Uremic Serum Induces Inflammation in Cultured Human Endothelial Cells and Triggers Vascular Repair Mechanisms
AbstractInflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are common in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients whose vascular endothelium is in direct contact with the uremic toxins found in the blood. These toxins are believed to affect vascular injury and repair process, which is impaired in ESRD patients. The exact mechanisms behind these interactions are not clear. So, we wanted to investigate what happens at the molecular level of endothelial cells when exposed to uremic serum from ESRD patients with diabetes and/or hypertension and its effect on the expression of molecules associated with vascular injury and repair. Cul...
Source: Inflammation - July 16, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Pharmacological Characterization of Mouse Hind Paw Edema Induced by Parachartergus fraternus Venom
AbstractStings from the waspParachartergus fraternus occur throughout Latin America, and edema followed by pain is the main symptom presented by victims. This often limited inflammatory event has not been characterized for this species. In this work, we identified the mechanisms and possible mediators involved in this response.P. fraternus venom (100, 200, and 400  μg/kg) was injected into the hind paws of mice, and edema was evaluated at intervals of 10 min for up to 60 min and at 120, 240, and 1440 min using a digital plethysmometer. The peak of edema was observed at 10 min with a dose of 200&...
Source: Inflammation - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protein Kinase C Theta Inhibition Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury through Notch Signaling Pathway via Suppressing Th17 Cell Response in Mice
AbstractAcute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by increased pulmonary inflammation, where T helper 17 (Th17) cells play an important regulatory role. Notch signaling critically regulates Th17 differentiation and is known to be linked with proximal T cell by protein kinase C theta (PKC θ). We hypothesized that PKCθ inhibition could attenuate ALI by suppressing Th17 responsevia the Notch signaling pathway. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS andN-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycinet-butyl ester (...
Source: Inflammation - July 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Oxidant/Antioxidant Disequilibrium in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Pathogenesis
AbstractIdiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is characterised by abnormal reepithelialisation and remodelling consequent to persistent stimuli or injury. The involvement of oxidative stress in alveolar injury, inflammation and fibrosis development has been suggested. Increased concentrations of lipid peroxidation products, oxidised proteins and an altered antioxidant enzyme status with the depletion of glutathione, the most abundant low-molecular-weight antioxidant, have often been reported in epithelial lining fluid of IPF patients. This review describes the sources of free radical generation, ROS-induced signalling pathways and...
Source: Inflammation - July 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Post-Stroke Microglia Induce Sirtuin2 Expression to Suppress the Anti-inflammatory Function of Infiltrating Regulatory T Cells
AbstractIschemic stroke is among the leading causes of death and disability across the globe. Post-stroke neuroinflammation contributes to the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke in the acute phase through damaging neurons in the penumbra region. Infiltrating regulatory T cells (Treg cells) provide neuronal protection in ischemic brains. In the current study using a mouse-transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, we characterized the changes of sirtuin expression in infiltrating Treg cells in the acute phase of ischemia. We found that Sirt2 was remarkably upregulated in infiltrating Treg cells at day 3 post-M...
Source: Inflammation - July 11, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effect of 50-Hz Magnetic Fields on Serum IL-1 β and IL-23 and Expression of BLIMP-1 , XBP-1 , and IRF-4
In conclusion, exposure to 50-Hz MFs may decrease inflammation at short time and increase it at longer time exposures. In addition, 50-Hz MF exposure may decrease the humoral immune responses. It seems that 50-Hz MFs cause more alteration in immune system function at lower densities (100  μT). (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - July 8, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Fraxin Alleviates LPS-Induced ARDS by Downregulating Inflammatory Responses and Oxidative Damages and Reducing Pulmonary Vascular Permeability
AbstractAcute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe acute disease that threatens human health, and few drugs that can effectively treat this disease are available. Fraxin, one of the main active ingredients of Cortex Fraxini, a Chinese herbal medicine, has presented various pharmacological and biological activities. However, the effects of fraxin on ARDS have yet to be reported. In the present study, the protective effect of fraxin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARDS in a mouse model was analyzed. Results from the hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that fraxin might alleviate pathological changes in the ...
