Relationship Status between Vancomycin Loading Dose and Treatment Failure in Patients with MRSA Bacteremia: It ’s Complicated
AbstractIntroductionA one-time vancomycin loading dose of 25 –30 mg/kg is recommended in the current iteration of the vancomycin consensus guidelines in order to more rapidly achieve target serum concentrations and hasten clinical improvement. However, there are few clinical data to support this practice, and the extents of its benefits are largely unknown .MethodsA multicenter, retrospective, cohort study was performed to assess the impact of a vancomycin loading dose ( ≥ 20 mg/kg) on clinical outcomes and rates of nephrotoxicity in patients with methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - October 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Use of Antifungals and Outcomes Among Inpatients at Risk of Invasive Aspergillosis or Mucormycosis in the USA: A Retrospective Cohort Study
ConclusionsThis study documented real-world prophylactic and therapeutic AFMT use for IA/IM and associated outcomes among hospitalized patients in the USA since approval of isavuconazole. IA/IM were associated with lengthy hospital stays commonly requiring intensive care. Prophylactic and therapeutic AFMT dosages and duration generally followed recommendations and switching between agents was rare.FundingAstellas Pharma Global Development, Inc., Northbrook, IL, USA. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - October 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A Community-Based Survey to Assess Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Practices Regarding Herpes Zoster in an Urban Setting
AbstractIntroductionIn the USA, nearly one in three people will experience herpes zoster (HZ) in their lifetime. Underserved communities may be at even higher risk due to several factors, including access to healthcare, education, and co-morbid conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate current knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices (KABP) relative to HZ and HZ vaccines in a large urban city.MethodsA cross-sectional KABP survey was conducted via in-person interview among 381 participants aged  ≥ 50 years in Detroit, MI, USA, from June to August 2018. Survey results were stratified into two groups [
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - October 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Preferences for Adult Pneumococcal Vaccine Recommendations Among United States Health Care Providers
ConclusionsThe majority of vaccinators surveyed preferred to retain the 2014 recommendation, either with another scheduled reassessment or indefinitely.FundingPfizer, Inc. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - September 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Immunological and Clinical Benefits of Maternal Immunization Against Pertussis: A Systematic Review
AbstractInfants are vulnerable to pertussis infection particularly before initiation of pertussis vaccination. Maternal pertussis vaccination during pregnancy has been introduced in a number of countries in order to confer on young infants indirect protection from the disease through transplacental transfer of maternal antibodies. We reviewed the evidence on the immunogenicity and efficacy of maternal pertussis vaccination during pregnancy. A systematic search of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ProQuest, and Science Direct was undertaken to identify studies published between January...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - September 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Safety of Maternal Immunization Against Pertussis: A Systematic Review
AbstractThe WHO recommends vaccination of all children against pertussis. However, newborn infants remain vulnerable to infection. Pertussis vaccination during pregnancy has been introduced in several countries to protect newborns via transplacental transfer of maternal pertussis antibodies to the infant. We reviewed the impact of maternal pertussis vaccination on the health of pregnant women, the developing fetus, and health of the newborn. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus (Elsevier), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ProQuest, and Science Direct to identify studies that assessed the safety of maternal pe...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - September 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Incidence and Prevention of Invasive Meningococcal Disease in Global Mass Gathering Events
ConclusionsMass gathering events increase IMD risk among attendees and their close contacts. Vaccines preventing IMD caused by serogroups ACWY and B are available and should be recommended for mass gathering attendees.FundingPfizer. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - August 30, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Correction to: Infectious Disease Management and Control with Povidone Iodine
In the original publication, Figure  1 was incorrectly published. The correct figure is given here. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - August 22, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Should High-dose Daptomycin be an Alternative Treatment Regimen for Enterococcal Endocarditis?
