Motion or emotion: Infants discriminate emotional biological motion based on low-level visual information
Publication date: November 2019Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 57Author(s): Marissa Ogren, Brianna Kaplan, Yujia Peng, Kerri L. Johnson, Scott P. JohnsonAbstractInfants’ ability to discriminate emotional facial expressions and tones of voice is well-established, yet little is known about infant discrimination of emotional body movements. Here, we asked if 10–20-month-old infants rely on high-level emotional cues or low-level motion related cues when discriminating between emotional point-light displays (PLDs). In Study 1, infants viewed 18 pairs of angry, happy, sad, or neutral PLDs. Infants loo...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - May 19, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Interaction between maternal and paternal parenting styles with infant temperament in emerging behavior problems
This study examined the interaction effects of infant temperament (negative affect, orienting/regulatory capacity, surgency) on the relationship between maternal and paternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive) and externalizing and internalizing behaviors simultaneously. A diverse sample of mothers (N = 186) and fathers (N = 142) reported on infant temperament of their 6-month-olds and their children’s internalizing and externalizing behaviors one year later. Significant interactions revealed: (a) surgency moderated maternal authoritative and paternal permissive pa...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - May 17, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Culture, carrying, and communication: Beliefs and behavior associated with babywearing
Publication date: November 2019Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 57Author(s): Emily E. Little, Cristine H. Legare, Leslie J. CarverAbstractEthnographic research suggests mother-infant physical contact predicts high levels of maternal responsiveness to infant cues, yet it is unclear whether this responsiveness is driven by the act of physical contact or by underlying beliefs about responsiveness. We examine beliefs and behavior associated with infant carrying (i.e., babywearing) among U.S. mothers and experimentally test the effect of mother-infant physical contact on maternal responsiveness. In Study 1 (N = 2...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - May 17, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Effects of children’s hearing loss on the synchrony between parents’ object naming and children’s attention
Publication date: November 2019Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 57Author(s): Chi-hsin Chen, Irina Castellanos, Chen Yu, Derek M. HoustonAbstractChildren’s attentional state during parent-child interactions is important for word learning. The current study examines the real-time attentional patterns of toddlers with and without hearing loss (N = 15, age range: 12–37 months) in parent-child interactions. High-density gaze data recorded from head-mounted eye-trackers were used to investigate the synchrony between parents’ naming of novel objects and children’s sustained att...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - May 16, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Age attenuates noise and increases symmetry of head movements during sleep resting-state fMRI in healthy neonates, infants, and toddlers
This study quantitatively mapped a developmental trajectory of spontaneous head movements during an rs-fMRI scan acquired during natural sleep in 91 datasets from healthy children from ∼birth to 3 years old, using the Open Science Infancy Research upcycling protocol. The youngest participants studied, 2–3 week-old neonates, showed increased noise-to-signal levels as well as lower symmetry features of their movements; noise-to-signal levels were attenuated and symmetry was increased in the older infants and toddlers (all Spearman's rank-order correlations, P 
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - May 16, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Fixations and Fixation Shifts in Own-Race and Other-Race Face Pairsat Three, Six and Nine Months
Publication date: November 2019Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 57Author(s): Ina Fassbender, Arnold LohausAbstractCaucasian infants were presented 15 pairs of Caucasian own-race faces and 15 pairs of African other-race faces. The infants were assessed longitudinally at ages three, six and nine months. Two measures were obtained from the infants’ eye-movements: (1) the length of fixations on either stimulus of a pair presented for 5.5 s (fixation duration) and (2) the amount of fixation shifts between the two stimuli (shift frequency). The study analyzes the changes in both measures with age and ...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - May 15, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Infant-adult vocal interaction dynamics depend on infant vocal type, child-directedness of adult speech, and timeframe
This study explored the temporal contingencies between infant and adult vocalizations as a function of the type of infant vocalization, whether adult caregivers’ vocalizations were infant-directed or other-directed, and the timescale of analysis. We analyzed excerpts taken from day-long home audio recordings that were collected from nineteen 12- to 13-month-old American infants and their caregivers using the LENA system. Three 5-minute sections having high child vocalization rates were identified within each recording and coded by trained researchers. Infant and adult vocalizations were sequenced and defined as conti...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - May 15, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: May 2019Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 55Author(s): (Source: Infant Behavior and Development)