Source: Inflammation - July 4, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

p-Coumaric Acid Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Inflammation in Rats by Scavenging ROS Production: an In Vivo and In Vitro Study
AbstractLipopolysaccharide (LPS), known as lipoglycans and endotoxins found in the cell wall of some type of Gram-negative bacteria, causes acute lung inflammation (ALI). p-Coumaric acid (p-CA) possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. The main purpose of our research was to explore the effect of p-CA on LPS-induced inflammation. In part I, 32 rats were divided into four groups: Control, LPS (5  mg/kg), p-CA (100 mg/kg), and LPS + p-CA to investigate acute lung inflammation caused by LPS. In part II, the effect of LPS-stimulated inflammatory response on A549 cells was investigated. The dosage of ...
Source: Inflammation - July 3, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Differential Immunomodulatory Activities of Schiff Base Complexes Depending on their Metal Conjugation
In this study, we used previously characterized Schiff base complexes with different metal conjugations. These molecules had differential immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory potentials on macrophagesin vitro depending on the type of the conjugated metal. After light exposure, these complexes changed their characteristics and became powerful anti-inflammatory complexes. Due to their possible antimicrobial potentials, we also tested their activities against gram negative and gram positive bacteria. All of the complexes exerted antimicrobial activities which were not light responsive. Here, we present Schiff base complexes...
Source: Inflammation - July 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Impact of Prophylactic Lacosamide on LPS-Induced Neuroinflammation in Aged Rats
AbstractSepsis-induced central nervous system damage is called sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE). In addition to neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis act in the development of SAE. In the current study, we evaluated the protective effects of lacosamide (LCM) on neuroinflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups as controls, LPS group (5  mg/kg i.p.), and LPS plus LCM group (5 mg/kg i.p and 40 mg/kg i.p, respectively). In the rat brain, LPS-induced tissue damage was revealed histopathologically as hyperemia and microhemorrhages. L...
Source: Inflammation - July 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Attenuating Pulmonary Hypertension by Protecting the Integrity of Glycocalyx in Rats Model of Pulmonary Artery Hypertension
In conclusion, destruction of glycocalyx was involved in the development of pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension can be regulated by protecting the integrity of glycocalyx. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - July 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inhibition of the PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway or Overexpression of Beclin1 Blocks Reinfection of Streptococcus pneumoniae After Infection of Influenza A Virus in Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia
AbstractStreptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and viruses are considered as primary risks of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and the effects of co-infection bacterial and virus in the prognosis of patients with severe CAP (SCAP) are poorly described. Therefore, this study is conducted to investigate the regulation of Beclin1-PI3K/AKT axis in reinfection ofS. pneumoniae after influenza A virus in mice model of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Samples of sputum and BALF were collected from patients with SCAP for etiological detection. The expression of each gene was determined by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis....
Source: Inflammation - July 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Nrf2 Activator RTA-408 Protects Against Ozone-Induced Acute Asthma Exacerbation by Suppressing ROS and γδT17 Cells
AbstractOzone is a strong oxidant in air pollution that exacerbates respiratory disorders and is a major risk factor for acute asthma exacerbation. Ozone can induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and airway neutrophilic inflammation. In addition, γδT17 cells contribute to IL-17A production upon ozone challenge, resulting in neutrophilic inflammation. It is known, however, that Nrf2 can ameliorate oxidative stress. We therefore investigated whether RTA-408, an Nrf2 activator, can attenuate airway inflammation and inhibit ROS production and whether this effect involves γδT17 cells. Balb/c mice were sen...
Source: Inflammation - June 29, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Role of Hyaluronan in Inflammatory Effects on Human Articular Chondrocytes
AbstractHyaluronan (HA) fragments have been proposed to elicit defensive or pro-inflammatory responses in many cell types. For articular chondrocytes in an inflammatory environment, studies have failed to reach consensus on the endogenous production or effects of added HA fragments. The present study was undertaken to resolve this discrepancy. Cultured primary human articular chondrocytes were exposed to the inflammatory cytokine IL-1 β, and then tested for changes in HA content/size in conditioned medium, and for the expression of genes important in HA binding/signaling or metabolism, and in other catabolic/anabolic ...
Source: Inflammation - June 27, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of Interferon Regulatory Factor 5 in Macrophage Inflammation During Osteoarthritis
In this study, we sought to investigate the role of interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5).In vitro M1-polarized macrophages presented significantly higher IRF5 expression than M2-polarized macrophages. Interestingly, IRF5 expression was observed in macrophages from the synovial fluid of OA patients, and the level of IRF expression was positively correlated with disease severity, such that stage 4 OA synovial macrophages presented significantly higher levels of IRF5 than stage 2 and stage 3 OA synovial macrophages. Circulating monocytes from OA patients, on the other hand, expressed little IRF5. However, synovial fluid from...
