That Escalated Quickly: Remdesivir's Place in Therapy for COVID-19
AbstractRemdesivir is a nucleoside antiviral recently studied in several randomized trials for treatment of COVID-19. The available observational and prospective data are conflicting, requiring clinicians to critically evaluate and reconcile results to determine patient populations that may optimally benefit from remdesivir therapy, especially while drug supply is scarce. In this review, we analyze pertinent clinical remdesivir data for patients with COVID-19 from January 1, 2020, through May 31, 2020. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - July 10, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Povidone-Iodine Demonstrates Rapid In Vitro Virucidal Activity Against SARS-CoV-2, The Virus Causing COVID-19 Disease
ConclusionThis study provides evidence of rapid and effective virucidal activity of PVP-I against SARS-CoV-2. PVP-I-based products are widely available for medical and personal use for hand hygiene and oral decontamination, and could be readily integrated into coronavirus disease, COVID-19, infection control measures in hospital and community settings. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - July 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Viral Respiratory Infections in Hematological Patients
AbstractViral infections of the respiratory system represent one of the most important complications in hematological patients in terms of both the severity of the clinical picture and its related impact on the duration of hospitalization, and of mortality. The most implicated viruses are those that commonly cause community-based respiratory diseases: respiratory syncytial virus, Influenza virus and rhinovirus. However, in some cases the clinical picture may be triggered by first infection with or reactivation of pathogens normally not responsible for clinically relevant diseases in immunocompetent subjects. This issue is ...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - July 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Pulmonary Aspergillosis: An Evolving Challenge for Diagnosis and Treatment
AbstractAspergillus is a mold that may lead to different clinical pictures, from allergic to invasive disease, depending on the patient ’s immune status and structural lung diseases. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is an infection with a locally invasive presentation, reported especially in patients with chronic pulmonary disease, while aspergilloma is typically found in patients with previously formed cavities in the lungs. Aller gic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is due to a hypersensitivity reaction toAspergillus antigens and is more frequently described in patients with moderate-severe asthma or cystic fibrosis. ...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - July 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Bezlotoxumab for Preventing Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection: A Narrative Review from Pathophysiology to Clinical Studies
AbstractClostridioides difficile infection (CDI) and recurrent CDI (rCDI) remain associated with a reduction in the patients ’ quality of life and with increased healthcare costs. Bezlotoxumab is a monoclonal antibody against toxin B ofC. difficile, approved for prevention of rCDI. In this narrative review, we briefly discuss the pathophysiology of CDI and the mechanism of action of bezlotoxumab, as well as the available evidence from investigational and observational studies in terms of efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of bezlotoxumab for the prevention of rCDI. Overall, bezlotoxumab has proved efficacious in red...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - July 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

HIV-1 Virologic Rebound Due to Coadministration of Divalent Cations and Bictegravir
In this report we present a patient taking bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide who became viremic after ingesting zinc and calcium supplements and later was able to obtain virologic re-suppression after discontinuing supplements. This case represents a potential significant drug interaction between a commonly prescribed antiretroviral drug class and readily available over-the-counter divalent cation products. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - July 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Baseline Characteristics and Outcomes Among Patients with Complicated Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit: Analysis of the Phase 3 COVERS Randomized Trial of Ceftaroline Fosamil Versus Vancomycin Plus Aztreonam
AbstractAimExploratory analyses evaluated patient characteristics and outcomes among patients with complicated skin and soft tissue infection (cSSTI) in the phase 3 COVERS study who were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU).MethodsAdults with cSSTI (surface area  ≥ 75 cm2) and evidence of systemic inflammation and/or underlying comorbidities were randomized 2:1 to intravenous ceftaroline fosamil (600  mg every 8 h [q8h]) or vancomycin (15 mg/kg every 12 h) plus aztreonam (1 g q8h) for 5–14 days. Clinical response and ICU length of stay (LOS) within first hospitalizat...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - June 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Pharmacists ’ Knowledge About the Impact of Augmented Renal Clearance on Antimicrobial Dosing in Critically Ill Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study
