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Protective Effect of Apigenin on Acrylonitrile-Induced Inflammation and Apoptosis in Testicular Cells via the NF- κB Pathway in Rats
AbstractApigenin (AP) as a plant flavonoid is found to attenuate acrylonitrile (ACN) toxicity by reducing ROS production and inhibiting apoptosis. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the role of AP on ACN-induced inflammation and apoptosis in germ cells and whether it is through the NF- κB signaling pathway. AP increased the concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase isozyme (LDH) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), while the concentrations of interleukin β (IL-1β), tumor-necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were significantly reduced. AP could downregulate the expre ssion o...
Source: Inflammation - April 23, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

M1 Macrophages but Not M2 Macrophages Are Characterized by Upregulation of CRP Expression via Activation of NF κB: a Possible Role for Ox-LDL in Macrophage Polarization
AbstractArterial macrophages comprise a heterogeneous population: pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2). Since C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced by macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions, understanding of CRP regulation in macrophages could be crucial to decipher inflammatory patterns in atherogenesis. We aimed to analyze CRP expression in M1/M2 macrophages and to question whether it involves NF κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, we questioned whether oxidative stress affect macrophage phenotype and modulate macrophage CRP expression. M1/M2 macrophage polarization was validated using THP-1 macrophages. ...
Source: Inflammation - April 23, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation Regulates Aged RBC Clearance
AbstractThe NLR family pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is triggered by various stimuli. Whether the NLRP3 inflammasome is activated during the monocyte clearing of aged or damaged erythrocytes is unknown. This work aimed to determine whether the NLRP3 inflammasome is activated during the THP-1 cell engulfing of aged erythrocytes. In the study, THP-1 cells were treated with PMA and then coincubated with untreated red blood cells (RBCs), 42  °C-treated RBCs, immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-D-sensitized RBCs, Rhnull/Rhmod RBC sample, hemoglobin, and RBC ghost. The activation of the NLRP3 inflammaso...
Source: Inflammation - April 21, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

GTS-21 Protected Against LPS-Induced Sepsis Myocardial Injury in Mice Through α7nAChR
AbstractSepsis-induced myocardial injury is a well-known cause of mortality. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CHAIP) is a physiological mechanism by which the central nervous system regulates immune response through the vagus nerve and acetylcholine; the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) is the main component of CHAIP; GTS-21, a synthetic α7nAChR selective agonist, has repeatedly shown its powerful anti-inflammatory effect. However, little is known about its effect on LPS-induced myocardial injury. We investigated the protective effec ts of GTS-21 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ...
Source: Inflammation - April 21, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Rapamycin Alleviates Hormone Imbalance-Induced Chronic Nonbacterial Inflammation in Rat Prostate Through Activating Autophagy via the mTOR/ULK1/ATG13 Signaling Pathway
In conclusion, our results suggested that rapamycin could ameliorate hormone imbalance-induced CNP by activating autophagy. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 19, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

ERK1/2 and the Bcl-2 Family Proteins Mcl-1, tBid, and Bim Are Involved in Inhibition of Apoptosis During Persistent Chlamydia psittaci Infection
In this study, the antiapoptotic effects of persistentC. psittaci infection, induced by treatment with IFN- γ, were found to be associated with both the death receptor and the mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis. These effects were mediated by Bcl-2 family members, as evidenced by the decreased expression of proapoptotic proteins, such as tBid and Bim. Simultaneously, the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1 was upregulated by persistentC. psittaci infection. Increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was observed; however, the expression of Bad, unlike that of other proapoptotic proteins, did not seem to be involved in this process...
Source: Inflammation - April 18, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

An Early Life Mucosal Insult Temporarily Decreases Acute Oxazolone-Induced Inflammation in Mice
In conclusion, the priming did decrease local acute tissue inflammation of the colon in this commonly applied mouse model of T helper cell type 2-dominated model of inflammatory bowel disease. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 18, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Provides Neuroprotection in Traumatic Brain Injury Models via Activating Nrf2-ARE Signaling
In this study, we explored the neuroprotective effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in traumatic brain injury (TBI) models. In this study, we first confirmed that DHA was neuroprotective against TBIvia the NSS test and Morris water maze experiment. Western blot was conducted to identify the expression of Bax, caspase-3, and Bcl-2. And the cell apoptosis of the TBI models was validated by TUNEL staining. Relationships between nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-antioxidant response element (Nrf2-ARE) pathway-related genes and DHA were explored by RT-PCR and Western blot. Rats of the DHA group performed remarkably b...
