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MicroRNA-34a Suppresses Autophagy in Alveolar Type II Epithelial Cells in Acute Lung Injury by Inhibiting FoxO3 Expression
The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the relationship between the miRNA expression and the autophagic activity of the AT-II cells in the pathogenesis of ALI and its molecular mechanism. A mouse model of ALI and AT-II cell injury was induced using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)in vivo andin vitro, and the expression of miR-34a and the autophagy-related proteins LC3 II/I and p62 were determined. Moreover, the autophagic activity was investigated after miR-34a overexpression and inhibition. The effects of miR-34a on its target gene,FoxO3, in regulating autophagic activity in AT-II cells were also determined. LPS...
Source: Inflammation - May 12, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Artesunate Protects LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Inhibiting TLR4 Expression and Inducing Nrf2 Activation
In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of artesunate on LPS-induced lung injury in mice. The mice were treated with artesunate 1  h before or after LPS treatment. The effects of artesunate on lung MPO activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were detected. The lung wet/dry radio and the numbers of inflammatory cells in BALF were also measured. ELISA was used to evaluate the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in BALF. Weste rn blot analysis was adapted to detect TLR4 and Nrf2 signaling pathways. The results showed that artesunate protected against LPS-induced ALI by decreasing the numbers of infl...
Source: Inflammation - May 12, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Prostaglandin E 2 Upregulated Trigeminal Ganglionic Sodium Channel 1.7 Involving Temporomandibular Joint Inflammatory Pain in Rats
AbstractProstaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a key proinflammatory mediator that contributes to inflammatory hyperalgesia. Voltage-gated sodium channel 1.7 (Nav1.7) plays an important role in inflammatory pain. However, the modulation of Nav1.7 in inflammatory pain remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that PGE2 might regulate Nav1.7 expression in inflammatory pain. We here showed that treatment of rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) explants with PGE2 significantly upregulated the mRNA and protein expressions of Nav1.7 through PGE2 receptor EP2. This finding was confirmed by studies on EP2-selective antagonist PF-04418948. We also de...
Source: Inflammation - May 12, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Brazilin Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy and Inflammation in db/db Mice
AbstractHyperglycemia and inflammation play important roles in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Brazilin might be an effective pharmacological agent against hyperglycemia and inflammation. In our present study, we explored whether brazilin mitigated pathological progression, inflammation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation in a mouse model of diabetic nephropathy. Brazilin reduced aggravated biochemical indices of DN (proteinuria and the serum glucose level) and renal hypertrophy. Brazilin also improved renal morphology and inhibited macrophage infiltration, as manifested by different pathological st...
Source: Inflammation - May 11, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

IL-35 Pretreatment Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Mice by Inhibiting NF- κB Activation
In this study, we evaluated the prophylactic effect of interleukin (IL)-35, the unique immune-suppressive member of IL-12 cytokine family, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI in mice, and found that compared with control mice given empty vector, mice pretreated with plasmid encoding IL-35 (pIL-35) significantly improved renal function indicated by reduced blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr), and obviously alleviated renal pathological changes. To explore the underlying protective mechanisms, we found that pIL-35 treatment could robustly reduce the production of renal pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF- &a...
Source: Inflammation - May 11, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Lung Protective Effects of Low-Volume Resuscitation and Pharmacologic Treatment of Swine Subjected to Polytrauma and Hemorrhagic Shock
This study demonstrates that combined treatment with VPA and HTS is a viable strategy in hemorrhagic shock and poly trauma. Attenuation of lung injury following VPA treatment may be related to modulation of the inflammatory response. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - May 10, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Electro-Acupuncture at Zusanli Acupoint (ST36) Suppresses Inflammation in Allergic Contact Dermatitis Via Triggering Local IL-10 Production and Inhibiting p38 MAPK Activation
This study aimed to investigate if electro-acupuncture (EA) treatment prevents 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in rats and explore its underlying mechanisms. ACD was induced by sensitizing and challenging with DNFB topically. Rats were treated daily following bilateral subcutaneous stimulation of EA atZusanli acupoint (ST36) for 1  week. Ear swelling and serum IgE levels were measured. The ear biopsies were obtained for histology. Inflammatory cytokines on the dermatological ear and local acupoint tissue were assayed. Spleen lymphocytes and the homogenized supernatant of local...
