MHTP, 2-Methoxy-4-(7-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-1-yl) phenol, a Synthetic Alkaloid, Induces IFN- γ Production in Murine Model of Ovalbumin-Induced Pulmonary Allergic Inflammation
AbstractMHTP [2-methoxy-4-(7-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-1-yl) phenol], a synthetic isoquinolinic alkaloid, presented anti-inflammatory activity in several experimental models of acute inflammation as lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury and phlogistic agent-induced edema and presented low preclinical toxicity. The aim of this study was to determine the MHTP effect on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced pulmonary allergic inflammation. In other to realize this study, female BALFB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA (OVA group) and treated with MHTP (MHTP group) by nasal instillation. Inflammatory, al...
Source: Inflammation - November 9, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibitor is Safe when Combined with Delayed r-tPA Administration in Treatment of Stroke
AbstractAdministration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) during first 3 –4.5 h after ischemic stroke is the main therapeutic strategy; however, its using after that, leads to reperfusion injury and neurotoxic effects. Additionally, inflammation has a critical role in secondary injury after late reperfusion therapy. Thus, this project was designed to explore the effec ts of JZL-184 (JZL), an agonist of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1), on the side effects of recombinant tPA (r-tPA), which is administrated after 5 h of stroke onset in the mice middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. After establis...
Source: Inflammation - November 9, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Honokiol and Magnolol Inhibit CXCL10 and CXCL11 Production in IL-27-Stimulated Human Oral Epithelial Cells
AbstractHonokiol and magnolol, which are lignans isolated from Magnolia quinquepeta, have some pharmacological effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of honokiol and magnolol on periodontal disease are still uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of honokiol and magnolol on CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) ligands, which are related with Th1 cell migration, production in interleukin (IL)-27-stimulated human oral epithelial cells (TR146 cells). Honokiol and magnolol inhibited CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)10 and CXCL11 production in IL-27-stimulated TR146 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover,...
Source: Inflammation - November 9, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective Effect of Tubastatin A in CLP-Induced Lethal Sepsis
This study sought to test the hypothesis that TubA could affect both lung and splenic functions. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to CLP, and randomized to receive either TubA (70  mg/kg) dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or DMSO alone, 1 h following CLP. Sham animals acted as control. Twenty-four hours later, lung tissue was harvested for pathological examination, and splenic tissue was harvested for bacterial colonization. In a parallel study, the spleen was collect ed 48 h following CLP, and single cell suspension was prepared. Splenocytes then underwent flow cytometry to analyze the immune cell populat...
Source: Inflammation - November 9, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

MicroRNA let-7c Improves LPS-Induced Outcomes of Endometritis by Suppressing NF- κB Signaling
In this study, we confirmed that let-7c was significantly reduced in LPS-induced mouse endometritis model, and overexpression of let-7c was able to effectively reduce uterine tissue damage caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and then, a LPS-induced bovine endometrial epithelial cell (BEND) line was used to mimic the inflammatory modelin vitro. Our data showed that overexpression of let-7c significantly reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in BEND cells induced by LPS. Meanwhile, immunofluorescence and western blotting results showed that let-7c significantly inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of NF- &kap...
Source: Inflammation - November 8, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

VEGF, Microvessel Density, and CD44 as Inflammation Markers in Peri-implant Healthy Mucosa, Peri-implant Mucositis, and Peri-implantitis: Impact of Age, Smoking, PPD, and Obesity
AbstractSeveral biologic processes affect the supporting peri-implant tissue leading to implant failure and complications, mainly referred to inflammation that is still poorly investigated in the peri-implant soft tissues. Our aim was to investigate in peri-implant healthy mucosa, peri-implant mucositis, and peri-implantitis the expression of some angiogenesis markers highly associated with inflammation, and evaluate its relationships with age, smoking, peri-implant pocket depth (PPD), and body max index (BMI). Moreover, we wanted to study the impact of these clinical parameters in the disease pathogenesis. Forty-eight tot...
