Organ crosstalk: the potent roles of inflammation and fibrotic changes in the course of organ interactions
ConclusionThe organ crosstalk and the functional integration of organ systems are exceedingly complex processes. Organ crosstalk contributes to metabolic homeostasis and affects the inflammatory response, related pathways and fibrotic changes. As in the case of interactions between adipose tissue and intestine, stimulation of inflammatory mechanisms plays an active role in the development of diseases including insulin resistance, obesity, type 2 diabetes and hepatic steatosis. The increased level of knowledge about the ‘crosstalk’ between any organ and distant organs will facilitate the early diagnosis of the d...
Source: Inflammation Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Regulation of C-reactive protein conformation in inflammation
AbstractC-reactive protein (CRP) is a non-specific diagnostic marker of inflammation and an evolutionarily conserved protein with roles in innate immune signaling. Natural CRP is composed of five identical globular subunits that form a pentamer, but the role of pentameric CRP (pCRP) during inflammatory pathogenesis remains controversial. Emerging evidence suggests that pCRP can be dissociated into monomeric CRP (mCRP) that has major roles in host defenses and inflammation. Here, we discuss our current knowledge of the dissociation mechanisms of pCRP and summarize the stepwise conformational transition model to mCRP to eluc...
Source: Inflammation Research - July 16, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

MiR-138-5p exacerbates hypoxia/reperfusion-induced heart injury through the inactivation of SIRT1-PGC-1 α
ConclusionsIn conclusion, our study demonstrated that miR-138-5p could promote cardiac ischemia injury via inhibition of the silent information regulator 1 and peroxisome proliferator-initiated receptor gamma and coactivator 1 alpha (SIRT1 –PGC-1α) axis. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - July 16, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

NLRP12 negatively modulates inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and tumor necrosis factor- α production in Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS-treated mouse macrophage cell line (RAW264.7)
AbstractObjectiveThe aim of the present study is to investigate the participation of NLRP12 inPorphyromonas gingivalis LPS-activated mouse macrophages.MethodsNLRP12-depleted mouse macrophages were stimulated withP. gingivalis LPS (1  μg/ml.). At indicated time points, the treated cells were lysed and the supernatant from treated cells was collected. Gene and protein expression of NLRP12 and iNOS were determined by RT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. The level of TNF-α production in the supernatant of the activated cells was determined by ELISA.Results and conclusionNLRP12 was upregulated in response to s...
Source: Inflammation Research - July 10, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

The European Histamine Research Society 48th Annual Meeting, May 15 –18th, 2019 Kraków, Poland
(Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - July 1, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway protects mice from the DDP-induced acute kidney injury in lung cancer
ConclusionAG490 alleviated DDP-induced AKI in lung cancer mice with improved oxidative stress and inflammation, and the suppression of JAK2/STAT3 pathway. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - June 26, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

The increased T helper cells proliferation and inflammatory responses in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is suppressed by sitagliptin and vitamin D3 in vitro
ConclusionSitagliptin plus VitD3 effectively reduces the proliferative T cells response and modulates pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines production. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - June 25, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Macrophage lipid accumulation in the presence of immunosuppressive drugs mycophenolate mofetil and cyclosporin A
ConclusionsOur results clearly underline the importance of further evaluation of the effects of these drugs when used in atherosclerosis-prone patients with autoimmune or renal disease. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - June 21, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

ER stress abrogates the immunosuppressive effect of IL-10 on human macrophages through inhibition of STAT3 activation
ConclusionsCombined, these data uncover a new general mechanism by which ER stress promotes inflammation. Considering its potential involvement in the pathogenesis of diseases such as Crohn ’s disease and spondyloarthritis, targeting of this mechanism may provide new opportunities to counteract inflammation. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - June 21, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Common variants of genes encoding TLR4 and TLR4 pathway members TIRAP and IRAK1 are effective on MCP1, IL6, IL1 β, and TNFα levels in type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance
AbstractObjective and designType 2 diabetes is a pandemic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, ineffective insulin use, and insulin resistance and affecting 1 in 11 people worldwide. Inflammation-related insulin resistance is thought to play an important role in the etiology of the disease. TLR4 is the central receptor of the natural immune system and has an important role as a trigger of the inflammatory response. The IRAK1 and TIRAP are members of the TLR4 pathway and involved in the TLR4-mediated inflammatory response. Genetic variants in the TLR4 gene or in the IRAK1 and TIRAP genes may have an important role in the...
Source: Inflammation Research - June 20, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

