Anti-inflammatory Activity of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in λ-Carrageenan-Induced Chronic Inflammation in Rats: Reactions of the Blood System, Leukocyte-Monocyte Ratio
AbstractThe variety of chronic diseases caused by a chronic inflammatory process is an unresolved problem in developed countries. Due to this, modern medicine lacks effective, pathogenetic mechanisms of treatment or at least improvement of the quality of life of people with so-called diseases of civilization. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in a model of λ-carrageenan secondary chronic inflammation in rats. MSCs derived from rat femoral epiphysis were used. At the current level of medicine, many highly specific markers o...
Source: Inflammation - May 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Luteolin and Apigenin Attenuate LPS-Induced Astrocyte Activation and Cytokine Production by Targeting MAPK, STAT3, and NF- κB Signaling Pathways
AbstractAstrocytes release biologically active substances that cause inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases. The present study investigated the effects of two flavonoids (apigenin and luteolin) on the production of IL-31 and IL-33 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated astrocytes. Cell viability was investigated using EZ-Cytox assay, mRNA expressions of IL-31 and IL-33 were analyzed by RT-PCR, protein expressions were analyzed by western blot, and cytokine secretion was analyzed by ELISA. Apigenin and luteolin prevented astrocyte activation and inhibited mRNA and protein expression and secretion of IL-31 and IL-33 in th...
Source: Inflammation - May 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Lin28B Regulates Angiotensin II-Mediated Let-7c/miR-99a MicroRNA Formation Consequently Affecting Macrophage Polarization and Allergic Inflammation
AbstractAngiotensin-II (Ang-II) receptor plays a role in allergic airway inflammation; however, the underlying mechanism and role of macrophages need better understanding. In the present study, angiotensin-II infusion (1  μg/kg/min) in ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation mice model significantly decreased immune cell infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia, and eosinophil numbers in lungs. Ang-II infusion increased M1 and decreased M2 macrophage population in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and respective macrophage markers in lung macrophages. Similarly,in vitro Ang-II treatment in murine bone marrow-derived macropha...
Source: Inflammation - May 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective Effect of a Novel (2S, 3R, 4S)-Chromene-3-Carboxamide Derivative, Z20 Against Sepsis-Induced Organ Injury
In conclusion, Z20, as a potential TLR4-MD2 inhibitor, effectively attenuated LPS-induced organ injury and inflammation. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - May 27, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Hepatoprotective Effect of Apigenin Against Liver Injury via the Non-canonical NF- κB Pathway In Vivo and In Vitro
AbstractApigenin, a flavonoid found in many plants, has various biological properties. We aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activity of apigenin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury in mice and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells and possible mechanism.In vivo, apigenin significantly reduced alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in serum of mice challenged by CCl4 and markedly alleviated the lipid peroxidation as indicated by the increased level of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), ...
Source: Inflammation - May 26, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective Effects of SIRT6 Against Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Cell Apoptosis in Spinal Cord Injury
This study demonstrates that SIRT6 may represent a protective effect against spinal cord injury. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - May 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Engeletin Attenuates A β1–42-Induced Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation by Keap1/Nrf2 Pathway
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is a serious neuropathologic disease characterized by aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. Aβ-mediated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation play crucial role in the development of AD. Engeletin is a flavononol glycoside that possesses anti-inflammatory effect. However, the e ffects of engeletin on AD have not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the role of engeletin in AD using anin vitro AD model. Murine microglia BV-2 cells were stimulated with A β1–42 (5 μM) for 24 h to induce oxidative stress and inflammation. Our re...
Source: Inflammation - May 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

MiRNA-495-3p Attenuates TNF- α Induced Apoptosis and Inflammation in Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells by Targeting IL5RA
AbstractIntervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is considered to be the fundamental cause of the occurrence and development of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). The degeneration of IVDD is mainly caused by the participation of inflammatory factors. Thus, it is of great significance to analyze the pathogenesis of IVDD, which may guide clinical prevention and treatment of LDH. Our current study aims to identify the role of miR-495-3p in LDH and to further unravel the underlying mechanisms. Results in the current study showed that TNF- α treatment markedly inhibited cell viability of HNPC, increased the IL-1β level, an...