ConclusionOur findings suggest that high-dose daptomycin might be used as an alternative treatment regimen in EIE. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - August 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Infectious Disease Management and Control with Povidone Iodine
AbstractWith reports of vancomycin-resistant enterococci recently emerging in hospital settings, renewed focus is turning to the importance of multifaceted infection prevention efforts. Careful compliance with established hygiene practices by healthcare workers together with effective antiseptic options is essential for the protection of patients from infectious agents. For over 60  years, povidone iodine (PVP-I) formulations have been shown to limit the impact and spread of infectious diseases with potent antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal effects. In addition to a lack of reported resistance, the benefits of PV...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - August 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Cefazolin Versus Anti-Staphylococcal Penicillins for the Treatment of Patients with Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Infection: A Meta-Analysis with Trial Sequential Analysis
AbstractIntroductionMethicillin-susceptibleStaphylococcus aureus (MSSA) is a common cause of infection in humans. Beta-lactam antibiotics are the preferred agents, with anti-staphylococcal penicillins (ASPs) or the first-generation cephalosporin, cefazolin, favored by clinicians. Recent studies comparing the two strategies suggest similar outcomes between the agents. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to explore differences between cefazolin and ASPs for the treatment of MSSA infections.MethodsWe performed a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis (TSA) of observational or cohort studies using a random-effects mode...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - August 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Immunogenicity of a Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine When Co-Administered with Tetanus-Reduced Diphtheria-Acellular Pertussis and Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccines in Healthy Adolescents: Results from a Randomized, Observer-Blind, Controlled Trial
ConclusionOverall, these data support the concomitant administration of HPV4, Tdap and MenACWY-CRM in adolescents.FundingNovartis Vaccines and Diagnostics Inc., now part of the GSK group of companies.Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01424644. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - August 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Telavancin in Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (HAP/VAP) Caused by Staphylococcus aureus : Post Hoc Analysis of 2 Randomized, Controlled Trials
ConclusionTelavancin is an alternative to vancomycin for HAP/VAP caused byS. aureus with vancomycin MIC ≥ 1 µg/mL.FundingTheravance Biopharma R&D, Inc., South San Francisco, CA, USA. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - August 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Clinical Features of Bloodstream Infections Associated with Peripheral Versus Central Venous Catheters
ConclusionThe pathogen species distribution varies between PVC-BSIs and CVC-BSIs. However, all-cause mortality does not differ between the two groups. PVCs are not safer than CVCs with respect to BSIs; therefore, it is necessary to use similar precautions relevant to CVC use in order to avoid unnecessary use of PVCs. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - July 31, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Long-Term Serological Response to 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Versus 23-Valent Polysaccharide Vaccine in HIV-Infected Adults
AbstractIntroductionLong-term comparative immunologic response to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) versus 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) among HIV-infected adults has not yet been investigated.MethodsIn this prospective pilot study, we quantified in HIV-positive adults serotype-specific IgG concentrations of the 12 pneumococcal serotypes shared by both vaccines 5  years after vaccination with two doses of PCV13 8 weeks apart (group 1) or one dose of PPV23 (group 2) and compared them with those assessed prior to vaccination (BL) and after 1 year (T1). Comparison of immunogenicity was base...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - July 30, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Epidemiologic Trends, Global Shifts in Meningococcal Vaccination Guidelines, and Data Supporting the Use of MenACWY-TT Vaccine: A Review
AbstractNeisseria meningitidis is a major cause of meningitis and septicemia with cases, outbreaks, and epidemics reported globally in industrialized and non-industrialized countries.N. meningitidis is categorized into 12 serogroups; however, only 5 serogroups (A, B, C, W, Y) are responsible for the majority of disease. Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) occurs unpredictably; protection is therefore best achieved by initiating proactive vaccination strategies. Vaccines are currently available for the five main disease-causing serogroups. With the evolution of meningococcal vaccines and changes in IMD epidemiology, differ...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - July 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Passive Screening and Diagnosis of Sleeping Sickness with New Tools in Primary Health Services: An Operational Research
ConclusionPassive screening using HAT RDTs in primary health services inevitably has some limitations. However, regarding the epidemiological context and some obstacles to integrated implementation, this cannot on its own be a relevant alternative to the elimination of HAT by 2020.FundingWe acknowledge the agency that provided financial support for this study, the Belgian Development Cooperation. The funder had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript. Philippe Mulenga received financial support thanks to a doctoral grant from the Belgian Development Co...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - July 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The Influence of Patient Experience with Healthcare on the Health-Related Quality of Life of People Living with HIV: An Observational Cross-Sectional Survey
AbstractIntroductionPatient experience is central to the quality of healthcare delivery, showing positive associations with several outcome measures. The main objectives of this study are to analyze the influence of patient experience on the health-related quality of life in people living with HIV and the role played by treatment complexity and clinical care.MethodsWe conducted a cross-sectional survey with 467 patients with HIV. We used the Instrument for Evaluation of the Experience of Chronic Patients and the Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L). We analyzed a predictive model through the partial leas...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - July 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Agreement Between Two Procalcitonin Assays in Hospitalized Children