Source: Inflammation - November 7, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

MiR-590-3p Attenuates Acute Kidney Injury by Inhibiting Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Factor 6 in Septic Mice
AbstractPrevious studies have been indicated that tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)-induced inflammation leads to acute kidney injury (AKI). How microRNA (miR) contributes to this process is poorly defined. The aim of this study was to investigate whether miR-590-3p regulated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response by inhibiting TRAF6. LPS-induced septic mice were treated with adenovirus expressing miR-590-3p (ad-miR-590-3p)via tail-vein injection. AKI was evaluated by examining serum cystatin C (CysC), serum β2-microglobulin (β2-MG), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). The mRNA...
Source: Inflammation - November 3, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Gasdermin-d Played a Critical Role in the Cyclic Stretch –Induced Inflammatory Reaction in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells
In this study, it was found that GSDMD was activated by cyclic stretch, and its activation affected the pyroptotic rate in HPDLCs, leading to the maturation and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 ultimately. In addition, GSDMD was f ound to be regulated by caspase-1 directly. Nevertheless, the exact relationship between inflammasomes and GSDMD in the stretch-induced inflammatory response still needs to be further elucidated. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - November 3, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

ApoM-S1P Modulates Ox-LDL-Induced Inflammation Through the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in HUVECs
In conclusion, the results demonstrate for the first time that apoM-S1P inhibits ox-LDL-induced inflammation in HUVECsvia the S1PR2-mediated PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This finding may aid in the development of new treatments for atherosclerosis. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 30, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Neuronal EphA4 Regulates OGD/R-Induced Apoptosis by Promoting Alternative Activation of Microglia
AbstractAccumulating evidence indicates that post-injury inflammation characterized by activated microglia contributes much to the neuropathology of ischemic injury. Several studies have demonstrated that microglia exhibit two entirely different functional activation states, referred to as classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) phenotype. Promoting microglial phenotype to switch from M1 dominant to M2 dominant might be a promising approach for handling ischemic injury. However, the comprehensive mechanism that underlines microglia polarization in ischemic brain remains unclear. Neuronal erythropoietin-...
Source: Inflammation - October 25, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Sodium Pyruvate during Systemic Inflammation Limited to the Correction of Metabolic Acidosis
AbstractProtective effects by exogenous sodium pyruvate already have been described in various experimental models of injury, among others during intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, hemorrhagic shock, and shock secondary to systemic inflammation (endotoxemic shock). Low doses of sodium pyruvate reduced signs of inflammation, enhanced systemic blood pressure, and ameliorated metabolic acidosis when administered in a prophylactic manner during endotoxemic shock. In the present study, we investigated whether low-dosed infusions of sodium pyruvate exhibited beneficial effects when applied therapeutically after the inductio...
Source: Inflammation - October 24, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Correction to: Statins Inhibit Cytokines in a Dose-Dependent Response in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis
One of the author ’s surname was incorrect. Anderson Ferreira de Almeida should be captured as Anderson Rodrigues de Almeida. The correct name is now presented above. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 22, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Advanced Glycated End Products Alter Neutrophil Effect on Regulation of CD 4 + T Cell Differentiation Through Induction of Myeloperoxidase and Neutrophil Elastase Activities
In this study, we investigated the effect of neutrophils stimulated with advanced glycated end products (AGEs), the marker of diabetes, on CD4+ T cell differentiation and its underlying mechanism. Our data showed that the cultural medium of healthy adult neutrophils treated with AGEs increased expressions of both Th1 (IFN- γ) and Th17 (IL-17) phenotypes and the transcription factors of Th1 (Tbet) and Th17 (ROR γt) in naive CD4+T cells and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ (Treg) T cellsin vitro. Next, we found that AGEs induced the generations of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neutrophil elastase (NE) in neutrophils; inhibition of MP...