Source: Inflammation - May 10, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Therapeutic Action of Honokiol on Postoperative Ileus via Downregulation of iNOS Gene Expression
AbstractPostoperative ileus is a common complication after intra-abdominal surgery. Nitric oxide produced by macrophages in the inflamed gastrointestinal tract plays a crucial role in the pathogeny of postoperative ileus. Honokiol, extracted from the bark ofMagnolia spp., is a natural compound with a biphenolic structure. In the present study, we examined the effect of honokiol on postoperative ileus and discussed its site of action. Postoperative ileus model mice were generated by surgical intestinal manipulation. Mice were administered honokiol (10  mg kg−1,per os) 1  h before and after intestinal ma...
Source: Inflammation - May 10, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Acupuncture in Cardiopulmonary Bypass-Induced Lung Injury in Rats
AbstractAcute lung injury caused by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) increases the mortality after cardiac surgery. Our previous clinical study suggested that electroacupuncture (EAc) has a protective effect during CPB, but the mechanism was unclear. So, we design this study to investigate the effects of EAc on CPB-induced lung injury and the underlying mechanism. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, CPB, and CPB  + EAc groups. A lung injury model was created by CPB surgery to serve as the CPB group, and EAc (2/100 Hz) was used before CPB in the CPB + EAc group. Lung tissue was ...
Source: Inflammation - May 10, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Regulation of iNOS-Derived ROS Generation by HSP90 and Cav-1 in Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus-Infected Swine Lung Injury
In this report, we analyzed expression of both eNOS and iNOS, the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and expression of their associated regulatory proteins, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and caveolin-1 (Cav-1), in a swine lung injury model induced by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. The combination of upregulation of iNOS and downregulation of eNOS was observed in both natural and experimental PRRSV-infected lungs, while the combination is much enhanced in natural infected lungs. While NO production is much reduced in both infections, ROS was enhanced on...
Source: Inflammation - May 10, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

TLR2 Regulates Allergic Airway Inflammation and Autophagy Through PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway
AbstractToll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate pattern recognition receptors that play a critical role in allergic inflammation, yet their contribution to autophagy in asthma remains poorly defined. Here, we investigate the role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in phosphoinositide 3-kinases/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway-mediated autophagy in ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in mice. Wild-type (WT) and TLR2-knockout (TLR2−/−) C57BL/6 mice were ovalbumin-sensitized and ovalbumin-challenged. In ovalbumin-challenged WT mice, enhanced expression of TLR2 in lung tissue, remarkable inflammatory cell infiltrate...
Source: Inflammation - May 10, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The 5-HT 3 Receptor Antagonist Ondansetron Attenuates Pancreatic Injury in Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis Model
AbstractThe 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor (5-HT3R) antagonist ondansetron has been clinically approved as an anti-emetic agent. Recent findings indicate that ondansetron has anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to assess the therapeutic action of ondansetron in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis model. Male-BALB/c mice were used in the present study. Acute pancreatitis was induced by an hourly injection of cerulein. Ondansetron was administered subcutaneously at a dose of 3  mg/kg. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of 5-HT3 R in pancreatic tissue was assessed with RT-PCR. Plasma amylase, ...
Source: Inflammation - May 10, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Oxyresveratrol Is a Phytoestrogen Exerting Anti-inflammatory Effects Through NF- κB and Estrogen Receptor Signaling
AbstractRecent studies suggest an anti-inflammatory activity of oxyresveratrol, a stilbene extracted fromCortex mori root used in traditional Chinese medicine that also presents estrogen-like activity. We herein tested the hypothesis that oxyreservatrol exerts an anti-inflammatory effect through its estrogenic-like function. In MCF-7 cells, oxyresveratrol significantly induced proliferation, which was accompanied with estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated transcriptional activation, increased estrogen-targeted gene expression (e.g., pS2, PGR, and CTSD), and increased ER α/β proteins. The estrogen-like effect of oxyres...