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - April 27, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Play for Success: An intervention to boost object exploration in infants from low-income households
Publication date: May 2019Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 55Author(s): Melissa W. ClearfieldAbstractInfants from low-income households typically spend less time exploring objects and use less mature strategies when they do explore compared to their higher-income peers (e.g., Clearfield et al., 2014). The current study tested a novel intervention designed to boost early object exploration in infants from low-income households. The intervention, called Play for Success, was administered through the Early Head Start home visiting program, and asked all infants to explore a toy with a caregiver for 10 min a d...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - April 21, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Mother–infant interactions with firstborns and secondborns: A within-family study of European Americans
This study employed a within-family design to examine mean-level consistency and individual-order agreement in 5-month-old sibling behaviors and maternal parenting practices with their firstborns and secondborns (ns = 61 mothers and 122 infants). Each infant was seen independently with mother. Firstborn infants were more social with their mothers and engaged in more exploration with objects than secondborn infants; firstborn and secondborn infants’ behaviors were correlated for smiling, distress communication, and efficiency of exploration. Mothers engaged in more physical encouragement, social exchange, didactic...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - April 18, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Infant frontal EEG asymmetry moderates the association between maternal behavior and toddler negative affectivity
We examined associations between infant frontal electroencephalogram (EEG), maternal parenting behaviors, and children’s negative affect across the first two years of life. Infant baseline frontal EEG asymmetry was measured at 5 months; maternal sensitivity and intrusiveness were observed during mother-child interaction at 5 and 24 months; and mothers provided reports of toddler negative affect at 24 months. Results indicated that maternal sensitive behaviors at 5 months were associated with less negative affect at 24 months, but only for infants with left frontal EEG asymmetry. Similarly, maternal sensitive behavior...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - April 4, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Probing communication-induced memory biases in preverbal infants: Two replication attempts of Yoon, Johnson and Csibra (2008)
Publication date: May 2019Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 55Author(s): Priya Silverstein, Teodora Gliga, Gert Westermann, Eugenio PariseAbstractIn a seminal study, Yoon, Johnson and Csibra [PNAS, 105, 36 (2008)] showed that nine-month-old infants retained qualitatively different information about novel objects in communicative and non-communicative contexts. In a communicative context, the infants encoded the identity of novel objects at the expense of encoding their location, which was preferentially retained in non-communicative contexts. This result had not yet been replicated. Here we attempted two repl...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - April 1, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The role of oxytocin in early mother-infant interactions: Variations in maternal affect attunement
Publication date: May 2019Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 55Author(s): Gabriela MarkovaAbstractThe aim of the present research was to investigate the relationship between oxytocin and maternal affect attunement, as well as the role of affect attunement in the relationship between oxytocin and infant social engagement during early mother-infant interactions. Forty-three mother-infant dyads participated in the present study when infants were 4 months. They were observed during (1) a situation where no communication took place and (2) a natural interaction between mother and infant. During this procedure, thre...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - March 30, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Changing institutional incentives to foster sound scientific practices: One department
Publication date: May 2019Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 55Author(s): Rebecca A. LundwallAbstractReplicable research and open science are of value to our field and to society at large, but most universities provide no incentives to adopt these practices. Instead, current incentive structures favor novel research, which has led to a situation in which few researchers take the time to do replications, share protocols, or share data. Obviously, several approaches to remedy this situation are possible. However, little progress can be made if becoming involved in such activities reduces a researcher’s cha...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - March 30, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Do as I say - or as I do?! How 18- and 24-month-olds integrate words and actions to infer intentions in situations of match or mismatch
This study investigated how 18- and 24-month-olds’ (N = 88 per age group) action selection was influenced by varying the coherence of a model’s verbal and behavioral cues. Using a between-subjects design, infants received six trials with different stimulus objects. In the conditions Congruent, Incongruent, and Failed-attempt, the model uttered a telic verb particle that was followed by a matching or contradicting goal-directed action demonstration, or by a non goal-directed slipping motion, respectively. In the condition Pseudo-word, a nonsense word was combined with a goal-directed action demonst...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - March 27, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Longitudinal interplay of young children's negative affectivity and maternal interaction quality in the context of unequal psychosocial resources