Source: Inflammation - October 20, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Role of Thymoquinone in Cardiac Damage Caused by Sepsis from BALB/c Mice
This study investigated the possible protective effects of TQ against cardiac damage in septic BALB/c mice. Eight-week-old male BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: control, TQ, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and TQ  + CLP. CLP was performed after 2-week TQ gavage. After 48 h, we measured the histopathological alterations of the cardiac tissue and the plasma levels of troponin-T (cTnT) and ATP. We evaluated autophagy (p62 and beclin 1), pyroptosis (NLRP3, caspase-1, interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-18) at the gene and protein levels and IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at th...
Source: Inflammation - October 20, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Hydrogen-Rich Saline Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 Mice Via the Nrf2-ARE Signaling Pathway
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is associated with demyelination, neurodegeneration, and sensitivity to oxidative stress. Hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) is efficacious in preventive and therapeutic applications for many disorders because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we determined the effect of HRS in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is a generally accepted model of the immuno-pathogenic mechanisms underlying MS. We found that HRS reduced the severity of EAE in mice and alleviated inflammation and demyeli...
Source: Inflammation - October 20, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Compound GDC, an Isocoumarin Glycoside, Protects against LPS-Induced Inflammation and Potential Mechanisms In Vitro
This study aims to investigate the protective effects and potential mechanisms of GDC against LPS-induced inflammationin vitro. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) obtained from synovial tissue of rats were induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and treated with GDC. Cell viability was determined by mitochondrial-respiration-dependent3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay. Secretion of various inflammatory mediators was analyzed by ELISA and RayBio ® Rat Cytokine Antibody Array. Potential mechanisms that are associated with anti-inflammatory effect were examined by Western blot. Results showed th...
Source: Inflammation - October 17, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal Cells Attenuate the Multiple Organ Injuries Induced by Sepsis and Mechanical Ventilation in Mice
AbstractMechanical ventilation (MV) can augment sepsis-induced organ injury. Previous studies indicate that human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have immune-modulatory effect. We hypothesize that human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (hADSCs) could attenuate MV and sepsis-induced organ injury. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomized to five groups: Sham group; MV group; cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) group; CLP + MV group; and CLP + MV + hADSC group. Anesthetized mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture surgery. The mice then received mechanical ventilation (12  ml/kg), with or without the intervention of ...
Source: Inflammation - October 13, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Catalpol Inhibits Homocysteine-induced Oxidation and Inflammation via Inhibiting Nox4/NF- κB and GRP78/PERK Pathways in Human Aorta Endothelial Cells
This study aimed to determine the protecting effects of catalpol against homocysteine (HCY)-induced injuries in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and uncover the underlying mechanisms: 1. HAECs were cultured with different concentrations of HCY (3  mM) and catalpol (7.5 μΜ, 15 μΜ, 30 μΜ) for 24 h. (1) The level of MDA and GSH as well as LDH release was measured with colorimetric assay. (2) Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by flow cytometry analysis. (3) Western blotting analysis was performed to detect the expression of Nox4, p22phox, ICAM-1, MCP-1, VCAM-1, I &kapp...
Source: Inflammation - October 12, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

IRF-1 Intervention in the Classical ROS-Dependent Release of NETs during LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice
In conclusion, IRF-1 deficiency plays a key role in moderating the excessive NETs formedvia ROS in the classical pathway and retaining the protective role of the low-NET levels generated in early/rapid NETosis, which may serve as a novel target in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 12, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Sweroside on IL-1 β-Induced Inflammation in Rat Articular Chondrocytes Through Suppression of NF-κB and mTORC1 Signaling Pathway
In conclusion, these results strongly de monstrated that the anti-inflammatory activity of SW is in part mediated by suppressing NF-κB and mTORC1 signaling, which was expected to be a promising drug target of osteoarthritis therapy. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 12, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Alveolar Macrophage Chemokine Secretion Mediates Neutrophilic Lung Injury in Nox2-Deficient Mice
AbstractAcute lung injury (ALI), developing as a component of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), leads to significant morbidity and mortality. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced in part by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ALI. Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated the development of pulmonary inflammation in Nox2-deficient (gp91phox-/y) mice that was absent in WT mice in a murine model of SIRS. Given this finding, we hypothesized that Nox2 in a resident cell in the lung, specifically the alveolar macrophage, has an essential anti-inflammatory...