Source: Inflammation - April 16, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Novel Tetrasubstituted Imidazole as a Prototype for the Development of Anti-inflammatory Drugs
In this study, we screened eight novel small molecules of the imidazole class synthesized by our research group for theirin vitro anti-inflammatory activity. The effect of the selected molecules was confirmed in anin vivo inflammatory model. We also analyzed whether the effects were caused by inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF- κB) transcription factor transmigration. Of the eight imidazoles tested, methyl 1-allyl-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-phenyl-1H-imidazole-4-acetate (8) inhibited nitric oxide metabolites and pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF- α, IL-6, and IL-1β) secretion in J774 macrophages stimulated wi...
Source: Inflammation - April 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inflammatory Response of Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells Exposed to Oxidative and Biophysical Stress
AbstractPulmonary hypertension in the neonate requires treatment with oxygen and positive pressure ventilation, both known to induce lung injury. The direct response of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, the most abundant cells in the artery wall, to the stress of positive pressure and hyperoxia has not been previously studied. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells were cultured in temperature- and pressure-controlled air-tight chambers under conditions of positive pressure or hyperoxia for 24  h. Control cells were cultured in room air under atmospheric pressure. After the exposure period, culture medium was collec...
Source: Inflammation - April 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of Adenosine Receptor Activation in Attenuating Cartilaginous Inflammation
AbstractAdenosine receptor activation has been explored as a modulator of the inflammatory process that propagates osteoarthritis. It has been reported that cartilage has enhanced regenerative potential when influenced by adenosine receptor activation. As adenosine ’s role in maintaining chondrocyte homeostasis at the cellular and molecular levels is explored, successfulin vivo applications of adenosine delivery for cartilage repair continue to be reported. This review summarizes the role adenosine receptor ligation plays in chondrocyte homeostasis and regeneration of articular cartilage damaged in osteoarthritis. It...
Source: Inflammation - April 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Acamprosate Protects Against Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats via Blocking the ERK/MAPK and NF- κB Signaling Pathway
AbstractOsteoarthritis is a type of joint disease that results from the breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone and is believed to be caused by mechanical stress on the joint and low-grade inflammatory processes. Acamprosate significantly ameliorates the pathological features of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis due to its anti-inflammatory effect. The aims of the present study were to investigate the anti-arthritis activities of acamprosate and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) was induced by intradermal injection of complete Freund ’s adjuvant. Male Wistar rats w...
Source: Inflammation - April 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

NLRP3 Inflammasome Involves in the Acute Exacerbation of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
AbstractThe NLR pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a multi-protein complex, produces the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 β and IL-18, which may contribute to the development of airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between circulating and local airway NLRP3 inflammasome activation with acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). mRNA levels of NLRP3, Caspase (Casp)-1, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), IL-18, and IL-1β in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and bronchi...
Source: Inflammation - April 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Salicytamide: a New Anti-inflammatory Designed Drug Candidate
This study was conducted to assess the acute oral toxicity, antinociceptive, and antioedematogenic properties of salicytamide. Acute toxicity was based on the OECD 423 guidelines. Antinociceptive properties were investigated using the writhing, hot plate and formalin tests in Swiss mice. Antioedematogenic properties were evaluated using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model and croton oil-induced dermatitis in Wistar rats. Salicytamide did not promote behavioural changes or animal deaths during acute oral toxicity evaluation. Furthermore, salicytamide exhibited peripheral antinociceptive activity as evidenced by the red...
Source: Inflammation - April 13, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CpG-ODNs and Budesonide Act Synergistically to Improve Allergic Responses in Combined Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Syndrome Induced by Chronic Exposure to Ovalbumin by Modulating the TSLP-DC-OX40L Axis
This study aimed to assess the therapeutic effects of CpG-ODNs combined with budesonide (BUD) on upper and lower-airway inflammation and remodeling in mice with CARAS induced by chronic exposure to ovalbumin (OVA), exploring the possible underlying molecular mechanisms. A BALB/c mouse model of chronic CARAS was established by systemic sensitization and repeated challenge with OVA. Treatment with CpG-ODNs or BUD by intranasal administration was started 1  h after OVA challenge. Then, nasal mucosa and lung tissues were fixed and stained for pathologic analysis. The resulting immunologic variables and TSLP-DC-OX40L axis ...
