Rosmarinic Acid Regulates Microglial M1/M2 Polarization via the PDPK1/Akt/HIF Pathway Under Conditions of Neuroinflammation
In this study, we found that RA suppresses M1 microglial polarization and promotes microglial polarization to the M2 phenotype under conditions of neuroinflammation. We identified an increase in mitochondrial respiration and found that metabolic reprogramming is required for the RA-mediated promotion of microglial polarization to the M2 phenotype under LPS-induced neuroinflammation conditions. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) subunits are the key effector molecules responsible for the effects of RA on the restoration of mitochondrial function, metabolic reprogramming, and phenotypic polarization to M2 microglia. The phosphoi...
Source: Inflammation - January 9, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mice Deficient in NOX2 Display Severe Thymic Atrophy, Lymphopenia, and Reduced Lymphopoiesis in a Zymosan-Induced Model of Systemic Inflammation
AbstractPatients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) who have mutated phagocyte NADPH oxidase are susceptible to infections due to reduced reactive oxygen species production and exhibit autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in the absence of evident infection. Neutrophils and macrophages have been extensively studied since phagocyte NADPH oxidase is mainly found only in them, while the impact of its deficiency on lymphocyte cellularity is less well characterized. We showed herein a zymosan-induced systemic inflammation model that CGD mice deficient in the phagocyte NADPH oxidase gp91phox subunit (NOX2) exhibited more s...
Source: Inflammation - January 9, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effect of Exclusive Enteral Nutrition on Th17 Cells in Juvenile Rats with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
The objective was to investigate the effect of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) on T helper (Th) 17 cells by observing the effects of EEN on colon and serum interleukin (IL)-17A levels in juvenile inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) rat models and to reveal the potential mechanism of the therapeutic effect of EEN on IBD. ATNBS-induced IBD rat model was established. Feeding Peptison, a type of enteric nutrition (EN) for EEN-IBD group and EEN group, normal feed for IBD model group and control group for six consecutive days. Four groups of juvenile rats were sacrificed on day 7. The pathology of the intestinal mucosa was examin...
Source: Inflammation - January 9, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Combinatorial Effect of Acetate and Propionate on High-Fat Diet Induced Diabetic Inflammation or Metaflammation and T Cell Polarization
In conclusion, acetate + propionate effectively reduced inflammation and improved insulin sensitiv ity in HFD-induced diabetic mice. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - January 9, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

GLP-1R Agonist Liraglutide Attenuates Inflammatory Reaction and Neuronal Apoptosis and Reduces Early Brain Injury After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats
AbstractLiraglutide, one of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists, has been demonstrated to protect brain damage produced by ischemic stroke. However, it remains unknown whether liraglutide attenuates early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage. The present study was performed to explore the effect of liraglutide on early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats, and further investigate the potential mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by endovascular perforation, then received subcutaneous injection with liraglutide (50 or 100 μg/kg) or vehicle after 2...
Source: Inflammation - January 9, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

S100A9 Upregulation Contributes to Learning and Memory Impairments by Promoting Microglia M1 Polarization in Sepsis Survivor Mice
AbstractSepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a clinical syndrome of brain dysfunction secondary to sepsis, which is characterized by long-term neurocognitive deficits such as memory, attention, and executive dysfunction. However, the mechanisms underlying SAE remain unclear. By using transcriptome sequencing approach, we showed that hippocampal S100A9 was significantly increased in sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Thus, we used S100A9 inhibitor Paquinimod to study the role of S100A9 in cognitive impairments in CLP-induced and LPS-induced mice models of SAE. Sep...
Source: Inflammation - January 9, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

FGF21 Enhances Therapeutic Efficacy and Reduces Side Effects of Dexamethasone in Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis
AbstractIn order to investigate efficacy of FGF21 combine dexamethasone (Dex) on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) meanwhile reduce side effects of dexamethasone. We used combination therapy (Dex 15 mg/kg + FGF21 0.25 mg/kg, Dex 15 mg/kg + FGF21 0.5 mg/kg or Dex 15 mg/kg + FGF21 1 mg/kg) and monotherapy (Dex 15 mg/kg or FGF21 1 mg/kg) to treat CIA mice induced by chicken type II collagen, respectively. The effects of treatment were determined by arthritis severity score, histological damage, and cytokine production. The levels of oxidative stress parameters, liver functions, and other blood biochemical indexes were detected to det...