Source: Inflammation - October 4, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Statins Inhibit Cytokines in a Dose-Dependent Response in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis
AbstractAlthough statins have been successfully administered in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease due to their lipid-lowering and anti-atherosclerotic action, they have shown immunomodulatory effects in several studies with immune-mediated diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of statins treatment on Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines production from stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) patients. We recruited 21 patients classified according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria for SSc for PBMCs culture ana...
Source: Inflammation - October 4, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Alveolar Macrophage Chemokine Secretion Mediates Neutrophilic Lung Injury in Nox2-Deficient Mice
AbstractAcute lung injury (ALI), developing as a component of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), leads to significant morbidity and mortality. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced in part by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ALI. Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated the development of pulmonary inflammation in Nox2-deficient (gp91phox-/y) mice that was absent in WT mice in a murine model of SIRS. Given this finding, we hypothesized that Nox2 in a resident cell in the lung, specifically the alveolar macrophage, has an essential anti-inflammatory...
Source: Inflammation - October 4, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Statins Inhibit Cytokines in a Dose-Dependent Response in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis
AbstractAlthough statins have been successfully administered in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease due to their lipid-lowering and anti-atherosclerotic action, they have shown immunomodulatory effects in several studies with immune-mediated diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of statins treatment on Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines production from stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) patients. We recruited 21 patients classified according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria for SSc for PBMCs culture ana...
Source: Inflammation - October 4, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Different Secretory Activity of Articular and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues from Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis Patients
AbstractRheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) are characterized by joint and systemic high- or low-grade inflammation, respectively. Adipose tissue (AT) may contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases. To address this issue, we investigated whether basal and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1 β)-triggered release of adipocytokines (TNF, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1Ra, TGFβ, CCL2/MCP-1, CCL5/RANTES, MMP-3) from subcutaneous (ScAT) and intraarticular (AAT) adipose tissues of RA and OA patients mirror differences between these diseases in an intensity of systemic and local inflammation. We found tha t in both dis...
Source: Inflammation - October 2, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

NLRP3/Caspase-1 Pathway-Induced Pyroptosis Mediated Cognitive Deficits in a Mouse Model of Sepsis-Associated Encephalopathy
AbstractSepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a common complication that leads to long-term cognitive impairments and increased mortality in sepsis survivors. The mechanisms underlying this complication remain unclear and an effective intervention is lacking. Accumulating evidence suggests the nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein3 (NLRP3)/caspase-1 pathway is involved in several neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, we hypothesized that the NLRP3/caspase-1 pathway is involved in NLRP3-mediated pyroptosis, maturation and release of inflammatory cytokines, and cognitive deficits in SAE. We used the NLRP3 inhibitor...
Source: Inflammation - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Corynoline Exhibits Anti-inflammatory Effects in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Stimulated Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells through Activating Nrf2
In conclusion, the results indicated that corynoline exhibited anti-inflammatory activity b y activating Nrf2. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immunodeficiency in Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
AbstractChronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by progressive airway inflammation and irreversible airflow limitation, leads to serious decline in life quality. The acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) results in high healthcare costs as well as a significant mortality rate. The most common cause of acute exacerbation is infection. Immune deficiency, which induces dysfunction of anti-infection, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute exacerbation. As described in this review, the immune dysfunction in patients with AECOPD can be a major focus of efforts to therapeutic strategy. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Resolvin D1 Promotes SIRT1 Expression to Counteract the Activation of STAT3 and NF- κB in Mice with Septic-Associated Lung Injury
AbstractResolvin D1 (RvD1) is a novel endogenous docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived lipid mediators, which possesses a dual role of anti-inflammation and promotes inflammation resolution. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of RvD1 on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis and explore the underlying mechanism. Six-to-eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into following three groups: sham-operated group (SO), CLP model group (CLP), and CLP+RvD1 group (RvD1). The SO group underwent the sham operation. The RvD1 groups were administered RvD1 (10-ng/g body weight) by penile vein in...
