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CD80 Regulates Th17 Cell Differentiation in Coxsackie Virus B3-Induced Acute Myocarditis
AbstractThe cluster of differentiation protein complex, CD80/CD86, regulates Th1/Th2 differentiation in autoimmune disease. In order to establish the effects of CD80/CD86 on Th17 cell differentiation in acute viral myocarditis (VMC), we infected C57BL/6 mice with Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) and examined the effects of the treatment with anti-CD80/CD86 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) on Th17 cell differentiationin vivo. The effects of anti-CD80/CD86 mAbs on Th17 cell differentiation were further evaluatedin vitro. The treatment with anti-CD80 mAb induced marked suppression of Th17 cell differentiation and ROR- γt mRNA expr...
Source: Inflammation - October 16, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Experimental Study of the Protective Effect of Simvastatin on Lung Injury in Rats with Sepsis
In conclusion, simvastatin improved endothelial permeability and mitigated the inflammatory response of lung tissue, the oxidative stress response, and cell apoptosis by inhibiting the TLR4/NF- κB signaling pathway, thereby alleviating sepsis-induced acute lung injury in rats. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 11, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Preventive and Therapeutic Effects of Thymol in a Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury Mice Model
AbstractAcute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening syndrome which causes a high mortality rate worldwide. In traditional medicine, lots of aromatic plants —such as someThymus species —are used for treatment of various lung diseases including pertussis, bronchitis, and asthma. Thymol, one of the primary active constituent derived fromThymus vulgaris (thyme), has been reported to exhibit potent anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory activitiesin vivo andin vitro. The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of thymol in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury mice model. In LP...
Source: Inflammation - October 10, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Time-Dependent Production of Endothelium-Related Biomarkers is Affected Differently in Hemorrhagic and Septic Shocks
AbstractShock is associated with inflammation-induced endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to determine time-dependent alteration of blood biomarkers related to endothelial function in hemorrhagic and septic shocks. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by bleeding the animals. A cecal ligation and incision model was used to induce septicemia. Resuscitation was carried out by infusion of lactated Ringer ’s solution. Resuscitation extended survival time in both shock groups. Blood pressure increased by resuscitation in the hemorrhagic shock but not in the septic shock. While hemorrhage caused a decrease in plasm...
Source: Inflammation - October 10, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Saikosaponin a Ameliorates LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice
In conclusion, we found that SSa played a critical anti-in flammatory effect through inhibition of NF-κB and NLRP3 signaling pathways and protected against LPS-induced ALI. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Acute Lung Injury in Response to Intratracheal Instillation of Lipopolysaccharide in an Animal Model of Emphysema Induced by Elastase
This study compared the lung response to intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats with and without emphysema. Twenty-four Wistar rats were randomized to four groups: control group (C-G), ALI group (ALI-G), emphysema group (E-G), emphysema and ALI group (E-ALI-G). Euthanasia and the following analysis were performed 24  h after ALI induction: lung histology, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators, and blood gas measures. The histological analysis showed that animals of ALI-G (0.55 ± 0.15) and E-ALI-G (0.69 ± 0.08) had a higher ALI ...
Source: Inflammation - October 3, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV (CaMKIV) Mediates Acute Skeletal Muscle Inflammatory Response
The objective of this study is to investigate the role of Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) in Cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced mice muscle inflammation. CTX injection i.m. was performed to induce B6 mice acute tibialis anterior (TA) muscle injury. The mice were then injected i.p. with the recombinant CaMKIV protein or its antagonist KN-93. Immunoblotting was used to assess Calmodulin (CaM) and CaMKIV levels. Immunofluorescence was used to detect intramuscular infiltration or major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I expression in damaged muscle. The extent of infiltration was evaluated by fluorescent intensity analy...
Source: Inflammation - October 2, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Study of the Therapeutic Effects of Resveratrol on Blunt Chest Trauma-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats and the Potential Role of Endocan as a Biomarker of Inflammation
AbstractThe present study focused on the therapeutic effects of resveratrol in a rat model of blunt chest trauma-induced acute lung injury and the potential role of endocan as a biomarker of inflammation. They were randomly divided into the following four groups (n = 7 in each group): control group (no treatment or trauma); trauma group (trauma-induced group); resveratrol group (resveratrol [0.3 mg/kg] administeredvia the i.p. route group); and resveratrol + trauma group (resveratrol [0.3  mg/kg] administeredvia the i.p. route 1  h prior to the induction of trauma At the end of the 24 h, all t...