Publication date: Available online 11 March 2019Source: Infant Behavior and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Jan-David Freund, Anja Linberg, Sabine WeinertAbstractInteraction quality and child temperament predict early and later child development. Research hints at transactional interrelations of both aspects but lacks adequate data to examine this assumption. Maternal psychosocial resources are suspected moderators in this context but rarely taken into account. Drawing on data of the German National Educational Panel Study we conducted a cross-lagged panel analysis on the longitudinal interplay of maternal interaction quality and ch...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - March 13, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Shy toddlers act bold: The roles of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and parent emotion language
Publication date: May 2019Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 55Author(s): Jessica Stoltzfus Grady, Delaney CallanAbstractShy children show reticence in social contexts, presumably as a way of regulating their fear. The present study evaluated whether toddler physiological regulation and parent emotion language facilitated shy toddlers’ (21–24 months) engagement with an unfamiliar female examiner. Toddler high basal respiratory sinus arrhythmia was positively associated with bold approach with the examiner. Parent emotion explanations were positively associated with toddler bold approach, particular...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - March 9, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Early development of attentional disengagement and phasic alertness
This study examines the relationship between phasic aspects of alertness and disengagement in infants, using the overlap paradigm. Research shows that visual disengagement in overlap condition is modulated by auditory cues in 6-year-olds. Our participants were aged 6 months (N = 20), 12 months (N = 27), and 24 months (N = 14). Phasic alertness during overlap and no-overlap tasks was manipulated using a spatially nondirective warning signal shortly before onset of the peripheral target. Responses in overlap condition were slower and fewer than in no-overlap condition. The signal sho...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - March 9, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Experimental manipulation of emotion regulation changes mothers’ physiological and facial expressive responses to infant crying
This study examined whether instructing mothers to apply emotion regulation strategies can change mothers’ perception and reactivity to infant crying in an experimental within-subject design. Perception of crying, skin conductance level (SCL), facial expressivity, and intended caregiving responses to cry sounds were measured in mothers (N = 101, M = 30.88 years) who received suppression, reappraisal, and no emotion regulation instructions. Reappraisal resulted in lower SCL during exposure to crying and a less negative perception of crying compared to the suppression condition. In contrast,...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - March 1, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Intrusive parenting, teacher sensitivity, and negative emotionality on the development of emotion regulation in early head start toddlers
Publication date: May 2019Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 55Author(s): Jennifer A. Mortensen, Melissa A. BarnettAbstractToddler emotion regulation develops within the context of relationships but is also influenced by toddlers’ individual characteristics. Drawing on transactional and differential susceptibility frameworks, this study examined direct and interactive associations of intrusive parenting, teacher sensitivity, and negative emotionality on toddler emotion regulation development in a sample of Early Head Start families utilizing center-based child care. Latent growth models indicated that, a...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - February 28, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Toxic Environment of war: Maternal prenatal heavy metal load predicts infant emotional development
ConclusionsAdverse impact of war is not limited to those who experience it directly, but is passed on to future generations through multiple mechanisms. International organizations are obliged to protect parents and infants from the modern weaponry in wars. (Source: Infant Behavior and Development)
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - February 27, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: February 2019Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 54Author(s): (Source: Infant Behavior and Development)
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - February 26, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Exploratory behavior and developmental skill acquisition in infants with down syndrome
This study used a Latent Profile Analysis framework to examine within-syndrome variability in exploratory behavior in infants with DS and the developmental correlates of different exploratory behavior profiles. Participants were 45 infants with DS (CA = 9.58 months; SD = 3.62) who completed an object exploration activity and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III (BSID-III; Bayley, 2006). Exploration behavior was coded for the percentage of time engaged in visual, manual, and oral exploration. Results indicated that a 2-profile solution provided the best model fit for exploratory behavior, ...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - February 20, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Are sensorimotor experiences the key for successful early intervention in infants with congenital brain lesion?