ConclusionPharmacists ’ knowledge about ARC was limited. Implementation of educational programs targeting hospital pharmacists, especially those practicing in critical care settings, and developing antimicrobial institutional guidelines are important. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - June 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Communicating Benefits from Vaccines Beyond Preventing Infectious Diseases
AbstractDespite immunisation being one of the greatest medical success stories of the twentieth century, there is a growing lack of confidence in some vaccines. Improving communication about the direct benefits of vaccination as well as its benefits beyond preventing infectious diseases may help regain this lost confidence. A conference was organised at the Fondation Merieux in France to discuss what benefits could be communicated and how innovative digital initiatives can used for communication. During this meeting, a wide range of indirect benefits of vaccination were discussed. For example, influenza vaccination can red...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - June 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Guideline Recommendations for Empirical Antimicrobial Therapy: An Appraisal of Research Evidence for Clinical Decision-Making in Ethiopia
ConclusionStandard treatment guidelines did not consider local AMR recommendations for empirically prescribing antibacterials for common infectious syndromes. The AMR reviews published in the country produced poor methodologic quality evidence for clinical applications. This highlights the need to improve the methodologic quality to provide the best available evidence for clinical decision-making and curb the ongoing AMR in Ethiopia.Trial registrationRetrospectively registered (15/07/2020). (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - June 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Correction to: Vaccine Hesitancy as a Challenge or Vaccine Confidence as an Opportunity for Childhood Immunisation in India
In the original publication, the fourth author name was incorrectly published as Jayant Ray. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - June 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Challenges to Differentiate Hepatitis C Genotype 1 and 6: Results from A Field-Study in Cambodia
ConclusionsHCV genotype 1b and genotype 6 non-a/non-b were most common. With Versant 2.0 (using 5 ′UTR and core information), genotype classification (1 or 6) remained inconclusive in 15% of samples. The locally available method (LightPower assay) failed to identify genotype 6 non-a/non-b, which highlights that methods using 5′UTR information only should not be used in Cambodia. Regional/nat ional guidelines should be explicit about this.Trial RegistrationThis study was performed as part of a larger cross-sectional study on the burden of hepatitis C coinfection in HIV patients in Cambodia (Clinical.trials.gov: ...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - May 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Challenges to Differente Hepatitis C Genotype 1 and 6: Results from a Field Study in Cambodia
ConclusionsHCV genotype 1b and genotype 6 non-a/non-b were most common. With Versant 2.0 (using 5 ′UTR and core information), genotype classification (1 or 6) remained inconclusive in 15% of samples. The locally available method (LightPower assay) failed to identify genotype 6 non-a/non-b, which highlights that methods using 5′UTR information only should not be used in Cambodia. Regional/nat ional guidelines should be explicit about this.Trial RegistrationThis study was performed as part of a larger cross-sectional study on the burden of hepatitis C coinfection in HIV patients in Cambodia (Clinical.trials.gov: ...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - May 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Post-Marketing Surveillance of Adverse Events Following Vaccination with the Live-Attenuated Japanese Encephalitis Chimeric Virus Vaccine (Imojev ® ) in South Korea, 2015–2019
AbstractIntroductionThe live attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV; Imojev®) has been approved in South Korea for use in subjects aged  ≥ 12 months since 2015. As part of the license agreement, a post-marketing surveillance study was undertaken to actively monitor the safety profile of JE-CV in the Korean population.MethodsAn observational, active safety surveillance study was conducted from 3 April 2015 through to 2 April 2019 at 12 centers in South Korea. Subjects aged  ≥ 12 months who received a single dose of JE-CV (primary or booster) during a ro...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - May 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

COVID-19: An Alert to Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia
AbstractThis manuscript aims to highlight the risk of Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia (VAP) in COVID-19 inpatients. The co-infection has the potential to worsen clinical condition and increase mortality in these patients, as well as to prolong and increase the costs of hospitalization. Preventing, identifying and treating early VAP can increase the chances of successful treatment in patients with COVID-19. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - May 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Treatments Administered to the First 9152 Reported Cases of COVID-19: A Systematic Review
