Burn injury induces elevated inflammatory traffic: the role of NF- κB
AbstractA burn insult generally sustains a hypovolemic shock due to a significant loss of plasma from the vessels. The burn injury triggers the release of various mediators, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytokines, and inflammatory mediators. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), stemming from foreign microbial discharge and damaged tissue or necrotic cells from the burn-injured site, enter the systemic circulation, activate toll-like receptors (TLRs), and trigger the excessive secretion of cytokines and inflammatory mediators. Inflammation plays a vital r...
Source: Inflammation Research - November 27, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Epigenetic signatures underlying inflammation: an interplay of nutrition, physical activity, metabolic diseases, and environmental factors for personalized nutrition
ConclusionAlthough caution should be exercised, research on epigenetic mechanisms is contributing to understand pathological processes involving inflammatory responses, the prediction of disease risk based on the epigenotype, as well as the putative design of therapeutic interventions targeting the epigenome. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - November 24, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Local IL-17 positive T cells are functionally associated with neutrophil infiltration and their development is regulated by mucosal microenvironment in nasal polyps
ConclusionsThis study determined a functional association of IL-17+ T cells with neutrophils in CRSwNP, and revealed that polyp microenvironment could promote IL-17+ T cell differentiation, suggesting a potential feedback role for IL-17+ T cell development and local neutrophilic inflammation. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - November 23, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Methylprednisolone acetate mitigates IL1 β induced changes in matrix metalloproteinase gene expression in skeletally immature ovine explant knee tissues
This study aimed at evaluating the effect of methylprednisolone (MPA) on messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression levels in immature ovine knee joint tissue explants following interleukin (IL)1 β induction and to assess responsiveness of the explants.Material or subjectsExplants were harvested from the articular cartilage, synovium, and infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) from immature female sheep.TreatmentMethylprednisolone.MethodsThe samples were allocated into six groups: (1) control, (2) MPA (10−3 M), (3) MPA (10−4 M), (4) IL1β, (5) IL1β + 10−3 M MPA, or (6) I...
Source: Inflammation Research - November 23, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Histamine receptors and COVID-19
ConclusionsClinical research into the potential benefits of H2 receptor antagonists in managing COVID-19 inflammation began from a simple observation and now is being tested in multi-centre clinical trials. The positive effects of famotidine may be due to H2 receptor-mediated immunomodulatory actions on mast cell histamine –cytokine cross-talk, rather than a direct action on SARS-CoV-2. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - November 18, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

The efficacy of in vivo administration of Apremilast on mesenchymal stem cells derived from psoriatic patients
ConclusionApremilast treatment influences the expression of VEGF, iNOS and IDO not only by keratinocytes but also by MSCs, restoring their intrinsic profile and their natural anti-inflammatory action, and decreasing the auto-inflammatory process that underpins the development of psoriasis. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - November 18, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Microbiome: an emerging new frontier in graft ‑versus‑host disease
(Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - November 13, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

PIM1 inhibition attenuated endotoxin-induced acute lung injury through modulating ELK3/ICAM1 axis on pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells
ConclusionOur results indicated that PIM1 inhibition carried a protective role against endotoxin-induced ALI by modulating the ELK3/ICAM1 axis on PMVECs. PIM1 may be a potential therapeutic target for endotoxin-induced ALI. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - November 13, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Roflumilast prevents lymphotoxin α (TNF-β)-induced inflammation activation and degradation of type 2 collagen in chondrocytes
ConclusionRoflumilast may prevent TNF- β-induced inflammation activation and degradation of type 2 collagen in chondrocytes. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - November 11, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Don't worry! The next generation would be more resistant to SARS-CoV-2
(Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - November 11, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Impaired salivary SIgA antibodies elicit oral dysbiosis and subsequent induction of alveolar bone loss
ConclusionThese results suggest that salivary SIgA plays an important role in regulating and maintaining normal oral microflora to prevent the development of periodontal disease. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - November 9, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Cysteinyl leukotriene D 4 (LTD 4 ) promotes airway epithelial cell inflammation and remodelling
ConclusionThe results suggest that LTD4 could induce inflammatory response in human airway epithelial cell by activating NALP3 inflammasome. LTD4 could further promote airway epithelial cells ’ remodelling through TGF-β/smad2/3-mediated pathway. Our in vivo results suggested that obesity predisposed the OVA challenged mice to develop lung inflammation and remodelling akin to asthma-like phenotypes during obesity. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - November 2, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 will continue to circulate in the human population: no worries with state-of-the-art research and dependably useful results
AbstractThis short article provides additional justification for our understanding of the virus –host relationship in the population. Some new data are presented concerning viral structure/behavior and a critical assessment on the possibilities of using new approaches for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - October 30, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Inflammasome formation in the lungs of patients with fatal COVID-19
ConclusionsThese findings identify the presence of NLRP3 inflammasome aggregates in the lungs of fatal COVID-19  pneumonia thus providing the potential molecular link between viral infection and cytokine release syndrome. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - October 20, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Uric acid drives intestinal barrier dysfunction through TSPO-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation
ConclusionsIn conclusion, uric acid drives intestinal barrier dysfunction through TSPO-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - October 19, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Untying the correlation between apolipoproteins and rheumatoid arthritis
ConclusionMainly apolipoproteins A-1, B and E are prominently increased in chronic inflammatory joint disorders. Several theories have been proposed to understand the source of increase of lipids and apolipoproteins in synovial fluid of the diseased patients compared to healthy individuals, yet the precise mechanism is still not lucid. Lipoproteins are believed to play both functional role and pathological role in the synovial fluid. The activated T-lymphocytes in patients of RA lead to activation of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukins which embark to be the principal mechanism for inducti...
Source: Inflammation Research - October 14, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Retraction Note to: MiR-138-5p exacerbates hypoxia/reperfusion-induced heart injury through the inactivation of SIRT1-PGC-1 α
This original article [1] has been retracted at the request of the corresponding author because of errors in the data presented in Fig.  1. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - October 14, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