Source: Inflammation - April 13, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Saikosaponin a Inhibits Cigarette Smoke-Induced Oxidant Stress and Inflammatory Responses by Activation of Nrf2
In conclusion, these results support a therapeutic potential for SSa in CS-induced lung inflammation. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 13, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Isoliquiritigenin on LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Activating PPAR- γ
AbstractIsoliquiritigenin (ILG), a major ingredient of licorice, has been reported to have anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of ILG on lung injury using an animal model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Male BALB/c mice were conditioned with ILG 1  h before intranasal instillation of LPS. The effects of ILG on lung injury were assessed by measuring lung histopathological examination, MPO assay, wet/dry (W/D) ratio, and inflammatory cytokine production. The results showed that ILG significantly inhibited LPS-induced l...
Source: Inflammation - April 13, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Vinpocetine Ameliorates Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis by Inhibiting NF- κB Activation in Mice
AbstractThe idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) comprise two types of chronic intestinal disorders: Crohn ’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Recruited neutrophils and macrophages contribute to intestinal tissue damagevia production of ROS and NF- κB-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokines. The introduction of anti-TNF-α therapies in the treatment of IBD patients was a seminal advance. This therapy is often limited by a loss of efficacy due to the development of adaptive immune response, underscoring the need for novel therapies targeting simi lar pathways. Vinpocetine is a nootropic drug and in addi...
Source: Inflammation - April 10, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Cold Stimuli Facilitate Inflammatory Responses Through Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8) in Primary Airway Epithelial Cells of Asthmatic Mice
AbstractBronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease that can be aggravated by cold air. However, its mechanism remains largely unknown. As a thermo-sensing cation channel, transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) can be activated by cold stimuli (8 –22 °C) and cooling agents. Whereas TRPM8 activation leads to enhanced expression of inflammatory cytokines and mucus hypersecretion in human bronchial epithelial cell lines, no previous study has examined its role in regulating the cold-induced inflammatory responses and its mechanism in asthma tic airway epithelium. Airway epithelial cells...
Source: Inflammation - April 9, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Double-Sided Personality: Effects of Arsenic Trioxide on Inflammation
AbstractIn 1992, arsenic trioxide (As2O3, ATO) was demonstrated to be an effective therapeutic agent against acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), rekindling attention to ATO applications in U.S. Food and Drug Administration clinical trials for the treatment of cancers, such as leukemia, lymphomas, and solid tumors. ATO is a potent chemotherapeutic drug that can also be used to treat other diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, because it affects multiple pathways including apoptosis induction, differentiation stimulation, and proliferation inhibition. As inflammation is a critical component of disease progression, ATO is a ...
Source: Inflammation - April 9, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Correction to: Immunomodulatory Effects of CP-25 on Splenic T Cells of Rats with Adjuvant Arthritis
AbstractThe original version of this article contained mistakes, and the authors would like to correct them. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - April 4, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Nardosinone-Type Sesquiterpenes from the Hexane Fraction of Nardostachys jatamansi Attenuate NF- κB and MAPK Signaling Pathways in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated BV2 Microglial Cells
In this study, we investigated their anti-neuroinflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 microglial cells. The results showed that nardosinone-type sesquiterpenes inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS-induced BV2 microglial cells. These inhibitory effects were correlated with the downregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Moreover, these sesquiterpenes also attenuated the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necros...
Source: Inflammation - April 3, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Pain-Relieving Effectiveness of Co-Treatment with Local Tramadol and Systemic Minocycline in Carrageenan-Induced Inflammatory Pain Model
This study was therefore aimed to evaluate the actions of intraplantarly injected tramadol, intraperitoneally injected minocycline, or their combined treatments on the inflammation-induced hypernociception (thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia), edema, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels of paw and spinal cord tissues in a rat model of carrageenan-induced hindpaw inflammation. While local tramadol or systemic minocycline caused a significant anti-hypernociceptive effect their combined treatments significantly enhanced anti-hypernociceptive action compared to each agent applied alone. Also anti-edematous ac...