AbstractThe emergence of SARS-CoV-2/2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has created a global pandemic with no approved treatments or vaccines. Many treatments have already been administered to COVID-19 patients but have not been systematically evaluated. We performed a systematic literature review to identify all treatments reported to be administered to COVID-19 patients and to  assess time to clinically meaningful response for treatments with sufficient data. We searched PubMed, BioRxiv, MedRxiv, and ChinaXiv for articles reporting treatments for COVID-19 patients published between 1 December 2019 and 27 March 2020. D...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - May 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Vaccine Hesitancy as a Challenge or Vaccine Confidence as an Opportunity for Childhood Immunisation in India
AbstractVaccines have contributed substantially to decreasing the morbidity and mortality rates of many infectious diseases worldwide. Despite this achievement, an increasing number of parents have adopted hesitant behaviours towards vaccines, delaying or even refusing their administration to children. This has implications not only on individuals but also society in the form of outbreaks for e.g. measles, chicken pox, hepatitis A, etc. A review of the literature was conducted to identify the determinants of vaccine hesitancy (VH) as well as vaccine confidence and link them to challenges and opportunities associated with v...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - May 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prognostic Role of Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor at the Emergency Department: A Position Paper by the Hellenic Sepsis Study Group
AbstractIn light of the accumulating evidence on the negative predictive value of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), a group of experts from the fields of intensive care medicine, emergency medicine, internal medicine and infectious diseases frame a position statement on the role of suPAR in the screening of patients admitted to the emergency department. The statement is framed taking into consideration existing publications and our own research experience. The main content of this statement is that sUPAR is a non-specific marker associated with a high negative predictive value for unfavourable outco...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - May 12, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Reducing Blood Culture Contamination Rates: Experiences of Four Hospital Systems
ConclusionOur report highlights how four hospitals independently achieved their objective to decrease their BCC rate with the support of a multidisciplinary team. We propose a benchmark for BCC rates of 1.5 to  
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - April 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Paediatric Recurrent Ear, Nose and Throat Infections and Complications: Can We Do More?
AbstractRecurrent respiratory tract infections (rRTIs), of which there are three main groups —otitis media, tonsillitis and sinusopathies—are very common in paediatric populations and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality due to complications. These infections substantially reduce quality of life for paediatric patients and their families and are a significant personal , medical and economic burden on the patients, the patients’ families and the healthcare system. Most rRTIs are of viral origin; however, indiscriminate use of antibiotics in their treatment has led to development of bacte...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - April 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Vaccines for SARS-CoV-2: Lessons from Other Coronavirus Strains
AbstractThe emergence of the strain of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) and its impact on global health have made imperative the development of effective and safe vaccines for this lethal strain. SARS-CoV-2 now adds to the list of coronavirus diseases that have threatened global health, along with the SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) and MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome) coronaviruses that emerged in 2002/2003 and 2012, respectively. As of April 2020, no vaccine is commercially available for these coronavirus strains. Nevertheless, the knowledge obtained from the vaccin...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - April 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Modeling Viral Suppression, Viral Rebound and State-Specific Duration of HIV Patients with CD4 Count Adjustment: Parametric Multistate Frailty Model Approach
ConclusionsTo achieve and maintain the UNAIDS 90% suppression targets, additional interventions are required to optimize antiretroviral therapy outcomes, specifically targeting those with poor clinical characteristics, lower education, younger age, and those with many sex partners. From a methodological perspective, the parametric multistate approach with frailty is a flexible approach for modeling time-varying variables, allowing for dealing with heterogeneity between the sequence of transitions, as well as allowing for a reasonable degree of flexibility with a few additional parameters, which then aids in gaining a bette...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - April 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor: Diagnostic Value of Virtual Bronchoscopic Navigation in the Bronchial Tuberculosis-Induced Central Airway Stenosis
(Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - April 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Effectiveness of Elbasvir/Grazoprevir in US Veterans with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1b Infection
ConclusionElbasvir/grazoprevir was highly effective in individuals with HCV genotype 1b infection in a large national Veterans Affairs clinical setting. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - April 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Health and Economic Impact of Routine Pediatric Pneumococcal Immunization Programs in Canada: A Retrospective Analysis
