Building on Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs Through Integration with Electronic Medical Records: The Australian Experience
AbstractAntimicrobial stewardship (AMS) is well established in Australian hospitals. Electronic medical record (EMR) implementation has lagged in Australia, with two Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS) Stage 6 hospitals and one Stage 7 hospital as of September 2020. Specific barriers faced by AMS teams with paper-based prescribing and medical records include real-time identification of antimicrobials orders; the ability to prospectively monitor antimicrobial use; and the integration of fundamental point of prescribing AMS principles into routine clinical practice. There are few local guidelines to...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - January 11, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Clinical Diagnostic Study of a Novel Injection Molded Swab for SARS-Cov-2 Testing
ConclusionIn summary, the IM2 nasopharyngeal swab is a clinically safe, highly accurate option to commercial nasopharyngeal swabs. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - January 11, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Filling the Gap Until Full Vaccine Deployment in the War on Coronavirus Disease-19
AbstractThe authorization for emergency use of a vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been issued in diverse countries in December 2020, and additional vaccine candidates soon may be cleared for a similar emergency use. If it is reasonable to believe that in some Western countries most people may be vaccinated by the end of 2021, insufficient supplies, access inequities across countries, and deficiencies in enforcing the participatory engagement of communities will present important challenges for the achievement of sufficient vaccination coverage worldwide in less than 2 –...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - January 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Persistent Viral Shedding in Hospitalized Adult Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Prospective Observational Study
ConclusionsPVS was detected in up to 38% of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and was strongly associated with immunosuppression, increased IL-6 levels, and the need for mechanical ventilation. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - January 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Salvage Treatment with Cefiderocol Regimens in Two Intravascular Foreign Body Infections by MDR Gram-Negative Pathogens, Involving Non-Removable Devices
ConclusionCefiderocol may be an additional, promising drug to the available arsenal, even for challenging foreign body infections caused by MDR Gram-negative pathogens. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - January 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The Effect of Single-Room Care Versus Open-Bay Care on the Incidence of Bacterial Nosocomial Infections in Pre-Term Neonates: A Retrospective Cohort Study
This study aims to examine the effect of single-room units (SRU) versus open-bay units (OBU) on the incidence of NIs, including central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI), in preterm neonates.MethodsAll preterm neonates (
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - December 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Cryptococcemia According to Immune Status: An Analysis of 65 Critical Cases
ConclusionsOur study indicated that patients with different immune statuses presented different clinical features. Immunosuppressed patients with cryptococcemia presented a higher risk of mortality with poor prognosis, which required intense attention and treatment in time. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - December 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Orally Administered Amoxicillin/Clavulanate: Current Role in Outpatient Therapy
AbstractOral amoxicillin/clavulanate is a community workhorse antibiotic, routinely prescribed for respiratory tract infections, skin infections as well as urinary tract infections (UTIs). Multiple adult and paediatric dose formulations of amoxicillin/clavulanate are available in different parts of the world. In adult formulations, clavulanic acid dose is restricted to 125  mg because of tolerability issues. Despite its popular use for 40 years, few pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) studies were undertaken to justify the doses and breakpoints currently in use for various infections. Clavulanate has a minima...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - December 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Cutaneous Vasculitis and Generalized Lymphadenopathy Associated with Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Escherichia coli Endocarditis: A Rare Case Report
ConclusionESBL-producingEscherichia coli should be considered as the etiology of BCNIE. Cutaneous vasculitis and generalized lymphadenopathy as a manifestation of IE could lead to diagnostic confusion. A thorough investigation will help clinician to avoid delay or inappropriate treatment that could be detrimental for the patient. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - December 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Combination of Tocilizumab and Steroids to Improve Mortality in Patients with Severe COVID-19 Infection: A Spanish, Multicenter, Cohort Study