Publication date: February 2019Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 54Author(s): Anina Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Mikkel Damgaard Justiniano, Jens Bo Nielsen, Mark Schram ChristensenAbstractLiving with a congenital brain lesion may have detrimental effects on the ability to do everyday activities, but contrary to acquired brain lesions, people and in particular children, with congenital brain lesions may have limited or no experience of how their bodies work. This absence of experience gives rise to challenges for habilitation of sensorimotor abilities and derived cognitive abilities. How can motor and cognitive abil...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - February 13, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Is feeding the new play? Examination of the maternal language and prosody used during infant feeding
Publication date: February 2019Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 54Author(s): Emily Zimmerman, Kathryn Connaghan, Jill Hoover, Danielle Alu, Julie PetersAbstractThe current study examined maternal language and prosody production during feeding (milk vs. solid foods) and playing with their infant compared to an adult-directed speech (ADS) baseline in 12 healthy full-term infants (6–13 months old). We recorded maternal language during 10 min of spontaneous speech across the four conditions. We further recorded maternal connected speech containing specific word targets, elicited through picture desc...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - February 11, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Maternal positive responses to a distressed infant simulator predict subsequent negative affect in infants
Publication date: Available online 19 January 2019Source: Infant Behavior and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Erin R. McKay, Leanna Rosinski, Linda C. Mayes, Helena J.V. Rutherford, David J. BridgettAbstractExisting evidence indicates that maternal responses to infant distress, specifically more sensitive and less inconsistent/rejecting responses, are associated with lower infant negative affect (NA). However, due to ethical and methodological constraints, most existing studies do not employ methods that guarantee each mother will be observed responding to infant distress. To address such limitations, in the current study, a distres...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - January 20, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

PyHab: Open-source real time infant gaze coding and stimulus presentation software
Publication date: February 2019Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 54Author(s): Jonathan F. KominskyAbstractInfant looking-time paradigms often use specialized software for real time manual coding of infant gaze. Here, I introduce PyHab, the first open-source looking-time coding and stimulus presentation solution designed specifically with open science in mind. PyHab is built on the libraries of PsychoPy (Peirce, 2007). PyHab has its own graphical interface for building studies and requires no programming experience to use. When creating a study, PyHab saves a folder that contains all of the code required to ru...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - January 20, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Facial emotion recognition during pregnancy: Examining the effects of facial age and affect
In this study, 51 pregnant women at 17–36 weeks gestation watched neutral infant and adult faces gradually morph into either happy or sad expressions. We measured the speed and accuracy with which participants were able to recognize facial affect (happy vs. sad) across facial ages (infant vs. adult). Participants were faster and more accurate at recognizing happy versus sad faces and adult versus infant faces. We discuss how prior exposure to a certain face type may explain faster recognition. We also consider these results in the context of evidence indicating positive affect is recognized more quickly, but associat...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - January 17, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

An examination of the impact of maternal fetal attachment, postpartum depressive symptoms and parenting stress on maternal sensitivity
Publication date: February 2019Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 54Author(s): Ana Luisa B.T. B.T. Dau, Laura S. Callinan, Megan V. SmithAbstractThe current study aimed to examine the impact of maternal depression, maternal fetal attachment (MFA) and parenting stress on maternal sensitivity, intrusiveness and positive regard for the child with a sample of 36 low-income, mothers-infant dyads that were followed from pregnancy through the first year postpartum. Maternal depression and parenting stress were expected to have a negative impact on maternal sensitivity, intrusiveness and positive regard, while high MF...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - January 17, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

A computational perspective on social attachment