Source: Inflammation - May 8, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Salidroside Inhibits Inflammation Through PI3K/Akt/HIF Signaling After Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats
AbstractSalidroside is being investigated for its therapeutic potential in stroke because it is neuroprotective over an extended therapeutic window of time. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of salidroside (50  mg/kg intraperitoneally) in rats, given 1 h after reperfusion of a middle cerebral artery that had been occluded for 2 h. After 24 h, we found that salidroside increased the neuronal nuclear protein NeuN and reduced the marker of microglia and macrophages CD11b in the peri-infarct area of the b rain. Salidroside also decreased IL-6, IL-1...
Source: Inflammation - May 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitor URB937 Ameliorates Radiation-Induced Lung Injury in a Mouse Model
AbstractRadiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a potentially life-threatening complication of radiotherapy. In the current study, we examined the potential protective effects of URB937, an inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase using a mouse model of RILI. Briefly, male C57BL/6 mice received 16Gy irradiation to the thoracic region and then intraperitoneal injection of either URB937 (1  mg/kg) or vehicle every 2 days for 30 days. The extent of the lung injury was evaluated histologically at the end of the drug treatment as well as 3 months after the cessation of the treatment. The data showed URB937 at...
Source: Inflammation - May 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Tim3 + Foxp3 + Treg Cells Are Potent Inhibitors of Effector T Cells and Are Suppressed in Rheumatoid Arthritis
In conclusion, our study suggested that the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells from RA patients demonstrated a reduction of Tim3 and were less functional than Treg cells from healthy controls in a Tim3-related manner. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - May 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Valproic Acid in a Rat Model of Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury: Alteration in Cytokine Profile
This study intended to evaluate whether VPA could affect the inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines balance and severity of renal I/R injury in rat. I/R injury was induced in two groups of animals, vehicle normal saline and VPA-treated (IP injection, 150  mg/kg) rats, by 45 min occlusion of both left and right renal arteries followed by 3, 24 and 120 h reperfusion in separate groups. After each time point, kidneys and blood samples were collected for cytokine genes (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10 and TGF-β) expression analysis and histological examinatio ns in the kidney tissues. Serum creatinine leve...
Source: Inflammation - May 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Fluoxetine, an Antidepressant Drug, Inhibited Cigarette Smoke-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation and Apoptosis in Rats
AbstractThe present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of fluoxetine (Flu) against cigarette smoke (CS)-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to five groups: control group, CS group, dexamethasone (2  mg/kg) group, and flu (2 mg/kg). H&E staining demonstrated that Flu inhibited CS-induced pathological injury. In addition, Flu could restore the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum. Flu also inhibited the levels of cytokines including tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-...
Source: Inflammation - May 5, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

N -(2-Hydroxyphenyl)acetamide: a Novel Suppressor of RANK/RANKL Pathway in Collagen-Induced Arthritis Model in Rats
AbstractRANKL and RANK are potential contributors of inflammatory cascade in human and animal model of arthritis. The current study aims to investigate the effect ofN-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide (NA-2) on regulation of RANKL pathway in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model in rats. CIA was induced using bovine type II collagen in female Wistar rats. The clinical parameters, level of pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress markers were measured to determine the progression of the disease. The mRNA level of RANKL and RANK and downstream mediators of inflammationi.e. c-fos, c-jun, NF- κB and Akt were analysed in spleen ti...
Source: Inflammation - May 4, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

JNK Inhibitor SP600125 Attenuates Paraquat-Induced Acute Lung Injury: an In Vivo and In Vitro Study
In this study, the mechanism underlying the protective effects of SP600125 on paraquat-induced ALI was investigated according to oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. The rats were randomly assigned into the control group (CON), the paraquat poisoning group (PQ), and the PQ + SP600125 group (SP). A549 cells were divided into the Con group, Pq group, and Sp group. H&E staining and detection of lung wet/dry ratio were employed to evaluate lung injury. Annexin V-PI staining was done to evaluate A549 cell apoptosis. Dihydroethidium fluorescence was used to measure reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the lungs and A54...
Source: Inflammation - May 4, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Macrophage Subset Expressing CD169 in Peritoneal Cavity-Regulated Mucosal Inflammation Together with Lower Levels of CCL22
AbstractCrohn ’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the most widely known types of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and have been paid more attention due to their increasing incidence and a substantial increase in the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the phenotype and, more importantly, the function in the regulation of mucosal inflammation by different macrophages are poorly understood, even though macrophages constitute a major subset of intestinal myeloid cells. The results firstly showed that the subset of peritoneal CD11b+CD169+ macrophages increased and CCL22 expression level decreased signi...