Source: Inflammation - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Curcumin Attenuates Airway Inflammation and Airway Remolding by Inhibiting NF- κB Signaling and COX-2 in Cigarette Smoke-Induced COPD Mice
AbstractThe purpose of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effects of curcumin on airway inflammation using LPS and cigarette smoke (LC)-induced COPD murine models and LPS-stimulated human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. In this research, COPD murine models were established after challenged with LPS for 2  days and exposed to cigarette smoke for 35 days. Treatment with curcumin for 10 days distinctly alleviated airway inflammation and airway remolding in LC-induced COPD mice according to the lung H&E histopathological examination. The number of neutrophils and lymphocytes in broncho alveolar ...
Source: Inflammation - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effect of a Stellate Ganglion Block on Acute Lung Injury in Septic Rats
AbstractA stellate ganglion block (SGB) is a clinical sympathetic block which can inhibit the body systemic inflammatory response. However, whether and how SGB can attenuate the sepsis-induced acute lung injury remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the effect of SGB on sepsis-induced acute lung injury in rats. Ninety healthy Sprague Dawley (SD) male rats were divided into three groups: the sham operation group (S group), sepsis group (Sep group), and SGB group. The sepsis model rats were produced by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP), and blood samples were taken from the abdominal aorta of the rats at different time points f...
Source: Inflammation - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Penehyclidine Hydrochloride Decreases Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Inflammatory Injury Through a Beta-Arrestin-1-Dependent Mechanism
AbstractPenehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC), a type of hyoscyamus drug, has both antimuscarinic and antinicotinic activities and retains potent central and peripheral anticholinergic activities. Compared with other hyoscyamine, the notable advantage of PHC is that it has few M2 receptor-associated cardiovascular side effects. Recent studies and clinical trials have suggested that treatment with penehyclidine hydrochloride may also possess good effects in the treatment of lung injury. The mechanism responsible for this effect has yet to be determined; however, one possibility is that they might do so by a direct effect on pul...
Source: Inflammation - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Interleukin-37 Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation and Fibrosis in Mice
In this study, we investigated the effect of IL-37 on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. A lentivirus expressing IL-37 was administered intranasally to bleomycin-induced C57BL/6 mice. We found that IL-37 improved the survival of mice and reduced the body weight loss of mice caused by bleomycin. Furthermore, IL-37 significantly attenuated pulmonary inflammatory infiltration and collagen deposition and decreased the hydroxyproline content in bleomycin-treated mice. Finally, IL-37 treatment inhibited the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor- α, but increased the ex...
Source: Inflammation - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Sam68 Promotes Invasion, Migration, and Proliferation of Fibroblast-like Synoviocytes by Enhancing the NF- κB/P65 Pathway in Rheumatoid Arthritis
In this study, we analyzed the effect and possible mechanisms of Sam68 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). By western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, we found that the expression of Sam68 in synovial tissue of RA patients was increased compared with the cont rol group. Immunoflourescent staining demonstrated that Sam68 co-localized with fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) of RA patients. Additionally, the expression of Sam68 in FLS was increased by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulation, in a time-dependent manner. Upon TNF-α treatment, Sam68 transl ocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus where it interact...
Source: Inflammation - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Erythropoietin Treatment Ameliorates Lupus Nephritis of MRL/lpr Mice
In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of EPO on LN in MRL/lpr mice, a well-studied animal model for lupus. MRL/lpr mice were randomly divided into an EPO and control group. Mice in the EPO group were treated with EPO; saline was given to the control group. Both groups were treated for 10  weeks. We analyzed the differences of general disease condition, histopathologic changes, Th lymphocytes subsets, and the expression of inflammatory factors of mice between the groups. Compared to the control group, mice in the EPO group showed less spleen hyperplasia, less urinary protein, and lo wer serum anti-dsDN...
