Effect of Climate Change on Allergenic Airborne Pollen in Japan
In Japan, the representative allergenic airborne pollen-related allergic diseases include Cupressaceae in early spring, the birch family and grass in spring and mugwort in autumn. As a result of a long- term survey the past 27 to 33 years, an increasing in the amount of conifer airborne pollen and an earlier start dispersal were observed, related climate change. In addition, an increase in the number of patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis and the severity has been observed. Provision of medical pollen information, medication and sublingual immunotherapy have all been enhanced. Recently, pollen-food allergic syndrome ha...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - November 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Reiko Kishikawa, Eiko Koto Source Type: research

Climate Change and Pollen Allergy in India and South Asia
Increased levels of CO2 and various greenhouse gases cause global warming and, in combination with pollutants from fossil fuel combustion and vehicular and industrial emissions, have been driving increases in noncommunicable diseases across the globe, resulting a higher mortality and morbidity. Respiratory diseases and associated allergenic manifestations have increased worldwide, with rates higher in developing countries. Pollen allergy serves as a model for studying the relationship between air pollution and respiratory disorders. Climate changes affect the quality and amount of airborne allergenic pollens, and pollutant...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - November 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Anand Bahadur Singh, Chandni Mathur Source Type: research

Climate Change, Air Pollution, and Biodiversity in Asia Pacific and Impact on Respiratory Allergies
Allergic diseases are increasing globally. Air pollution, climate change, and reduced biodiversity are major threats to human health with detrimental effects on chronic noncommunicable diseases. Outdoor and indoor air pollution and climate change are increasing. Asia has experienced rapid economic growth, a deteriorating environment, and an increase in allergic diseases to epidemic proportions. Air pollutant levels in Asian countries are substantially higher than in developed countries. Moreover, industrial, traffic-related, and household biomass combustion and indoor pollutants from chemicals and tobacco are major sources...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - November 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ruby Pawankar, Jiu-Yao Wang Source Type: research

Insect Migration and Changes in Venom Allergy due to Climate Change
This article focuses on evidence that insects are expanding their range in response to warming temperature, increasing likelihood of human interaction. (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - November 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jeffrey G. Demain Source Type: research

Climate Change and Allergy
Immunol Allergy Clin N Am (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - November 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: JAE-WON OH Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - November 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Contributors
JAE-WON OH, MD, PhD, FAAAAI (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - November 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Contents
Jae-Won Oh (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - November 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Food Allergy (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - November 21, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Global Climate Change and Pollen Aeroallergens
Climatic change will have an impact on production and release of pollen, with consequences for the duration and magnitude of aeroallergen seasonal exposure and allergic diseases. Evaluations of pollen aerobiology in the southern hemisphere have been limited by resourcing and the density of monitoring sites. This review emphasizes inconsistencies in pollen monitoring methods and metrics used globally. Research should consider unique southern hemisphere biodiversity, climate, plant distributions, standardization of pollen aerobiology, automation, and environmental integration. For both hemispheres, there is a clear need for ...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - November 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Janet M. Davies, Dilys Berman, Paul J. Beggs, Germ án Darío Ramón, Jonny Peter, Connie H. Katelaris, Lewis H. Ziska Source Type: research

Climate Change and Extreme Weather Events in Australia
Several climate change –related predictions and observations have been documented for the Australian continent. Extreme weather events such as cycles of severe drought and damaging flooding are occurring with greater frequency and have a severe impact on human health. Two specific aspects of climate change affecting all ergic and other respiratory disorders are outlined: firstly, the consequences of extreme weather events and secondly, the change in distribution of airborne allergens that results from various climate change factors. (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - November 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Constance H. Katelaris Source Type: research

The Impact of Climate Change on Pollen Season and Allergic Sensitization to Pollens
Pollens are a major cause of seasonal allergic diseases. Weather may alter the production of pollens. Increased atmospheric temperatures lead to earlier pollination of many plants and longer duration of pollination, resulting in extended pollen seasons, with early spring or late winter. Longer pollen seasons increase duration of exposure, resulting in more sensitization, and higher pollen concentrations may lead to more severe symptoms. Climate changes in contact to pollens may affect both allergic sensitization and symptom prevalence with severity. The future consequences of climate change, however, are speculative, becau...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - November 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Young-Jin Choi, Kyung Suk Lee, Jae-Won Oh Source Type: research