Source: Inflammation - May 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Myocardin-Related Transcription Factor A Mediates LPS-Induced iNOS Transactivation
AbstractMacrophage-dependent inflammation plays a critical role in atherogenesis. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is one of key pro-inflammatory mediators produced in macrophages and its levels can be upregulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The epigenetic mechanism whereby LPS induces iNOS transcription is incompletely understood. We show here myocardin-related transcription factor A (MRTF-A) potentiated iNOS promoter activity in macrophages. There was a decrease in LPS-induced iNOS expression in several cell models due to the lack of MRTF-A. LPS treatment promoted nuclear accumulation of MRTF-A and its interaction...
Source: Inflammation - May 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effects of Endotoxin Tolerance Induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide on Inflammatory Responses in Neutrophils
AbstractPeriodontitis is a dental plaque –induced chronic inflammatory disease. Long-term exposure of the host to periodontal pathogens leads to a hyporesponsive state to the following stimulations, which is described as endotoxin tolerance. Neutrophils are the most abundant innate immune cells in the body. To clarify the roles of endoto xin tolerance in periodontitis, inflammatory responses inPorphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) –tolerized neutrophils were explored in this study. Here, apoptosis and respiratory burst in neutrophils upon single or repeatedP. gingivalis LPS stimulati...
Source: Inflammation - May 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Increased Expression of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase (IDO) in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) Disease May Lead to a Shift of T Cell Responses Toward a Treg Population
In this study, we found that the IDO mRNA expression and enzyme activity were increased in active VKH patients as compared with healthy controls and patients in remission. To investigate the role of IDO in immune regulation, an effective inhibitor 1-methyl-L-tryptophan (1-MT) was used to suppress its activity in DCs. The results showed that inhibition of IDO with 1-MT significantly decreased the expression of DC marker CD86. IDO inhibition did not affect the cytokine production of IL-6, IL-1 β, TNF-α, IL-10, and TGF-β in DCs. Downregulation of IDO in DCs also led to the reduction of regulatory T (Treg) cell...
Source: Inflammation - May 20, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Role of Aquaporins in Inflammation —a Scientific Curation
AbstractInflammation is a universal response mechanism existing as inter-communicator of biological systems. Uncontrolled or dysregulated inflammation addresses chronic low-grade effects eventually resulting in multimorbidity. Active solute transport across the membrane establishes varying osmotic gradients. Aquaporins (AQPs) are a class of critical ubiquitously expressed transmembrane proteins that aid in fluid and small solute transportvia facilitated diffusion over established osmotic gradients. Numerous significant data features the biological functions of AQPs rendering them as an appropriate biomarker of health and d...
Source: Inflammation - May 20, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Transcriptome Landscape of Intracellular Brucella ovis Surviving in RAW264.7 Macrophage Immune System
AbstractBrucella ovis infection results in genital damage and epididymitis in rams, placental inflammation and rare abortion in ewes, and neonatal mortality in lambs. However, the mechanism underlyingB. ovis infection remains unclear. In the present study, we used prokaryotic transcriptome sequencing to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between wild-typeB. ovis and intracellularB. ovis in RAW264.7 macrophages. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were performed, and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to validate the to...
Source: Inflammation - May 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Low-Dose Anethole and Ibuprofen Combination Is Accompanied by Partial Prevention of Hepatic Metabolic Changes in Arthritic Rats
This study evaluated the effects of a low-dose AN and ibuprofen (IB) combination on inflammatory parameters in Freund ’s complete adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) and arthritis-induced hepatic metabolic changes. Holtzman rats were used and divided into groups: normal, AIA (control), arthritics treated with IB, arthritics treated with AN, and arthritics treated with AN + IB. The volume of the paws, the appearance of secondary lesions, and the number of synovial leukocytes were evaluated. Gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis from alanine were determined in the rat liver in isolated perfusion. The AN + IB (62.5 +&thin...
Source: Inflammation - May 18, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Role of Silent Information Regulator 1 ( SIRT1 ) in Regulating Oxidative Stress and Inflammation
AbstractSilent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) is a ubiquitously expressed protein and has an intricate role in the pathology, progression, and treatment of several diseases. SIRT1 is a NAD+-dependent deacetylase and regulates gene expression by histone deacetylation. Deletion of SIRT1 in the liver, pancreas, and brain significantly increases the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory response. Literature survey on SIRT1 shows the evidence for its role in preventing oxidative stress and inflammation. Oxidative stress and inflammation are closely related pathophysiological processes and are involved in the pathogene...