Source: Inflammation - September 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Neural Crest-Derived Stem Cell-Conditioned Media against Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Lung Injury in Rats
In this study, NCSC-CM was derived from rat NCSCs. Typical acute lung injury was induced by 30-min ischemia followed by 90-min reperfusion in adult male Sprague –Dawley rats. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were collected to analyze the degree of lung injury after the experiment. NCSC-CM was administered before ischemia and after reperfusion. NCSC-CM treatment significantly attenuated IR-induced lung edema, as indicated by decreases i n pulmonary vascular permeability, lung weight gain, wet to dry weight ratio, lung weight to body weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure, and protein level in BA...
Source: Inflammation - September 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Paeonol Inhibits IL-1 β-Induced Inflammation via PI3K/Akt/NF-κB Pathways: In Vivo and Vitro Studies
In conclusion, these results suggest that paeonol may be a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of OA. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - September 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Theoretical and Experimental in vivo Study of Antioxidant Activity of Crocin in Order to Propose Novel Derivatives with Higher Antioxidant Activity and Their Delivery via Nanotubes and Nanocones
In this study, the antioxidant activity of crocin via experimental and theoretical methods was investigated. In order to induce oxidative stress, 30-min renal ischemia and 24-h reperfusion were used in male Wistar rats. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP). The results showed that following ischemia/reperfusion, the level of MDA was increased and FRAP decreased. Both of these changes were alleviated by crocin administration. The bond dissociation enthalpy and ionization potential values as enthalpies of mechanism of antioxidant activity of croc...
Source: Inflammation - September 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

An Interaction of LPS and RSV Infection in Augmenting the AHR and Airway Inflammation in Mice
AbstractRespiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in children under 5  years of age, especially infants with severe bronchiolitis. Our preliminary clinical experiments showed that bacterial colonization was commonly observed in children with virus-induced wheezing, particularly in those with recurrent wheezing, suggesting that bacterial colonization with an accompany ing viral infection may contribute to disease severity. In most cases, RSV-infected infants were colonized with pathogenic bacteria (mainly Gram-negative bacteria). LPS is the main component o...
Source: Inflammation - September 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Increased O -Linked N-Acetylglucosamine Modification of NF- ΚB and Augmented Cytokine Production in the Placentas from Hyperglycemic Rats
AbstractInflammation as a result of NF- κB activation may result from the classical (canonical) pathway, with disconnection of the IκB inhibitor and subsequent nuclear translocation or, alternatively, by post-translational modifications of modulatory proteins or NF-κB subunits (non-canonical pathway). We hypothesized that hyperglycemia -induced increased glycosylation withO-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) of NF- κB in placental tissue leads to augmented production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, culminating in placental dysfunction and fetal restriction growth. Single injections of streptozotoc...
Source: Inflammation - September 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

B Lymphocyte Chemoattractant (CXCL13) Is an Indicator of Acute Gastrointestinal GVHD in Murine Model
AbstractGastrointestinal acute graft-vs.-host disease (GI aGVHD) remains a significant obstacle to the success of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In addition, GI aGVHD is often clinically indistinguishable from other causes of GI dysfunction such as conditioning regimen toxicity, infections, or medications, which complicates the diagnosis. Thus, specific biomarkers are needed to help improve diagnosis and obtain a deeper understanding of the cytokine changes in GI aGVHD. An MHC-mismatched model of aGVHD was established by transplanting 1  × 107 ...
Source: Inflammation - September 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Salidroside Attenuates LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats
AbstractThe purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of salidroside (Sal) on lung injury in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemicin vitro andin vivo. SD rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group, LPS group (15  mg kg−1), LPS plus dexamethasone (2  mg kg−1), and LPS plus Sal groups with different Sal doses (20  mg kg−1, 40  mg kg−1). Wet-to-dry weight (W/D) ratio was performed. Hematoxylin –eosin (HE) staining of lung was performed. Lung level of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured. Serum levels of the activities ...