Allergenic Pollen Season Variations in the Past Two Decades Under Changing Climate in the United States
Prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing due to multiple factors, among which climate change has had the most impact. Climate factors increase production of pollen, which also exhibits increased allergenicity. Also, as a result of climate change, there has been a shift in flowering phenology and pollen initiation causing prolonged pollen exposure. Various numerical models have been developed to understand the effect of climate change on pollen emission and transport and the impact on allergic airway diseases. (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - November 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Divya Seth, Leonard Bielory Source Type: research

The Role of Extreme Weather and Climate-Related Events on Asthma Outcomes
Extreme weather and climate events are likely to increase in frequency and severity as a consequence of global climate change. These are events that can include flooding rains, prolonged heat waves, drought, wildfires, hurricanes, severe thunderstorms, tornadoes, storm surge, and coastal flooding. It is important to consider these events as they are not merely meteorologic occurrences but are linked to our health. We aim to address how these events are interconnected with asthma outcomes associated with thunderstorm asthma, pollen production, mold infestation from flooding events, and poor air quality during wildfires. (So...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - November 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Andrew Rorie, Jill A. Poole Source Type: research

Forecast for Pollen Allergy
Pollen, a major causal agent of respiratory allergy, is mainly affected by weather conditions. In Korea, pollen and weather data are collected by the national observation network. Forecast models and operational services are developed and provided based on the national pollen data base. Using the pollen risk forecast information will help patients with respiratory allergy to improve their lives. Changes in temperature and CO2 concentration by climate change affect the growth of plants and their capacity of producing more allergenic pollens, which should be considered in making the future strategy on treating allergy patien...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - November 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kyu Rang Kim, Mae Ja Han, Jae-Won Oh Source Type: research

The Impact of Climate Change on Allergy in a Changing World
Most of the observed increase in recently global average temperatures is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations. Moreover, changes are also occurring in the amount, intensity, frequency, and type of precipitation as well as the increase of extreme weather events, such as droughts, thunderstorms, floods, and hurricanes. (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - October 30, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jae-Won Oh Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Asthma-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overlap
This article presents the data about the clinical features of ACO, the current information regarding the underlying pathophysiology of the syndrome, and current understanding of therapeutic options. (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - October 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Sunita Sharma, Sandhya Khurana, Alex D. Federman, Juan Wisnivesky, Fernando Holguin Source Type: research

A New Era in the Treatment of Allergic Disorders
Biologics have revolutionized medical therapy in the past 2 decades. Allergic Diseases have benefited from this revolution as a variety of biologics have impacted all categories of allergic diseases. Anticytokines directed at type 2 immunity has helped in the treatment of all allergic conditions covered in this issue ranging from Allergic Rhinitis to Asthma to Atopic Dermatitis to Food Allergy and others. Obviously, the ravages of COVID-19 on processes involved in biologic treatment are a consideration, but current thinking suggests such therapies should not be affected by the pandemic. (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clin...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - October 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lanny J. Rosenwasser Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Biologics for the Treatment of Allergic Diseases
Immunol Allergy Clin N Am (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - October 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lanny J. Rosenwasser Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - October 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Contributors
LANNY J. ROSENWASSER, MD (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - October 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Contents
Lanny J. Rosenwasser (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - October 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Climate Change and Allergy (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - October 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Biologics for Atopic Dermatitis
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease that has become a global health problem. The pathophysiology of AD includes both skin barrier and immune abnormalities, with type 2 immune deviation central to several clinical phenotypes and underlying endotypes. Recognition of the persistent nature and systemic aspects of AD provides a rationale for treatment with a biologic. Dupilumab has been approved for patients 6 years of age and older with moderate to severe AD. Monoclonal antibodies are in phase 3 trials and may become part of a precision medicine approach to AD. (Source: Immunology and Allergy C...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - September 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mark Boguniewicz Source Type: research