ConclusionsCanadian PCV programs have provided significant health benefits and resulted in a substantial value for money. Net savings achieved over the reviewed period would have provided funding for $1.76  billion in other health care costs or public health initiatives. These findings highlight the importance of considering the total value of a vaccination program, rather than vaccine acquisition costs only, when assessing the value of immunization programs. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - April 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Coronavirus: Update Related to the Current Outbreak of COVID-19
AbstractIn December 2019, some cases of viral pneumonia were epidemiologically related to a new coronavirus in the province of Hubei, China. Subsequently, there has been an increase in infections attributable to this virus throughout China and worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) has officially named the infection coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the virus has been classified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2  (SARS-CoV-2). This appears to be a virus fromRhinolophus bats, but the intermediate host has not yet been identified. The mechanism of infection of SARS-CoV-2 is not yet known;...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - April 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Monotherapy with Vancomycin or Daptomycin versus Combination Therapy with β-Lactams in the Treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Bloodstream Infections: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis
ConclusionsIn hospitalized adults with MRSA BSI, CT with any BL was independently associated with improved clinical outcomes and may ultimately be selected as preferred therapy. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - April 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Carriage of Neisseria Meningitidis in Low and Middle Income Countries of the Americas and Asia: A Review of the Literature
ConclusionsThere is a lack of comprehensive and contemporary information on meningococcal carriage in low and medium income countries of the Americas and Asia. Future carriage studies should incorporate larger representative populations, a wider age range, and additional countries to improve our understanding of meningococcal epidemiology and disease control. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - April 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Two ’s a Company, Three’s a Crowd: A Review of Initiating or Switching to a Two-Drug Antiretroviral Regimen in Treatment-Naïve and Treatment-Experienced Patients Living with HIV-1
ConclusionAlthough 2DRs may not be appropriate in all patient populations, they are being utilized more frequently and have the potential to reduce costs, adverse effects, and drug interactions. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - March 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Diagnostic Value of Virtual Bronchoscopic Navigation in the Bronchial Tuberculosis Induced Central Airway Stenosis
ConclusionVBN is helpful for the diagnosis of TBT-induced CBS and may provide important information on the location, length, diameter and cross-sectional area  of stenosis for further EOB examination and interventional therapy. VBN is recommended for patients with TBT and those with contradictions to bronchoscopy, as well as for regular follow-up of stable TBT, because it reduces the incidence of injury, avoids repeat operations and shortens treatment ti me. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - February 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Estimating the Impact of Switching from a Lower to Higher Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Colombia, Finland, and The Netherlands: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
ConclusionIn Colombia, Finland, and The Netherlands, countries with diverse epidemiologic and population distributions, switching from a PCV10 to PCV13 program would significantly reduce the burden of IPD in all three countries in as few as 5  years. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - February 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Evaluation of the INCREMENT-CPE, Pitt Bacteremia and qPitt Scores in Patients with Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections Treated with Ceftazidime –Avibactam
ConclusionsIn patients treated with ceftazidime –avibactam for CRE infections, mortality risk scores demonstrated variable performance. Modifications to scoring systems to more accurately predict outcomes in the era of novel antibiotics are warranted. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - February 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Comparison of the Safety and Tolerance Profile of Micafungin with that of Other Echinocandins and Azoles in Patients with Pre-existing Child –Pugh B or C Liver Disease: A Case–Control Retrospective Study
ConclusionsOur study suggests that the administration of micafungin to patients with end-stage liver disease does not imply a higher risk of developing STLI or LTLI. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - February 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Mould Infections of Traumatic Wounds: A Brief Narrative Review