Source: Inflammation - June 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Alleviates Inflammatory Bowel Disease Through Induction of AMPK-mTOR-p70S6K-Mediated Autophagy
In conclusion, α7nAChR contributes to alleviate IBD through the induction of AMPK-mammalian target of rapamycin rabbit (mTOR)-p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K)-mediated autophagy, thus providing a novel target for the treatment of IBD. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - June 24, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Salidroside Reduces Inflammation and Brain Injury After Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Rats by Regulating PI3K/PKB/Nrf2/NF κB Signaling Rather than Complement C3 Activity
AbstractSalidroside, an active constituent ofRhodiola rosea, is neuroprotective after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). However, its effects in other experimental stroke models are less understood. Here, we investigated the effect of daily intraperitoneal injections of salidroside in rats after permanent MCAO (pMCAO). Cerebral infarct volumes at 1  day after pMCAO were significantly reduced by treatment with 100 mg/kg/day salidroside, but not by 25 or 50 mg/kg/day, and this benefit of salidroside increased significantly over at least 7 days of treatment, when it was also accompanied by...
Source: Inflammation - June 23, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Therapeutic Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived From Bone Marrow, Umbilical Cord Blood, and Pluripotent Stem Cells in a Mouse Model of Chemically Induced Inflammatory Bowel Disease
AbstractAcute inflammatory bowel disease (AIBD) is a wide clinical entity including severe gastrointestinal pathologies with common histopathological basis. Epidemiologically increasing diseases, such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), gastrointestinal graftversus host disease (GVHD), and the primary acute phase of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (CIBD), exhibit a high necessity for new therapeutic strategies. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) cellular therapy represents a promising option for the treatment of these diseases. In our study, we comparatively assess the efficacy of human MSCs derived from bone marrow (BM), umbi...
Source: Inflammation - June 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Correction to: Protective Effects of Tyrosol Against DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats
The Funding Information is missing in the original article. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - June 18, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Hypermethylation of Foxp3 Promoter Impairs the Function of Treg Cells in EAP
AbstractTreg cells are crucial for maintaining immune homeostasis in CP/CPPS, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of the function of Treg in CP/CPPS remain unclear. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between immunosuppressive function of Treg and the methylation level of Foxp3 promoter in experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) mouse model. EAP model was induced by subcutaneous injecting prostate-steroid-binding protein (PSBP) and complete Freund ’s adjuvant with NOD mice. Histological analysis revealed that EAP model was successfully induced. The expression of IFN-...
Source: Inflammation - June 17, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Garcinol Suppresses IL-1 β-Induced Chondrocyte Inflammation and Osteoarthritis via Inhibition of the NF-κB Signaling Pathway
In this study, we explored the protective effects of garcinol on the progression of OA and explored the underlying mechanism.In vitro, garcinol reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α). It also decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), as well as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Furthermore, garcinol inhibited the expression of thrombospondin motifs 5(ADAMTS5) and metalloproteinase (MMPs), both of which regulate extracellular matrix degradation. These change s could be attributed to garcinol-related suppression of the IL-1β-ind...
Source: Inflammation - June 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Phosphorylated Heat Shock Protein 27 Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Thp1 Cells by Promoting TLR4 Endocytosis, Ubiquitination, and Degradation
AbstractThe aims of this study were to investigate the effect of Hsp27 on LPS-induced inflammation and identify the precise mechanisms about how Hsp27 regulates LPS-induced TLR4 signaling in Thp1 cells. Thp1 cells were transfected with Flag-Hsp27 or pcDNA3.1, and then treated with LPS for indicated time. TNF- α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were determined by ELISA. The protein levels of Hsp27, p-Hsp27 (Ser15, Ser78, and Ser82), and TLR4 were measured by Western blotting.In vitro study showed that over-expression of Hsp27 downregulated the release of TNF- α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and suppressed the activation of TLR4 si...