Source: Inflammation - January 9, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Long Non-coding RNA FENDRR Modulates Autophagy Through Epigenetic Suppression of ATG7 via Binding PRC2 in Acute Pancreatitis
AbstractAcute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory, complicated pancreatic disease, carrying significant morbidity and mortality. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in AP pathogenesis remain to be elucidated. Here, we explore the role of FOXF1 adjacent non-coding developmental regulatory RNA (FENDRR) in AP progression. Caerulein with or without LPS- induced or taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate (TLC-S)-induced AP mouse models and cell models were performed for the validation of FENDRR expressionin vivo andin vitro, respectively. Histopathological examinations of pancreatic tissues were performed to evalua...
Source: Inflammation - January 8, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Wip1 Aggravates the Cerulein-Induced Cell Autophagy and Inflammatory Injury by Targeting STING/TBK1/IRF3 in Acute Pancreatitis
This study was aimed to explore the functions and mechanism of Wip1 in AP. Twenty male SD rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups (control group: saline treatment; AP group: cerulein treatment). And cerulein-treated AR42J cells were conducted as AP modelin vitro. The levels of amylase were detected by using the Beckman biochemical analyzer. The levels of IFN β and TNFα were analyzed by ELISA. The autophagosomes were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The Wip1-specific shRNAs were transfected to AR42J cells to silence the expression of Wip1. The levels of Wip1 were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blo...
Source: Inflammation - January 8, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

TRIM Proteins in Inflammation: from Expression to Emerging Regulatory Mechanisms
AbstractInflammation is an immune response to exogenous or endogenous insults that helps to maintain the tissue homeostasis under stressful conditions. Depending on the differential types of insults, inflammation is classified into microbial, autoimmune, metabolic, allergic, and physical inflammation. With regard to its involvement in the pathogenesis of most of human diseases, dissecting the key molecules in the regulation of inflammatory process is vital for the prevention and therapeutics of human diseases. Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins are a versatile family of E3 ligases, which are composed of> 80 distinct membe...
Source: Inflammation - January 7, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Regulatory Role of Chemokine Receptor CXCR3 in the Pathogenesis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Emphysema
AbstractChronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/pulmonary emphysema is driven by the dysregulated airway inflammation and primarily influenced by the interaction between cigarette smoking (CS) and the individual ’s susceptibility. The inflammation in COPD involves both innate and adaptive immunity. By binding to its specific ligands, chemokine receptorCXCR3 plays an important role in regulating tissue inflammation and damage. In acute animal model challenged with either CS or pathogens,CXCR3 knockout (KO) attenuated lung inflammation and pathology. However, the role ofCXCR3 in CS-induced chronic airway inflammat...
Source: Inflammation - January 7, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Sappanone A Protects Against Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Alleviating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
AbstractEndoplasmic reticulum stress is an important contributor to the cerebral ischemic injury. Sappanone A (SA), a kind of natural homoisoflavanone extracted fromCaesalpinia sappan L, has been evidenced to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The present study aimed to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of SA in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. The potential neuroprotective effect of SA was tested in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) allowing reperfusion and PC12 cell model of oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R). Post-ischemic neuronal injury was...
Source: Inflammation - January 7, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Progesterone Attenuates Brain Inflammatory Response and Inflammation-Induced Increase in Immature Myeloid Cells in a Mouse Model
AbstractProgesterone has been shown to regulate immunity during pregnancy, and progesterone administration may reduce inflammation-induced preterm labor. We sought to determine the maternal brain immune response to LPS-induced inflammation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice and whether additional progesterone supplementation attenuates this response. Pregnant (P:n = 9) and non-pregnant mice (NP:n = 9) were randomized to pretreatment with vaginal progesterone/carrier (Replens), daily from days 13 to 16. On days 15 and 16, LPS/saline was administered by intraperitoneal injection (Replens + salinen&...
Source: Inflammation - January 6, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Is there an Inflammation Role for MYD88 in Rheumatoid Arthritis?
AbstractRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune and inflammatory disease with strong genetic influence, especially upon immune response components. Several cytokines from the toll-like receptors activation pathway display recognized role for RA establishment. However, few studies have verified the role of key mediators such asMYD88 gene and its genetic variants. In the present study, we aim to evaluate the rs6853 functional single-nucleotide variation (SNV) role in RA etiopathogenesis, clinical severity status, and its impact inMYD88 mRNA levels and IL-l β protein levels. For the association study, a total of 423 R...
Source: Inflammation - January 6, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of α7nAChR-Mediated Cholinergic Anti-inflammatory Pathway in Immune Cells
AbstractAlpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ( α7nAChR) is widely distributed in the nervous and non-cholinergic immune systems. It is necessary for the cholinergic transmitter to participate in the regulation of inflammatory response and is the key element of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP). Because of the profound impact of CAP on the immune system, α7nAChR is considered as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Available evidences confirmed that manipulation of CAP by activating α7nAChR with either endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) or cholinergic agonist...
Source: Inflammation - January 6, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CHRFAM7A Overexpression Attenuates Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via Inhibiting Microglia Pyroptosis Mediated by the NLRP3/Caspase-1 pathway
AbstractCerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is an inflammation-related disease. CHRFAM7A can regulate inflammatory responses. Therefore, the present study investigated the mechanism of CHRFAM7A in cerebral I/R injury. CHRFAM7A expression and inflammatory cytokine levels in patients with cerebral I/R injury and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R)-treated microglia were detected. The proliferation, inflammatory cytokine expressions, nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) level, cell pyroptosis, and viability and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in OGD/R-treated microglia were detected after CHRFAM7A overex...
Source: Inflammation - January 6, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Poly-dispersed Acid-Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (AF-SWCNTs) Are Potent Inhibitor of BCG Induced Inflammatory Response in Macrophages
AbstractThe present study is focused on the modulation ofMycobacterium bovis BCG-induced inflammatory response by poly-dispersed acid-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (AF-SWCNTs) in macrophages. Flow cytometric and confocal microscopy studies indicated that both BCG and AF-SWCNTs were efficiently internalized by RAW 264.7 and MH-S macrophage cell lines and were essentially localized in the cytoplasmic area. BCG-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide by the two cell lines was significantly inhibited by AF-SWCNTs. Using RT-PCR technique, a marked decline was observed in the expressi...
Source: Inflammation - January 5, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Tadalafil Alleviates LPS-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress of RWPE-1 Cell by Regulating the Akt/Nrf2 Signaling Pathway
AbstractTadalafil (TAD) is primarily a treatment drug for erectile dysfunction. Studies have shown that TAD has a therapeutic effect on prostatitis, but the specific mechanism has not been reported. LPS induced RWPE-1 cells to form a model of chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP). Cell activity was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay. Western blot was used to detect the expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3, and cleaved caspase3. ELISA was used to detect the expression of inflammatory cytokines TNF- α, IL-6, and IL-8. GSH, catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) ki...
Source: Inflammation - January 5, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Amelioration of Juglanin against LPS-Induced Activation of NLRP3 Inflammasome in Chondrocytes Mediated by SIRT1
AbstractArthritis is characterized by irreversible joint destruction and presents a global health burden. Natural alternatives to synthetic drugs have been gaining popularity for their safety and effectiveness. Juglanin has demonstrated a range of anti-inflammatory effects in various tissues and cell types. However, the pharmacological function of Juglanin in arthritis and chondrocytes has been little studied. ATDC5 cells were treated with 1  μg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of juglanin (2.5, 5 μM) for 24 h. The effects of juglanin on cellular nucleotide-binding domain leucin-r...
Source: Inflammation - January 4, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Steroid Receptor Coactivator-3 Is Required for Inhibition of the Intestinal Muscularis Inflammatory Response of Postoperative Ileus in Mice
AbstractInflammation theory has suggested that the pathogenesis of postoperative ileus (POI) involves the steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3). Therefore, we investigated the role of SRC-3 in the muscles of the small intestine using a mouse POI model. Here, we reported that intestinal manipulation (IM) significantly reduced the extent of phenol red migration in the entire gastrointestinal tract, and the calculated geometric center (GC) value in wild-type (WT) mice at 24 h after surgery was higher than that in the knockout (KO) mice and in the sham-operated control group. The expression of SRC-3 was upregulated in the mou...