Source: Inflammation - May 2, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

An Active Drimane-Type Lactone from Polygonum jucundum Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice Through TLR4-MAPKs Signaling Pathway
AbstractThe herbs ofPolygonum jucundum Lindex. (Polygonaceae) is a traditional Chinese medicine for inflammatory diseases. 2 α-Hydroxyl-3β-angeloylcinnamolide (HAC), a drimane-type sesquiterpenoid, was the major active compound of the ethanol extract ofP. jucundum which inhibited the production of inflammatory mediators. However, the biological mechanism of HAC for anti-inflammatory activity has not been reported. In the current study, we investigated whether HAC could suppress the production of inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in mice (ALI) through downregulation of T...
Source: Inflammation - April 28, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Roflumilast Reduces Cerebral Inflammation in a Rat Model of Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
This study investigates the effects of roflumilast on cerebral inflammation in the rat SAH model. Here, we show that subcutaneous administration of roflumilast (3  mg/kg) significantly improved the neurological deficits. Measurement of evans blue extravasation and brain water content revealed a significant reduction of blood-brain barrier permeability and brain edema. Importantly, roflumilast treatment remarkably decreased levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and the number of apoptotic neurons in the brain after SAH. These results indicate that roflumilast is effective in treating cerebral inflammation followi...
Source: Inflammation - April 27, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Post-Effect of Air Quality Improvement on Biomarkers for Systemic Inflammation and Microparticles in Asthma Patients After the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games: a Pilot Study
This study ’s aim was to investigate the post-effect of an air quality improvement on systemic inflammation and circulating microparticles in asthmatic patients during, and 2 months after, the Beijing Olympics 2008. We measured the levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines and microparticles in the perip heral blood from asthma patients and healthy controls during (phase 1), and 2 months after (phase 2) the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. The concentrations of circulating cytokines (including TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) were still seen reduced in phase 2 when compared with those in phase 1. The numbe ...
Source: Inflammation - April 25, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Prothrombotic State in Asthma Is Related to Increased Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines, IL-6 and TNF α, in Peripheral Blood
AbstractRecently, we have reported that asthma is associated with enhanced plasma thrombin formation and impaired fibrinolysis. The mechanisms underlying the prothrombotic state in this disease are unknown.Our aim was to investigate whether prothrombotic alterations in asthmatics are associated with inflammation. We studied 164 adult, white, stable asthmatics and 72 controls matched for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and smoking. Plasma tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-6, and serum periostin were evaluated using ELISAs, and their associations with thrombin generation, fibrinolytic capacity, ex...
Source: Inflammation - April 20, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Chlorinated Flavonoids Modulate the Inflammatory Process in Human Blood
AbstractFlavonoids are known to react with neutrophil-generated hypochlorous acid (HOCl) at inflammationloci to form stable mono- and dichlorinated products. Some of these products have been shown to retain or even enhance their inflammatory potential, but further information is required in a broader approach to inflammatory mechanisms. In that sense, we performed an integrated evaluation on the anti-inflammatory potential of a panel of novel chlorinated flavonoids and their parent compounds, in several steps of the complex inflammatory cascade, namely, in the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2, and in the produc...
Source: Inflammation - April 13, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Age-Related Changes in Inflammatory Response after Experimental Envenomation: Impact on the Susceptibility to Androctonus australis hector Venom
In this study, we compared the systemic (blood and lung) and the central (brain) inflammatory responses after injection ofAndroctonus australis hector (Aah) venom to 7 and 21 postnatal days (pnds) and adult mice by subcutaneous route. Results revealed that 7 and 21 pnd mice were more sensitive toAah venom than adults and presented also severe systemic and central inflammatory responses characterized by a high activation of immune cells, NO liberation, and lipid peroxidation. Lymphocyte levels were much lower in young animals than in adults; however, neutrophil levels seemed to be higher in immature mice. The antioxidant GS...