Source: Inflammation - June 14, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Combustible Cigarette and Smokeless Tobacco Product Preparations Differentially Regulate Intracellular Calcium Mobilization in HL60 Cells
In this study, we evaluated the effects of tobacco product preparations (TPPs), including total particulate matter (TPM) from 3R4F reference cigarettes, smokeless tobacco extract (STE) from 2S3 reference moist snuff, and nicotine alone on Ca2+ mobilization in HL60 cells. Treatment with TPM, but not STE or nicotine alone, significantly increased [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner in HL60 cells. Moreover, TPM-induced [Ca2+]i increase was not related to extracellular Ca2+ and did not require the activation of the IP3 pathway nor involved the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Our findings indicate that, in ...
Source: Inflammation - June 12, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Electroacupuncture Pretreatment Elicits Neuroprotection Against Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats Associated with Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1-Mediated Anti-Oxidant Stress and Anti-Inflammation
AbstractElectroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment, electrical stimulation using metal needle at specific acupoints in advance, possesses the potential to prevent cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI). Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV-1) has been indicated to take part in cerebral protection of EA; however, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether neuroprotection of EA pretreatment against CIRI is associated with TRPV-1 and explore the underlying mechanisms. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed to induce CIRI after EA pretreatment at Baihui (GV2...
Source: Inflammation - June 12, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CTGF Triggers Rat Astrocyte Activation and Astrocyte-Mediated Inflammatory Response in Culture Conditions
AbstractTo improve clinical outcomes for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), it is necessary to explore the mechanism of traumatic brain injury (TBI) –induced neuroinflammation. Connective tissue growth factors (CTGF) have been reported to be involved in the process of inflammatory response or tissue repair, whereas whether and how CTGF participates in the astrocyte-mediated inflammation after TBI remains unclear. In the present study, the TBI- induced activation of astrocytes and augmentation of inflammatory response were simulated by stimulating rat astrocytes with TGF-β1 or CTGF in cultured conditions...
Source: Inflammation - June 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Hemolysis Is Abolished by Inhibition of Thrombin Generation but Not Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation
AbstractIn human sepsis, hemolysis is an independent predictor of mortality, but the mechanisms evoking hemolysis have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we tested the hypotheses that (1) lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hemolysis is dependent on thrombin generation or platelet aggregation and (2) red cell membranes are weakened by LPS. Anesthetized male Wistar rats were subjected to LPS or vehicle for 240  min. The effects of hemostasis inhibition on LPS-induced hemolysis were investigated by use of the thrombin inhibitor argatroban or the platelet function inhibitor eptifibatide. Free hemoglobin concentration, re...
Source: Inflammation - June 7, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-histaminic Effects of Resveratrol and Silymarin on Human Gingival Fibroblasts
In conclusion, combination of resveratrol and silymarin could significantly inhibit inflammatory effects of histamine on cultur ed HGFs by reduction of IL-6, IL-8, TPA-1, and TNF-α. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - June 4, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Ghrelin Fights Against Titanium Particle-Induced Inflammatory Osteolysis Through Activation of β-Catenin Signaling Pathway
AbstractAseptic loosening is a major complication of prosthetic joint surgery, in which exaggerated inflammation and impaired osteoblastogenesis are detected. Ghrelin is a recently discovered neuropeptide that is closely associated with inflammatory conditions and bone regeneration. Here, we report that titanium particles inhibited ghrelin expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Furthermore, exogenous ghrelin effectively inhibited titanium particle-induced inflammationin vitro by interacting with its receptor GHSR1a; as an inhibitor of GHSR1a, Dlys repressed the function of ghrelin. Moreover, ghrelin attenuated the impairment of ost...
Source: Inflammation - June 4, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Agonist Rosiglitazone Protects Blood–Brain Barrier Integrity Following Diffuse Axonal Injury by Decreasing the Levels of Inflammatory Mediators Through a Caveolin-1-Dependent Pathway
In conclusion, we provide evidence that PPAR γ plays an important role in a series of processes associated with DAI, and that the PPARγ agonist RSG can protect BBB integrity by decreasing the levels of inflammatory mediators through a caveolin-1-dependent pathway. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - May 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immunometabolism: Another Road to Sepsis and Its Therapeutic Targeting
AbstractSepsis is a major health problem all over the world. Despite its existence since the time of Hippocrates (470  BC), sepsis is still a serious medical problem for physicians working in both pediatric and adult intensive care units. The most current US FDA-approved drug called recombinant human activated protein C or Drotrecogin-α is also failed in clinical trials and showed similar effects as placebo. The epidemiological data and studies have indicated sepsis as a major socioeconomic burden all over the world. Advances in immunology and genomic medicine have established different immunological mechanisms ...
