Is a single set of negative blood cultures sufficient to ensure clearance of bloodstream infection in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia? The skip phenomenon
ConclusionOur findings prompt consideration of a practice chance to obtain serial negative blood cultures to ensure clearance of bacteremia among patients with S. aureus bacteremia. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - July 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Macrolides or fluoroquinolones as enteral antibiotic therapy for non-ICU legionellosis
(Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - July 10, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Vaginal delivery in women with HIV in Italy: results of 5  years of implementation of the national SIGO-HIV protocol
AbstractPurposeTo evaluate the maternal and neonatal safety of vaginal delivery in women with HIV following the implementation of a national protocol in Italy.MethodsVaginal delivery was offered to all eligible women who presented antenatally at twelve participating clinical sites. Data collection and definition of outcomes followed the procedures of the National Program on Surveillance on Antiretroviral Treatment in Pregnancy. Pregnancy outcomes were compared according to the mode of delivery, classified as vaginal, elective cesarean (ECS) and non-elective cesarean section (NECS).ResultsAmong 580 women who delivered betwe...
Source: Infection - July 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Epidemiology and Outcome Determinants of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Revisited: A Population-Based Study
AbstractPurposeStaphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We sought to re-define the burden, epidemiology and mortality-associated risk factors of SAB in a large Canadian health region.MethodsResidents (>  18 years) experiencing SAB from 2012 to 2014 were assessed. Incidence rates were calculated using civic census results. Factors associated with 30-day mortality were determined through multivariate logistic regression. Incidence and risk factors for SAB were compared to 2000–2006 data.Results780 residents experienced 840 episodes of SAB (MRSA; 20%)....
Source: Infection - July 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prognostic factors of mortality after surgery in infective endocarditis: systematic review and meta-analysis
AbstractPurposeThere is a lack of consensus about which endocarditis-specific preoperative characteristics have an actual impact over postoperative mortality. Our objective was the identification and quantification of these factors.MethodsWe performed a systematic review of all the studies which reported factors related to in-hospital mortality after surgery for acute infective endocarditis, conducted according to PRISMA recommendations. A search string was constructed and applied on three different databases. Two investigators independently reviewed the retrieved references. Quality assessment was performed for identifica...
Source: Infection - June 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Not just minor resections: robotic approach for cystic echinococcosis of the liver
ConclusionsIn our experience, robotic approach for cystic echinococcosis of the liver proved to be a safe and effective strategy also in the so-called “difficult segments”, with short post-operative stay and quick return to daily activities, along with the absence of surgical site recurrences. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest report of robotic approach to hydatid liver disease. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - June 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Successful treatment of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis presenting concomitantly with acute myeloid leukemia
ConclusionsThe possibility of tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with pneumonia, persistent fever, and those with focal signs or symptoms suggestive of tuberculosis. Despite having a sensitive organism, the infection was difficult to treat, even with the addition of two second-line drugs. The standard anti-tuberculosis therapy is usually adequate, but response may be slow, and inadequate even if the organism is sensitive requiring the addition of second-line agents. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - June 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Influenza virus infection: an approach to identify predictors for in-hospital and 90-day mortality from patients in Vienna during the season 2017/18
ConclusionsOlder age, history of atrial fibrillation and pneumonia are associated with increased risk of influenza-associated in-hospital and 90-day mortality. Statin use may decrease 90-day mortality. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - June 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Current clinical use of intravenous fosfomycin in ICU patients in two European countries
ConclusionOur data suggest that IV fosfomycin is an effective and safe combination partner for the treatment of a broad spectrum of severe bacterial infections in critically ill patients. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - June 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Impact of refugee influx on the epidemiology of late-presenting HIV-infected pregnant women and mother-to-child transmission: comparing a southern and northern medical centre in Germany
ConclusionsHIV infections diagnosed late in pregnancy and leading to delayed ART initiation are rising in Munich compared to Hamburg. Antenatal care of HIV-infected pregnant women in Munich appears to have been more affected by the recent refugee influx than Hamburg. Our study highlights the importance of screening all pregnant women for HIV early in pregnancy and providing timely health care access for pregnant refugees and asylum seekers to effectively prevent MTCT in Germany. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - June 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Early versus late onset bloodstream infection during neutropenia after high-dose chemotherapy for hematologic malignancy
AbstractPurposeThe length of neutropenia has a significant impact on the incidence of bloodstream infection (BSI) in cancer patients, but limited information is available about the pathogen distribution in late BSI.MethodsBetween 2002 and 2014, BSI episodes in patients with neutropenia receiving chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies were prospectively identified by multicenter, active surveillance in Germany, Switzerland and Austria. The incidence of first BSI episodes, their microbiology and time to BSI onset during the first episode of neutropenia of 15,988 patients are described.ResultsThe incidence rate of BSI epis...