AbstractIntroductionAgreement between available procalcitonin (PCT) assays is unclear. We sought to compare concordance between Roche and bioM érieux PCT assays using pediatric samples.MethodsWe evaluated 213 plasma samples from 208 children. We tested each sample on both the Roche and bioM érieux PCT platforms.ResultsAt ranges  
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - June 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Evaluation of Plazomicin, Tigecycline, and Meropenem Pharmacodynamic Exposure against Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Patients with Bloodstream Infection or Hospital-Acquired/Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia from the CARE Study (ACHN-490-007)
ConclusionsPlazomicin successfully achieved its requisite pharmacodynamic exposure, and these data suggest that optimization of tigecycline and meropenem therapy was not required for the combination to achieve microbiological response and clinical efficacy against serious CRE infections.Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01970371.FundingAchaogen, Inc. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - June 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Economic Evaluation of Human Rotavirus Vaccine in Thailand
AbstractIntroductionRotavirus gastroenteritis is the leading cause of severe diarrhoea among young children
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - June 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Risk Factors Associated with Linkage to Care among Suburban Hepatitis C-Positive Baby Boomers and Injection Drug Users
ConclusionThose with liver cirrhosis are more likely to achieve LTC, as are those with private insurance. Public health efforts to promote awareness of HCV and to facilitate access to treatment among PWID are needed. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Polymerase Chain Reaction Versus Blood Culture to Detect Candida Species in High-Risk Patients with Suspected Invasive Candidiasis: The MICAFEM Study
ConclusionThe sensitivity of serum PCR forCandida detection was low and the rate of concordance was low between serum PCR and the other diagnostic techniques used to identifyCandida infections. Hospital-based diagnostic tests need optimising to improve outcomes in patients with suspected invasive candidiasis.FundingAstellas Pharma Inc. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - May 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Neonatal Pertussis, an Under-Recognized Health Burden and Rationale for Maternal Immunization: A Systematic Review of South and South-East Asian Countries
AbstractPertussis is an under-recognized cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. To review information on the epidemiology and disease burden of neonatal pertussis in South and Southeast Asian countries, a systematic literature review of three bibliographic databases was undertaken. Peer-reviewed original studies on neonatal pertussis epidemiology and burden published since 2000, with a geographical scope limited to South and Southeast Asian countries, were included. Data were systematically extracted based on parameters defined a priori. Our findings show that the burden of neonatal pertussis and its complications is s...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - May 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Dalbavancin Use in Vulnerable Patients Receiving Outpatient Parenteral Antibiotic Therapy for Invasive Gram-Positive Infections
ConclusionsThis study demonstrates a possible role for dalbavancin in the treatment of non-ABSSSI invasive gram-positive infections in select vulnerable OPAT patients. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - May 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Safety of Probiotics Among High-Risk Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients
ConclusionThis small case series supports the safe use of probiotics in a high-risk population of pediatric HSCT patients with compromised intestinal mucosal integrity. Further studies are needed to determine if probiotics have benefit in preventing and treating gastrointestinal GVHD or CDI. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - April 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A Retrospective Analysis of Probability of Target Attainment in Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Ceftaroline Fosamil Versus Comparators
AbstractIntroductionThis retrospective analysis compares the probability of target attainment (PTA) for ceftriaxone, levofloxacin and ceftaroline fosamil againstStaphylococcus aureus,Streptococcus pneumoniae andHaemophilus influenzae in a representative patient population with moderate-to-severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).MethodsPublished pharmacokinetic (PK) models for levofloxacin and ceftriaxone, and an existing model for ceftaroline, were used with standard dosage regimens for simulating individual PK data with covariates representative of patients with CAP (5000 patients/drug regimen). PTA for clinically relev...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - April 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Open-Label Randomized Trial of Early Clinical Outcomes of Ceftaroline Fosamil Versus Vancomycin for the Treatment of Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections at Risk of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
ConclusionEarly clinical response between vancomycin- and ceftaroline-treated ABSSSIs was similar. Patients with ABSSSIs rarely remained hospitalized for> 2 –3 days, thus limiting our ability to critically assess clinical outcomes.Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT02582203.FundingAllergan plc. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - March 27, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Teaching an Old Class New Tricks: A Novel Semi-Synthetic Aminoglycoside, Plazomicin
The objective of this article is to discuss available data detailing plazomicin ’s biochemistry, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic characteristics, in-vitro activity and current progress in clinical trials. In addition, plazomicin’s potential role in therapy for the treatment of MDR Gram-negative infections will be discussed. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - March 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Burden of Co-Infection: A Cost Analysis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in a Commercially Insured Hepatitis C Virus Population
This study evaluated the clinical and economic burden of HIV-HCV co-infection compared with HCV alone in commercially insured patients throughout the United States.MethodsCommercial medical and pharmacy claims from 2007 to 2015 from a 10% random sample of enrollees within the IQVIA PharMetrics Plus ™ administrative claims database were analyzed. Patients were included based on the presence of a claim with a HCV diagnosis across three separate cross-sectional periods which were created from the full dataset (2007–2009, 2010–2012, and 2013–2015). Costs incurred were categorized as emerge ncy departmen...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - March 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Determinants of Initial Antibiotic Duration in Very Low Birth Weight Neonates