AbstractBackgroundWe aimed to determine the impact of tocilizumab use on severe COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 19) pneumonia mortality.MethodsWe performed a multicentre retrospective cohort study in 18 tertiary hospitals in Spain from March to April 2020. Consecutive patients admitted with severe COVID-19 treated with tocilizumab were compared to patients not treated with tocilizumab, adjusting by inverse probability of the treatment weights (IPTW). Tocilizumab's effect in patients receiving steroids during the 48  h following inclusion was analysed.ResultsDuring the study period, 506 patients with severe COVID-19 fulf...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - December 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Virus Coinfection is a Predictor of Radiologically Confirmed Pneumonia in Children with Bordetella pertussis Infection
This study aimed to prospectively investigate the burden of pertussis in southeast Chinese children hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) during a pertussis outbreak and to compare the outcomes ofBordetella pertussis infection with or without virus coinfections.MethodsChildren  
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - December 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Gut Microbiota After Helicobacter pylori Eradication: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial
ConclusionsProbiotics supplementation might help to construct a beneficial profile of gut microbiota after eradication therapy. Specific bacteria taxa are associated withH.  pylori eradication outcome. These findings may be of value in rational use of probiotics duringH.  pylori eradication.Trial RegistrationChinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR1900022116. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - December 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Genetic Risk Surveillance for Invasive Aspergillosis in Hematology Patients: A Prospective Observational Study
AbstractIntroductionThe association between genetic background and the risk of invasive aspergillosis (IA) has not been addressed in Thailand. We conducted genetic risk surveillance for IA among Thai hematologic patients.MethodsWe conducted a prospective observational cohort study including moderate- to high-risk hematology patients at Ramathibodi Hospital. IA occurrence, relevant clinical data, and genetic analyses were assessed. Odds ratios (ORs) of IA were assessed for the presence of the selected single nucleotide polymorphism genotype using logistic regression.ResultsA total of 357 patients were enrolled. The most com...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - November 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Epidemiology, Nasopharyngeal Carriage, Serotype Prevalence, and Antibiotic Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Indonesia
AbstractIn Indonesia, pneumococcal disease represents a considerable public health concern; however, published data on the epidemiology, nasopharyngeal carriage, serotype prevalence, and antibiotic resistance ofStreptococcus pneumoniae in this region are limited. Therefore, this article reviews the available data from a variety of sources and also summarizes pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation and recommendations in Indonesia and subsequent impact on pneumococcal disease. Regional pneumococcal vaccination recommendations in Asia were also reviewed. Studies showed that pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage prevalen...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - November 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

4CMenB Immunization Induces Serum Bactericidal Antibodies Against Non-Serogroup  B Meningococcal Strains in Adolescents
Conclusion4CMenB vaccination in adolescents induces bactericidal killing of non-MenB isolates, suggesting that mass vaccination could impact IMD due to serogroups other than MenB. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - November 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Co-Existence of Carbapenemase-Encoding Genes in Acinetobacter baumannii from Cancer Patients
ConclusionThe findings are alarming and call for measures to prevent and control the spread of MBL-encoding genes among bacteria causing infections in cancer patients and other immunocompromised patient populations. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - November 12, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Etiology of Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults Based on Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing: A Prospective Multicenter Study
AbstractBackgroundMetagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) has the potential to improve the pathogen identification in severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP).MethodsIn this 1.5-year, multicenter, prospective study, we investigated the usefulness of mNGS of BALF for identifying pathogens of SCAP in hospitalized adults, comparing it with other laboratory methods.ResultsOf 329 SCAP adults, a microbial etiology was established in 304 cases (92.4%). The overall microbial yield was 90.3% for mNGS versus 39.5% for other methods (P 
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - November 10, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Pediatric Vaccines and Cost-Effectiveness Thresholds: How Much is Too Much to Pay for Prevention?