Source: Inflammation - April 13, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Fluoride Induces Neuroinflammation and Alters Wnt Signaling Pathway in BV2 Microglial Cells
This study thus provi des a valid basis for the fluorine-induced neuroinflammation injury theory. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 12, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Elevated Galectin-9 Suppresses Th1 Effector Function and Induces Apoptosis of Activated CD4 + T Cells in Osteoarthritis
AbstractT cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3) is a critical regulatory molecule found on activated Th1 cells, exhausted CD8+ T cells, and resting monocytes/macrophages. Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is an identified ligand for Tim-3. Interaction between Tim-3 and Gal-9 is thought to inhibit Th1 responses. The regulation and function of Tim-3 and Gal-9 in osteoarthritis (OA) have not been intensively investigated. We found that in peripheral blood, CD4+ T cells, but not CD8+ T cells or CD14+ monocytes, from OA patients presented significantly elevated Tim-3 and Gal-9 expression compared to those from healthy controls (HC). ...
Source: Inflammation - April 10, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Markers in Experimental Allergic Asthma
In this study, we evaluated pulmonary function together with inflammatory markers as interleukin-4 (IL-4), myeloperoxidase (MPO), eosinophil cells, and redox markers in the lungs of BALB/c mice after ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge. Our results showed an increase in bronchial hyperresponsiveness stimulated by methacholine (Mch), inflammatory cell influx, especially eosinophils together with an increase of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and altered lipid peroxidation (LP) and antioxidant defenses in the OVA group compared to the control group (p ≤ 0.5). Thus, we demonstrated that OVA-induced ALI ...
Source: Inflammation - April 8, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Gomisin N Decreases Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells
AbstractGomisin N, which is a lignan isolated fromSchisandra chinensis, has some pharmacological effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of gomisin N on periodontal disease are uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of gomisin N on inflammatory mediator production in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α-stimulated human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLC). Gomisin N inhibited interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 2, and CCL20 production in TNF-α-stimulated HPDLC in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, we revealed that gomisin N could suppress extracellular signal-regulated kinas...
Source: Inflammation - March 19, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Bakuchiol Protects Against Acute Lung Injury in Septic Mice
In conclusion, Bak treatment attenuates ALI following sepsis by suppressing inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial barrier disruption. Our study indicates that Bak is a potential candidate to treat sepsis-induced ALI. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - March 19, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

miRNA-451a Targets IFN Regulatory Factor 8 for the Progression of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
AbstractIncreasing evidence has shown that miRNA-451a (miR-451a) is associated with the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); however, the mechanism of this association is not fully known. The present study found an increased expression of miR-451a in the spleen and thymus of an SLE mice model. A decrease in miR-451a expression partly relieved the enlargement of the spleen and decreased the proteinuria content and immune complex deposits. The deficiency in miR-451a also decreased numbers of CD4+CD69+ and CD4+/CD8+ T cells and the levels of the serum cytokines IL-17a and IL-4. The IFN regulatory factor (IRF) 8 ...
Source: Inflammation - March 19, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Schisandrin B on LPS-Stimulated BV2 Microglia via Activating PPAR- γ
In conclusion, these results suggested that Sch B inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory response by activating PPAR-γ. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - March 15, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective Effect of Amygdalin on LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Inhibiting NF- κB and NLRP3 Signaling Pathways
AbstractThe acute lung injury (ALI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Amygdalin is derived from thebitter apricot kernel, an efficacious Chinese herbal medicine. Although amygdalin is used by many cancer patients as an antitumor agent, there is no report about the effect of amygdalin on acute lung injury. Here we explored the protective effect of amygdalin on ALI using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine model by detecting the lung wet/dry ratio, the myeloperoxidase (MPO) in lung tissues, inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), inflammatory cytokines produc...
Source: Inflammation - March 15, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

MicroRNA-24 Modulates Staphylococcus aureus -Induced Macrophage Polarization by Suppressing CHI3L1
In conclusion, the data suggest that miR-24 serves as a molecular regulator inS. aureus-induced macrophage polarization through targeting of CHI3L1 and regulation of the MAPK pathway, which may provide a promising therapeutic target forS. aureus-related infections and inflammatory diseases. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - March 15, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Influence of α-Tocopherol on Serum Biochemical Markers During Experimentally Induced Pleuritis in Rats Exposed to Dioxin
AbstractToxicity of dioxins is wide ranging. Amongst the organs, the liver is the most susceptible to damage by dioxins. Damage caused to liver cells results in promoting inflammatory processes. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether high doses of tocopherol will change the inflammatory response, monitored by biochemical indicators, by improving liver function in rats exposed to tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The study was conducted on a population of female Buffalo rats. The animals were divided into the following groups: Control Group A —representing physiological norms for the studied diagnostic indicat...