TAB1 regulates glycolysis and activation of macrophages in diabetic nephropathy
ConclusionsOur results suggest that the TAB1/NF- κB/HIF-1α signaling pathway regulates glycolysis and activation of macrophages in DN. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - October 12, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

The role of CD8  + T lymphocytes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review
ConclusionsNot only is the number of CD8  + T-cells increased in COPD, these cells have increased capacity to exert effector functions and are likely to contribute to disease pathogenesis. Several mechanisms highlighted show promise for future investigation to consolidate current knowledge. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - October 10, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Methyl gallate attenuates inflammation induced by Toll-like receptor ligands by inhibiting MAPK and NF- Κb signaling pathways
ConclusionThus, the results of this study demonstrate that MG has a promising anti-inflammatory effect and suggests an explanation of its mechanism of action through the inhibition of NF- κB signaling and the MAPK pathway. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - October 9, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Biochanin A impedes STAT3 activation by upregulating p38 δ MAPK phosphorylation in IL-6-stimulated macrophages
ConclusionThis differential regulation of STAT3 and p38 MAPK in macrophages establishes a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of BCA which could be important for the prevention of IL-6-associated chronic inflammatory diseases. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - September 27, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

The pharmacological effects of inhaled cannabis on pain in patients with multiple sclerosis: risks versus rewards
AbstractPurposeDespite the fact that the risk versus benefit of smoking cannabis has not been extensively studied, many individuals with multiple sclerosis are smoking cannabis to reduce their pain intensity and spasticity. The lack of information about inhaled cannabis might be attributed to the fact that most trials focus on orally administered cannabis. Given the fact that the administration of cannabis via inhalation is known to rapidly deliver cannabinoids with a higher total bioavailability than what can be achieved through oral or buccal routes, it is important to understand the clinical trials conducted using smoke...
Source: Inflammation Research - September 27, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Sleep deprivation aggravated lipopolysaccharide/ d -galactosamine-induced acute liver injury by suppressing melatonin production
ConclusionOur data suggested that SD exacerbated LPS/D-Gal-induced liver injury via decreasing melatonin production. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - September 27, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory capacity of Apremilast in human chondrocytes is dependent on SOX-9
ConclusionApremilast may protect chondrocytes from inflammation by up-regulating SOX9. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - September 27, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Mast cells and angiogenesis in multiple sclerosis
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease, characterized by multiple demyelination of axons in both white and gray matter in the Central Nervous System (CNS). There is increasing evidence to support the notion that angiogenesis and chronic inflammation are mutually related. Different immune cells, including monocytes –macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, mast cells (MCs) and dendritic cells are able to secrete an array of angiogenic cytokines, which promote growth, migration, and activation of endothelial cells. MCs play various roles in MS pathogenesis, influencing the innate immune response in peri...
Source: Inflammation Research - September 27, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Biochanin A attenuates zymosan-induced arthritis in mice similarly to 17- β estradiol: an alternative to hormone replacement therapy?
ConclusionBCA has a notable anti-inflammatory effect, similar to 17- β estradiol, and is especially effective for treatment of ZIA. These results suggest that BCA may be promising for the treatment of postmenopausal arthritis. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - September 24, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Quercetin alleviates neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury by inhibiting microglia-derived oxidative stress and TLR4-mediated inflammation
ConclusionThese results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of quercetin in HIBI mice is partially due to the inhibition of oxidative stress and TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses in activated microglia. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - September 17, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Cellular and molecular events of inflammation induced transdifferentiation (EMT) and regeneration (MET) in mesenteric mesothelial cells
AbstractIn this review we summarize the cellular and molecular events of inflammation induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) and mesothelial-to-macrophage transition (MET) during regeneration. Since the receptor transmits the environmental stimulus, downregulating or upregulating the process on an epigenetic level, the intracellular localization of receptors (signaling organelles: early endosomes or lysosomal degradation: late endosomes) plays a crucial role in the signaling events regulating inflammation and regeneration. Therefore, we focused on the internalization of the receptors as well as the intracellular compartme...
Source: Inflammation Research - September 11, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