AbstractCost-effectiveness evaluations play an important role in recommendations for use of pediatric vaccines that are set forth by the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices  (ACIP). The fact that these evaluations are undertaken and accorded weight suggests that a critical value for designating pediatric vaccines as cost-effective (or not) must exist. For recommended pediatric vaccines, however, reported incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) have varied greatl y, and there does not appear to be an explicit threshold used by the ACIP to define how much is too much to pay for the prevention of commun...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - November 10, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Human Leishmaniasis in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
ConclusionThe prevalence of leishmaniasis in Ethiopia remains high (9.13%), with significant risk factors being male and the presence of hyraxes within a 300-m radius of the sleeping area. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - November 10, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Correction to: Early Treatment of COVID-19 Disease: A Missed Opportunity
In the Original Publication of the article, Copyright license type was erroneously published. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - November 9, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Early Diagnostic Biomarkers of Sepsis for Patients with Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure: A Multicenter Study
This study aimed to explore potential effective biomarkers for the early diagnosis of sepsis in ACLF patients.MethodsNinety-four ACLF patients with sepsis were enrolled from 10 hospitals across China from January 2015 to June 2016 as well as 49 ACLF patients without infection from Xiangya Hospital. The first-day admission data and SOFA score and CLIF-SOFA score were collected. The differences of indicators between groups were compared with Kruskal-Wallis test. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was analyzed to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of the selected factors.ResultsSoluble triggering receptor expre...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - November 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Real-World Virological Efficacy and Safety of Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 2 Infection: A Multicenter Study
ConclusionThe LDV/SOF regimen showed high virological efficacy and acceptable safety in patients with HCV genotype 2 infection.Trial RegistrationUMIN registration no. 000038604. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - November 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

rUTI Resolution After FMT for Clostridioides difficile Infection: A Case Report
We report the case of a 93-year-old female patient with a rCDI and rUTI that underwent FMT and reported a complete clinical resolution of CDI; unexpectedly, no new symptomatic UTI episodes were diagnosed post-FMT. We characterized the gut microbiota of the stool donor and of the patient before and after the procedure. Our patient presented a dysbiosis with clear predominance of Enterobacteriaceae (74%) before FMT, which was significantly reduced to 0.07% after FMT. These findings were maintained for almost a year. We also observed an increase in microbial diversity indices compared with the pre-FMT sample reaching diversit...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - November 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Ibuprofen and NSAID Use in COVID-19 Infected Patients Is Not Associated with Worse Outcomes: A Prospective Cohort Study
ConclusionAcute or chronic use of ibuprofen and other NSAIDs was not associated with worse COVID-19 disease outcomes. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - November 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Lost to Follow-up and Predictors Among HIV-Exposed Infants in Northwest Ethiopia
ConclusionSignificant numbers of infants were unable to access full HIV diagnosis and care services as a result of loss to follow-up. Special consideration for mothers having large numbers of children, rural residence, and low birth weight infants could be an important intervention to decrease lost to follow-up. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - October 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Effect of Entecavir on the Intestinal Microflora in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis  B: A Controlled Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Real-World Study
ConclusionAfter 8-week entecavir treatment, the blood biochemical, immunological, and virological responses improved significantly, the species abundance of intestinal flora increased markedly, and there were unique genera in patients with CHB before and after treatment. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - October 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Multidimensional Analysis of Risk Factors for the Severity and Mortality of Patients with COVID-19 and Diabetes
ConclusionsMore attention should be paid to patients with COVID-19 and diabetes, especially when they have high leukocyte counts (>  5.37 × 109/L). Timely and adequate intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) use may reduce the mortality of critical patients with COVID-19 and diabetes. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - October 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Predictors and Outcomes of Hospitalization for Influenza: Real-World Evidence from the United States Medicare Population
ConclusionThe study characterized the burden of hospitalization for influenza and found that hospitalized high-risk patients experience greater comorbidity burden, higher likelihood of multiple inpatient admissions, and costly medical interventions compared to patients who were not hospitalized. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - October 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation May Be the Best Option in Treating Multiple Clostridioides difficile Infection: A Network Meta-Analysis
ConclusionVancomycin  + FMT is perhaps the most effective option for the treatment and prevention of mrCDI, while tolevamer is also effective in preventing recurrence. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - October 26, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Financial Analysis of Dalbavancin for Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections for Self-Pay Patients
ConclusionSelf-pay patients with ABSSSI discharged to receive dalbavancin with vial replacement resulted in decreased direct and indirect costs per patient with similar 30-day readmission rates, AE, and LOS. More studies targeted toward this population are warranted to determine ultimate benefit. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - October 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Efficacy of a Fosfomycin-Containing Regimen for Treatment of Severe Pneumonia Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii : A Prospective, Observational Study