Source: Inflammation - May 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Neutrophil Cytosolic Factor 1 Contributes to the Development of Sepsis
AbstractTo identify differentially expressed genes in sepsis and potential key role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) genes associated with sepsis. Gene expression dataset was available from GSE46599. Firstly, we screened the differentially expressed genes between sepsis and healthy samples. Then, the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) online tools were utilized to perform gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses at the functional level. Differentially expressed genes mediating ROS levels were validated in the next investigation an...
Source: Inflammation - May 20, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Cellular Inflammatory Response of the Spleen After Acute Spinal Cord Injury in Rat
AbstractSpinal cord injury (SCI) involves both primary and secondary damages. After the phase of primary injury, a series of inflammatory responses initiate, which belong to the secondary injury. There has been little investigation into the cellular inflammatory response of the spleen to SCI. To disclose the impact of SCI on the spleen, we examined the inflammatory reactions of the spleen during the acute phase of SCI in rat. Adult rats were used as experimental animals and divided into un-injured, sham, and SCI groups (n = 36). Contusion injuries were produced at the T3 vertebral level. Spinal cords were har...
Source: Inflammation - May 17, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Co-Nanoencapsulation of Vitamin D 3 and Curcumin Regulates Inflammation and Purine Metabolism in a Model of Arthritis
AbstractWe analyzed the effects of a nanoencapsulated association of curcumin and vitamin D3 on purine metabolism enzymes in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets in a model of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rats. Following AIA induction, the animals were treated for 15  days with free and nanoencapsulated curcumin (4 mg/kg), nanocapsules of vitamin D3 (VD3) (15.84  IU/day), a nanoencapsulated combination of curcumin and VD3, vehicle, or blank nanocapsules. The animals were euthanized, and blood was collected to evaluate the activities of E-NTPDase, adenosine deaminase (ADA), and myeloperoxidase ...
Source: Inflammation - May 17, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Psychotria leiocarpa Extract and Vincosamide Reduce Chemically-Induced Inflammation in Mice and Inhibit the Acetylcholinesterase Activity
AbstractSpecies fromPsychotria are used in folk medicine against inflammatory diseases, respiratory disturbances, and anti-hallucinogenic. In the present study, the compound vincosamide (PL-1) was identified for the first time in methanolic extract of thePsychotria leiocarpa (ME-PL) leaves, as well as the anti-inflammatory and anticholinesteric effects in rodents and molecular docking simulations. The fractionation of the chloroform fraction (CF-PL) through chromatographic methods afforded the known compound PL-1. The anti-inflammatory activity of the ME-PL (30, 100, and 300  mg/kg) and PL-1 (3, 30, and 100 mg/kg...
Source: Inflammation - May 17, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Autotaxin-Lysophosphatidic Acid Axis Blockade Improves Inflammation by Regulating Th17 Cell Differentiation in DSS-Induced Chronic Colitis Mice
AbstractAutotaxin-lysophosphatidic acid (ATX-LPA) axis is closely associated with several inflammation-related diseases. In the colonic mucosa of patients with chronic ulcerative colitis (UC), the expression of ATX and the percentage of Th17 cells are found to increase. However, it is unclear whether ATX-LPA axis affects the differentiation of Th17 cells in chronic UC. To investigate whether ATX-LPA axis contributes to Th17 cell differentiation, a mouse model of chronic UC was established by drinking water with DSS at intervals. ATX inhibitor was used as an intervention. The disease active index (DAI), colonic weight to le...
Source: Inflammation - May 17, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Puerarin Protects Against LPS-Induced Vascular Endothelial Cell Hyperpermeability via Preventing Downregulation of Endothelial Cadherin
AbstractIn the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of puerarin on the hyperpermeability of vascular endothelial cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and its underlying mechanisms. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were pre-incubated with puerarin (25, 50, and 100  μM) for 1 h, and then exposed to LPS (1 μg/mL). The monolayer permeability of endothelial cells was assessed by measuring the paracellular flux of FITC-dextran 40,000 (FD40). The expression of vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) in HUVECs was examined by Western blotting analysis. A to tal of 18 mice ...