Source: Inflammation - September 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inhibition of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Alleviates Lung Injury Induced by Brain Death
In this study, a stable BD rat model was constructed to investigate the role of ER stress on BD-induced lung injury. H&E staining demonstrated that BD can induce lung injury in rats. The results of Western blot and immunohistochemistry showed that apoptosis was observed in the lung tissues of BD rats. And the level of GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2 α, CHOP, and Caspase-12 was highly expressed in BD rats compared with the control group. Inhibition of ER stress with salubrinal reduced the BD-induced lung inflammation. Moreover, BD-induced increase of NF-κB activity was lowered by inhibition of ER stress. These results...
Source: Inflammation - September 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Attenuation of 14-3-3 ζ is Involved in the Caffeic Acid-Blocked Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Inflammatory Response in RAW264.7 Macrophages
AbstractInflammation plays important roles in the initiation and progress of many diseases. Caffeic acid (CaA) is a naturally occurring hydroxycinnamic acid derivative, which shows hypotoxicity and diverse biological functions, including anti-inflammation. The molecular mechanisms involved in the CaA-inhibited inflammatory response are very complex; generally, the down-regulated phosphorylation of such important transcriptional factors, for example, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (STAT-3), plays an important role. Here, we found that in RAW264.7 macrophage cel...
Source: Inflammation - September 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Oxidative Stress: the Ameliorative Effects of Vitamin D
AbstractObesity is a low-grade inflammatory disease and is associated with numerous comorbidities. The current study was aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin D administrations on markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in adipose tissue of high-fat diet-induced obese rats. In the beginning of the study, 40 rats were divided into two groups: normal diet and high-fat diet (HFD) for 16  weeks; then, each group was subdivided into two groups including ND, ND + vitamin D, HFD, and HFD + vitamin D. Vitamin D supplementation was done for 5 weeks at 500 IU/kg dosage. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-&a...
Source: Inflammation - September 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Comparative Effects of Schisandrin A, B, and C on Acne-Related Inflammation
AbstractInflammatory responses induced byPropionibacterium acnes are a major etiological factor in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Schisandrin A, schisandrin B, and schisandrin C are the representative lignans ofSchisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. extract. Although anti-inflammatory effects of the lignans have been shown, their effects on acne-related inflammation caused byP.acnes have not been investigated and compared. We pretreated THP-1 human monocytic cells with 5, 10, and 20  μM schisandrin A, B, and C, and stimulated the cells withP.acnes. Schisandrin B and C inhibited the release of inflammatory cytokin...
Source: Inflammation - September 5, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Propofol Attenuates Inflammatory Response in LPS-Activated Microglia by Regulating the miR-155/SOCS1 Pathway
This study explored the anti-inflammatory effects of propofol in LPS-activated BV2 microglia. Propofol potently decreased the pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide, TNF- α, and IL-6, at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Furthermore, propofol suppressed the expression of miR-155 in LPS-activated cells. Knockdown of miR-155 attenuated the anti-inflammatory effect of propofol in cells after LPS exposure. miR-155 was also confirmed as a negative regula tor of SOCS1 expression. The inhibitory effect of propofol on LPS-induced inflammation involved the upregulation of SOCS1. Overall, these resul...
Source: Inflammation - September 5, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Novel Role of a Chemotherapeutic Agent in a Rat Model of Endotoxemia: Modulation of the STAT-3 Signaling Pathway
In conclusion, these findings suggest that IMA is endowed with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-apoptotic properties and hence may provide a novel agent for the management of sepsis. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - September 4, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Distinctively Expressed Cytokines by Three Different Inflammation Cells and Their Interaction with Keratinocytes in Wound Healing
AbstractInflammatory cells exert crucial influence on wound healing, while exploration is still desired to get further insight into the key factors that promote the process. In the present study, we performed comparative microarray data analysis of the three types of inflammatory cells isolated from skin wounds and focused on differentially expressed secreted factors. Gene Ontology enrichment and receptor analysis indicated that 11 genes of secreted factors in Ly6C+ inflammatory macrophages and 27 genes of secreted factors in neutrophils exhibited higher ( ≥ 5-fold) expression, and all these factors were considered...