Source: Inflammation - May 14, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CD200R Is Involved in the Anti-inflammatory Effect of Dexmedetomidine in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Microglia
AbstractDexmedetomidine has been confirmed to have anti-inflammatory effect in numerous diseases. However, the detailed mechanism is still unknown. We explore the hypothesis that CD200R is related to the anti-inflammatory effect of dexmedetomidine. Primary microglia were treated with different concentrations of dexmedetomidine followed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24  h. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Arginase 1 (Arg1), IL-6, and TNF-α were measured by TR-PCR. CD200R was observed by Western blo...
Source: Inflammation - May 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Electronegative LDL Induces M1 Polarization of Human Macrophages Through a LOX-1-Dependent Pathway
In this study, we examined the effects of LDL(−) on macrophage polarization and the involvement of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) in this process. THP-1 macrophages were treated with native LDL (nLDL) or LDL(−), and then the expression of M1/M2-related surface markers and cytokines were evaluated. The results show that treatment with LDL(−) resulted in pro found increase in proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and M1-surface marker CD86; however, M2-related cytokines, IL-10 and TGF-β, and M2-surface marker CD206 were not changed by LDL(−). Untreated or nLDL...
Source: Inflammation - May 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Polydatin Alleviates Septic Myocardial Injury by Promoting SIRT6-Mediated Autophagy
AbstractSepsis is a life-threatening condition. Polydatin (PD), a small natural compound fromPolygonum cuspidatum, possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the protective mechanism of PD on sepsis-induced acute myocardial damage is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of action of PD on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced H9c2 cells and in a rat model of sepsis, and explored the role of PD-upregulated sirtuin (SIRT)6. LPS-induced H9c2 cells were used to simulate sepsis. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in rats were used to verify the protectiv...
Source: Inflammation - May 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Downregulation of lncRNA NEAT1 Ameliorates LPS-Induced Inflammatory Responses by Promoting Macrophage M2 Polarization via miR-125a-5p/TRAF6/TAK1 Axis
This study aims to investigate the roles of NEAT1 in regulating macrophage polarization and its potential for alleviating inflammatory responses during sepsis pathogenesis. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a cellular inflammatory model. NEAT1 shRNA, miR-125a-5p mimics, and TRAF6-overexpressing vector were used to transfect RAW264.7 cells. NEAT1, miR-125a-5p, and mRNA levels of functional genes were detected by quantitative RT-PCR. Protein abundances were analyzed by western blotting. Macrophage polarization was evaluated by flow cytometry. The bindings of miR-125a-5p with NEAT1 or TR...
Source: Inflammation - May 9, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Patchouli Alcohol: a Natural Sesquiterpene Against Both Inflammation and Intestinal Barrier Damage of Ulcerative Colitis
AbstractUlcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by diarrhea, hematochezia, abdominal distension, and abdominal pain. The perpetuation of inflammation and the impairment of the intestinal barrier are part of the main courses of UC, responsible for the deteriorating inflammatory condition. Patchouli alcohol (PA), extracted fromPogostemon cablin Benth., is employed to treat both inflammation and intestinal barrier damage. Its curative effect on UC was testified firstly by TNBS-induced UC, a chemically induced colitis, and further tested by DSS-induc...
Source: Inflammation - May 9, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Ozone Therapy in an Experimental Model of Rheumatoid Arthritis
AbstractTo verify the influence of ozone (O3) therapy on an experimental model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 30 male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to 2 groups, control (C) and treatment (T), and subdivided into control (C12, C48, C72) and treatment (T12, T48, T72) groups. RA was induced by administration of collagenase plus complete Freud ’s adjuvant in the knee joint region. The animals were treated with ozone therapy (1 ml O3 injection in the knee i.a.) according to group assignment: T12, 2  h; T48, 2 and 24 h; and T72, 2, 24, and 48 h post-RA induction. The different animal groups were eu...
Source: Inflammation - May 8, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

SMILR Aggravates the Progression of Atherosclerosis by Sponging miR-10b-3p to Regulate KLF5 Expression
In this study, VSMCs and human mononuclear cells (U937) treated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) were used as cell models of AS. We found that the expression of SMILR was upregulated in the serum of AS patients and ox-LDL-induced AS cell models. SMILR knockdown inhibited cell proliferation while increasing cell apoptosis in the AS cell models. In addition, SMILR acted as a sponge for miR-10b-3p, and miR-10b-3p counteracted SMILR-mediated regulation of AS. Moreover, we confirmed that miR-10b-3p could bind with KLF5, and SMILR regulated KLF5 expression by competitively binding miR-10b-3p. Furthermore, miR-10b-3...