Source: Inflammation - April 3, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Geniposide Attenuates LPS-Induced Injury via Up-Regulation of miR-145 in H9c2 Cells
AbstractMyocarditis is a cardiomyopathy associated with inflammatory response. It has been reported that geniposide (GEN), a traditional Chinese herb extract fromGardenia jasminoides Ellis, possesses an anti-inflammatory effect and a protective effect on cardiomyocytes. The present study aimed to explore the protective role of GEN and the underlying mechanism in LPS-injured H9c2 cells. H9c2 cells were treated with LPS to induce cell injury and then we investigated the effect of GEN. miR-145 expression was inhibited by transfection with miR-145 inhibitor and its expression was measured by RT-PCR. Cell viability and apoptoti...
Source: Inflammation - April 2, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Juniperonic Acid Incorporation into the Phospholipids of Murine Macrophage Cells Modulates Pro-Inflammatory Mediator Production
AbstractJuniperonic acid (JPA; Δ5,11,14,17-20:4), originally identified in certain gymnosperm seeds, is a rare n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) with lipid-modulating effects on rats and anti-proliferative effects on fibroblast cell proliferation. However, little is known how JPA exerted its immunosuppressive effect. The obj ective of this study was to investigate whether JPA inhibited the production of inflammatory mediators through the modulation of cellular phospholipid fatty acid compositions. Using standard lipid chemistry techniques in conjunction with argentated column chromatography, high-purity JPA (>...
Source: Inflammation - March 27, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

SERMs Promote Anti-Inflammatory Signaling and Phenotype of CD14+ Cells
AbstractSignalingvia estrogen receptors (ER) is recognized as an essential part of the immune regulation, and ER-mediated signaling is involved in autoimmune reactions. Especially ER α activation in immune cells has been suggested to skew cytokine production toward Th2/M2-type mediators, which can have protective effect on inflammatory diseases and reduce Th1 and Th17 responses. These effects are caused by increased alternative activation of macrophages and changes in the activ ation of different T cell populations. In humans, hormonal status has been shown to have a major impact on several inflammatory diseases. Sel...
Source: Inflammation - March 24, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effect of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase in Hyperoxic Acute Lung Injury in Mice
This study investigates whether sEH plays any role in the pathogenesis of hyperoxic ALI. Wild-type and sEH gene knockout (sEH−/−) mice were exposed to 100% O2 for 72  h to induce hyperoxic ALI. Hyperoxia caused infiltration of inflammatory cells, elevation of interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 levels, and deterioration of alveolar capillary protein leak as well as wet/dry weight ratio in the lung. The hyperoxia-induced pulmonary inflammation and edema were marke dly improved in sEH−/− mice. Survival rate was significantly improved in sEH−/− mice compared with that in wild-type mi...
Source: Inflammation - March 24, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective Effect of Quercetin in LPS-Induced Murine Acute Lung Injury Mediated by cAMP-Epac Pathway
AbstractQuercetin (Que) as an abundant flavonol element possesses potent antioxidative properties and has protective effect in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI), but the specific mechanism is still unclear, so we investigated the effect of Que fromin vivo andin vitro studies  and the related mechanism of cAMP-PKA/Epac pathway. The results in mice suggested that Que can inhibit the release of inflammatory cytokine, block neutrophil recruitment, and decrease the albumin leakage in dose-dependent manners. At the same time, Que can increase the cAMP content of lung tissue, and Epac content, except P...
Source: Inflammation - March 22, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Metformin Promotes HaCaT Cell Apoptosis through Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species via Raf-1-ERK1/2-Nrf2 Inactivation
AbstractAlthough metformin (MET) may be useful for the treatment of psoriasis, the mechanisms underlying its method of action have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, the relationship between MET function and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and the underlying mechanism were explored in human immortalized keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). HaCaT cells were incubated with MET at 0, 10, 20, 40, and 60  mM for 24 h. The cell viability was evaluated by the CCK-8 assay. The cell apoptosis rate and intracellular ROS levels were examined using flow cytometry. The protein expression and the phosphorylation levels of nucle...
Source: Inflammation - March 17, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Distinct Regulation of CXCL10 Production by Cytokines in Human Salivary Gland Ductal and Acinar Cells
AbstractCXCL10, a CXC chemokine induced by interferon-gamma [IFN- γ], has been observed in a wide variety of chronic inflammatory disorders and autoimmune conditions. Although CXCL10 is known to be overexpressed in the salivary glands of individuals with primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS), it is unclear which cells produce CXCL10 under what types of stimulations . Here, we investigated the precise molecular mechanisms by which CXCL10 was produced in human salivary gland ductal (NS-SV-DC) and acinar (NS-SV-AC) cell lines. Our results demonstrated that NS-SV-DC cells produced higher levels of CXCL10 compared t...