Source: Inflammation - September 2, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effects of a High-Fat Diet on Adipose Tissue CD8+ T Cells in Young vs . Adult Mice
In this study, we investigated T cells in the white adipose tissue of young and adult mice. Obesity was induced in the mice using a high-fat diet (HFD) for 14  weeks. The young mice were fed an HFD at 3 weeks old, and adult mice were fed the HFD at 12 weeks old. Relative to adult mice, the young mice gained less fat and exhibited better glucose tolerance. Their adipose tissue contained more CD8+ T cells and higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Young mice showed a larger increase in CD4+ T cells. The young and adult mice showed similar insulin tolerance. HFD reduced the colon muscle layer, which was m...
Source: Inflammation - September 2, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Pyrazole Derivative BTP2 Attenuates IgG Immune Complex-induced Inflammation
AbstractStore-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is the most common mode of calcium influx in non-excitable cells, including immune cells. The two STIM isoforms mediate SOCE as well as Fc receptor (FcR) —downstream activation of macrophages and mast cells—which appears to be relevantin vivo, in models of antibody-dependent tissue injury and allergy. Hence, the pathway of SOCE may be a therapeutic target for treatment of immune complex (IC)-mediated autoimmunity and allergic asthma. The pyrazole derivative, BTP2 is an efficient inhibitor of SOCE, which has already been shown to attenuate allergic inflammation. Howeve...
Source: Inflammation - August 29, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Functional Role of SUV39H1 in Human Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells Under High-glucose Ambiance
AbstractSUV39H1, the histone methyltransferase (HMTase) of histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3), is a known transcriptional repressor of inflammatory genes. The effect of SUV39H1 on inflammatory gene promoters under high-glucose stimulation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), macrophages, and cardiomyocytes has been studied, but how SUV39H1 functions in renal tubules under diabetic conditions is unclear. Renal biopsy specimens of ten diabetic nephropathy (DN) subjects and seven non-DN minimal change diseases (MCD) subjects were collected. SUV39H1, IL-6, and MCP-1 expression in renal tissues were measured using...
Source: Inflammation - August 29, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Biomechanical Stretch Induces Inflammation, Proliferation, and Migration by Activating NFAT5 in Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells
AbstractThe increasing wall stress as is elicited by arterial hypertension promotes their reorganization in the vessel wall which may lead to arterial stiffening and contractile dysfunction. The nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) pathway plays a role in regulating growth and differentiation in various cell types. We investigated whether the NFAT5 pathway was involved in the regulation of biomechanical stretch-induced human arterial smooth muscle cell (HUASMC) proliferation, inflammation, and migration. Herein, we showed that stretch promoted the expression of NFAT5 in human arterial smooth muscle cells and regul...
Source: Inflammation - August 24, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Experimental Periodontitis in the Potentialization of the Effects of Immobilism in the Skeletal Striated Muscle
This study aims to evaluate if ligature-induced periodontitis can potentiates the deleterious effects of immobilization in the skeletal striated muscle, contributing to the development of muscle atrophy due to disuse. FortyWistar rats were divided into four groups: (1) Control Group (CG), (2) Periodontal Disease (PDG), (3) Immobilized (IG), and (4) Immobilized with Periodontal Disease (IPDG). Periodontal disease was induced for 30  days, with ligature method, and the immobilization was performed with cast bandage for 15 days. Prior to euthanasia, nociceptive threshold and muscular grasping force were evaluated. A...
Source: Inflammation - August 18, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Gypenoside IX Suppresses p38 MAPK/Akt/NF κB Signaling Pathway Activation and Inflammatory Responses in Astrocytes Stimulated by Proinflammatory Mediators
AbstractGypenoside IX (GP IX) is a pure compound isolated fromPanax notoginseng. Gypenosides have been implicated to benefit the recovery of enormous neurological disorders. By suppressing the activation of astrocytes, gypenosides can improve the cognitive impairment. However, so far, little is known about whether GP IX could restrain the inflammatory responses in astrocytes or reactive astrogliosis. In present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of GP IX were investigated in reactive astrocytes induced by proinflammatory mediators bothin vitro andin vivo. GP IX significantly reduced the production of inducible nitric oxi...
