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Differential Effects of Brain Death on Rat Microcirculation and Intestinal Inflammation: Female Versus Male
AbstractBrain death (BD) affects organs by multiple mechanisms related to hemodynamic effects, hormonal changes, and the systemic inflammatory response, which reduce organ function and viability. BD reduces microcirculatory perfusion in rat mesentery; this disturbance is also observed in the pancreas and lungs. Sex hormones can affect microcirculatory function, altering tissue perfusion and influencing the inflammatory process. Here, we present differences between sexes in the microcirculatory alterations generated by BD and in inflammatory infiltrate. Male, female, and ovariectomized-female Wistar rats were submitted to B...
Source: Inflammation - May 8, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research