AbstractIntroductionVery low birth weight (VLBW) neonates (  5 days) increases an infant’s risk for necrotizing enterocolitis, late onset sepsis, colonization or infection with resistant organisms, and death. The aim of this study is to describe clinical and laboratory factors that influence the length of initial antibiotic courses in VLBW neonates.MethodsDemographics, perinatal factors, and neonatal clinical and laboratory data were compared in a single-center retrospective cohort of VLBW neonates who received  ≤ 3 days versus >  5 days of initial antibiotics.R...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - March 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Diagnostic Stewardship: A Clinical Decision Rule for Blood Cultures in Community-Onset Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Skin and Soft Tissue Infections
The objectives of this study were to derive and validate a clinical decision rule that predicts the probability of MRSA bacteremia in CO-MRSA SSTIs and to identify a low-risk population for whom blood cultures may be safely omitted.MethodsThis was a retrospective, case-control study with an internal temporal validation cohort conducted at two large urban academic medical centers. Hospitalized adults with CO-MRSA SSTI between 2010 and 2018 were included. Independent predictors of MRSA bacteremia were identified through multivariable logistic regression. A decision rule was derived using weighted coefficient-based scoring. T...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - February 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of CTX-M-9 Group Producing Enterobacteriaceae Infections in Children
ConclusionCTX-M-9-grp-Ent infection may be associated with patient residence and is occurring in children without traditional in-patient exposure risk factors. This suggests that among children, the community environment may be a key contributor in the spread of these resistant pathogens. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - February 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Clinical and Economic Burden of Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C with Versus Without Antiviral Treatment in Japan: An Observational Cohort Study Using Hospital Claims Data
AbstractIntroductionJapan has one of the highest prevalence rate of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in the industrialized world. However, the burden of CHC treatment is poorly understood. Thus, the healthcare resource utilization and costs of treated versus untreated patients, and patients with early versus delayed treatment initiation, were assessed in Japan.MethodsAdult patients with ≥ 2 CHC diagnoses were identified from the Medical Data Vision hospital claims database (1 April 2008–31 May 2016). The presence or absence of antiviral treatment claims was used to form the treated and untreated cohorts, respectiv...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - February 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Effectiveness and Safety of Micafungin in Managing Invasive Fungal Infections among Patients in Greece with Hematologic Disorders: The ASPIRE Study
ConclusionMicafungin treatment for IC or prophylaxis forCandida infection was effective and well tolerated in patients with hematologic disorders in clinical practice in Greece. These results demonstrate that micafungin could be used more widely for prophylaxis. Further work is required to determine the efficacy and safety of micafungin for the management of IFIs in hematologic settings.FundingAstellas Pharma Inc. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - February 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

An Evaluation to Determine the Strongest CD4 Count Covariates during HIV Disease Progression in Women in South Africa
ConclusionOnly a few of the many previously suggested continuous CD4+ count clinical covariates showed the potential to become an important integral part of the treatment process. Prolonging the pre-treatment period of the HIV disease progression by effectively incorporating and managing the covariates for long-term influence on the CD4+ cell response has the potential to delay challenges associated with ART side effects. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - February 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Capnocytophaga canimorsus Meningitis: Diagnosis Using Polymerase Chain Reaction Testing and Systematic Review of the Literature
ConclusionC. canimorsus meningitis is a rare but increasingly important clinical entity occurring in patients of all ages, typically after dog exposure. While classically considered an infection among immunocompromised patients, most cases have occurred in previously healthy, immunocompetent persons. Diagnosis may be rapidly established by PCR, and this test should be considered in culture-negative cases with associated exposures. Outcome was generally favorable after a median antibiotic duration of 15  days. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - January 31, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Post-Marketing Surveillance of Hepatitis A Virus Vaccine (Avaxim ® 160U) in South Korea from 2011 to 2015
ConclusionNo new safety issues were identified and the safety profile obtained from this study was comparable to that of previous studies for HAV vaccine.Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01838070.FundingSanofi Pasteur. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - January 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Microbial Epidemiology of Infectious Endocarditis in the Intravenous Drug Abuse Population: A Retrospective Study
ConclusionIn IE patients who use or are suspected of injection drug use, first-line broad-spectrum antibiotics with excellent MRSA andPseudomonas coverage are essential. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - January 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Clostridium difficile -associated Diarrhea in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
ConclusionOur prevalence estimate of 15% is concerning; however, low awareness and inconsistent diagnostic and surveillance protocols suggest this is markedly underestimated. Enhanced awareness and management ofC. difficile infection in patients with diarrhea, along with improvements in infection control and surveillance practices, should be implemented to reduce prevalence ofC. difficile-associated diarrhea in developing countries.FundingPfizer Inc. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - January 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A Review of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in HIV-Infected Patients: The Next Big Thing?