Source: Inflammation - March 14, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

2,3-Diarylxanthones as Potential Inhibitors of Arachidonic Acid Metabolic Pathways
AbstractIn response to an inflammatory stimulus, arachidonic acid (AA), the main polyunsaturated fatty acid present in the phospholipid layer of cell membranes, is released and metabolized to a series of eicosanoids. These bioactive lipid mediators of inflammation arise physiologically through the action of the enzymes 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and cyclooxygenases (constitutive COX-1 and inducible COX-2). It is believed that dual inhibition of 5-LOX and COXs may have a higher beneficial impact in the treatment of inflammatory disorders rather than the inhibition of each enzyme. With this demand for new dual-acting anti-inflam...
Source: Inflammation - March 10, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effects of SDF-1/CXCR4 on Acute Lung Injury Induced by Cardiopulmonary Bypass
AbstractAcute lung injury (ALI) is one of the most important complications after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and the complex pathophysiology remains to be resolved incomplete. SDF-1/CXCR4 chemokine axis can chemotactically accumulate inflammatory cell to local tissue and regulate the release of inflammatory factors, and SDF-1 has a strong chemotaxis effect on neutrophils with CXCR4. Since CPB animal model was difficult to establish, there was still no report about the effect of SDF-1/CXCR4 on neutrophil chemotaxis in ALI after CPB. Here, a stable CPB rat model was constructed to clarify the role of SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in the...
Source: Inflammation - March 10, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Switch of Steady-State to an Accelerated Granulopoiesis in Response to Androctonus australis hector Venom
In conclusion, this study indicated that the bone marrow rapidly exerts its activity in response to the experimental envenomationvia the granulopoiesis process and inflammatory mediators in concert with the development of a systemic response. The ability of venom to directly switch steady-state granulopoiesis to an accelerated statein vitro could aggravate the disturbance caused by the venom. Better understanding of the mechanisms involved may lead to the emergence of new targets to avoid cell spreading and accumulation by acting on the very early stage of the systemic inflammatory response. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - February 28, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Atorvastatin and Simvastatin Promoted Mouse Lung Repair After Cigarette Smoke-Induced Emphysema
AbstractCigarette smoke (CS) induces pulmonary emphysema by inflammation, oxidative stress, and metalloproteinase (MMP) activation. Pharmacological research studies have not focused on tissue repair after the establishment of emphysema but have instead focused on inflammatory stimulation. The aim of our study was to analyze the effects of atorvastatin and simvastatin on mouse lung repair after emphysema caused by CS. Male mice (C57BL/6,n = 45) were divided into the following groups: control (sham-exposed), CSr (mice exposed to 12 cigarettes a day for 60 days and then treated for another 60 days with...
Source: Inflammation - February 28, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A20 Attenuates Liver Fibrosis in NAFLD and Inhibits Inflammation Responses
AbstractWe previously reported A20 was able to inhibit lipid accumulation in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. We want to investigate whether A20 influences liver fibrosis in this study. Liver tissues from patients with hepatic fibrosis (n = 9) and healthy individuals (n = 7) were studied for A20 protein level by immunohistochemistry. A20 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein level were also analyzed in two murine hepatic fibrosis models: methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet and extrahepatic bile duct ligation (BDL) operation by real-time PCR and western blo t.In vitro, the LX-2 human hepatic ste...
Source: Inflammation - February 28, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effects of Ergosterol on COPD in Mice via JAK3/STAT3/NF- κB Pathway
AbstractThe present study was to evaluate the effect of ergosterol (ER) on CS (cigarette smoke)-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in mice. Fifty male ICR mice were randomly assigned to five groups: control group, CS group, CS + dexamethasone (Dex, 2  mg/kg) group, CS + ER (ER, 25 mg/kg) group, CS + ER (ER, 50 mg/kg). H&E staining demonstrated that ER inhibited CS-induced pathological injury in lung tissue. Besides, ER could restore the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum and in the lung, catalase (CAT) in serum and reduce the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and ...