Source: Inflammation - May 17, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Protection Potential of Antioxidant Vitamins Against Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: a Rat Trial
In this study, 42 male rats were divided to seven groups named control, OA, ALA, VITE, VITC, LDMP, and HDMP. OA was intravenously administered to all groups except control group and other compounds were orally administered (ALA, VITE, and VITC: 100 mg/kg, LDMP: 5 mg/kg, HDMP: 50 mg/kg) after OA injections. OA increased MDA level in lung tissue and TNF-α and IL-1β c ytokine levels in serum. ALA, VITE, VITC, and both dose of MP significantly decreased the cytokine levels. Although OA reduced SOD, CAT, and GSH levels in lung tissue, the vitamins and LDMP markedly enhanced the levels except for HDMP. ...
Source: Inflammation - May 12, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Increased Serum Romo1 Was Correlated with Lung Function, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
In this study, we compared serum Romo1 in 49 COPD patients and 34 health controls, and their correlation with lung function, systematic inflammation, and oxidative stress. In addition, serum levels of Romo1, C-reactive protein (CRP), and oxidative stress (measured by reactive oxygen species, ROS) were analyzed using commercial kits. Serum Romo1 was significantly higher in COPD patients than that of control (132.24  ± 10.34 vs. 93.26 ± 7.75 pg/ml,P 
Source: Inflammation - May 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

MiR-217 Inhibits M2-Like Macrophage Polarization by Suppressing Secretion of Interleukin-6 in Ovarian Cancer
AbstractOvarian cancer is one of the most deadly cancers with rapid proliferation and poor prognosis among patients. Therapies focusing on regulation of tumor immunity and microenvironments are developing. MiR-217 was dysregulated in cancer progress and plays important roles in tumorigenesis and metastasis. However, the role of miR-217 in regulation of macrophage polarization and its underlying molecular mechanism remain unclear. The expression of miR-217 in ovarian cancerous tissues and cell lines were assessed by qRT-PCR. And we detected the staining of CD86 and CD206via flow-cytometry and the levels of Arg-1 and CCR2 by...
Source: Inflammation - May 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Regulation of KDM2B and Brg1 on Inflammatory Response of Nasal Mucosa in CRSwNP
This study shows that KDM2B and Brg1 may have an inhibitory effect on the develo pment of CRSwNP nasal mucosal epithelial inflammation. This study will provide a new perspective for gene targeting therapy of CRSwNPs. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 30, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Curcumin Modulates Paraquat-Induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition by Regulating Transforming Growth Factor- β (TGF-β) in A549 Cells
AbstractParaquat (PQ), a widely used potent herbicide, generates superoxide anions and other free radicals, leading to severe toxicity and acute lung injury. PQ induces pulmonary fibrosis through epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) characterized by increased number of myofibroblasts. Time-dependent PQ-induced EMT has been evaluated in present investigation where intracellular ROS levels were significantly enhanced after 24  h of PQ intoxication. Anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin have been studied where alveolar epithelial cells (A549 cells) were incubated with curcumin (30 μΜ) for 1 and 3 h ...
Source: Inflammation - April 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Desmoglein 3 Silencing Inhibits Inflammation and Goblet Cell Mucin Secretion in a Mouse Model of Chronic Rhinosinusitis via Disruption of the Wnt/ β-Catenin Signaling Pathway
This study aims to evaluate the effect of desmoglein 3 (DSG3) on inflammatory response and goblet cell mucin secretion in a mouse model of CRS. The CRS-related differentially expressed genes and disease genes were screened using microarray-based gene expression analysis. Subsequently, CRS m ouse models were established. The levels of pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 were measured by ELISA. In addition, loss-of-function experiment was conducted using siRNAs targeting DSG3 and β-catenin. The secretion of mucins MUC5B and MUC5AC in goblet cells was detected, and the apopto sis of goblet cells was asse...
Source: Inflammation - April 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Shikonin Controls the Differentiation of CD4 + CD25 + Regulatory T Cells by Inhibiting AKT/mTOR Pathway
AbstractCD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells maintain the function of immune tolerance and the balance of immune cells. Defects in the number and function of Treg cells can induce the development and progression of inflammatory disease. Shikonin, the main active ingredient ofLithospermum, has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. Shikonin is also an effective drug for the treatment of psoriasis, which is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. However, the underlying mechanism is not yet clear. To evaluate the role of shikonin on the induction of Treg cells, we tested the number and function of Treg cellsin vivo andin vitr...