Source: Inflammation - May 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

HIPK3 Mediates Inflammatory Cytokines and Oxidative Stress Markers in Monocytes in a Rat Model of Sepsis Through the JNK/c-Jun Signaling Pathway
AbstractSepsis is a fetal immunological disorder and its complication worsens in the patients with hemodialysis which may increase the risk of death. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 3 (HIPK3) on inflammatory factors and oxidative stress markers in monocytes of rats with sepsis by regulating the c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK)/c-Jun signaling pathway. A rat model of sepsis was initially established using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and was further identified by enlarged spleen tissues, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Monocytes were isolated from ...
Source: Inflammation - April 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Sepsis-Induced Myocardial Dysfunction (SIMD): the Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Therapeutic Strategies Targeting Mitochondria
AbstractSepsis is a lethal syndrome with multiple organ failure caused by an inappropriate host response to infection. Cardiac dysfunction is one of the important complications of sepsis, termed sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction (SIMD), which is characterized by systolic and diastolic dysfunction of both sides of the heart. Mechanisms that contribute to SIMD include an excessive inflammatory response, altered circulatory, microvascular status, nitric oxide (NO) synthesis impairment, endothelial dysfunction, disorders of calcium regulation, cardiac autophagy anomaly, autonomic nervous system dysregulation, metabolic rep...
Source: Inflammation - April 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

M1 But Not M0 Extracellular Vesicles Induce Polarization of RAW264.7 Macrophages Via the TLR4-NF κB Pathway In Vitro
AbstractIn response to different stimuli (e.g., infections), naive macrophages polarize into M1 macrophages, which have the potential to secrete numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines and extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are important mediators of intercellular communication.Via horizontal transfer, EVs transport various molecules (e.g., proteins, DNA, and RNA) to target cells. Thisin vitro study elucidated that M1-EVs from macrophages induced by interferon- γ (IFN-γ) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 24 h (M1), but not M0-EVs from untreated macrophages (M0), shifted M0 into M1 phenotypevia activating the nuclear...
Source: Inflammation - April 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Complexity of Targeting Chemokines to Promote a Tumor Immune Response
AbstractImmunotherapeutic treatment strategies greatly extend patient survival following malignant disease across a wide range of tumor types, including even those with metastatic disease. While diverse in approach, adoptive cell therapy, introduction of T cells that express chimeric antigen receptors, and checkpoint inhibitors all aim to re-invigorate the immune system to promote tumor cell identification and elimination. This review will focus on immune cell infiltration into tumors as well as a cellular organization within the tumor microenvironment as directed by the cell-specific expression patterns of chemokines and ...
Source: Inflammation - April 20, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Exosomes from Long Noncoding RNA-Gm37494-ADSCs Repair Spinal Cord Injury via Shifting Microglial M1/M2 Polarization
AbstractSpinal cord injury (SCI) may lead to severe motor and sensory dysfunction, causing high mortality and disability rates. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (ADSCs), especially hypoxia-pretreated ADSCs, represent an effective therapy for SCI by promoting the secretion of exosomes (Exos). Here, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of exosomes secreted by ADSCs under hypoxia (HExos) and explored potential target molecules. We utilized nanoparticle tracking analysis, electron microscopy, qRT-PCR, and western blotting to analyze differences between HExos and Exos groups. The expression of long nonc...
Source: Inflammation - April 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Exacerbates the Progression of Periapical Inflammation Through Modulating the Cytokine Release in Periodontal Tissue
In this study, we showed that FSH enhanced the expression and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha to a significant degree in human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells. Furthermore, FSH upregulatedPorphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (pg LPS) –induced proinflammatory cytokine production. Furthermore,in vivo studies demonstrated that FSH increased the levels of the aforementioned cytokines in the serum and enhanced the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 at both the messenger RNA and protein levels in hPDL cells and periodontal tissues. Our res...