Source: Inflammation - March 17, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Nobiletin-Ameliorated Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Acute Lung Injury by Suppression of NF- κB Pathway In Vivo and Vitro
AbstractNobiletin (NOB), a citrus polymethoxy flavonoid, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-insulin resistance activities. Although the anti-inflammatory activity of NOB already reported, its involvement in lung protection has not been reported. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory response of NOB in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated A549 cells and LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. The animals were pre-treated with NOB (5, 10, and 20  mg/kg) or DEX (5 mg/kg) at 12 and 1 h before intranasal instillation of LPS. The severity of pulmonary in...
Source: Inflammation - March 14, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Ibrutinib Exacerbates Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis via Promoting Inflammation
In this study, we investigated the anti-fibrotic activity of ibrutinib. Strikingly, ibrutinib did not inhibit but exacerbated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by increased epithelial cell apoptosis, and inflammation in the lung. The upregulated TGF- β and EMT transformation also contributes to enhanced myofibroblast differentiation and ECM deposition. Our findings reveal the detrimental effects of ibrutinib against bleomycin-mediated fibrosis and added to the understanding of IPF pathogenesis. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - March 13, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Propofol Attenuates Airway Inflammation in a Mast Cell-Dependent Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma by Inhibiting the Toll-like Receptor 4/Reactive Oxygen Species/Nuclear Factor κB Signaling Pathway
This study was designed to determine the protective effect and underlying mechanisms of propofol on airway inflammation in a mast cell-dependent mouse model of allergic asthma. Mice were sensitized by ovalbumin (OVA) without alum and challenged with OVA three times. Propofol was given intraperitoneally 0.5  h prior to OVA challenge. The inflammatory cell count and production of cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were detected. The changes of lung histology and key molecules of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/reactive oxygen species (ROS)/NF-κB signaling pathway were also measured. The results s...
Source: Inflammation - March 12, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Downregulation of Aquaporins (AQP1 and AQP5) and Na,K-ATPase in Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus-Infected Pig Lungs
AbstractAquaporins (AQPs) and Na,K-ATPase control water transport across the air space –capillary barrier in the distal lung and play an important role in the formation and resolution of lung edema. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection usually causes pulmonary inflammation and edema in the infected pig lungs. To investigate the possibility that PRRSV infection may cause altered expression of AQPs and Na,K-ATPase messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and protein expression of AQP1, AQP5, and Na,K-ATPase in the PRRSV-infected pig lungs were detected. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis ...
Source: Inflammation - March 12, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Feishu Acupuncture Inhibits Acetylcholine Synthesis and Restores Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor M2 Expression in the Lung When Treating Allergic Asthma
AbstractAcupuncture was proven beneficial in treating allergic inflammation. We aimed to explore the regulation underlying the effects of acupuncture on Feishu, an acupoint most commonly used in the acupuncture therapy for respiratory diseases, with respect to the system of sympathetic nerve neurotransmitter acetylcholine (Ach). Male Wistar rats were randomly grouping. No treatment was taken in the normal group. Allergic asthma was induced using ovalbumin on the model, Feishu acupuncture, and sham acupuncture groups; then control or acupuncture treatment lasting for 3  weeks was performed. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid...
Source: Inflammation - March 8, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Peptide Targeting Inflammatory CNS Lesions in the EAE Rat Model of Multiple Sclerosis
AbstractMultiple sclerosis is characterized by inflammatory lesions dispersed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) leading to severe neurological handicap. Demyelination, axonal damage, and blood brain barrier alterations are hallmarks of this pathology, whose precise processes are not fully understood. In the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) rat model that mimics many features of human multiple sclerosis, the phage display strategy was applied to select peptide ligands targeting inflammatory sites in CNS. Due to the large diversity of sequences after phage display selection, a bioinformatics procedur...
Source: Inflammation - March 7, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Serum from the Human Fracture Hematoma Contains a Potent Inducer of Neutrophil Chemotaxis
AbstractA controlled local inflammatory response is essential for adequate fracture healing. However, the current literature suggests that local and systemic hyper-inflammatory conditions after major trauma induce increased influx of neutrophils into the fracture hematoma (FH) and impair bone regeneration. Inhibiting neutrophil chemotaxis towards the FH without compromising the hosts ’ defense may therefore be a target of future therapies that prevent impairment of fracture healing after major trauma. We investigated whether chemotaxis of neutrophils towards the FH could be studiedin vitro. Moreover, we determined wh...