The coagulopathy, endotheliopathy, and vasculitis of COVID-19
ConclusionThe endotheliopathy due to direct endothelial infection with SARS-COV-2 and the indirect damage caused by inflammation play the predominant role in the development of CAC. The intensive control of thromboinflammation is necessary to improve the outcome of this highly detrimental contagious disease. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - September 11, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Correction to: Optimized THP-1 differentiation is required for the detection of responses to weak stimuli
After the publication of our article [1] we were made aware that in Fig.  2D the images for PMA 2.5 ng/ml and PMA 25 ng/ml are identical. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - September 11, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Macrophage-derived Wnt signaling increases endothelial permeability during skeletal muscle injury
ConclusionOur results indicate that macrophage-derived Wnt signaling increases endothelial permeability in a VEGF-dependent fashion following muscle injury. Our findings implicate macrophages as a primary source of Wnt ligands following muscle injury and highlight the Wnt pathway as a therapeutic target following injury. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - September 8, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Macrophage polarization in intestinal inflammation and gut homeostasis
AbstractGut homeostasis is a process that requires a prudent balance of host responses to the beneficial enteric microbial community and the pathogenic stimuli that can arise. The lack of this balance in the intestine can result in inflammatory bowel diseases, where the immune system dysfunctions leading to exacerbated inflammatory responses. In this process, macrophages are considered to play a pivotal role. In this review, we describe the important role of macrophages in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and we discuss how altered macrophage function may lead to inflammatory bowel diseases. The plasticity of macrophages...
Source: Inflammation Research - September 3, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

IL-33 enhances macrophage release of IL-1 β and promotes pain and inflammation in gouty arthritis
ConclusionIL-33 mediates gout pain and inflammation by boosting macrophages production of cytokines upon MSU crystals stimulus. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - September 3, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Metabolic reprogramming as a key regulator in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis
This article reviews the metabolic reprogramming of immune cells and fibroblast-like synoviocytes in RA and their relationship to mitochondrial disfunction, as well as the key pro-inflammatory pathways associated with metabolic reprogramming and chemotherapy as a potential future therapeutic strategy for RA. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - August 13, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Meeting report of the 49th annual meeting of the European Histamine Research Society (EHRS)
AbstractThe 49th annual meeting of the European Histamine Research Society (EHRS) was planned to be held at ‘Die Wolfsburg’, Mühlheim an der Ruhr near Düsseldorf in Germany. With the announcement of the COVID-19 pandemic, the face-to-face conference meeting was cancelled and instead, the EHRS Council proposed an Online Symposium to keep up the good spirits and research enthusiasm of the Society memb ers. This meeting report summarises two 2 h sessions held on 1st and 2nd July, 2020 and delivered via Blackboard Collaborate. The Online Symposium covered a range of interesting and inspiring topics a...
Source: Inflammation Research - August 10, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Coronavirus (Covid-19) sepsis: revisiting mitochondrial dysfunction in pathogenesis, aging, inflammation, and mortality
ConclusionsAging is associated with worse outcomes in sepsis. Modulating Sirtuin activity is emerging as therapeutic agent in sepsis. HIF- α, levels of mitochondrial DNA, and other mitochondrial DAMP molecules may also serve as useful biomarker and need to be investigated. These mechanisms should be explored specifically for Covid-19-related sepsis. Understanding newly discovered regulatory mechanisms may lead to the development of no vel diagnostic and therapeutic targets. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - August 6, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: a promising approach for the management of oral lichen planus
Conclusionn-3 PUFAs consumption may provide a non-toxic, inexpensive administration for OLP. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - August 6, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Correction to: A role for mast cells and mast cell tryptase in driving neutrophil recruitment in LPS-induced lung inflammation via protease-activated receptor 2 in mice
The original article can be found online. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - August 6, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