Source: Inflammation - April 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Interleukin-1 β Induces Intracellular Serum Amyloid A1 Expression in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells and Promotes its Intercellular Exchange
AbstractSerum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute-phase protein with important, pathogenic role in the development of atherosclerosis. Since dysfunctional endothelium represents a key early step in atherogenesis, we aimed to determine whether induced human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) modulate SAA1/2/4 expression and influence intracellular location and intercellular transport of SAA1. HCAEC were stimulated with 1  ng/ml IL-1β, 10 ng/ml IL-6, and/or 1 μM dexamethasone for 24 h. QPCR, Western blots, ELISA, and immunofluorescent labeling were performed for detection of SAA1/2/4 mRNA and prote...
Source: Inflammation - April 23, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

(3R, 7R)-7-Acetoxyl-9-Oxo-de-O-Methyllasiodiplodin, a Secondary Metabolite of Penicillium Sp., Inhibits LPS-Mediated Inflammation in RAW 264.7 Macrophages through Blocking ERK/MAPKs and NF- κB Signaling Pathways
AbstractTwelve polyketones were isolated from the fermentation broth ofPenicillium sp., including six new compounds (supplementary material).Penicillium sp. is widely used in clinic as a highly effective and low toxic antibiotic. Among these compounds, (3R, 7R)-7-acetoxyl-9-oxo-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin named PS-2 showed significant anti-inflammatory activity. So, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of PS-2 was investigated by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results showed that PS-2 can significantly inhibit the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and interleukin-6 (...
Source: Inflammation - April 23, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Acute Lung Injury: IL-17A-Mediated Inflammatory Pathway and Its Regulation by Curcumin
AbstractAcute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by acute inflammation and tissue injury results in dysfunction of the alveolar epithelial membrane. If the epithelial injury is severe, a fibroproliferative phase of ALI can develop. During this phase, the activated fibroblast and myofibroblasts synthesize excessive collagenous extracellular matrix that leads to a condition called pulmonary fibrosis. Lung injury can be caused by several ways; however, the present review focus on bleomycin (BLM)-mediated changes in the pathology of lungs. BLM is a chemotherapeutic agent and has toxic effects on lungs, which leads to oxidative...
Source: Inflammation - April 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

FSTL1 Promotes Inflammatory Reaction and Cartilage Catabolism through Interplay with NF κB Signaling Pathways in an In Vitro ONFH Model
AbstractOsteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) usually occurs in young people and is closely associated with autoimmune reactions. Follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) was recently proven to participate in several inflammation-related diseases. The role of FSTL1 in ONFH is still unclear. Serum levels of FSTL1 were not significantly different in ONFH patients and healthy individuals. In contrast, elevated expression levels of FSTL1 were observed in degraded cartilage and synovial fluid in ONFH patients and in a cultured human primary chondrocyte model treated with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TN...
Source: Inflammation - April 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Probucol Ameliorates Complete Freund ’s Adjuvant-Induced Hyperalgesia by Targeting Peripheral and Spinal Cord Inflammation
AbstractThe effect of the lipid-lowering agent probucol in inflammatory hyperalgesia and leukocyte recruitment was evaluated in a model of subacute inflammation by Complete Freund ’s adjuvant (CFA). As CFA induces long-lasting nociception characterized by peripheral and spinal cord inflammation, the anti-inflammatory activity of probucol was assessed at both foci. Probucol at 0.3–3 mg/kg was administrated per oral daily starting 24 h after CFA intraplantar injection. Me chanical and thermal hyperalgesia induced by CFA were determined using an electronic anesthesiometer and hot plate apparatus, respect...
Source: Inflammation - April 22, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Sudachitin Inhibits Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 and -3 Production in Tumor Necrosis Factor- α-Stimulated Human Periodontal Ligament Cells
AbstractSudachitin, a polymethoxylated flavonoid found in the skin ofCitrus sudachi, is a biologically active substance. The aim of this study was to examine whether sudachitin could be used to inhibit the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3, which are involved in the destruction of periodontal tissues in periodontal lesions, in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α-stimulated human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLC). Sudachitin suppressed TNF-α-induced MMP-1 and MMP-3 production in HPDLC. On the other hand, it enhanced tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 expression. The level of Akt ph...
Source: Inflammation - April 17, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Pro-inflammatory S100A9 Protein: a Double-Edged Sword in Cancer?
(Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 5, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research