Source: Inflammation - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inflammation-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and GM-CSF Treatment Stimulate Mesenteric Mesothelial Cells to Transdifferentiate into Macrophages
AbstractIn our previous work, we showed that during inflammation-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), mesenteric mesothelial cells express ED1 (pan-macrophage marker), indicating that they are transformed into macrophage-like cells. In this paper, we provide additional evidences about this transition by following the phagocytic activity and the TNF α production of mesenteric mesothelial cells during inflammation. Upon injection of India ink particles or fluorescent-labeled bioparticles (pHrodo) into the peritoneal cavity of rats pretreated with Freund‘s adjuvant, we found that mesothelial cells e...
Source: Inflammation - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Neutrophils as a Potential Source of Chitinase-3-like Protein 1 in Cystic Fibrosis
AbstractThe chitinase-3-like protein 1, also known as YKL-40, is an inflammatory marker increased in blood of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Systemic levels of YKL-40 are increased in dysglycemic patients with CF. Our objective is to determine if YKL-40 is expressed and released by CF neutrophils. We also assessed if specific stimulus, such as glucose and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), can induce the secretion of YKL-40. Neutrophil cells of healthy adults and patients with CF were isolated. Immunostaining of whole blood and neutrophils was done. CF and healthy neutrophils were cultured with either LPS or varying concentrat...
Source: Inflammation - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Spilanthol Inhibits COX-2 and ICAM-1 Expression via Suppression of NF- κB and MAPK Signaling in Interleukin-1β-Stimulated Human Lung Epithelial Cells
This study evaluated its effects on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and inflammation-related mediators in IL-1 β-stimulated human lung epithelial A549 cells. Human lung epithelial A549 cells were pretreated with various concentrations of spilanthol (3–100 μM) followed by treatment with IL-1β to induce inflammation. The protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) were measured using ELISA. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), heme oxygenase (HO-1), nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP...
Source: Inflammation - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Taraxasterol on LPS-Stimulated Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
AbstractIn the present study, we used the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of taraxasterol on vascular inflammation. HUVECs were pre-treated with taraxasterol 1  h before lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. The concentrations of TNF-α, IL-8, PGE2, and NO were measured. The expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, iNOS, COX-2, NF-κB, and LXRα was detected by western blot analysis. The results showed that taraxasterol not only reduced the production of TNF-α, IL-8, PGE2, and NO induced by LPS, but also reduced the expression of iNOS a...
Source: Inflammation - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Changes of Treg/Th17 Ratio in Spleen of Acute Gouty Arthritis Rat Induced by MSU Crystals
AbstractAcute gouty arthritis is the inflammation of joint tissues in the acute form due to the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and Th17 cells play an important role in the development and progression of inflammatory diseases. However, the expression and role of Tregs and Th17 cells are not clear in this disease. Here, we investigated the changes of Tregs, Th17 cells, and Treg/Th17 ratio in spleen, as well as the inflammatory cytokines in blood and joint tissue pathology in acute gouty arthritis rat induced by MSU. We found that both the percentages of Tregs and Th17 cells in splee...
Source: Inflammation - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CIDEC Is Involved in LPS-Induced Inflammation and Apoptosis in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells
In conclusion, the results demonstrated that CIDEC/AMPK signaling pa thway played an important role in LPS-induced inflammation and epithelial cells apoptosis. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

NLRP3/Caspase-1 Pathway-Induced Pyroptosis Mediated Cognitive Deficits in a Mouse Model of Sepsis-Associated Encephalopathy
AbstractSepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a common complication that leads to long-term cognitive impairments and increased mortality in sepsis survivors. The mechanisms underlying this complication remain unclear and an effective intervention is lacking. Accumulating evidence suggests the nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein3 (NLRP3)/caspase-1 pathway is involved in several neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, we hypothesized that the NLRP3/caspase-1 pathway is involved in NLRP3-mediated pyroptosis, maturation and release of inflammatory cytokines, and cognitive deficits in SAE. We used the NLRP3 inhibitor...