Source: Inflammation - April 17, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Correction to: Protective Effect of Mitogen- and Stress-Activated Protein Kinase (MSK) on Focal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rat
The name of the Hospital in the published article is incorrect. “The First People’s Hospital of Taizhou” should be “Taizhou People’s Hospital”. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 14, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid Attenuates Interleukin-1 β-Induced Interleukin-6 Upregulation by Inhibiting the Microtubule Affinity-Regulating Kinase 4/Nuclear Factor-κB Pathway in Synovium-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells from the Temporomandibular Joint
In this study, we evaluated the relationships between IL-1β and IL-6 in synovial specimens from patients with TMD and in model rats with osteoarthritis (OA). We found that IL-1β and IL-6 were positively correlated and that IL-6 expression in SMSCs i ncreased with IL-1β stimulationin vitro. Moreover, microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4 (MARK4) was significantly upregulated in IL-1 β-stimulated SMSCs and in the synovium of rats with OA. MARK4 knockdown inhibited IL-6 secretion and nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway activation in IL-1β-stimulated SMSCs. SAHA attenuated IL-6 secretion in IL-1&be...
Source: Inflammation - April 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Perinatal Inflammation Reprograms Neuroendocrine, Immune, and Reproductive Functions: Profile of Cytokine Biomarkers
AbstractViral and bacterial infections causing systemic inflammation are significant risk factors for developing body. Inflammatory processes can alter physiological levels of regulatory factors and interfere with developmental mechanisms. The brain is the main target for the negative impact of inflammatory products during critical ontogenetic periods. Subsequently, the risks of various neuropsychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer ’s and Parkinson’s diseases, schizophrenia, and depression are increased in the offspring. Inflammation-induced physiological disturbances can cause immune and behavioral disorders, re...
Source: Inflammation - April 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Fibroblast-Like Synoviocyte Derived Exosomal Long Non-coding RNA H19 Alleviates Osteoarthritis Progression Through the miR-106b-5p/TIMP2 Axis
AbstractOsteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative joint disease that affects people worldwide. The interaction between fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) and chondrocytes may play a vital role in OA disease pathology. However, the underlying mechanisms by which FLSs exert regulatory effects on chondrocytes still need to be elucidated. Exosomes, small membrane vesicles secreted from living cells, are known to play a variety of roles in mediating cell-to-cell communication through the transferring of biological components such as non-coding RNAs and proteins. Here, we investigate the cellular processes of chondrocytes re...
Source: Inflammation - April 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Cyanidin-3-O-Glucoside Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells by Inducing Let-7b-5p-Mediated HMGA2/PI3K/Akt Pathway
AbstractThe bacterial keratitis causes viability loss and apoptosis in the corneal epithelial cells (CECs). The cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) benefits visual system and also possess anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory potentials. In the current study, the effects of C3G on human CECs (HCECs) against bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced disorders were assessed, and the mechanism driving the protective effect was explored by focusing on let-7b-5p-mediated HMGA2/PI3K/Akt pathway. The HCECs were incubated LPS ofP. aeruginosa to induce inflammation and apoptosis, and then treated with C3G. The changes in cell viability, a...
Source: Inflammation - April 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-Ulcerative Effect of Curcumin-Galactomannoside Complex on Acetic Acid-Induced Experimental Model by Inhibiting Inflammation and Oxidative Stress
AbstractUlcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the mucosa and submucosa of colon. The pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) is related to reduced antioxidant capacity and increased inflammatory processes. Reactive oxygen metabolites are the potent inflammatory mediators that may be involved in tissue injury in inflammatory bowel disease. Conventional drug therapies for UC come with a myriad of side effects which further raise the need for natural bioactive agents. Curcumin has proven to be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of a number of inflammatory diseases, but due its po...
Source: Inflammation - April 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Sanggenon C Ameliorates Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting Inflammation and Oxidative Stress through Regulating RhoA-ROCK Signaling
AbstractSanggenon C (SC), a natural flavonoid extracted from Cortex Mori (Sang Bai Pi), is reported to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in hypoxia. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential and the underlying mechanisms of SC in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. A rat model of reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was used to induce cerebral I/R injuryin vivo, and SC was administrated intragastrically. Brain injuries were evaluated using Bederson scores, brain water content, and 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The levels of inflammatory...