Source: Inflammation - August 18, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Lipoxin A 4 Attenuates Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia via Upregulation of Let-7c and Downregulation of TGF- β 1 Signaling Pathway
AbstractTransforming growth factor- β (TGF-β) superfamily members are key regulators for lung development and progress of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The mechanisms by which lipoxin A4 (LXA4) attenuates development of BPD have not been clarified. Neonatal murine BPD models were inducted by hyperoxia treatment. Neonatal mice were exposed to room air or 85% O2 hyperoxia with or without treatment with 5S,6R-methyl-LXA4 or anti-TGF- β antibodies. Mouse lung epithelial cells (MLE-12 cells) and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3T3 cells) were cultured in room air or 85% O2 followed by treatment of LXA4, anti...
Source: Inflammation - August 17, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Suppressive Effects of TSAHC in an Experimental Mouse Model and Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes of Rheumatoid Arthritis
AbstractThe purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of TSAHC [4 ′-(p-toluenesulfonylamido)-4-hydroxychalcone] in K/BxN serum transfer arthritis model and fibroblast-like synoviocytes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA-FLS). Inin vivo experiments, TSAHC attenuated the incidence and severity of arthritis in comparison with the vehicle group. Histological findings showed that TSAHC decreased the inflammation, bone erosion, cartilage damage, and osteoclasts activity in the ankle. Furthermore, we confirmed by biochemical analysis that the observations were associated with the decreased expression of proinflammatory cy...
Source: Inflammation - August 17, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Melatonin Attenuates Pain Hypersensitivity and Decreases Astrocyte-Mediated Spinal Neuroinflammation in a Rat Model of Oxaliplatin-Induced Pain
AbstractNeuroinflammatory response in spinal dorsal horn has been demonstrated to be a critical factor in oxaliplatin-induced pain. Melatonin has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-allodynia effects in both preclinical and clinical studies. In the present study, we investigated the role of systemic administration of melatonin on oxaliplatin-induced pain. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with oxaliplatin induced significantly mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Melatonin (i.p.) significantly alleviated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in the oxaliplatin but not sham-treated rats. The atten...
Source: Inflammation - August 15, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effects of Sodium Houttuyfonate on Pulmonary Inflammation in COPD Model Rats
AbstractThe anti-inflammatory effect of sodium houttuyfonate (SH), an herbal-originated drug that used in China clinically, was investigated on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) inflammatory model rats induced by combination usage of cigarette smoke (CS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The morphology of the lung tissue, the expression levels of cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the protein levels of TLR4, NF- κB p65, and SIGIRR, and the mRNA levels of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB p65, and SIGIRR in lung tissues were investigated, respectively. After treated by SH (24.3 mg/kg), the abnorm...
Source: Inflammation - August 15, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Milonine, an Alkaloid of Cissampelos sympodialis Eichl. (Menispermaceae) Inhibits Histamine Release of Activated Mast Cells
AbstractMilonine is an alkaloid ofCissampelos sympodialis Eichl. (Menispermaceae), a plant used in the northeast of Brazil to treat allergies such as asthma, rhinitis, and other conditions. Previously, several alkaloids were isolated from its roots and leaves with pharmacological properties in asthma and acute inflammation models. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the milonine effect on mast cells degranulationin vivo andin vitro. Swiss mice (n = 8) were used in models of paw edema induced by carrageenan, compound 48/80, or histamine. One hour before challenge, the animals were treated with milonin...
Source: Inflammation - August 15, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-Dll4 Antibody Inhibits the Differentiation of Th17 Cells in Asthmatic Mice
In this study, experimental animals were divided into five groups (control group, asthma group, physiological saline group, anti-Dll4 antibody group, and immunoglobulin G group). The study aimed to explore the effect of anti-Dll4 antibody on the differentiation of Th17 cell in asthmatic mice. Dll4 protein expressions were performed by immunohistochemical imaging. The proportion of Th17 cells in mouse spleen-isolated CD4+ T cells were measured by flow cytometry. The protein expression of Th17 transcription factor retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor (ROR γt) was detected by Western blotting. Interleukin (IL)-17 le...