Source: Inflammation - January 4, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mitigation of Gliadin-Induced Inflammation and Cellular Damage by Curcumin in Human Intestinal Cell Lines
In this study, the gliadin-induced inflammation and associated cellular damage along with the protective role of curcumin was evaluated using human intestinal cell lines (HCT-116 and HT-29) as a model. Cells were cultured and exposed to 160 μg/ml of gliadin, 100 μM H2O2, and 10 μM curcumin (3 h pretreatment) followed by the assessment of inflammation. Spectrophotometric methods, real-time-PCR, ELISA, Western blotting, and confocal microscopy techniques were used to assess inflammatory markers such as advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) level, activity of myelopero xidase (MPO) and NADPH oxidase (NOX), cyto...
Source: Inflammation - January 4, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Serum Exosomal microRNA-27-3p Aggravates Cerebral Injury and Inflammation in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction by Targeting PPAR γ
This study investigated the mechanism of serum exosomes in ACI. Serum exosomes isolated from ACI patients and normal people were identified and then injected into the established middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model to evaluate cerebral injury and inflammation. Exosomal microRNA (miR)-27-3p expression was detected and interfered to analyze rat cerebral inflammation. The binding relationship between miR-27-3p and PPAR γ was predicted and verified. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated microglia model was established and intervened with miR-27-3p to detect PPARγ, Iba-1, and inflammation-related factor...
Source: Inflammation - January 4, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

High-Density-Immune-Complex Regulatory Macrophages Promote Recovery of Experimental Colitis in Mice
AbstractMacrophages not only play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but they also play a major role in preserving intestinal homeostasis. In this work, we evaluated the role of macrophages in IBD and investigated whether the functional reprogramming of macrophages to a very specific phenotype could decrease disease pathogenesis. Thus, macrophages were stimulated in the presence of high-density immune complexes which strongly upregulate their production of IL-10 and downregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines. The transfer of these high-density-immune-complex regulatory macrophages into...
Source: Inflammation - January 4, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Betulin Alleviates Myocardial Ischemia –Reperfusion Injury in Rats via Regulating the Siti1/NLRP3/NF-κB Signaling Pathway
This study shows that the protection of BE is associated with changes in the Siti1/NLRP3/NF-κB pathway. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - January 4, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Long Non-coding RNA MEG3 Alleviated Ulcerative Colitis Through Upregulating miR-98-5p-Sponged IL-10
This study aims to investigate the functional role and underlying mechanism of lncRNA MEG3 in UC. Gradient concentration of H2O2 (0, 20, 50, 100, and 200  μM) was used to induce Caco-2 damage modelsin vitro. Cell viability was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. LncRNA MEG3, miR-98-5p, and IL-10 levels in H2O2 −treated Caco-2 cells were assessed by performing real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Moreover, the binding relationship between lncRNA MEG3 and miR-98-5p, as well as the binding relationship between miR-98-5p and IL-10, was validated using dual-luciferase reporter ass...
Source: Inflammation - January 4, 2021 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Correction to: Destructive Roles of Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes in Chronic Inflammation and Joint Damage in Rheumatoid Arthritis
A Correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s10753-020-01402-x (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - December 14, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

IFN- γ Activates the TLR4-CCL5 Signaling Through Reducing Arginine Level, Leading to Enhanced Susceptibility of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells to Staphylococcus aureus
In this study, we utilized thein vitro bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) model to explore the molecular mechanismvia transcriptome sequencing technology, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting. It was found that IFN- γ promoted the adhesion and invasion ofStaphylococcus aureus to BMECs through increasing the expression of TLR4-mediated CCL5 in BMECs. IFN- γ increased the activity of arginase II and reduced the level of arginine in cells, while the addition of arginine inhibited the expression of TLR4 and CCL5. An invasion experiment in mice further validated that IFN-γ treatment significantly incr...