Publication date: February 2019Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 54Author(s): Justin Chumbley, Annekatrin SteinhoffAbstractHumans depend on social relationships for survival and wellbeing throughout life. Yet, individuals differ markedly in their ability to form and maintain healthy social relationships. Here we use a simple mathematical model to formalize the contention that a person’s attachment style is determined by what they learn from relationships early in life. For the sake of argument, we therefore discount individual differences in the innate personality or attachment style of a child, assumin...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - January 13, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The parent/caregiver involvement scale – Short form is a valid measure of parenting quality in high-risk families
This study investigates the functioning of the Parent-Caregiver Involvement Scale –Short Form (P/CIS-SF) in a high-risk sample. The P/CIS-SF measures several behaviors pertaining to both “amount” and “quality,” as well overall “impressions” of parenting. Participants were 170 six-month-olds and their mothers who were at risk for child abuse, impoverished, single, young, and had multiple children. Mother-infant interaction was videotaped in the home during semi-structured play. These high-risk parents scored in the midrange on most P/CIS-SF items, indicating that mothers engaged wit...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - January 9, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Twelve-month-old infants’ attention to the eyes of a talking face is associated with communication and social skills
Publication date: February 2019Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 54Author(s): Ferran Pons, Laura Bosch, David J. LewkowiczAbstractWe investigated whether attention to a talker’s eyes in 12 month-old infants is related to their communication and social abilities. We measured infant attention to a talker’s eyes and mouth with a Tobii eye-tracker and examined the correlation between attention to the talker’s eyes and scores on the Adaptive Behavior Questionnaire from the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III). Results indicated a positive relationship between eye gaze and sc...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - January 9, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Empathic distress and concern predict aggression in toddlerhood: The moderating role of sex
This study sheds new light on the intricate relationship between empathy, aggression, and sex from a developmental perspective. (Source: Infant Behavior and Development)
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - January 8, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Overt congruent facial reaction to dynamic emotional expressions in 9–10-month-old infants
Publication date: February 2019Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 54Author(s): Kazuhide Hashiya, Xianwei Meng, Yusuke Uto, Kana TajiriAbstractThe current study aimed to extend the understanding of the early development of spontaneous facial reactions toward observed facial expressions. Forty-six 9- to 10-month-old infants observed video clips of dynamic human facial expressions that were artificially created with morphing technology. The infants’ facial responses were recorded, and the movements of the facial action unit 12 (e.g., lip-corner raising, associated with happiness) and facial action unit 4 (e...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - December 16, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Infant motor skill predicts later expressive language and autism spectrum disorder diagnosis
We examined motor skills in 6-month-olds (n = 140) at high and low familial risk for ASD using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (Grasping, Visual-Motor Integration, and Stationary subscales). In Study 1, motor skill at 6 months predicted ASD status at 24–36 months; ASD was associated with poorer infant motor skills. In Study 2, motor skill at 6 months predicted expressive language at 30 and 36 months. Findings provide evidence that vulnerability in motor function early in development is present in ASD. Findings highlight the importance of developmental monitoring in high-risk infants and possible ...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - December 15, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Mothers’ feelings about infants’ negative emotions and mother-infant interactions among the Gamo of Southern Ethiopia
In this study, the link between Gamo mothers’ expressions of stress about their infants’ negative emotional displays (N = 29 mothers and infants) and mother-infant interactions was investigated. Mothers who expressed stress in response to their infants’ negative emotions demonstrated fewer interactions overall with their infants compared to mothers who did not express stress. Regression analyses showed that mothers who did not express stress had infants that fussed and cried more in their presence than infants of mothers who did not express stress, albeit insignificant. These results are dis...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - December 4, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Reliability and generalizability of an acted-out false belief task in 3-year-olds