Source: Infection - June 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected subjects
AbstractPurposeLow vitamin D levels are associated with higher odds of cognitive dysfunction in the older population, and in subjects with mental disorders or with chronic neurologic diseases. With combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), incidence of HIV-associated dementia has reduced, while the prevalence of milder forms of neurocognitive impairment (NCI) persisted stable over time. Hypovitaminosis D is often found in HIV infection but its association with NCI has not been investigated yet. The aim was to explore this association in a clinic-based HIV-positive population.MethodsA retrospective, cross-sectional analysi...
Source: Infection - June 10, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

AE hepatic lesions: correlation between calcifications at CT and FDG-PET/CT metabolic activity
AbstractPurposeTo correlate the presence of calcifications in alveolar echinococcosis (AE) hepatic lesions to the metabolic activity in 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT).MethodsOur institutional review board approved this study. 61 patients (29 women, 32 men, aged from 15 to 86  years) were included in the study. Images of FDG-PET/CT were interpreted by two independent nuclear medicine physicians. AE hepatic lesions were classified as AE lesions with or without hypermetabolic activity. The presence of calcifications was assessed on unenhanced CT scans by ...
Source: Infection - June 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Incidence of adverse reactions caused by first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs and treatment outcome of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Morocco
ConclusionAdverse reactions caused by anti-TB drugs are frequent among patients with TB. These ADRs must be followed up by a closer monitoring during anti-TB treatment period. Treatment success outcome in our study is slightly lower than the success rate target of WHO of at least 85%. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - June 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Herpes simplex vegetans in a patient with primary myelofibrosis
(Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - June 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Sigmoid colon cancer due to Schistosomiasis
(Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - June 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Clinical features of patients with septic arthritis and echocardiographic findings of infective endocarditis
ConclusionsIE is uncommon among patients with SA. Echocardiography may be overutilized and may be more useful among patients presenting with sepsis, shock, or positive blood cultures, especially when MSSA is isolated. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - May 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Successful long-term antibiotic suppressive therapy in a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis and a case of extensive aortic and subclavian graft infection
ConclusionThese two cases demonstrate that individualized long-term antibiotic suppressive therapy might be effective in selected patients with complicated PVE unfit or unwilling to undergo high-risk cardiothoracic surgical interventions. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - May 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Metformin in tuberculosis: beyond control of hyperglycemia
AbstractTwo global epidemics, diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB), have converged making their control even more challenging. We herein have reviewed metformin ’s (MTF) effect on patients with active and latent TB, as well as discussed its newly discovered biological mechanisms in mycobacteria. Mounting evidence suggests that MTF provides better outcomes in TB patients, especially those with DM. The mechanisms by which MTF produces its benefits are multi ple. Though metformin’s potential has been proven in patients with DM, larger and more thorough clinical trials, in DM and non-DM-TB patients, need to...
Source: Infection - May 22, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Economic analysis of rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction testing for meningitis/encephalitis in adult patients
ConclusionThis economic analysis demonstrates that FA can inform more appropriate clinician decisions resulting in cost savings with greater economic benefits achievable with syndromic testing of all cases, rather than SOC or targeted syndromic testing. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - May 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Successful adjunctive use of bacteriophage therapy for treatment of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in a cystic fibrosis patient
ConclusionGiven the concern for MDR P. aeruginosa infections in CF patients, BT may offer a viable anti-infective adjunct to traditional antibiotic therapy. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - May 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prosthetic joint infection due to Mycobacterium xenopi : a review of the literature with a new case report
ConclusionThis work highlights the difficulties in diagnosing and treatingM. xenopi osteoarticular infections. Globally, evidence supporting the best practice for diagnosis and treatment of this infection is scanty. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - May 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Species distribution and clinical features of infection and colonisation with non-tuberculous mycobacteria in a tertiary care centre, central Germany, 2006 –2016
ConclusionNTM remain rare but underestimated pathogens in lung and disseminated disease. MAC were the species most frequently isolated. Depending on species and underlying predispositions, the duration of infection/colonisation can be unexpectedly long. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - May 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Native valve Staphylococcus capitis infective endocarditis: a mini review
ConclusionsStaphylococcus capitis is classified as coagulase-negative staphylococci with the inherent ability to cause debilitating native valve endocarditis and is usually managed conservatively. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - May 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Essentials in the management of necrotizing soft-tissue infections
We describe the essentials in the management of necrotizing soft-tissue infections.ResultsSix essentials were identified:Necrotizing soft-tissue infections (NSTI) are primarily diagnosed clinically; pain out of proportion, rapid progression of skin infection and systemic signs should alert clinicians.Early diagnosis can be rather delayed by several factors such as absence of fever, significant cutaneous manifestations, elevation of inflammatory parameters, systemic signs, and non-specific imaging tests.NSTI can occur both in the elderly or patients with underlying diseases after major trauma (usually polymicrobial Gram-neg...