Biologic Agents for the Treatment of Anaphylaxis
Several biologic therapies and new devices are emerging as potential preventive treatment of anaphylaxis. However, adrenaline (epinephrine) is still the first-line treatment of any type of anaphylaxis. Biologic drugs, such as omalizumab, although not US Food and Drug Administration approved for anaphylaxis, have been used as therapeutic adjuvants in the preventive treatment of anaphylaxis, but cost-effectiveness should be considered individually. (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - September 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Luciana Kase Tanno, Bryan Martin Source Type: research

Targeting Mast Cells with Biologics
Mast cells are tissue-resident allergic effector cells that cause many symptoms associated with IgE –mediated immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Beginning with allergen-specific therapy over a century ago, biologics have been used to target mast cells in patients in order to reduce allergic symptoms and reactions. This review discusses the history and current outlook of the use of biologics i n mast cell–associated diseases and reactions. (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - September 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jonathan J. Lyons, Dean D. Metcalfe Source Type: research

Biologics and Allergy Immunotherapy in the Treatment of Allergic Diseases
Allergic diseases represent some of the most chronic and costly chronic conditions. Medical management may require long-term pharmacotherapy, which is often associated with poor adherence. Although medications provide symptomatic control, they do not modify the allergic disease. Patients may prefer disease-modifying treatments that provide lasting benefits after discontinuation. To date, allergy immunotherapy is the only proved disease modification therapy associated with lasting benefits after discontinuation. However, allergy immunotherapy safety and efficacy has only been established in allergic rhinitis, mild to modera...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - September 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Linda Cox Source Type: research

Biologics for the Treatment of Allergic Conditions: Eosinophil Disorders
Eosinophil-associated diseases are characterized by a common pathogenetic background, represented by eosinophil-led inflammation and overexpression of interleukin (IL)-5. IL-5 and its receptor are excellent therapeutic targets for eosinophil-associated diseases. Three monoclonal antibodies targeting IL-5 currently are available: mepolizumab and reslizumab block circulating IL-5 preventing the binding to its receptor, whereas benralizumab binds to IL-5 receptor α. They have a steroid-sparing effect in eosinophil disorders, such as eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, hypereosinophilic syndrome, allergic bron...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - September 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Bianca Olivieri, Elisa Tinazzi, Marco Caminati, Claudio Lunardi Source Type: research

Biologics for the Treatments of Allergic Conditions
By selectively targeting specific steps of the immune inflammation cascade, biologic drugs for severe asthma have substantially contributed to increase the standard of care, to reduce drug-related morbidity. and most importantly to ameliorate patients ’ quality of life. Upcoming molecules are going to provide a chance for severe phenotypes besides Th2 high through the interaction with epithelial and innate immunity. Some practical aspects including optimal treatment duration, the possibility of a dose treatment modulation, the place and relevan ce of ICS in best responders are still under debate. Long-term safety, es...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - September 11, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Marco Caminati, Diego Bagnasco, Lanny Rosenwasser, Andrea Vianello, Gianenrico Senna Source Type: research

Biologics for the Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis, Chronic Rhinosinusitis, and Nasal Polyposis
This article reviews biologics as potential interventions in AR, chronic rhinosinusitis, and NP. (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - September 8, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: William Eschenbacher, Matthew Straesser, Alice Knoeddler, Rung-chi Li, Larry Borish Source Type: research

Biologics for the Treatment of Food Allergies
Food allergy is increasingly prevalent and poses a life-threatening risk to those afflicted. The health care costs associated with food allergies are also increasing. Current and emerging treatments for food allergies aim at protecting against reactions caused by accidental ingestion and increasing the food allergen reaction threshold, although this protection is often temporary. In the future, ideal biologic therapies would target key mediators of the type II immune pathway, essential in development of the atopic march to prevent development of food allergies. Biologics offering long-term protection against allergic react...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - September 8, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kanwaljit K. Brar, Bruce J. Lanser, Amanda Schneider, Anna Nowak-Wegrzyn Source Type: research