ConclusionsThis real-life clinical experience concerning the therapeutic approach to severe pneumonia caused by MDR-AB provides useful suggestions to clinicians, showing the use of different antibiotic regimens with a predominant role for fosfomycin. Further randomized clinical trials are necessary to confirm or exclude these observations. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - October 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Chest CT Features of 182 Patients with Mild Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pneumonia: A Longitudinal, Retrospective and Descriptive Study
AbstractIntroductionThe evolution of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia has not been described in detail. A large-scale longitudinal study is urgently required.MethodsWe analyzed 606 CT scans of 182 patients. The dynamic evolution of CT scores was evaluated using two staging methods: one was divided into 10 periods based on decile intervals, and the other was one stage per week. Moreover, the latter was used to evaluate the dynamic evolution of imaging performance. A published severity scoring system was used to compare findings of the two methods.ResultsIn...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - October 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prospective Observational Study to Determine Kinetics of Procalcitonin in Hospitalized Children Receiving Antibiotic Therapy for Non-Critical Acute Bacterial Infections
ConclusionUtility of procalcitonin as a biomarker to follow every 24 –48 h in non-critically ill children receiving antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections as an objective measure of clinical improvement is promising. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - October 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A Real-World Assessment of Clinical Outcomes and Safety of Eravacycline: A Novel Fluorocycline
ConclusionsIn this real-world setting, eravacycline demonstrated a similar high level of clinical efficacy as seen in clinical trials, 94%, in a variety of infections, including against multidrug-resistant bacteria, and was well tolerated. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - October 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Early Treatment of COVID-19 Disease: A Missed Opportunity
AbstractAntivirals have demonstrated efficacy in treating other infectious diseases in early stages of disease, reducing morbidity, mortality, and the likelihood of onward transmission. At the time of writing, more than 1900 clinical trials are registered globally to assess the efficacy and safety of candidate therapeutics for COVID-19. The majority of these trials are designed to evaluate the comparative efficacy and safety of candidate therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19 to prevent death among populations of hospitalized patients with advanced disease. Yet, emerging epidemiological evidence now indicates that the ...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - October 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Lessons Learned from Long-Term Assessment of Rotavirus Vaccination in a High-Income Country: The Case of the Rotavirus Vaccine Belgium Impact Study (RotaBIS)
ConclusionThe current RotaBIS data show a maintained reduction, around 76%, in RV hospitalization cases. Simulations show that these results could have been improved to an import extent with a more optimal initiation of the vaccination program.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01563146 and NCT01563159. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - October 5, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

An Appraisal of the Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Properties of Meropenem-Vaborbactam
AbstractCarbapenem-resistant gram-negative pathogens remain an urgent public health threat, and safe, effective treatment options are limited. Although several agents are now available to combat these infections, meropenem-vaborbactam was the first to combine a novel, cyclic, boronic acid-based, β-lactamase inhibitor with a carbapenem backbone. Vaborbactam emanated from a discovery program specifically designed to identify candidate β-lactamase inhibitors with biochemical, microbiologic, and pharmacologic properties optimized for use in conjunction with a carbapenem. Meropenem was selecte d as the ideal carbapene...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - October 5, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Microbiology of Meropenem-Vaborbactam: A Novel Carbapenem Beta-Lactamase Inhibitor Combination for Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacterales Infections
AbstractVaborbactam is a novel boron-based beta-lactamase inhibitor developed to be effective againstKlebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing bacteria. This enzyme is a key driver in the global spread of β-lactam resistance among carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales. Alone, vaborbactam has no antibacterial activity; however, the combination of meropenem-vaborbactam has enhanced activity against gram-negative organisms, particularly Enterobacterales with class A and C carbapenemases. Multiple in vi tro studies evaluating isolates from various geographic regions, and over different time periods, have demonst...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - October 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Healthcare Resource Utilization of Ceftolozane/Tazobactam Versus Meropenem for Ventilated Nosocomial Pneumonia from the Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blind ASPECT-NP Trial
ConclusionSimilar 28-day resource utilization outcomes were observed between ceftolozane/tazobactam and meropenem in the mITT population of patients from ASPECT-NP with vHABP/VABP due to gram-negative pathogens. ASPECT-NP was not powered to detect differences in resource utilization outcomes between treatment groups; however, numerical differences in ICU LOS and duration of mechanical ventilation were noted. Further study is needed to assess resource utilization in the real-world practice setting, especially among patients excluded from ASPECT-NP, including those with resistantP.  aeruginosa infections.Trial Registrat...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - September 29, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Effect of Corticosteroid Therapy on the Duration of SARS-CoV-2 Clearance in Patients with Mild COVID-19: A Retrospective Cohort Study
ConclusionsCorticosteroid therapy in patients with mild COVID-19 was not associated with the duration of SARS-CoV-2 clearance, suggesting that the use of corticosteroids may not be beneficial for patients with mild COVID-19 and should be prudently recommended in clinical practice. However, further studies are needed to verify the findings. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - September 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Correction to: Effect of Bacillus clausii Capsules in Reducing Adverse Effects Associated with Helicobacter pylori Eradication Therapy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial
In the original publication, the Second author name was incorrectly published as Marcos Perez III. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - September 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Faecal Microbiota Transplantation is Effective for the Initial Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infection: A Retrospective Clinical Review
ConclusionThis study demonstrates the safety and efficacy of FMT as first-line treatment for patients ’ initial episode of CDI. Future randomised studies are required to confirm FMT as the initial treatment for CDI. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - September 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Fosfomycin, Vancomycin and Daptomycin Alone, and in Combination, Against Linezolid-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis
ConclusionThe use of FM combined with DAP provided the best potential therapeutic option for treating LZR-Efa infections out of those tested. In addition, the optimum treatment for biofilm elimination depended on the stage of biofilm formation. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - September 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Factors Associated with Good Patient Outcomes Following Convalescent Plasma in COVID-19: A Prospective Phase  II Clinical Trial
AbstractIntroductionCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral respiratory syndrome caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus  2 (SARS-CoV-2). This novel virus was discovered in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019. As of September 6, 2020, confirmed cases have risen to more than 27,000,000 worldwide and more than 885,000 people have died. Currently, no cure or standard treatment for COVID-19 exists. We co nducted a prospective single-arm open-label phase II clinical trial assessing the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.MethodsC...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - September 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Steroids and COVID-19: We Need a Precision Approach, Not One Size Fits All
AbstractCOVID-19 is a new infectious disease causing severe respiratory failure and death for which optimal treatment is currently unclear. Many therapies have been proven to be ineffective; however, promising findings related to corticosteroid therapy have been published. Analysis of published data including in this issue suggests that therapy with corticosteroids in the range of 6  mg of dexamethasone (or equivalent) per day likely has a positive effect in patients requiring mechanical ventilation but there remains considerable doubt in patients over the age of 70, in patients with diabetes and patients with milder ...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - September 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis  B Virus Infection, Mother-To-Child Transmission, and Associated Risk Factors Among Delivering Mothers in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia: a Cross-Sectional Study
AbstractIntroductionHigh prevalence of hepatitis  B virus (HBV) infection among pregnant women is the primary source of infection for their children and the general population. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the primary mode of transmission in endemic areas like Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV infect ion, rate of MTCT, and associated risk factors among delivering mothers.MethodsThis health facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted in four public hospitals of the Eastern zone of Tigray among 473 delivering mothers. Structured questionnaires and laboratory results ...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - September 14, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Emerging Viral and Bacterial Infections: Within an Era of Opioid Epidemic
AbstractThe opioid epidemic is a public health crisis that continues to impact healthcare in the United States of America (USA). While changes in opioid prescribing have curbed the medical use of opioids, the increase in nonmedical use, largely driven by injection drug use (IDU), has contributed to the escalating incidence of opioid use disorder (OUD). Furthermore, IDU is associated with high-risk injection practices that can increase the risk of acquiring viral and bacterial infections. Here in this comprehensive review, we aimed to summarize the epidemiology and management of OUD, along with the screening and antimicrobi...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - September 10, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Seroprevalence and Determinants of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Among Women of Reproductive Age in Mozambique: A Multilevel Analysis
The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and individual-, household- and community-level factors associated with HIV infection among women of reproductive age in Mozambique.MethodsWe used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the 2015 Survey of Indicators on Immunization, Malaria and HIV or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in Mozambique. A sample of 4726 women of reproductive age was included in this study. Prevalence was measured in percentage and the factors for HIV infection were examined using a multivariable multilevel logistic regression model. The level of significance was set atP 
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - September 9, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Real-World Clinical Application of 12-Week Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir Treatment for Decompensated Cirrhotic Patients with Genotype 1 and 2: A Prospective, Multicenter Study
ConclusionTwelve weeks of sofosbuvir/velpatasvir in real-world clinical practice yielded high SVR rates and acceptable safety profiles in decompensated cirrhotic patients with genotypes 1 and 2. Achievement of SVR not only restored the liver functional reserve but also reduced or spared the administration of drugs for related complications.Trial RegistrationUMIN registration no, 000038587. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - September 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Effect of Bacillus clausii Capsules in Reducing Adverse Effects Associated with Helicobacter pylori Eradication Therapy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial
This study assessed the efficacy of lyophilized capsules containing 2  × 109 spores ofBacillus clausii (Enterogermina®; Sanofi Synthelabo) in reducing AEs associated withHelicobacter pylori eradication therapy in Italy.MethodsIn this randomized, double-blind, single-center, phase IIIB study, 130 adult outpatients withH. pylori infection were assigned to receive one Enterogermina® capsule or placebo three times daily for 2  weeks (1:1). During week 1, all patients received clarithromycin 500 mg, amoxicillin 1 g, and rabeprazole 20 mg twice daily. The primary efficacy outcome w...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - September 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research