Source: Infection - May 10, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Implementation of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment in Gabon: lessons learnt from the field
ConclusionsOur pioneering data on systematic MDR-TB treatment in Gabon, with currently almost total absence of resistance against the second-line drugs, demonstrate that a 9-month regimen has the capacity to facilitate early culture negativity and sustained clinical improvement. Close adverse events monitoring and continuous care are vital to success. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - May 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A headache with surprising outcome: first case of brucellosis caused by Brucella suis biovar 1 in Germany
AbstractIn July 2018, brucellosis was diagnosed in a German patient without a travel history to regions endemic forBrucella. Microbiological analysis, including whole-genome sequencing, revealedBrucella suis biovar 1 as the etiologic agent. Core-genome-based multilocus sequence-typing analysis placed the isolate in close proximity to strains originating from Argentina. Notably, despite a strong IgM response, the patient did not developBrucella-specific IgG antibodies during infection. Here, we describe the clinical course of infection, the extensive epidemiological investigations, and discuss possible routes of transmissio...
Source: Infection - May 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

In vitro efficacy of phytotherapeutics suggested for prevention and therapy of urinary tract infections
AbstractPurposeTo analyse the therapeutic efficacy of various phytotherapeutics and their antimicrobial compounds with regard to strain specificity and dose dependence.MethodsA representative strain collection of 40 uropathogenic bacteria isolated from complicated and uncomplicated urinary tract infection was subjected to various virulence assays (bacterial growth, mannose-sensitive agglutination, and motility) to determine the therapeutic impact of various compounds with antimicrobial activity. We tested proanthocyanidins (PAC),d-mannose, rosemary extract (Canephron®), and isothiocyanates (Angocin®).Resultsd-manno...
Source: Infection - May 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Influence of primary care antibiotic prescribing on incidence rates of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in hospitalised patients
AbstractPurposeUse of antibiotics can give rise to the selection of resistant bacteria. It remains unclear whether antibiotic use in primary care can influence bacterial resistance incidence in patients when hospitalised. The aim of this study is to explore the impact of prior community antibiotic usage on hospital-detected multidrug-resistant Gram-negative (MRGN) incidence rate.MethodsThis pharmacoepidemiological study was case –control in design, and was carried out in the Antrim Area Hospital (N. Ireland) in two phases. In phase 1, the controls were matched according to: age, gender, admission ward, date of admiss...
Source: Infection - May 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Decreasing role of HCV and HBV infections as aetiological factors of hepatocellular carcinoma in Italy
AbstractBackgroundThe epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by a dynamical temporal trend of well-established and emerging risk factors.MethodsWe evaluated the temporal trend of aetiological factors of HCC over the last two decades in Italy. HCC cases were recruited from two previously published national studies in 1996 and in 2008 and HCC cases were also enlisted from two national surveys in 2001 and in 2014 enrolling consecutive subjects with chronic liver disease (CLD) referring to more than 80 liver units scattered all over the country for a 6-month period.ResultsOut of the 9997 subjects wit...
Source: Infection - April 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Simultaneous colonization by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring mcr - 1 in Brazil
ConclusionsThis study presents a case report of a hospitalized woman, concurrently colonized bymcr-1-harboringE. coli ST744, a different ST from previously described in Brazil, and aK. pneumoniae ST101. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - April 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Hot topics and cold lecture halls: the ECCMID 2019
(Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - April 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Multiple colonization with carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria acquired in India and transferred to Switzerland
(Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - April 10, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Analysis of hepatitis B virus-mixed genotype infection by ultra deep pyrosequencing in Sudanese patients, 2015 –2016
ConclusionsOverall, UDPS is more effective than multiplex-nested PCR for identifying multiple HBV genotypes and subtypes infections. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - April 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Ceftaroline as salvage therapy for complicated MRSA bacteremia: case series and analysis
ConclusionCeftaroline monotherapy is effective for clearance of refractory MRSA BSI related to implanted devices, endocarditis, and orthopedic infections. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - April 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A case of a surgical-site infection with Staphylococcus condimenti
ConclusionThis case shows that CNS that are currently used in the food industry may play a role in human infection. With technologies such as MALDI –TOF, pathogens that are regarded non-pathogenic could be identified more often. Therefore, the risk of differentStaphylococcus strains used in the food industry must be better assessed. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - April 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

An unusual case of post-trauma polymicrobial cutaneous diphtheria
We report a rare case of post-traumatic cutaneous diphtheria in a patient referred from a hospital in rural India. The diagnosis of cutaneous diphtheria was confirmed by the isolation ofCorynebacterium diphtheriae cultured from the ulcer of the leg, along withStaphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, andArcanobacterium haemolyticum. The patient was kept on isolation and treated with erythromycin for 14 days without antitoxin. He was discharged when his subsequent cultures turned out to be negative. Chemoprophylaxis was also given to his family members. Such a case highlights the revisiting of vaccination strategies an...