Source: Inflammation - April 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Ar-Turmerone Exerts Anti-proliferative and Anti-inflammatory Activities in HaCaT Keratinocytes by Inactivating Hedgehog Pathway
In conclusion, ar-turmerone suppressed cell proliferative ability and attenuated inflammatory cytokine expression by inactivating Hedgehog pathway in HaCaT cells, contributing to better understanding the poten tial anti-psoriasis effects of ar-turmerone on psoriasis. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Role of the Nucleotide-Binding Domain-Like Receptor Protein 3 Inflammasome in the Endothelial Dysfunction of Early Sepsis
In this study, septic mice were induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) operation, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVECs) were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The 24-h survival rate after CLP was observed. Vasodilation function of the aorta was detected by vascular reactivity experiments. Expression of p-eNOS, eNOS, TLR4, MYD88, p-p65, p65, p-ikb α, ikbα, iNOS, NLRP3, and IL-1β in the aorta and HUVECs were determined by Western blot. Our results suggest that the p-eNOS expression was downregulated, the endothelium-dependent relaxation function was impaired, and TLR4, MYD88, p-p65, p...
Source: Inflammation - April 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Nicardipine Inhibits Priming of the NLRP3 Inflammasome via Suppressing LPS-Induced TLR4 Expression
In conclusion, nicardipine exerted anti-inflammatory effects through inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome pathway. Nicardipine may mitigate NLRP3 primingvia inhibiting NF-kappaB activation, mediated by suppressing LPS-induced TLR4 expression. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Interferon Regulatory Factor-2 Binding Protein 2 Ameliorates Sepsis-Induced Cardiomyopathy via AMPK-Mediated Anti-Inflammation and Anti-Apoptosis
AbstractCardiomyopathy commonly occurs after sepsis and is closely associated with high mortality in clinic. Interferon regulatory factor-2 binding protein 2 (IRF2BP2) has been identified as a negative regulator of inflammation, but its role in septic cardiomyopathy is unknown. The current study aims to illuminate the regulatory function of IRF2BP2 on sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Protein expression of IRF2BP2 in response to sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy was examined in the heart of mice challenged by LPS intraperitoneal injection. AAV9-delivered IRF2BP2 overexpression in the heart...
Source: Inflammation - April 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inhibition of PAD2 Improves Survival in a Mouse Model of Lethal LPS-Induced Endotoxic Shock
AbstractEndotoxemia induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an extremely severe syndrome identified by global activation of inflammatory responses. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) play an important role in the development of endotoxemia. Histone hypercitrullination catalyzed by peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) is a key step of NET formation. We have previously demonstrated that simultaneous inhibition of PAD2 and PAD4 with pan-PAD inhibitors can decrease NETosis and improve survival in a mouse model of LPS-induced endotoxic shock. However, the effects of PAD2 specific inhibition during NETosis and endotoxic shock ar...
Source: Inflammation - April 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Musculin Deficiency Aggravates Colonic Injury and Inflammation in Mice with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
AbstractIntestinal inflammatory reactions and resulting tissue injuries are two major aspects of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The regulatory factors involved in the pathogenesis of IBD remain unclear. Recent studies showed that musculin (MSC) as a transcription suppressor participates in the regulation of certain immune functions. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of MSC deficiency on colonic injury and inflammatory reaction under IBD, where wild-type (WT, +/+) and MSC-knockout (MSCKO, MSC −/−) mice were induced for disease by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water. Immunohistoc...
Source: Inflammation - April 1, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Long Non-coding RNA THRIL Mediates Cell Growth and Inflammatory Response of Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes by Activating PI3K/AKT Signals in Rheumatoid Arthritis
AbstractThe present study explored the possible functions and the underlying mechanism of tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (hnRNPL)–related immunoregulatory lncRNA plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (THRIL) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Serum samples were collected from patients with RA. Primary fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) were separated from synovial tissues and cultured for subsequent cell experiments by transfecting different vectors. The qRT-PCR analysis was employed for evaluating the levels of THRIL in the serum. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent ass...
Source: Inflammation - March 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Integrin- α9 and Its Corresponding Ligands Play Regulatory Roles in Chronic Periodontitis
AbstractIntegrin- α9 (ITGA9) and its corresponding ligands are involved in inflammatory and immune responses. The present study aimed to investigate whether ITGA9 participates in the development of chronic periodontitis (ChP) and to explore the underlying mechanisms. We collected gingival tissue and gingival crevicu lar fluidin vivo from patients to determine the levels of ITGA9 and its ligands. We cultured primary periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs)in vitro and applied small interfering RNA to knock down ITGA9 in order to analyze the changes of inflammatory cytokines and explore the related cellular signaling pathway...