STAT3-induced SMYD3 transcription enhances chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell growth in vitro and in vivo
ConclusionsThe STAT3-mediated transcription of SMYD3 plays a role in promoting the progression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - June 19, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Interactions between carboxypeptidase M and kinin B1 receptor in endothelial cells
ConclusionsOur data show that kinin B1R positively modulates both CPM expression and activity, suggesting that CPM-B1R interaction in membrane microdomains might affect enzyme activity, beyond interfering in receptors signaling. This work highlights the interactions among different components of KKS and contributes to a better understanding of its patho-physiological role. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - June 19, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Activation of the Notch signaling pathway disturbs the CD4 + /CD8 + , Th17/Treg balance in rats with experimental autoimmune uveitis
ConclusionThe activation of the Notch signaling pathway can regulate Th17 and Treg cell differentiation, disrupt the CD4+/CD8+ and Th17/Treg balance, and aggravate the severity of EAU; inactivation of the Notch signaling pathway contributes to the CD4+/CD8+ and Th17/Treg balance in EAU rats. Our findings highlighted that the dynamic change in the CD4+/CD8+ and Th17/Treg ratio was consistent with the expression trend of Notch signaling in EAU rats, suggesting that Notch signaling may be a potentially important therapeutic target in clinical practice. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - June 17, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Mucosal-associated invariant T cells: new players in CF lung disease?
AbstractThe past decade has witnessed a surge in research centered around exploring the role of the enigmatic innate immune-like lymphocyte MAIT cell in human disease. Recent evidence has led to the elucidation of its role as a potent defender at mucosal surfaces including lungs due to its capacity to mount a formidable immediate response to bacterial pathogens. MAIT cells have a unique attribute of recognizing microbial ligands in conjunction with non-classical MHC-related protein MR1. Recent studies have demonstrated their contribution in the pathogenesis of chronic pulmonary disorders including asthma and chronic obstru...
Source: Inflammation Research - June 14, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Neferine inhibits LPS-ATP-induced endothelial cell pyroptosis via regulation of ROS/NLRP3/Caspase-1 signaling pathway
ConclusionsOur findings indicated neferine may reduce ROS by anti-oxidation and inhibit LPS-ATP-induced endothelial cell pyroptosis via blocking ROS/NLRP3/Caspase-1 signaling pathway, which provides the evidence for therapeutic effect in CKD. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - June 6, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory activity of extensively hydrolyzed casein is mediated by granzyme B
ConclusionThe results from the current study suggest that anti-inflammatory activity of extensively hydrolyzed casein is, to a certain extent, mediated through modulation of granzyme B activity and responses. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - June 5, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Preclinical evidence of sphingosine kinase 1 inhibition in alleviation of intestinal epithelial injury in polymicrobial sepsis
AbstractBackgroundIntestinal epithelial injury in septic patients predicts subsequent development of multiple organ failure, but its regulation by host factors remains unclear. Sphingosine kinase 1 is an enzyme-regulating inflammatory response.MethodsCecal ligation and puncture was used to induce sepsis in C57BL/6 mice with and withoutN,N-dimethylsphingosine, a SphK1 inhibitor. Symptom severity was monitored by murine sepsis severity score. The intestinal barrier function was determined using 4KDa fluorescein-dextran. Bacterial load in the bloodstream was determined by 16S rRNA gene amplification.Results and conclusions...
Source: Inflammation Research - June 1, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Protective effect of galangin against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative  colitis in Balb/c mice
ConclusionOur study highlights the protective effect of galangin as an anti-inflammatory agent against the severe form of colitis in pre-clinical models suggesting its potency for the treatment of IBD in humans. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - May 30, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Different intensity of autophagy regulate interleukin-33 to control the uncontrolled inflammation of acute lung injury
ConclusionsThese findings showed that autophagy might regulate IL-33 by activating or inhibiting NF- κB to control the uncontrolled inflammation of acute lung injury. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - May 30, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

microRNA-520c-3p suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome activation and inflammatory cascade in preeclampsia by downregulating NLRP3
ConclusionCollectively, miR-520c-3p could potentially inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation and inflammatory cascade in PE by downregulating NLRP3, highlighting the potential of miR-520c-3p as a therapeutic target for PE treatment. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - May 30, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Salsalate ameliorates the atherosclerotic response through HO-1- and SIRT1-mediated suppression of ER stress and inflammation
ConclusionsSalsalate ameliorates LPS-induced atherosclerotic reactions via HO-1 and SIRT1-dependent reduction of inflammation and ER stress. Activation of these pathways by salsalate may provide therapeutic strategies for treating atherosclerosis. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - May 29, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

High-mobility group box-1 inhibition stabilizes intestinal permeability through tight junctions in experimental acute necrotizing pancreatitis
ConclusionHMGB1 inhibition ameliorated the severity of experimental ANP though beneficial effects on BT, mainly involving in TJ function. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - May 28, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

