Evaluation of a Wireless Tongue Tracking System on the Identification of Phoneme Landmarks
Conclusion: The tracking errors reported in the subject-dependent case demonstrated the potential of our system to generate a baseline of phoneme landmarks. We have identified areas of improvement that will reduce the gap between the subject-dependent, and universal baseline, while lowering tracking errors to be comparable to the gold standard. Significance: Creating a baseline of phoneme landmarks can help people affected by speech sound disorders to improve their intelligibility using visual feedback that guides their tongue placement to the proper position. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 23, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Morphometric and Mechanical Analyses of Calcifications and Fibrous Plaque Tissue in Carotid Arteries for Plaque Rupture Risk Assessment
Conclusion: Depending on its morphology and the fiber organization around it, a calcification in an atherosclerotic plaque can act as a stress riser and cause high interface stresses. Significance: This study demonstrated the potential of calcifications in atherosclerotic plaques to cause elevated stresses in plaque tissue and provided a biomechanical explanation for the histopathological findings of calcification-associated plaque rupture. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Evaluating Rehabilitation Progress Using Motion Features Identified by Machine Learning
Evaluating progress throughout a patient's rehabilitation episode is critical for determining the effectiveness of the selected treatments and is an essential ingredient in personalised and evidence-based rehabilitation practice. The evaluation process is complex due to the inherently large human variations in motor recovery and the limitations of commonly used clinical measurement tools. Information recorded during a robot-assisted rehabilitation process can provide an effective means to continuously quantitatively assess movement performance and rehabilitation progress. However, selecting appropriate motion featur...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Is Accelerometry an Effective Method to Assess Muscle Vibrations in Comparison to Ultrafast Ultrasonography?
Conclusion: The skin and the fat tissues acted like a low-pass filter above 50 Hz and oscillated in a less damped manner than the muscle tissue under 20 Hz. Significance: To eliminate some artifacts caused by the superficial tissues and assess the muscle vibration characteristics with accelerometry, it is suggested to 1) high-pass filter the acceleration signal at a frequency of 20 Hz, under certain conditions, and 2) include participants with less fat thickness. Therefore, the subcutaneous thickness must be systematically quantified under each accelerometer location to clarify the differences between subjects and muscles....
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Automated Insulin Delivery - Continuous Blood Glucose Control During Ex Situ Liver Perfusion
Conclusion: The presented work offers a method and shows the feasibility to maintain BG in the physiological range for multiple (up to ten) days during ex situ liver perfusion with the help of an automated AID. Significance: Maintaining BG within the physiological range is required to enable long-term ex situ liver perfusion. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Performance Evaluation of a Wearable Tattoo Electrode Suitable for High-Resolution Surface Electromyogram Recording
Conclusion: The tattoo grid electrode can potentially be used for recording high-density sEMG from skin overlying major limb muscles. Layout programmability, good signal quality, excellent baseline stability, and easy wearability make this electrode a potentially valuable component of future HD electrode grid applications. Significance: The tattoo electrode can facilitate high fidelity recording in clinical applications such as tracking the evolution and time-course of challenging neuromuscular degenerative disorders. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Ultrasound Sensing Can Improve Continuous Classification of Discrete Ambulation Modes Compared to Surface Electromyography
Clinical translation of “intelligent” lower-limb assistive technologies relies on robust control interfaces capable of accurately detecting user intent. To date, mechanical sensors and surface electromyography (EMG) have been the primary sensing modalities used to classify ambulation. Ultrasound (US) imaging can be used to detect user-intent by characterizing structural changes of muscle. Our study evaluates wearable US imaging as a new sensing modality for continuous classification of five discrete ambulation modes: level, incline, decline, stair ascent, and stair descent ambulation, and benchmarks performance...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