Source: Inflammation - March 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Glycitin Suppresses Cartilage Destruction of Osteoarthritis in Mice
AbstractOsteoarthritis (OA), a chronic joint disease, is characterized by cartilage surface erosion, subchondral bone rebuilding, and formation of osteophytes. To date, the nosogenesis and underlying mechanisms of OA have not yet been elucidated. However, it is widely accepted that TNF- α is a crucial cytokine in the development of OA. Glycitin, a natural isoflavone extracted from legumes, affects physiological reactions and pathological responses. Recently, the anti-inflammatory effect of glycitin has been reported. However, the function of glycitin in cartilage degeneration in O A remains to be investigated. In the...
Source: Inflammation - March 28, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immunomodulating Properties of Carrageenan from Tichocarpus crinitus
AbstractSeveralin vivo immunotropic effects of κ/β-carrageenan isolated from the red algaeTichocarpus crinitus were studied, by orally administering it at 100  mg/kg/day to mice for 7 days. Serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-1β, and IL-4 were measured. Carrageenan’s ability to influence development of LPS-induced inflammation was also assessed. Oral administration of κ/β-carrageenan increased serum levels of all the studied cytokines at least twice in comparison to the intact mice, while intraperitoneal LPS injection at 1 mg/kg increased concentration of only the pro-infl...
Source: Inflammation - March 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Lectin Isolated from the Alga Hypnea cervicornis Promotes Antinociception in Rats Subjected to Zymosan-Induced Arthritis: Involvement of cGMP Signalization and Cytokine Expression
In conclusion, the antinociceptive effect of HCA in ZyA involves cyclic GMP signalization and selective modulation of cytokine expression. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - March 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Downregulation of lncRNA TUG1 attenuates inflammation and apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cell induced by ischemia-reperfusion by sponging miR-449b-5p via targeting HMGB1 and MMP2
AbstractWe aimed to evaluate the functions of long non-coding RNA taurine upregulated gene 1 (lncRNA TUG1) in renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and identify the potential mechanisms. Pathological changes of renal tissues were examined using H&E staining after mimic renal I/R injuryin vivo. The contents of serum renal functional parameters and inflammatory factors were measured. The expression of TUG1 and miR-449b-5p in renal tissues and HK-2 cells stimulated by I/R were detected. Then, the effects of TUG1 silencing on inflammation and apoptosis of cells were evaluated. Dual luciferase reporter assays were execute...
Source: Inflammation - March 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Electroacupuncture Relieves Pain and Attenuates Inflammation Progression Through Inducing IL-10 Production in CFA-Induced Mice
In this study, mice were treated with EA (2/100  Hz, 2 mA) for five consecutive days after 1 day of CFA injection. The behavioral tests were measured and analyzed after the daily EA treatment; then, hind paw, spinal cord, and spleen tissues were prepared for assessment. The results showed that EA treatment significantly increased the mechanica l threshold and thermal latency after CFA injection and boosted the expression of IL-10 in paw and spinal cord tissues. EA treatment promoted Treg cells; suppressed macrophage and neutrophils cells; reduced the expression of IL-1β, NLRP3, and TNF-α; and ulti...
Source: Inflammation - March 20, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

lncRNA ZFAS1 Improves Neuronal Injury and Inhibits Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Apoptosis by Sponging miR-582 and Upregulating NOS3 Expression in Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury
AbstractThe interplay between lncRNAs and miRNAs was reported to be associated with cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury (CIRI). Besides, the lncRNA ZFAS1 was significantly downregulated in patients with ischemic stroke. However, the exact biological role of ZFAS1 and its mechanism in CIRI remain to be elucidated. The current study was designed to explore the protective effects of ZFAS1 on neuronal injury, inflammation, oxidative stress, and neuronal apoptosis in CIRI. ZFAS1 and miR-582-3p levels were assessed by RT-qPCR. Cerebral infarction was assessed by tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. Inflammation and oxidative st...
Source: Inflammation - March 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Esculetin Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice Via Modulation of the AKT/ERK/NF- κB and RORγt/IL-17 Pathways
AbstractEsculetin, a coumarin derivative from various natural plants, has an anti-inflammatory property. In the present study, we examined if esculetin has any salutary effects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Acute lung injury (ALI) was inducedvia the intratracheal administration of LPS, and esculetin (20 and 40  mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally 30 min before LPS challenge. After 6 h of LPS administration, lung tissues were collected for analysis. Pretreatment with esculetin significantly attenuated histopathological changes, inflammatory cell infiltration, and pro...
Source: Inflammation - March 13, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research