Source: Infection - April 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A systematic review of latest evidence for antibiotic prophylaxis and therapy in oral and maxillofacial surgery
ConclusionIn summary, consensus process of the planned S3 guideline is much in need to transfer the indecisive results for antibiotic prophylaxis in dentoalveolar surgery in clinical praxis and encourage adherence to guidelines. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - April 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Dialysis drains as a possible source for carbapenem-resistant pathogens causing an ICU outbreak
ConclusionsInstallation of dialysis connection units including a drain system at the patient ’s bedside is a comfortable way to provide water supply. In many ICUs, such dialysis drains are installed near the patients’ head and directly besides the infusion systems. When the drains are not used properly, in our opinion, they pose a risk of transmission of pathogens from the drain to the patient. Our findings support the need of specific precautions. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - March 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Daptomycin vs. glycopeptides in the treatment of febrile neutropenia: results of the Izmir matched cohort study
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that although not better, daptomycin efficacy is comparable to vancomycin if used as empiric therapy in the treatment of adult febrile neutropenia. We conclude that daptomycin may be used at least as a salvage therapy alternative to glycopeptides in the treatment of adult febrile neutropenia cases. A large, randomized-controlled trial may further consolidate the evidence related to this question. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - March 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Correction to: Acute epididymo-orchitis due to Salmonella Typhi in a young man from Bangladesh
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. Arnaldo Caruso was not listed among the authors. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - March 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

GeneXpert of stool versus gastric lavage fluid for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in severely ill adults
ConclusionsIn conclusion, our data reveal that GeneXpert provides a higher detection rate on stool compared to GALF, indicating stool should be considered as an alternative for adult TB patients unable to produce sputum. Individuals with diabetes are more likely to have positive GeneXpert stool than nondiabetic individuals. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - March 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Practices, organisation, and regulatory aspects in advising on antibiotic prescription: the international ESCMID AntibioLegalMap survey
ConclusionSignificant variability exists in the practice of antibiotic advising. This concerns both the organisation of care and how advisers perceive regulatory requirements. These elements must be taken into account when implementing antibiotic stewardship programmes and when training stewards. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - March 22, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Severe progressive cutaneous infection caused by Fonsecaea monophora in a patient after trauma
(Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - March 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Asymptomatic Leishmania infection in blood donors from the Southern of Spain
ConclusionsAsymptomatic leishmanial infection among blood donors is frequent in the Granada Province, south of Spain. The presence of livestock in this region is related to this infection, perhaps influencing vector density of this disease. Some HLA genes might be associated with asymptomatic leishmanial state. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - March 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Vertebral osteomyelitis due to Candida species
ConclusionsThe number of vertebral infections due toCandida may be increasing. This may be partially driven by both a rise in intravenous drug use as well as the growing rate of spine surgery. Management following currently available guidelines seems favorable, though further studies are necessary to determine the optimal treatment regimen. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - March 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Response to Kato et al.: Prevalence of, and risk factors for, hematogenous fungal endophthalmitis in patients with Candida bloodstream infection
(Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - March 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Correction to: Recurrent cholera epidemics in Africa: which way forward? A literature review
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. In the introduction, the infectious dose ofVibrio cholerae was written as 103 –108 instead of 103-108 cells. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - March 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

AmpC β-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales : what a clinician should know
ConclusionsTo date, there is no conclusive evidence about the most appropriate treatment for AmpC-producingEnterobacterales. Carbapenems are often the preferred option, especially for severe infections in which adequate source control is not achieved, but cefepime is also supported by substantial clinical evidences as an effective carbapenem-sparing option. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - March 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Correction to: The diagnosis and treatment of urogenital schistosomiasis in Italy in a retrospective cohort of immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The given name and family name of Filippo Parretti was transposed in the original publication. The correct name is as shown above. (Source: Infection)
Source: Infection - March 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research