Source: Inflammation - October 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Screen the Effective Components of Lycopodii herba on Rheumatoid Arthritis with the Aid of Spectrum-Effect Relationship and Uncover its Potential Mechanism
In this study, different SJC samples with slightly different compositions were prepared by extracting with different concentrations of ethanol. Then, the therapeutic effects on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of different SJC samples were evaluated. Finally, the spectrum –effect relationship between UPLC-Q-TOF/MS fingerprints and the effect of RA was explored to screen the effective components. Western blotting was used to study the potential mechanism. The volume of hind paw and the level of RF, TNF-α, and IL-1β were lower after administrating with different SJ C samples, compared with the model group. Histopat...
Source: Inflammation - October 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

MiR-130a/Ndrg2 Axis Inhibits the Proliferation of Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes in Rheumatoid Arthritis
AbstractStudies have found that N-myc downstream –regulated gene 2 (Ndrg2) is involved in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, the specific mechanism still remains unclear. Gene expression profiles in the tibial joints of the collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis model were obtained using Gene Expression Omnibus database. Weste rn blot and real-time PCR were respectively performed to determine the expression of Ndrg2 and gene messenger RNA. Cell viability was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) method, and cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry. Cell scratch assays were carried out to detect ...
Source: Inflammation - October 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Exploring the Therapeutic Efficacy of Zingerone Nanoparticles in Treating Biofilm-Associated Pyelonephritis Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Murine Model
This study is aimed to assessin vivo andex vivo efficacy of Zingerone nanoparticles (Z-NPs) againstP. aeruginosa biofilm-associated murine acute pyelonephritis. In the present study, Zingerone and chitosan acted synergistically in the form of Z-NPs and found to be nontoxic to the kidney cell lines as depicted in MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay demonstrating their cytocompatibility.In vivo experiments indicated that Z-NPs (100  mg/kg) treatment reducedP. aeruginosa pathogenicity and enhanced the clearance of bacterial count from the renal and bladder tissue. Z-NPs improved the ...
Source: Inflammation - October 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Panaxatriol Saponins Promote M2 Polarization of BV2 Cells to Reduce Inflammation and Apoptosis after Glucose/Oxygen Deprivation by Activating STAT3
AbstractPanaxatriol saponins (PTS) have a long history in the treatment of stroke. In our previous experiments, PTS has been found to alleviate ischemic stroke and play a role through regulating the inflammatory response, but the specific mechanism of its regulation is still unclear. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Expressions of polarization-related proteins CD16, CD68, ARG1 and CD206; inflammatory factors interleukin-1 β (IL-1β); inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS); monocyte chemotactic protein 1(MCP-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2); apoptosis-related proteins pro-caspase3; bax; caspase3 and bcl-2...
Source: Inflammation - October 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Electroacupuncture Attenuates Liver Inflammation in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Rats
AbstractNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a major health concern worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats induced by high-fat diet (HFD). A model of nonalcoholic fatty liver in rats induced by high fat was established. Rats in the control group were fed standard diet. The rats in model group and EA group were fed with HFD. From the fifth week, the rats in EA group were treated with EA ( “FengLongXue,” “YinLingQuanXue,” “SanYinJiaoXue”) for 2 weeks resp...
Source: Inflammation - October 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Understanding the Role of Inflammasomes in Rheumatoid Arthritis
AbstractInflammasomes are the molecular pathways that activate upon conditions of infection or stress and trigger the activation and maturation of inflammatory cytokines. Immune reactions in conjugation with inflammatory processes play a pivotal role in developing innumerable diseases. An over reactive immune system fabricates many allergic and hypersensitive reactions in response to autoantibodies activated against modified self-epitopes and similar molecules. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex autoimmune inflammatory disorder commencing with inflammation in small joints like hands, knees, and wrist eventually entrapp...
Source: Inflammation - October 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Author Correction: Biomechanical Stretch Induces Inflammation, Proliferation, and Migration by Activating NFAT5 in Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells
After the publication of our article, we became aware that there were errors in Fig.  3c and 3d were incorrectly presented. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Correction to: Periodontal Disease Impairs Muscle Recovery by Modulating the Recruitment of Leukocytes
The original version of this article contained mistakes, and the authors would like to correct them. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 24, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Imperatorin Relieved Ulcerative Colitis by Regulating the Nrf-2/ARE/HO-1 Pathway in Rats
AbstractUlcerative colitis is a common intestinal inflammatory disease. Imperatorin (IMP) has been reported to alleviate mast cell-mediated allergic responses by suppressing the expression of Nrf-2, ARE, and HO-1. However, whether IMP can relieve ulcerative colitis by regulating Nrf-2/ARE/HO-1 pathway is unclear. Thus, this study aims to investigate the effect of IMP on ulcerative colitis in rats and elucidate the potential mechanism. In our study, rats were treated with 2,4,6-trinitro-benzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) to induce the animal model of ulcerative colitis. Next, these rats were treated with diverse doses of IMP (15 &...