AbstractMould infections may follow traumatic injuries, with direct fungal inoculum in the site of injury and subsequent angioinvasion, possibly resulting in tissue necrosis and systemic dissemination. The pathogenesis of mould infections following trauma injuries presents unique features compared with classical mould infections occurring in neutropenic or diabetic patients, because a large fraction of post-traumatic mould infections is observed in previously healthy individuals. Most of the published clinical experience and research on mould infections following traumatic injuries regards soldiers and infections after nat...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - February 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Cefiderocol: A Novel Agent for the Management of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Organisms
AbstractCefiderocol, formerly S-649266, is a first in its class, an injectable siderophore cephalosporin that combines a catechol-type siderophore and cephalosporin core with side chains similar to cefepime and ceftazidime. This structure and its unique mechanism of action confer enhanced stability against hydrolysis by many β-lactamases, including extended spectrum β-lactamases such as CTX-M, and carbapenemases such as KPC, NDM, VIM, IMP, OXA-23, OXA-48-like, OXA-51-like and OXA-58. Cefiderocol’s spectrum of activity encompasses both lactose-fermenting and non-fermenting Gram-negative pathogens, inclu...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - February 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Impact of Obesity in Patients with Candida Bloodstream Infections: A Retrospective Cohort Study
AbstractBackgroundCandida species are responsible for 15% of bloodstream infections, leading to prolonged hospitalizations and increased mortality. With the rise in obesity, antifungal dosing is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in clinical outcomes between obese versus non-obese patients withCandida bloodstream infections.MethodsThis retrospective cohort included adult patient ’s first episode ofCandida bloodstream infection treated with  ≥ 48 h of antifungal therapy between 1 June 2013 and 31 August 2019. Patients were excluded for: dual systemic antifungal therap...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - February 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Antifungal Drugs: Another Tool to Improve Patient Outcome?
ConclusionsWith the standard antifungal dosage, a considerable proportion of patients have low drug concentrations, which are associated with poor clinical outcome. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - February 5, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Efficacy of a “Checklist” Intervention Bundle on the Clinical Outcome of Patients with Candida Bloodstream Infections: A Quasi-Experimental Pre-Post Study
ConclusionsA simple bundle focused on increasing adherence to a few evidence-based interventions contributed to a significant reduction in 14- and 30-day mortality in patients with candidemia. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - February 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A Multicenter Evaluation of Vancomycin-Associated Acute Kidney Injury in Hospitalized Patients with Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections
AbstractBackgroundWe sought to determine the real-world incidence of and risk factors for vancomycin-associated acute kidney injury (V-AKI) in hospitalized adults with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI).MethodsRetrospective, observational, cohort study at ten U.S. medical centers between 2015 and 2019. Hospitalized patients treated with vancomycin ( ≥ 72 h) for ABSSSI and ≥ one baseline AKI risk factor were eligible. Patients with end-stage kidney disease, on renal replacement therapy or AKI at baseline, were excluded. The primary outcome was V-AKI by the vancomycin guideli...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - January 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Retrospective Real-World Evaluation of Outcomes in Patients with Skin and Soft Structure Infections Treated with Tedizolid in an Outpatient Setting
ConclusionsPatients treated with tedizolid in the outpatient setting experienced a short duration of therapy, low hospital admission, and modest post-index HCRU indicators, suggesting its utility for outpatient therapy of ABSSSIs. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - January 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Comparing the Outcomes of Ceftaroline Plus Vancomycin or Daptomycin Combination Therapy Versus Monotherapy in Adults with Complicated and Prolonged Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Bacteremia Initially Treated with Supplemental Ceftaroline
ConclusionIn subjects with complicated and prolonged MRSA bacteremia requiring supplemental ceftaroline, clinical outcomes did not differ among patients prescribed vancomycin or daptomycin alone following bacteremia resolution versus patients who continued combination therapy. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - November 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Ambulatory Antibiotic Prescribing for Children with Pneumonia After Publication of National Guidelines: A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Study
ConclusionDespite national guideline recommendations, amoxicillin prescribing for CAP in outpatient settings is low and azithromycin remains the predominant antibiotic prescribed, highlighting the need for dedicated antibiotic stewardship efforts in ambulatory settings. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - November 27, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Dalbavancin Reduces Hospital Stay and Improves Productivity for Patients with Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: The ENHANCE Trial