Immune-Related Adverse Drug Reactions and Immunologically Mediated Drug Hypersensitivity
Biologic and other therapies used for the treatment of immune-mediated hypersensitivity conditions, and in people with immune-mediated hypersensitivity, can trigger a wide variety of immune-related adverse drug reactions and immunologically mediated drug hypersensitivities. These range from acute-onset immunoglobulin E –mediated allergies to delayed-onset T-cell–mediated hypersensitivities. Certain therapeutic and diagnostic agents can directly activate mast cells. Biologic agents used to treat immune-mediated hypersensitivity can also globally upregulate or downregulate the immune system leading to pathologic ...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - September 8, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Eric Macy Source Type: research

Current and Potential Biologic Drugs for the Treatment of Chronic Urticaria
This article reviews biologic treatments that are currently applied for the treatment of severe chronic urticaria. Monoclonal anti –immunoglobulin E (omalizumab) is effective and safe in many patients, but accessibility and cost constitute barriers to its wider use. Questions on the optimal duration of the treatment and possible symptom recurrences after discontinuing the drug are still raised. A discussion is presented about several other biologics currently under investigation with potential to be incorporated in the near future in patients with severe chronic urticaria. (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - September 8, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mario S ánchez-Borges, Sandra González Díaz, Jose Antonio Ortega-Martell, Maria Isabel Rojo, Ignacio J. Ansotegui Source Type: research

Vaccines in Patients with Primary Immune Deficiency
Evaluation of antibodies produced after immunization is central to immune deficiency diagnosis. This includes assessment of responses to routine immunizations as well as to vaccines administered specifically for diagnosis. Here, we present the basic concepts of the humoral immune response and their relevance for vaccine composition and diagnosis of immune deficiency. Current vaccines are discussed, including nonviable protein and glycoprotein vaccines, pure polysaccharide vaccines, polysaccharide –protein conjugate vaccines, and live agent vaccines. Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of vaccine antibody measurem...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - July 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Francisco A. Bonilla Source Type: research

Asplenia and Hyposplenism
The number of disorders associated with congenital or acquired asplenia and functional hyposplenism has increased substantially over the past couple decades. Previously, screening for asplenia and hyposplenism was a barrier to identifying patients at risk. Recent methods for measuring splenic function have emerged as accurate and reliable. Identifying patients prevents overwhelming postsplenectomy infection or invasive pneumococcal disease. Approaches to protect patients with asplenia or hyposplenism include patient education of risks and signs/symptoms of infection, vaccination, and antibiotic prophylaxis. Physicians have...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - July 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jacqueline D. Squire, Mandel Sher Source Type: research

Precision Therapy for the Treatment of Primary Immunodysregulatory Diseases
This article reviews targeted precision-based therapy for treatment of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen haploinsufficiency, lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like anchor deficiency, activated PI3K defic iency syndrome, signal transducer and activator of transcription– 1 and -3 – gain-of-function disorders, and disorders of inflammasome activation. (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - July 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Deepak Chellapandian, Maria Chitty-Lopez, Jennifer W. Leiding Source Type: research

IKAROS Family Zinc Finger 1 –Associated Diseases in Primary Immunodeficiency Patients
Ikaros zinc finger 1 (IKZF1 or Ikaros) is a hematopoietic zinc finger DNA-binding transcription factor that acts as a critical regulator of lymphocyte and myeloid differentiation. Loss-of-function germline heterozygous mutations in IKZF1 affecting DNA-binding were described as causative of 2 distinct primary immunodeficiency (PID)/inborn error of immunity diseases. Mutations acting by haploinsufficiency present with a common variable immune deficiency-like phenotype mainly characterized by increased susceptibility to infections. Mutations acting in a dominant negative fashion present with a combined immunodeficiency phenot...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - July 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Cristiane J. Nunes-Santos, Hye Sun Kuehn, Sergio D. Rosenzweig Source Type: research