Source: Inflammation - February 28, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Progranulin Protects Against Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head by Activating ERK1/2 Pathway
This study helps to elucidate the pathogenesis of ONFH and presents PGRN as a potential target for the treatment of ONFH. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - February 27, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory Role of Pilose Antler Peptide in LPS-Induced Lung Injury
AbstractThe present study was designed to investigate the effects of pilose antler peptide (PAP) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury. BalB/c mice intraperitoneally received PAP (10 and 20  mg/kg) or dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) 1 h prior to intratracheal instillation of LPS. PAP significantly decreased lung wet-to-dry weight (W/D) ratio and lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and restored LPS-induced lung histopathological changes. PAP also increased super oxide dismutase (SOD) level a nd inhibited malondialdehyde (MDA) content and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-&...
Source: Inflammation - February 26, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

IL-21 Is Positively Associated with Intervertebral Disc Degeneration by Interaction with TNF- α Through the JAK-STAT Signaling Pathway
This study was conducted in order to investigate the function of IL-21 in intervertebral disc degeneration. The serum concentration of IL-21 in patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH) was examined by ELISA. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis were performed to detect the expression of IL-21, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS-7), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α) in degenerated intervertebral disc (IVD) tissues of human and rat. Moreover, nucleus pulposus (NP) cells were treated with 0, 10, 100, and 1000 ng/mL of IL-21 cytokine with and without AG490. TNF-...
Source: Inflammation - February 23, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Establishment of a Novel Autoimmune Experimental Model of Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis in C57BL/6 Mice
AbstractThe aim of this study is to identify whether vaccinating twice with bladder homogenate can establish a new model of experimental autoimmune cystitis (EAC) in C57BL/6 strain mice. C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with bladder homogenate in complete Freund ’s adjuvant (CFA) and boost immunized with bladder homogenate in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA) after 2 weeks were used as the EAC model. Mice immunized with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) in CFA or IFA were used as the control. Micturition habits and suprapubic–pelvic pain threshold wer e measured 4 weeks after primary immunization. Bl...
Source: Inflammation - February 22, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Adenovirus-Mediated Small Interfering RNA Targeting TAK1 Ameliorates Joint Inflammation with Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice
AbstractTransforming growth factor β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1) is a key upstream kinase in cell signaling during inflammation, which regulates the expression of inflammatory mediators. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) against TAK1 offers promise as a potential therapeutic strategy in immune-mediated inflammatory disorder including rheu matoid arthritis. Here, we are to evaluate the therapeutic effects of intra-articular administration of adenoviral-mediated siRNA against TAK1 (ad-siRNA-TAK1) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. Ad-siRNA-TAK1 was constructed. The murine RAW 264.7 macrophages were infected with ad-...
Source: Inflammation - February 20, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A multifunctional alanine-rich anti-inflammatory peptide BCP61 showed potent inhibitory effects by inhibiting both NF- κB and MAPK expression
In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of BCP61 on induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF- κB), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. The treatment with BCP61, with varying concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 μg/mL, inhibited levels of expression of LPS-induced NF-κB and MAPKs (extracellular signal-related kinases (ERKs), c -Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and mitogen-activated protein (p38)) as well as production of pro-inflamm...
Source: Inflammation - February 17, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

5-Aminosalicylic Acid Attenuates Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Rats by Increasing the Expression of Nur77
AbstractThe aim of this study is to investigate the effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) on monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in rats and its molecular mechanism. Sixty male Sprague –Dawley rats (250–300 g) were evenly randomized into six groups: control group; PAH group induced by MCT intraperitoneal injection (50 mg/kg) on day 1; and four PAH groups treated for 30 days from day 2 with 5-ASA at 50 (5-ASA-50 group), 100 (5-ASA-100 group), 150 (5-ASA-150 group), and 200  mg/kg/day (5-ASA-200 group), respectively. Body mass, weight increment, survival rates, ...
Source: Inflammation - February 16, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research