Source: Inflammation - August 15, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Macrophage M1 Plays a Positive Role in Aseptic Inflammation-Related Graft Loosening After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Surgery
(Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - August 15, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Downregulation of Paralemmin-3 Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats by Regulating Inflammatory Response and Inhibiting Formation of TLR4/MyD88 and TLR4/TRIF Complexes
This study investigated the effect of PALM3 knockdown on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and its underlying mechanisms. We constructed a recombinant adenoviral vector containing short hairpin RNA for PALM3 to knockdown PALM3 expression. A transgene-free adenoviral vector was used as a negative control. The ALI rat model was established by LPS peritoneal injection at 48-h post-transfection. Results showed that downregulation of PALM3 improved the survival rate, attenuated lung pathological changes, alleviated pulmonary edema, lung vascular leakage and neutrophil infiltration, inhibited the productio...
Source: Inflammation - August 12, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) Show Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Lung Tissues
This study is the first to achieve lung-specific overexpression of VDR in TG mice: an interesting animal model useful for studying the relation between airway cell inflammation and vitamin D signaling. VDR expression is an important factor that influences anti-inflammatory responses in lung tissues. Our results show the crucial role of VDR in anti-inflammatory effects in lungs; these data are potentially useful for the treatment or prevention of COPD. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - August 12, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Milonine, a Morphinandienone Alkaloid, Has Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects by Inhibiting TNF- α and IL-1β Production
In conclusion, we demonstrate that milonine has anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities by inhibiting mediators essential for the inflammatory process. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - August 11, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

An Immunogenic Peptide, T2 Induces Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome: an Autoimmune Mouse Model for Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome
AbstractThe exact pathophysiology of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome is unknown; however, autoimmunity is a valid theory. We developed an autoimmune chronic cystitis model by administration of the medium dose of immunogenic peptide T2. Sixty female C57BL/6 mice were divided into six groups. The control group was not treated with any reagent. CFA group was injected with CFA  + normal saline, homogenate group with bladder homogenate + CFA, low-dose group with low dose of T2 peptide + CFA, medium dose group with the medium dose of T2 peptide + CFA, and high-dose group wit...
Source: Inflammation - August 10, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Paeoniflorin Ameliorates Atherosclerosis by Suppressing TLR4-Mediated NF- κB Activation
AbstractPaeoniflorin, a type of bioactive monoterpene glucoside in Paeoniae Radix, possesses anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycaemic properties. However, the underlying mechanism of paeoniflorin in treating atherosclerosis is unclear. A rat model of high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis and palmitic acid (PA)-treated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were used in this study. The serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined, and the results indicated that paeoniflorin remark...
Source: Inflammation - August 8, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Crocin Attenuates Joint Pain and Muscle Dysfunction in Osteoarthritis Rat
AbstractOsteoarthritis is the most prevalent form of arthritis, affecting a large part of population. It has been reported that muscle weakness and inflammation contribute to osteoarthritis development and progression. Oxidative stress plays important roles in muscle dysfunction and inflammation induction. Crocin, a component of saffron, has excellent antioxidative property. However, it is unclear if crocin can be a potential medicine for osteoarthritis therapy. Osteoarthritis in rats was induced by meniscectomy (MNX) surgery. Then, rats were given with 30  mg/kg of crocin daily for 10 days after osteoarthritis i...
Source: Inflammation - August 7, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Aucubin Alleviates Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in a Mouse Model
This study provides an evidence that aucubin may be a novel drug for pulmonary fibrosis. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - August 7, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Sesquiterpene Lactone, Budlein A, Inhibits Antigen-Induced Arthritis in Mice: Role of NF- κB and Cytokines
In this study, the effect of budlein A was evaluated in antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in mice. At the 26th day, leukocyte recruitment to the knee joint, knee contents of proteoglycans, blood levels of ALT and AST, stomach tissue myeloperoxidase activity, and RT-qPCR for pro-inflammatory gene mRNA expression in knee joint samples was performed. NF-κB luciferase activity was evaluated in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Budlein A treatment dose-dependently inhibited AIA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia, edema, total leu kocytes and neutrophil recruitment, and proteoglycan degradation. Budlein A did not induce gastric or liver d...