Immunodeficiencies
Immunol Allergy Clin N Am (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - July 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mark Ballow, Elena E. Perez Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - July 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Contributors
LINDA S. COX, MD, FACP, AAAAI (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - July 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Contents
Mark Ballow and Elena E. Perez (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - July 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
Biologics for the Treatments of Allergic Conditions (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - July 10, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Chronic Lung Disease in Primary Antibody Deficiency
Chronic lung disease is a complication of primary antibody deficiency (PAD) associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Manifestations of lung disease in PAD are numerous. Thoughtful application of diagnostic approaches is imperative to accurately identify the form of disease. Much of the treatment used is adapted from immunocompetent populations. Recent genomic and translational medicine advances have led to specific treatments. As chronic lung disease has continued to affect patients with PAD, we hope that continued advancements in our understanding of pulmonary pathology will ultimately lead to effective method...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - June 8, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Paul J. Maglione Source Type: research

Diagnosis and management of Specific Antibody Deficiency
Specific antibody deficiency is a primary immunodeficiency disease recognized by the International Union of Immunology Societies and defined by recurrent respiratory infections with normal immunoglobulins, but diminished antibody responses to polysaccharide antigens after vaccination with the 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Clinical immunologists struggle with diagnosis and treatment, because the definition of an adequate response to immunization remains controversial. Specific antibody deficiency is managed clinically with close follow-up and prompt treatment of infections, antibiotic prophylaxis, or immune...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - June 8, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Elena E. Perez, Mark Ballow Source Type: research

Nuts and Bolts of Subcutaneous Therapy
This article summarizes the dosing, administration, and adverse event management of SCIG infusions. (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - June 8, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Carla Duff, Mark Ballow Source Type: research

Defining Common Variable Immunodeficiency Disorders in 2020
Common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) are the most frequent symptomatic primary immune deficiency in adults. Because there is no known cause for these conditions, there is no single clinical feature or laboratory test that can confirm the diagnosis with certainty. If a causative mutation is identified, patients are deemed to have a CVID-like disorder caused by a specific primary immunodeficiency/inborn error of immunity. In the remaining patients, the explanation for these disorders remains unclear. The understanding of CVID continues to evolve and the authors review recent studies, which have addressed some of...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - June 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Rohan Ameratunga, Caroline Allan, See-Tarn Woon Source Type: research

The Importance of Primary Immune Deficiency Registries
The importance of registries is vital for almost every human disease but crucial for rare disorders, where the centralized collection, organization, and quality check of data create a platform from where multiple analyses and scientific advances are possible. In this article, the authors review the creation of the United States Immunodeficiency Network registry, its role, and the numerous scientific achievements generated from the collective effort of many. (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - June 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Joao Pedro Lopes, Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles Source Type: research

Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare but severe form of immune dysregulation often presenting as unremitting fever, cytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, coagulopathy, and elevation of typical HLH biomarkers. HLH is universally fatal, if left untreated. The HLH-2004 criteria are widely used to diagnose this condition, but there is growing concerns across different settings that its application may result in undertreatment of certain patients. There is an expanding spectrum of genetic conditions that can be complicated by HLH. This review summarizes the current concepts in HLH, the lessons learned from the past, and ...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - June 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Deepak Chellapandian Source Type: research

Primary Immune Deficiencies: Update on an Evolving Clinical Discipline
Every 2 years starting in the 1970s, the International Union of Immunological Societies publishes a list of human inborn errors of immunodeficiency and autoinflammatory disorders. The latest publication in January 2020 lists 416 inborn errors of immunity, including 64 gene defects identified in just the past 2 years since the previous update. The advances in molecular biology, especially next-generation sequencing, have contributed greatly to the rapid identification of novel gene defects. These advances have contributed greatly to our understanding of the immune system, and to a better understanding of the cellular, molec...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - June 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mark Ballow, Elena E. Perez Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Rhinosinusitis
IMMUNOLOGY AND ALLERGY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - April 9, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Sandra Y. Lin Source Type: research