Source: Inflammation - March 6, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Gingerol on Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells by Inhibiting NF- κB Signaling Pathway
AbstractGingerol was the main functional substance of Zingiberaceous plant which has been known as traditional medicine for thousands of years. The purpose of this experiment was to explore anti-inflammatory effects of gingerol and study the possible mechanism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW246.7 cells. The cells were treated with 10  μg/mL LPS and 300, 200, 100, and 50 μg/mL gingerol for 24 h. The cytotoxicity of gingerol was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetra-zoliumbromide (MTT) method. Nitric oxide (NO) production was observed using Griess assays. Prostaglandin E...
Source: Inflammation - March 5, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

IL-33 Treatment Attenuates the Systemic Inflammation Reaction in Acinetobacter baumannii Pneumonia by Suppressing TLR4/NF- κB Signaling
AbstractInterleukin (IL)-33 treatment has been reported to reduce mortality in a rat model of sepsis, and the present study aimed to determine whether this effect of IL-33 is achieved through a reduction in the systemic inflammatory response inAcinetobacter baumannii pneumonia. After induction of pneumonia, rats were treated with normal saline or IL-33, and mortality over 5  days was recorded. Inflammation within lung tissues was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining as well as measurement of the concentrations of IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and p...
Source: Inflammation - March 5, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Possible Modulatory Effect of Tamarind Seed Coat Extract on Fluoride-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation and Fibrosis in Rats
AbstractFluorosis (fluoride toxicity) seems to be reduced by plant secondary metabolites. Tamarind seed coat extract (TSCE), a mixture of procyanidins and polyphenols, possesses numerous pharmacological activities. Regardless of its beneficial properties, the underlying molecular mechanism against chronic fluorosisin vivo is not known. Hence, the present study is aimed to investigate the efficacy of TSCE against fluoride (F−)-induced pulmonary toxicity in rats. Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups and treated with NaF (300  ppm in drinking water) and TSCE (100 mg/kg/bw by oral intubatio...
Source: Inflammation - March 5, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Effect of Boric Acid and Borax on Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, ER Stress and Apoptosis in Cisplatin Toxication and Nephrotoxicity Developing as a Result of Toxication
AbstractThe development of treatment protocols that can reduce side effects in chemotherapy applications is extremely important in terms of cancer treatment. In this context, it was aimed to investigate the effects of boric acid and borax on cisplatin toxicity (nephrotoxicity) in rats. In the experimental phase, eight groups were formed from rats. Boric acid and borax were given to the treatment groups with three different doses using gavage. On the fifth day of the study, cisplatin (10  mg/kg) was administered to all rats except the control group. At the end of the study, oxidative stress-related (GSH, MDA, PCO, GPx,...
Source: Inflammation - March 2, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Characteristic Comparison of Meningitis and Non-meningitis of Streptococcus suis in an Experimentally Infected Porcine Model
This study tested the differences of meningitis and non-meningitis ofStreptococcus suis (SS). In this study, an infected pig model of streptococcal meningitis was established. Compared with the non-meningitisStreptococcus suis group (JZLQ001 group), the meningitisStreptococcus suis group (JZLQ022) exhibited neurological symptoms, such as ataxia and foaming at the mouth, and the brain showed a large area of congestion at 5  days post-infection (p.i.). Moreover, bacterial counts, white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and blood glucose in the blood reached a peak and were significantly higher than those of the JZLQ001 g...
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

MiR-548a-3p Promotes Keratinocyte Proliferation Targeting PPP3R1 after Being Induced by IL-22
In conclusion, the expression of miR-548a-3p is upregulated in IL-22 mediated keratinocyte proliferative disorder like psoriasis. The impact of miR-548a-3p on keratinocyte proliferation may be implemented by targeting PPP3R1 and T regulatory cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - March 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Involvement of Alveolar Macrophages and Neutrophils in Acute Lung Injury After Scorpion Envenomation: New Pharmacological Targets
AbstractAndroctonus australis hector (Aah) scorpion venom is well known to induce a systemic inflammatory response associated with cell infiltration in lung and edema formation. The present study investigate (i)in vivo the evolution of lung and systemic inflammation triggered by Aah venom and (ii) analyzein vitro the signaling cascade, upstream of inflammatory cytokine expression after Aah venom-stimulated mouse alveolar macrophage (MH-S), the main resident immune cells in the lung. The inflammation induced by Aah venom was assessed in mice through inflammatory cell count, nitric oxide metabolite, and lactate dehydrogenase...