Source: Inflammation - August 5, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Prenatal Exposure to Lipopolysaccharide Induces PTX3 Expression and Results in Obesity in Mouse Offspring
This study tested the hypothesis whether inflammation will directly lead to obesity. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between inflammation and obesity by intraperitoneally injecting pregnant mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (75  μg kg−1). The results showed that inflammation during pregnancy could lead to a significant increase in the levels of the inflammatory factor PTX3. The offspring of the LPS-treated mice displayed abnormal levels of fat development, blood lipids, and glucose metabolism, and fat differentiation markers were significantly increased. Our study also confirmed ...
Source: Inflammation - August 2, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

1,6- O , O -Diacetylbritannilactone Inhibits Eotaxin-1 and ALOX15 Expression Through Inactivation of STAT6 in A549 Cells
In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of OODBL on interleukin (IL)-4-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) signaling pathway in human lung A549 cells. We found that OODBL dramatically inhibited IL-4-induced messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of eotaxin-1 and arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase-1 (ALOX15) in a dose-dependent manner. To clarify the action mechanism of OODBL, we examined the effect of OODBL on activation of STAT6. OODBL decreased both STAT6 phosphorylation and reporter gene activity. Furthermore, OODBL suppressed phosphorylation of Janus Kinase 3 (JAK3) without affecti...
Source: Inflammation - August 2, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Genistein Protects Against Ox-LDL-Induced Inflammation Through MicroRNA-155/SOCS1-Mediated Repression of NF- ĸB Signaling Pathway in HUVECs
In this study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were pretreated with genistein (10, 100, and 1000  nM) for 6 h and then exposed to ox-LDL (50 mg/L) for another 24 h. Results showed that ox-LDL induced the expressions of E-selectin, P-selectin, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-8, vascular adhesion molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, which were counteracted by geniste in. The inhibitory effect was further enhanced with the augment of genistein (10, 100, and 1000 nM). Further analyses demonstrated the effect of genistein was associated with reducing miR-155 and...
Source: Inflammation - July 1, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Involvements of γδT Lymphocytes in Acute and Chronic Skin Wound Repair
This study probes into the significant relevance of γδ T cells with effective wound repair and provides new enlightenments for the mechanisms of the formation of chronic and/or refractory wounds. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - July 1, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Chrysin Attenuates IL-1 β-Induced Expression of Inflammatory Mediators by Suppressing NF-κB in Human Osteoarthritis Chondrocytes
This study aimed to assess the effects of chrysin on human OA chondrocytes. Human OA chondrocytes were pretreated with chrysin (1, 5, 10  μM) for 2 h and subsequently stimulated with IL-1β for 24 h. Production of NO, PGE2, MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-13, ADAMTS-4, and ADAMTS-5 was evaluated by the Griess reaction and ELISAs. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of COX-2, iNOS, MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-13, ADAMTS-4, ADAMTS-5, aggrecan, and collage n-II was measured by real-time PCR. The protein expression of COX-2, iNOS, p65, p-p65, IκB-α, and p-IκB-α was detected by Western blot. The protein ex...
Source: Inflammation - July 1, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Critical Role for IL-21 Receptor Signaling in the Coxsackievirus B3-Induced Myocarditis
AbstractTo determine whether IL-21 receptor signaling plays a significant role in promoting Tfh cell-mediated cardiac injury in viral myocarditis (VMC), we compared IL-21R-deficient mice for some parameters of VMC. Balb/c and IL-21R−/− mice were infected with CVB3. Frequencies of splenic Tfh cells were determined by flow cytometric analysis, and productions of anti-adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) autoantibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To determine the effects of IL-21R signal on the proliferation of B cells, lymphocytes from spleens of the IL-21R−/− and Balb/c mice ...
Source: Inflammation - July 1, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Erratum to: The Natural Course of Atopic Dermatitis and the Association with Asthma
(Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - July 1, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research