BLK and BANK1 polymorphisms and interactions are associated in Mexican patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
ConclusionThis is the first study documenting an association betweenBLK andBANK1 and SLE in a Latin-American population. Our data confirm previous reports:BLK andBANK1 are factors associated with SLE. Thus, both genes are universalloci for this autoimmune disease. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - May 27, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

TNF- α/calreticulin dual signaling induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation associated with HuR nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in rheumatoid arthritis
ConclusionsTNF- α/CRT dual signaling induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which could be suppressed by HuR knockdown presumably due to the block of HuR translocating from nucleus to cytoplasma. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - May 22, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Under inflammatory stimuli mesenteric mesothelial cells transdifferentiate into macrophages and produce pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6
ConclusionThese data show that under inflammatory stimuli mesothelial cells —like macrophages—can produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - May 21, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

HMGB1 decreases CCR-2 expression and migration of M2 macrophages under hypoxia
ConclusionsThese results provided new insights into the mechanisms that regulate M2 macrophages mobility at the tumor microenvironment. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - May 21, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Lung infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a CD26/DPP4 deficient F344 rat model
ConclusionsCD26/DPP4 deficiency resulted in reduced pulmonary edema under sublethalPA infection, implicating a role for CD26 in infection progression. The partly pronounced structural damage may mask further possible influences of CD26 on the inflammatory response. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - May 14, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

N -Pyrazoloyl and N -thiopheneacetyl hydrazone of isatin exhibited potent anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties through suppression of NF- κB, MAPK and oxidative stress signaling in animal models of inflammation
ConclusionBoth PHI and THI possess significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity via inhibition of inflammatory mediators. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - May 11, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

The incretin enhancer, sitagliptin, exacerbates expression of hepatic inflammatory markers in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet
ConclusionWhen provided in the context of a high-Cho diet, these findings reveal previously unrecognized hepato-inflammatory effects of sitagliptin that are accompanied by evidence of hepatic necrosis and mononuclear cell infiltration. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - May 9, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Correction to: The IL-23p19/EBI3 heterodimeric cytokine termed IL-39 remains a theoretical cytokine in man
The original article can be found online. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - May 7, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine profiles in psoriasis: use as laboratory biomarkers and disease predictors
ConclusionIn conclusion, psoriasis is characterized by increased M1, Th1, Th2 and Th17 profiles together with lowered TGF- β and adiponectin. In addition, we propose a model based on a higher IRS and Th2 + Treg index coupled with lower adiponectin values, which may be used to externally validate the diagnosis of psoriasis. The most important single biomarker of psoriasis is adiponectin. Because the latter may play a role in the modulation of the chronic inflammatory response in psoriasis, adiponectin could be a new drug target to treat psoriasis. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - May 6, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Adoptive transfer of IFN- γ-induced M-MDSCs promotes immune tolerance to allografts through iNOS pathway
ConclusionsWe established one M-MDSCs-inducting protocol with the combination of M-CSF and IFN- γ in vitro. M-CSF+IFN-γ-induced M-MDSCs are promising to prevent graft rejection by immune regulation. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - May 4, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Chrysophanol, an anthraquinone from AST2017-01, possesses the anti-proliferative effect through increasing p53 protein levels in human mast cells
ConclusionsTherefore, this study proposes that AST2017-01 and chrysophanol may be promising candidates for the development of potent anti-inflammatory or health functional foods. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - May 4, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Chicoric acid prevents methotrexate-induced kidney injury by suppressing NF- κB/NLRP3 inflammasome activation and up-regulating Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 signaling
ConclusionsCA prevented MTX-induced AKI through activation of Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 signaling, and attenuation of ROS-induced activation of NF- κB/NLRP3 inflammasome signaling. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - April 29, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

The role of the complement system in HIV infection and preeclampsia
ConclusionThere is currently a paucity of information on the combined effect of the complement system in HIV-associated PE. This review highlights the role of the complement system in the duality of HIV infection and PE and provides new insights into this relationship whilst also elucidating potential therapeutic targets. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - April 26, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