Source: Inflammation - October 23, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Surfactant Attenuates Air Embolism-Induced Lung Injury by Suppressing NKCC1 Expression and NF- κB Activation
AbstractExcessive amounts of air can enter the lungs and cause air embolism (AE)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Pulmonary AE can occur during diving, aviation, and iatrogenic invasive procedures. AE-induced lung injury presents with severe hypoxia, pulmonary hypertension, microvascular hyper-permeability, and severe inflammatory responses. Pulmonary AE-induced ALI is a serious complication resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Surfactant is abundant in the lungs and its function is to lower surface tension. Earlier studies have explored the beneficial effects of surfactant in ALI; however, none have investiga...
Source: Inflammation - October 22, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Toll-like Receptor 4 Inhibitor TAK-242 Improves Fulminant Hepatitis by Regulating Accumulation of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell
AbstractFulminant hepatitis (FH) is an acute clinical disease with a poor prognosis and high mortality rate. The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effect of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inhibitor TAK-242 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced explosive hepatitis and explorein vivo andin vitro mechanisms. Mice were pretreated with TAK-242 for 3  h prior to LPS (10 μg/kg)/D-GalN (250 mg/kg) administration. Compared to the LPS/D-GalN group, the TAK-242 pretreatment group showed significantly prolonged survival, reduced serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate ...
Source: Inflammation - October 20, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CGRP-Mediated Prolactin Upregulation: a Possible Pathomechanism in IgG4-Related Disease
AbstractSimilar to other immune-mediated diseases, IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is the disease that develops in genetically susceptible individuals exposed to external or endogenous antigens. In the present study, it was confirmed that MAG (myelin-associated glycoprotein) antibodies (IgG, IgG4, and IgM) were detected by immunofluorescence (IFA) in serum of the patients with IgG4-RD.In vivo, the levels of prolactin and Th2 cytokines in CGRP+/ − rats were higher than those in wild-type. Our findings indicate that the presence of CGRP-deficiency-mediated MAG antibodies is a probable molecular basis for the initial eve...
Source: Inflammation - October 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Down –regulating miR-217-5p Protects Cardiomyocytes against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Restoring Mitochondrial Function via Targeting SIRT1
AbstractDownregulating miR-217-5p could protect cardiomyocytes against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, but its role in restoring mitochondrial function of I/R-injured cardiomyocytes remained unclear. H9C2 cardiomyocyte-derived cell line with I/R injury was establishedin vitro on the basis of hypoxia/reperfusion (H/R) model. Cell viability and apoptosis were respectively detected by MTT assay and flow cytometry. Contents of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were determined. Flow cytometry was performed to measure the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potenti...
Source: Inflammation - October 16, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Heparin-Binding Protein Enhances NF- κB Pathway-Mediated Inflammatory Gene Transcription in M1 Macrophages via Lactate
AbstractIn early-stage sepsis, glucose metabolism is increased primarily through glycolysis in the inflammatory response of M1 macrophages. Heparin-binding protein (HBP) has been linked to sepsis, which can promote macrophage activation and inflammatory factor release. However, the mechanism by which glucose metabolism regulates the inflammatory response is unclear. We show that HBP contributes to sepsis by modulating the inflammatory responsevia lactate-dependent glycolysis in macrophages. Peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mouse were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The expression of M1-related proinflammatory gene...