Source: Inflammation - February 28, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

miR-140-5p/miR-149 Affects Chondrocyte Proliferation, Apoptosis, and Autophagy by Targeting FUT1 in Osteoarthritis
This study aimed to determine the potential role of miR-140-5p and miR-149 in apoptosis, autophagy, and proliferation in human primary chondrocytes and investigate the underlying mechanism. We revealed the differential expressional profiles of miR-140-5p/149 and fucosyltransferase 1 (FUT1) in the articular cartilage tissues of OA patients and normal people and validated FUT1 was a direct target of miR-140-5p/149. The overexpression of miR-140-5p/149 inhibited apoptosis and promoted proliferation and autophagy of human primary chondrocytesvia downregulating FUT1. On the contrary, the downregulation of miR-140-5p/149 inhibit...
Source: Inflammation - February 27, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immunomodulatory Effects of CP-25 on Splenic T Cells of Rats with Adjuvant Arthritis
AbstractRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease in which T cells play an important role. Paeoniflorin-6-oxy-benzenesulfonate (CP-25) shows a strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect in the joint of adjuvant arthritis (AA) rats, but the role of the spleen function is still unclear. The aim of this study was to research how CP-25 regulated spleen function of AA rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with CP-25 (50  mg/kg) orally from day 17 to 29 after immunization. The spleen histopathological changes were analyzed by hematoxylin–eosin staining. G protein-coupled receptor kinases ...
Source: Inflammation - February 23, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of TNF Family Molecules Light in Cellular Interaction Between Airway Smooth Muscle Cells and T Cells During Chronic Allergic Inflammation
The objective of this study was to investigate the roles of LIGHT-mediated pathways in the interaction between ASM cells and T cells during chronic allergic inflammation. Mice were sensitized and challenged by ovalbumin (OVA) to induce chronic airway allergic inflammation. The control group received PBS only. The histological features and LIGHT expressions in lungs were assessedin vivo. Furthermore, T cells and ASM cells derived from the model mice were co-cultured both in the presence and absence of anti-LIGHT Ab for 72  h. The effects of LIGHT blockade on expressions of downstream signaling molecules, proliferation,...
Source: Inflammation - February 19, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Periodontitis May Restrain the Mandibular Bone Healing via Disturbing Osteogenic and Osteoclastic Balance
AbstractPeriodontitis has been advocated as a systematic chronic low-grade infection burden. However, the relationship between periodontitis and bone defect healing has not been elucidated. One hundred and eight male Wister rats were randomly assigned into three groups: control (healthy) group, periodontitis group, and periodontitis plus human tumor necrosis factor receptorII:IgG Fc fusion protein (rhTNFR:Fc) group. The experimental periodontitis model was established by ligaturing with orthodontic wire and silk suture plus local administration of 20  μl of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mandibular bone defects in size ...
Source: Inflammation - February 19, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mycophenolate Mofetil Protects Septic Mice via the Dual Inhibition of Inflammatory Cytokines and PD-1
AbstractDue to the imbalance between hyper-inflammation and hypo-inflammation, which are characterized by excessive cytokine productions and programmed death 1 (PD-1) upregulation, respectively, sepsis remains a highly lethal inflammatory syndrome with limited effective therapies. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), an immunosuppressant, has been reported to attenuate various inflammatory diseases. However, the role of MMF in sepsis therapy remains to be elucidated. C57BL-6J mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and were treated either with or without MMF. Survival rate and organ injuries were compared. Cytokine levels...
Source: Inflammation - February 17, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

HGF Reduces Disease Severity and Inflammation by Attenuating the NF- κB Signaling in a Rat Model of Pulmonary Artery Hypertension
AbstractThe purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) in a rat model and underlying mechanisms. Wistar rats were treated with monocrotaline intravenously to induce PAH and then treated with vehicle or HGF for 2  weeks, respectively. The mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), the index of right heart ventricular hypertrophy (RHVI), pathological changes, and inflammation in the lungs of individual rats were measured. The levels of serum inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)...
Source: Inflammation - February 13, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research