The IL-23p19/EBI3 heterodimeric cytokine termed IL-39 remains a theoretical cytokine in man
ConclusionWe report that this cytokine shows no activity in human cells. IL-39 chimera protein failed to induce either IL-6, IL-8, TNF, or IL-17A from leukocytes or STAT3 phosphorylation and thus, remains a ‘theoretical cytokine' in humans. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - April 13, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Pharmacological effects of TAK-828F: an orally available ROR γt inverse agonist, in mouse colitis model and human blood cells of inflammatory bowel disease
ConclusionsThese results indicate that ROR γt blockade would provide an effective approach for treating refractory patients with IBD by blocking IL-23/Th17 pathway. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - April 10, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) controls cytokine release during respiratory syncytial virus infection in macrophages
ConclusionsIn conclusion, we demonstrate that MIF is expressed during RSV infection and controls the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from macrophages in an in vitro model. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - April 3, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Roles of eNOS in atherosclerosis treatment
ConclusionseNOS can be an important target for prevention and treatment of AS, and eNOS drugs may be another potent class of effective therapeutic treatment for AS following traditional lipid-lowering, anti-platelet, vasodilator drugs. But applying these experimental results to clinic treatment still requires further studies and development of biotechnology. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - April 1, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Self-regulation of the inflammatory response by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
AbstractThe peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family includes three transcription factors: PPAR α, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ. PPAR are nuclear receptors activated by oxidised and nitrated fatty acid derivatives as well as by cyclopentenone prostaglandins (PGA2 and 15d-PGJ2) during the inflammatory response. This results in the modulation of the pro-inflammatory response, preventing it from being excessively activated. Other activators of these receptors are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (arachidonic acid, ALA, EPA, a...
Source: Inflammation Research - March 29, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate inhibits osteoclastogenesis by attenuating RANKL-induced NF- κB/NFATc-1
ConclusionAltogether these data show a protective role of a natural glycolytic intermediate in bone homeostasis that may have therapeutic benefit for osteolytic diseases. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - March 29, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

α-Mangostin suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome activation via promoting autophagy in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages and protects against CLP-induced sepsis in mice
ConclusionTaken together, these findings showed that α-M-mediated macrophages autophagy contributed to NLRP3 inflammasome inactivation and α-M exerted organ protection in septic mice. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - March 29, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Association of − 757T  & gt;  C polymorphism of C-reactive protein gene with chronic periodontitis of South Indian population
ConclusionThe observation of protective and susceptible association ofcrp− 757T >  C polymorphism may be useful for better management and prophylaxis of periodontitis. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - March 22, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm is a potent inducer of phagocyte hyperinflammation
ConclusionsPhagocytes exposed to biofilm microenvironment, called by us biofilm-associated neutrophils/macrophages (BANs/BAMs), display secretory properties similar to that of N1/M1-type phagocytes. These results suggest that in vivo high concentrations of LPS and DNA, trapped in biofilm by EPS, might convert infiltrating phagocytes into cells responsible for tissue injury without direct contact with bacteria and phagocytosis. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - March 18, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

The ameliorative effect of AST2017-01 in an ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis animal model
ConclusionsTaken together, these findings indicate that AST2017-01 has an anti-allergic effect as a therapeutic agent or functional food for treating and preventing AR. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - March 14, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Age-dependent hepatic alterations induced by a high-fat high-fructose diet
ConclusionAge of which consumption begins interferes in how the liver deals with an excess of nutrient and subsequent proinflammatory stimulation, leading to different phenotypes. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - March 14, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Elucidation of the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of an effective and safe bipyrazole-based compound
ConclusionThese findings revealed the superiority of the newly synthesized bipyrazole compound not only on the binding site, but also by inhibiting most of the inflammatory mediators including TNF- α. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - March 14, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Fibroblast growth factor 21 deficiency aggravates obesity-induced hypothalamic inflammation and impairs thermogenic response
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that FGF21 deficiency aggravates obesity-induced hypothalamic inflammation and neuronal injury, leading to alterations in hypothalamic neural circuits accompanied by a reduction of the thermogenic response. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - March 12, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

Prostaglandin E 2 , but not cAMP nor β 2 -agonists, induce tristetraprolin (TTP) in human airway smooth muscle cells
AbstractTristetraprolin (TTP) is an anti-inflammatory molecule known to post-transcriptionally regulate cytokine production and is, therefore, an attractive drug target for chronic respiratory diseases driven by inflammation, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Our recent in vitro studies in primary human airway smooth (ASM) cells have confirmed the essential anti-inflammatory role played by TTP as a critical partner in a cytokine regulatory network. However, several unanswered questions remain. While prior in vitro studies have suggested that TTP is regulated in a cAMP-mediated manner, raising the po...
Source: Inflammation Research - March 9, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research

EZH2 plays a crucial role in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury by regulating p38 signaling
ConclusionsEZH2 plays a crucial role in IR-induced AKI via modulation of p38 signaling. Targeting EZH2/p38 signaling pathway may offer novel strategies to protect kidneys from acute kidney injury induced by ischemia –reperfusion. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - February 28, 2019 Category: Research Source Type: research