IL-33 deficiency protects mice from DSS-induced experimental colitis by suppressing ILC2 and Th17 cell responses
ConclusionOur findings demonstrate that IL-33 deficiency protects mice from DSS-induced colitis. The protective effect is associated with impairments of ILC2 and Th17 cell development as well as reduction of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-1 β. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - July 28, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Ghrelin-induced multi-organ damage in mice fed obesogenic diet
ConclusionGhrelin administration was associated with increased functional and structural organ damage, regardless of diet. The present study provides novel evidence of multi-organ physiologic alterations secondary to ghrelin administration. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - July 26, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Systematic review and meta-analysis of association of polymorphisms in inflammatory cytokine genes with coronary artery disease
ConclusionsThe meta-analysis revealed the positive association ofIL6 gene rs1800795 polymorphism in susceptibility to CAD. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - July 26, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

The role of interferon- γ in cardiovascular disease: an update
ConclusionGiven the pivotal role of IFN- γ in the advancement of CVD, activation of its signaling pathways is being explored as a driver of atherosclerosis. Manipulation of this key cytokine may lead to novel therapeutic avenues for CVD prevention and treatment. A number of therapies are being explored with IFN-γ as the potential target. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - July 21, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Protocatechuic acid supplement alleviates allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting the IL-4R α–STAT6 and Jagged 1/Jagged2–Notch1/Notch2 pathways in allergic asthmatic mice
ConclusionsDietary supplement of PCA alleviated allergic asthma partly through suppressing the IL-4R α–STAT6 and Jagged1/Jagged2–Notch1/Notch2 signaling pathways in mice. Our study provided the theoretic basis of PCA used as functional food in preventing allergic asthma. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - July 14, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Natural α , β -unsaturated lactones inhibit neuropeptide-induced mast cell activation in an in vitro model of neurogenic inflammation
ConclusionsThese results are the first strong evidence supporting the hypothesis that dehydroleucodine and xanthatin inhibit substance P- and neurotensin-induced serotonin release from rat peritoneal mast cells. Our findings suggest, additionally, that theseα,β-unsaturated lactones could be of value in future pharmacological research related to inappropriate mast cell activation conditions such as neurogenic inflammation and neuropathic pain. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - July 13, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Transcriptomic analysis of hidradenitis suppurativa skin suggests roles for multiple inflammatory pathways in disease pathogenesis
ConclusionThese data illustrate the diverse immune activation in lesional HS skin and suggest that deeper interrogation of the disease heterogeneity may reveal unique opportunities for targeted therapies in designated subpopulations. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - July 12, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 will constantly sweep its tracks: a vaccine containing CpG motifs in ‘lasso’ for the multi-faced virus
AbstractDuring the current COVID-19 pandemic, the global ratio between the dead and the survivors is approximately 1 to 10, which has put humanity on high alert and provided strong motivation for the intensive search for vaccines and drugs. It is already clear that if we follow the most likely scenario, which is similar to that used to create seasonal influenza vaccines, then we will need to develop improved vaccine formulas every year to control the spread of the new, highly mutable coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. In this article, using well-known RNA viruses (HIV, influenza viruses, HCV) as examples, we consider the main success...
Source: Inflammation Research - July 11, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Macrophage polarization and its role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome
AbstractPurposeMacrophages are highly plastic cells. Under different stimuli, macrophages can be polarized into several different subsets. Two main macrophage subsets have been suggested: classically activated or inflammatory (M1) macrophages and alternatively activated or anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages. Macrophage polarization is governed by a highly complex set of regulatory networks. Many recent studies have shown that macrophages are key orchestrators in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and that regulation of macrophage polarization may improve the prognosis of ...
Source: Inflammation Research - July 9, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

The impact of the duration of HAART on cytokine profiles in pregnancy
ConclusionLong use of HAART suppresses the anti-inflammatory markers previously reported to be conducive for the wellbeing of pregnancy. This effect needs further review as it was similarly observed in our HIV uninfected controls. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - July 6, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

A role for mast cells and mast cell tryptase in driving neutrophil recruitment in LPS-induced lung inflammation via protease-activated receptor 2 in mice
ConclusionOur study provides, for the first time, evidence of a pivotal role for MCs and MC tryptase in neutrophil migration, lung inflammation and macrophage activation triggered by LPS, by a mechanism dependent on PAR2 activation. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - July 5, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research

Harnessing Newton ’s third-law paradigm to treat autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammations
AbstractPurposeIt paradoxically seems counter-intuitive to consider treatments that activate the immune systems as a method to treat autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammations when these inflammatory conditions are themselves manifested by dysregulated activations of the immune responses. However, according to Newton ’s Third-Law of fundamental physics which formally states “For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction”, it can be reasonably argued that “For every activated pro-inflammatory response, there is an opposite and intrinsic anti-inflammatory response to follow.” Ther...
Source: Inflammation Research - June 25, 2020 Category: Research Source Type: research