Source: Inflammation - October 14, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Interleukin-1 β Protection Against Experimental Sepsis in Mice
AbstractThe inflammatory response involving interleukin-1 β (IL-1β) has been thought to play an important role in the development of late-phase sepsis. However, in this study, we wanted to explore the possibility of using IL-1β to improve the prognosis of sepsis by triggering local differentiation of bone marrow cells (BMCs) into regulatory dendritic ce lls (DCs)in vivo, thereby reversing the immune paralysis in late-phase sepsis. Sepsis mouse models were induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and lethalEscherichia coli O18 infection. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with IL-1 β after CLP and ...
Source: Inflammation - October 12, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Retraction Note: Release-Active Dilutions of Diclofenac Enhance Anti-inflammatory Effect of Diclofenac in Carrageenan-Induced Rat Paw Edema Model
The Editor has retracted this article [1] because there are concerns about the scientific validity of the study and undeclared conflicts of interest. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 12, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Role of the IL-23-T-bet/GATA3 Axis for the Pathogenesis of Ulcerative Colitis
AbstractUlcerative colitis (UC) has been considered a Th2- and Th17-related disease. However, anti-IL-12/23 p40 antibody, which blocks Th1 and Th17 cell induction and maintenance, has shown efficacy in treating UC, suggesting that UC might not be a prototypical Th2 and Th17 cell-mediated autoimmune disease. To verify how the immune responses in UC patients interact with each other, we analyzed the cytokine expression and transcription factors involved in the Th1, Th2, and Th17 responses. The mucosal expression of 19 cytokines and transcription factors related to Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, as well as Tregs, were measured by ...
Source: Inflammation - October 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Src Family Protein Kinase Controls the Fate of B Cells in Autoimmune Diseases
This article reviews the recent advances of SFKs in B lymphocytes in autoimmune diseases. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Amitriptyline Downregulates Chronic Inflammatory Response to Biomaterial in Mice
AbstractRecent data has signaled that in addition to its therapeutic indications as antidepressant and analgesic, amitriptyline (AM) exerts anti-inflammatory effects in humans and experimental animal models of acute inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that this compound could also modulate the chronic inflammatory process induced by synthetic matrix in mice. Polyether-polyurethane sponge disks were implanted subcutaneously in 9-week-old male C57BL/6 mice. The animals received by oral gavage 5.0  mg/kg of amitriptyline for seven consecutive days in two treatment regimens. In the first series, the treatment was initi...
Source: Inflammation - October 9, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inflammation Triggered by SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 Augment Drives Multiple Organ Failure of Severe COVID-19: Molecular Mechanisms and Implications
AbstractThe widespread occurrence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The S spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 binds with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a functional “receptor” and then enters into host cells to replicate and damage host cells and organs. ACE2 plays a pivotal role in the inflammation, and its downregulation may aggravate COVID-19via the renin-angiotensin system, including by promoting pathological changes in lung injury and involving inflammatory responses. Severe patients of COVID-19 often develop acu...
Source: Inflammation - October 7, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Dimethyl Itaconate Alleviates the Inflammatory Responses of Macrophages in Sepsis
AbstractSepsis is an inflammatory disease characterized by dysregulation of inflammation. Macrophage-mediated inflammation has been implicated in the pathophysiology of sepsis. Itaconate is a metabolite produced in activated macrophages which has anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we investigated the potential effects of a cell-permeable itaconate derivative dimethyl itaconate on inflammation in sepsis. We established a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic mouse model and administered dimethyl itaconate to the septic mice. The survival rate, serum level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and lung pathology ...
Source: Inflammation - October 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Correction to: Geraniin Inhibits LPS-Induced THP-1 Macrophages Switching to M1 Phenotype via SOCS1/NF- κB Pathway
After publication of our article [1], we found that the second images in the first row in Figure 2a were inadvertently replaced with the first image in Figure 2a. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Gefitinib-Induced Cutaneous Toxicities in Brown Norway Rats Are Associated with Macrophage Infiltration
AbstractGefitinib (Iressa), is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), used in the targeted treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Skin toxicity is the major adverse effect observed in patients treated with EGFR-targeted TKIs such as gefitinib and erlotinib. To date, a corresponding skin animal model has not been established to address the mechanisms of these effects. Therefore, we analyzed the skin rash phenotype and its pathological features in Brown Norway (BN) rats treated with gefitinib 2.5 mg, 5.0 mg, or 10 mg/100 g/day for 4 weeks....
Source: Inflammation - October 5, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research