Source: Inflammation - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Influence of LPS-Induced Maternal Inflammation on Postnatal Collagen-Induced Arthritis
In conclusion, maternal inflammation does not merely suppress inflammation; it may delay CIA in offspring. The analysis of inflammatory cytokines and leptin concentrations at 26 weeks suggests that the pathophysiology of arthritis was worsening. This study also suggests that maternal inflammation modulates postnatal inflammatory response patte rns in offspring. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immunodeficiency in Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
AbstractChronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by progressive airway inflammation and irreversible airflow limitation, leads to serious decline in life quality. The acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) results in high healthcare costs as well as a significant mortality rate. The most common cause of acute exacerbation is infection. Immune deficiency, which induces dysfunction of anti-infection, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute exacerbation. As described in this review, the immune dysfunction in patients with AECOPD can be a major focus of efforts to therapeutic strategy. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - September 10, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Changes of Treg/Th17 Ratio in Spleen of Acute Gouty Arthritis Rat Induced by MSU Crystals
AbstractAcute gouty arthritis is the inflammation of joint tissues in the acute form due to the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and Th17 cells play an important role in the development and progression of inflammatory diseases. However, the expression and role of Tregs and Th17 cells are not clear in this disease. Here, we investigated the changes of Tregs, Th17 cells, and Treg/Th17 ratio in spleen, as well as the inflammatory cytokines in blood and joint tissue pathology in acute gouty arthritis rat induced by MSU. We found that both the percentages of Tregs and Th17 cells in splee...
Source: Inflammation - September 10, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Effects of Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonist in an Experimental Autoimmune Cystitis Model Resembling Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis
AbstractTo identify the effects of the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) antagonist aprepitant in treating pelvic pain, micturition symptoms, and bladder inflammation in mice with experimental autoimmune cystitis (EAC) similar to bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC). Female C57BL/6 mice were divided into the following three groups: normal control, EAC, and EAC plus aprepitant. EAC was induced in mice by duplicate immunization with bladder homogenate. In the EAC model group, EAC mice were given PBS by gavage once a day during the fourth week. In the EAC plus aprepitant group, aprepitant was administered instead o...
Source: Inflammation - September 8, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Review: the Role and Mechanisms of Macrophage Autophagy in Sepsis
AbstractSepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by infection. The core mechanism underlying sepsis is immune dysfunction, with macrophages, as important cells of the innate immune system, playing an essential role. Autophagy has been shown to be closely related to inflammation and immunity, and autophagy enhancement in sepsis can play a protective role by negatively regulating abnormal macrophage activation, modulating macrophage polarization phenotype, reducing activation of the inflammasome and release of inflammatory factors, and affecting macrophage apoptosis. However, excessive autophagy may also le...
Source: Inflammation - September 7, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Lung-Resident Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Repair of LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury via Regulating the Balance of Regulatory T cells and Th17 cells
In conclusion, the results indicated that administration of LRMSC attenuates LPS-induced ALIvia upregulating the balance of Tregs and Th17 cells. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - September 5, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Progranulin Promotes Regeneration of Inflammatory Periodontal Bone Defect in Rats via Anti-inflammation, Osteoclastogenic Inhibition, and Osteogenic Promotion
AbstractProgranulin (PGRN) has been proved to play a crucial role in anti-inflammation and osteogenesis promotion; thus, it was hypothesized that PGRN could promote bone regeneration in periodontal disease. In this experiment, the periodontal bone defects were established in periodontitis rats; recombinant human progranulin (rhPGRN), tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor (anti-TNF- α), or phosphate buffer saline (PBS)-loaded collagen membrane scaffolds were implanted within defects and the rats were sacrificed at scheduled time points. Volume of new bone was assessed by radiological and histomorphometric analyses. Ex...
Source: Inflammation - September 5, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research