AbstractThe burden of liver-related morbidity remains high among HIV-infected patients, despite advances in the treatment of HIV and viral hepatitis. Especially, the impact of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is significant with a prevalence of up to 50%. The pathogenesis of NAFLD and the reasons for progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are still not fully elucidated, but insulin resistance, mitochondrial dysfunction and dyslipidemia seem to be the main drivers. Both HIV-infection itself and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) can contribute to the development of NAFLD/NASH in various ways. As...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - January 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Public Health Considerations among People who Inject Drugs with HIV/HCV Co-Infection: A Review
AbstractHepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection among persons who inject drugs (PWID) is a major public health concern. There are limited data in clinical trials on the use of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for treatment of HCV in co-infected PWID. It is critical for these patients to gain access to treatment in order to decrease progression of liver disease and decrease transmission of both HIV and HCV. Additional harm reduction interventions, including needle and syringe programs and opioid substitution treatment, should be made available to this vulnerable population. Despite t...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - January 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Risk Factors for Bloodstream Infections Among an Urban Population with Skin and Soft Tissue Infections: A Retrospective Unmatched Case-Control Study
ConclusionBoth clinical and sociodemographic factors were associated with BSI and severe infection underscoring the importance of social determinants of health in outcomes among underserved populations. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - December 18, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Cost-Effectiveness of the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (10- or 13-Valent) Versus No Vaccination for a National Immunization Program in Tunisia or Algeria
ConclusionThe ongoing NIP in Algeria is projected to reduce the impact and economic toll of pneumococcal disease in Algeria. If an NIP were also introduced in Tunisia, a commensurate impact would be expected. PCV NIPs are highly cost-effective, highly impactful public health interventions.FundingPfizer. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - December 11, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Correction to: A Markov Model to Estimate Mortality Due to HIV/AIDS Using Viral Load Levels-Based States and CD4 Cell Counts: A Principal Component Analysis Approach
This study uses similar methods to those previously published. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - December 6, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Biologic Markers of Antibiotic-Refractory Lyme Arthritis in Human: A Systematic Review
ConclusionThe evidence base of biologic markers for A-RLA is limited. However, a range of promising biomarkers have been identified. Cytokines and chemokines related to Th17 pathway together with a number of miRNAs species (miR-146a, miR-155 and let-7a) may be promising candidates in the prediction of A-RLA. A panel of multiple biomarkers may yield clinically relevant prediction of the possible resistance at the time of LA first diagnosis.FundingPublic Health Agency of Canada. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - November 30, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Evidence from an In Vitro Study: Is Oxacillin Plus Vancomycin a Better Choice for Heteroresistant Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus ?
ConclusionThe present study showed the potential activity of vancomycin plus oxacillin combination against hVISA and MRSA isolates. Further, continued evaluation of this combination is warranted and may have therapeutic benefits in treating complicated MRSA infections. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - November 21, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Re-Analysis of Modeling a Switch from a 13-Valent to 10-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Canada: Leveraging Real-World Experience from Belgium
(Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - November 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Comment on: ‘Clinical and Economic Impact of a Potential Switch from 13-Valent to 10-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Infant Vaccination in Canada’, Wilson et al., 22 June 2018
(Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - November 8, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Response to McGirr et al.'s Comment on “Clinical and Economic Impact of a Potential Switch from 13-Valent to 10-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Infant Vaccination in Canada”
(Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - November 8, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research