ConclusionAfter implementing the ENHANCE ABSSSI pathway, LOS was significantly reduced by almost 2  days, with potential improvements in work productivity and ability to complete daily activities.Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT03233438.FundingAllergan plc. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - November 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Virologic Outcomes Among ART-Na ïve Individuals Initiating Dolutegravir, Elvitegravir, Raltegravir or Darunavir: An Observational Study
AbstractIntroductionDolutegravir (DTG), Elvitegravir (EVG), Raltegravir (RAL) and Darunavir (DRV) are commonly prescribed core agents for antiretroviral therapy (ART), and a need exists to compare their clinical effectiveness, as defined by virologic failure risks in real-world settings.MethodsThis observational analysis of a US clinical cohort consisted of ART-na ïve people living with HIV (PLWH) in the OPERA database initiating DTG-, EVG-, RAL- or DRV-based regimens between August 2013 and July 2016, with follow-up to July 2017. PLWH were observed from first core agent initiation until core agent discontinuation, cl...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - November 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Increasing Burden of Hepatitis A in Adolescents and Adults and the Need for Long-Term Protection: A Review from the Indian Subcontinent
AbstractHepatitis A, an acute inflammatory liver disease caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection from close contact with infected people, is highly endemic in the Indian subcontinent. Due to poor sanitary conditions, most of the population is exposed to the virus in childhood. At this age, the disease is asymptomatic and provides life-long protection against the disease. Due to rapid socioeconomic development in some areas, however, pockets of the population are reaching adolescence/adulthood without prior exposure to the virus and are thus susceptible to infection. At these ages, infection carries a higher risk of sym...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - November 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Specific Varicella-Related Complications and Their Decrease in Hospitalized Children after the Introduction of General Varicella Vaccination: Results from a Multicenter Pediatric Hospital Surveillance Study in Bavaria (Germany)
AbstractBackgroundUniversal varicella vaccination (UVV) for children introduced in Germany in 2004 resulted in a significant overall decline of varicella-related hospitalizations (VRHs). We investigated the incidence of specific types of varicella-related complications (VRCs) in hospitalized children and the impact of UVV on VRCs during the first 7  years of UVV.MethodsChildren  
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - October 31, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Safety, Resistance, and Efficacy Results from a Phase IIIb Study of Conventional- and Double-Dose Oseltamivir Regimens for Treatment of Influenza in Immunocompromised Patients
ConclusionsOseltamivir was well tolerated, with a trend toward better safety/tolerability for conventional dosing versus double dosing. Resistance rates were higher with conventional dosing in this immunocompromised patient population.Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00545532.FundingF. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - October 30, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The Intestinal Microbiota as a Reservoir and a Therapeutic Target to Fight Multi-Drug-Resistant Bacteria: A Narrative Review of the Literature
AbstractThe appearance and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly in specific closed environments such as intensive care units of acute care hospitals, have become a major health concern. The intestinal microbiota has various functions including host protection from overgrowth or colonization by unwanted bacteria. The exposure to antibiotics significantly reduces the bacterial density of intestinal microbiota leaving an ecologic void that can be occupied by potentially pathogenic and/or resistant bacteria frequently present in hospital settings. Consequently, the intestinal microbiota of inpatients ac...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - October 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Relationship Status between Vancomycin Loading Dose and Treatment Failure in Patients with MRSA Bacteremia: It ’s Complicated
AbstractIntroductionA one-time vancomycin loading dose of 25 –30 mg/kg is recommended in the current iteration of the vancomycin consensus guidelines in order to more rapidly achieve target serum concentrations and hasten clinical improvement. However, there are few clinical data to support this practice, and the extents of its benefits are largely unknown .MethodsA multicenter, retrospective, cohort study was performed to assess the impact of a vancomycin loading dose ( ≥ 20 mg/kg) on clinical outcomes and rates of nephrotoxicity in patients with methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - October 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Use of Antifungals and Outcomes Among Inpatients at Risk of Invasive Aspergillosis or Mucormycosis in the USA: A Retrospective Cohort Study
ConclusionsThis study documented real-world prophylactic and therapeutic AFMT use for IA/IM and associated outcomes among hospitalized patients in the USA since approval of isavuconazole. IA/IM were associated with lengthy hospital stays commonly requiring intensive care. Prophylactic and therapeutic AFMT dosages and duration generally followed recommendations and switching between agents was rare.FundingAstellas Pharma Global Development, Inc., Northbrook, IL, USA. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - October 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research