Publication date: February 2019Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 54Author(s): Sebastian Dörrenberg, Lisa Wenzel, Marina Proft, Hannes Rakoczy, Ulf LiszkowskiAbstractThe current study tested the reliability and generalizability of a narrative act-out false belief task held to reveal Theory of Mind (ToM) competence at 3 years of age, before children pass verbal standard false belief tasks (the “Duplo task”; Rubio-Fernández & Geurts, 2013, Psychological Science). We conducted the task across two labs with methodologically improved matched control conditions. Further, we administered a...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - December 2, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Using automatic face analysis to score infant behaviour from video collected online
Publication date: February 2019Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 54Author(s): Brea Chouinard, Kimberly Scott, Rhodri CusackAbstractOnline testing of infants by recording video with a webcam has the potential to improve the replicability of developmental studies by facilitating larger sample sizes and by allowing methods (including recruitment) to be specified in code. However, the recorded video still needs to be manually scored. This labour-intensive process puts downward pressure on sample sizes and requires subjective judgements that may not be reproducible in a different laboratory. Here we present the fi...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - December 1, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Should I test more babies? Solutions for transparent data peeking
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Infant Behavior and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Esther Schott, Mijke Rhemtulla, Krista Byers-HeinleinAbstractResearch with infants is often slow and time-consuming, so infant researchers face great pressure to use the available participants in an efficient way. One strategy that researchers sometimes use to optimize efficiency is data peeking (or “optional stopping”), that is, doing a preliminary analysis (whether a formal significance test or informal eyeballing) of collected data. Data peeking helps researchers decide whether to abandon or tweak a study, de...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - November 23, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: November 2018Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 53Author(s): (Source: Infant Behavior and Development)
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - November 17, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Associations of paternal postpartum depressive symptoms and infant development in a Chinese longitudinal study
This study examined paternal postpartum depression and its adverse impact on infants, and the possible mediating role of father-infant attachment in the link between fathers’ depressive symptoms and infants’ outcomes. Pregnant women and their partners were recruited from the antenatal clinics of two public hospitals in Hong Kong. Information about paternal and maternal depression, paternal-infant attachment, and infant development were collected at antenatal period, 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Linear regression was employed to examine risk factors for paternal depression symptoms, and mediation analysis wa...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - November 8, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The relationship between temperament style and understanding of human goal-directed action in infants
Publication date: November 2018Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 53Author(s): Jennifer LaBounty, Margaret Oliver, Kaitlyn True, Hannah Cooper, Sheena Friesen, Gabrielle CastroAbstractThe purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between temperament style and understanding of goal-directed action in 10–11-month-old infants. Infant social understanding was assessed using a looking-time measure similar to Woodward (1998). This method yielded two measures of infant social understanding; ‘decrement of attention’ (a measure of infant attention during habituation) and ‘nove...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - November 1, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

A comparison of low-intensity physical activity, growth, and sleep behavior in 6-month old infants
This study examined low-intensity physical activity (PA), sleep behavior (24-hour accelerometry), and growth in 22 6-month old infants. Relationships were assessed using bivariate correlations. Infants accumulating less ‘total’ sleep spent more time in low-intensity PA (r = −.524, p = .012). Those with less ‘nighttime’ sleep had greater nap frequency (r = −.460, p = .031), nap duration (r =  −.529, p = .011) and weight-for-length z-scores (r = −.481, p = .024), but ...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - November 1, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Publication standards in infancy research: Three ways to make Violation-of-Expectation studies more reliable
Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Infant Behavior and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Paula Rubio-FernándezAbstractThe Violation-of-Expectation paradigm is a widespread paradigm in infancy research that relies on looking time as an index of surprise. This methodological review aims to increase the reliability of future VoE studies by proposing to standardize reporting practices in this literature. I review 15 VoE studies on false-belief reasoning, which used a variety of experimental parameters. An analysis of the distribution of p-values across experiments suggests an absence of p-hacking. However, th...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - October 27, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

33-month-old children succeed in a false belief task with reduced processing demands: A replication of Setoh et al. (2016)
Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Infant Behavior and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Stella S. Grosso, Tobias Schuwerk, Larissa J. Kaltefleiter, Beate SodianAbstractA recent low-inhibition false belief task showed a high success rate with 33-month-old children when response-generation demands were reduced [Setoh, Scott, & Baillargeon (2016). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(47), 13360–13365]. We found correct responding in 74% of N = 58 33-month-old children, replicating the original findings. Within the same sample, we compared this performance with performance in...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - October 27, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Typologies of dyadic mother-infant emotion regulation following immunization
Publication date: November 2018Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 53Author(s): Penina M. Backer, Kelsey M. Quigley, Cynthia A. StifterAbstractMother-infant dyadic emotion regulation – the joint modulation of affective rhythms as interactive partners dynamically respond to each other across time – has been shown to promote social-emotional wellbeing both during and beyond infancy. Although contributions of dyadic regulation to self-regulatory development may particularly apparent during infant distress, studies have traditionally examined dyadic regulation in low-stress contexts. The present study a...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - October 21, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Reproducibility and a unifying explanation: Lessons from the shape bias
Publication date: Available online 19 October 2018Source: Infant Behavior and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Sarah C. Kucker, Larissa K. Samuelson, Lynn K. Perry, Hanako Yoshida, Eliana Colunga, Megan G. Lorenz, Linda B. SmithAbstractThe goal of science is to advance our understanding of particular phenomena. However, in the field of development, the phenomena of interest are complex, multifaceted, and change over time. Here, we use three decades of research on the shape bias to argue that while replication is clearly an important part of the scientific process, integration across the findings of many studies that include variation...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - October 20, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Different patterns of sensitivity differentially affect infant attention span
Publication date: November 2018Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 53Author(s): Jennifer L. Miller, Ellen Hurdish, Julie Gros-LouisAbstractWe exposed infants to different types of sensitive behavior to examine effects on infants’ attention. Results revealed infants changed their patterns of visual attention; infants had longer durations of sustained attention to toys, shorter durations to the social partner, and fewer attention shifts when interacting with a nonvocal social partner than when interacting with a vocal social partner. (Source: Infant Behavior and Development)
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - October 16, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Prenatal neural responses to infant faces predict postpartum reflective functioning
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Infant Behavior and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Helena J.V. Rutherford, Michael J. Crowley, Lucy Gao, Brianna Francis, Alysse Schultheis, Linda C MayesAbstractPregnancy is shaped by unfolding psychological and biological changes in preparation for parenthood. A growing literature has examined the postpartum maternal brain. However, few studies examine the maternal brain during pregnancy, and whether brain function in pregnancy may have implications for postpartum caregiving. Using event-related potentials, we examined the late positive potential (LPP) elicited by infant di...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - October 9, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The roles of item repetition and position in infants’ abstract rule learning
We examined 11- and 14- month-old infants’ learning and generalization of abstract repetition rules (“repetition anywhere,” Experiment 1 or “medial repetition,” Experiment 2) and ordering of specific items (edge positions, Experiment 3) in 4-item sequences. Infants were habituated to sequences containing repetition- and/or position-based structure and then tested with “familiar” vs. “novel” (random) sequences composed of new items. Eleven-month-olds (N = 40) failed to learn abstract repetition rules, but 14-month-olds (N = 40) learned rules u...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - October 4, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research