CFD Assisted Evaluation of In Vitro Experiments on Bearingless Blood Pumps
Conclusion: Cell compatibility can be improved by increasing the radial gap, lowering the shroud and hub clearance gaps, and increasing the fillet radius of the inlet nozzle. CFD models can be used to examine the cell damage effects and help to further improve the pump design. Significance: This paper compares different Eulerian CFD hemolysis models, parameter sets, and equivalent shear stresses to several in vitro hemolysis tests. The sensitivity of the models is compared to that of in vitro studies. It is shown that CFD simulations have their limitations but can help with interpreting the outcomes of in vitro studies. (S...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Supervised Descent Learning for Thoracic Electrical Impedance Tomography
Objective: The absolute image reconstruction problem of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is ill-posed. Traditional methods usually solve a nonlinear least squares problem with some kind of regularization. These methods suffer from low accuracy, poor anti-noise performance, and long computation time. Besides, the integration of a priori information is not very flexible. This work tries to solve EIT inverse problem using a machine learning algorithm for the application of thorax imaging. Methods: We developed the supervised descent learning EIT (SDL-EIT) inversion algorithm based on the idea of supervised descent method...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Performance-Based Hybrid Control of a Cable-Driven Upper-Limb Rehabilitation Robot
Patients after stroke may have different rehabilitation needs due to various levels of disability. To satisfy such needs, a performance-based hybrid control is proposed for a cable-driven upper-limb rehabilitation robot (CDULRR). The controller includes three working modes, i.e., resistance mode, assistance mode and restriction mode, which are switched by the tracking error since it is a common index to represent motor performance. In resistance mode, the proper damping force would be provided for subjects, which is in the opposite direction to the actual velocity. In assistance mode, a method of adjusting stiffness coeffi...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Robust Method for Mid-Activity Tracking and Evaluation of Ankle Health Post-Injury
Objective: To present a robust methodology for evaluating ankle health during ambulation using a wearable device. Methods: We developed a novel data capture system that leverages changes within the ankle during ambulation for real-time tracking of bioimpedance. The novel analysis compares the range of reactance at 5 kHz to the range of reactance at 100 kHz; which removes the technique's previous reliance on a known baseline. To aid in interpretation of the measurements, we developed a quantitative simulation model based on a literature review of the effects on joint bioimpedance of variations in ...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Tongue Tumor Detection in Hyperspectral Images Using Deep Learning Semantic Segmentation
Conclusion: On a clinical data set with tongue squamous cell carcinoma, our best method obtains very strong results of average dice coefficient, and area under the ROC-curve of $text{0.891}pm text{0.053}$, and $text{0.924}pm text{0.036}$, respectively on the original spatial image size. The results show that a very good performance can be achieved even with a limited amount of data. We demonstrate that important information regarding tumor decision is encoded in various channels, but some channel selection, and filtering is beneficial over the full spectra. Moreover, we use both visual (VIS), and near-infrared (NIR) spectr...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Influence of Neuronal Morphology on the Shape of Extracellular Recordings With Microelectrode Arrays: A Finite Element Analysis
Conclusion: The presented models offer a comprehensive insight into the effect of geometrical and morphological factors on the resulting electrode signal. Significance: Computational modeling complemented with experimental measurements shows much promise to yield meaningful insights into the electrical activity of a neuronal network. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Parameter Estimation in a Model of the Human Circadian Pacemaker Using a Particle Filter
Conclusion: Our results show that individualizing the estimation of model parameters can improve circadian state estimation accuracy. Significance: These findings underscore the potential improvements in personalized models over one-size fits all approaches. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Estimating Lower Limb Kinematics Using a Reduced Wearable Sensor Count
Conclusion: The CKF-based algorithm was able to track the 3D pose of the pelvis, thigh, and shanks using only three inertial sensors worn on the pelvis and shanks. Significance: Due to the Kalman-filter-based algorithm's low computation cost and the relative convenience of using only three wearable sensors, gait parameters can be computed in real-time and remotely for long-term gait monitoring. Furthermore, the system can be used to inform real-time gait assistive devices. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

How Alpha Rhythm Spatiotemporally Acts Upon the Thalamus-Default Mode Circuit in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy
Conclusion: The results indicated spatiotemporal regulation of alpha in epilepsy by means of the increased power and decreased coherence communication. It provided links between alpha rhythm and the altered temporal dynamics, as well as the hyperconnectivity in thalamus-default mode circuit. Significance: The combination between neural oscillations and epileptic representations may be of clinical importance in terms of seizure prediction and non-invasive interventions. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Photoplethysmographic Waveform Analysis for Autonomic Reactivity Assessment in Depression
Objective: In the present study, a photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveform analysis for assessing differences in autonomic reactivity to mental stress between patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and healthy control (HC) subjects is presented. Methods: PPG recordings of 40 MDD and 40 HC subjects were acquired at basal conditions, during the execution of cognitive tasks, and at the post-task relaxation period. PPG pulses are decomposed into three waves (a main wave and two reflected waves) using a pulse decomposition analysis. Pulse waveform characteristics such as the time delay between the p...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

An Optimization-Based Algorithm for Trajectory Planning of an Under-Actuated Robotic Arm to Perform Autonomous Suturing
This study aims to overcome this shortcoming by implementing an optimization-based algorithm for autonomous suturing for an under-actuated robot. The proposed algorithm approximates the ideal suturing trajectory by slightly reorienting the needle while deviating as little as possible from the ideal, full degree-of-freedom suturing case. The deviation of the path taken by a custom robot with respect to the ideal trajectory varies depending on the suturing starting location within the workspace as well as the needle size. A quantitative analysis reveals that in 13% of the investigated workspace, the accumulative deviation wa...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Time-Frequency Analysis and Parameterisation of Knee Sounds for Non-Invasive Detection of Osteoarthritis
Conclusion: The analysis indicates improvements in classification performance when using non-uniform frequency scaling and identifies specific frequency bands that contain discriminative features. Significance: Contrary to other studies that focus on sit-to-stand movements and knee flexion/extension, this study used knee sounds obtained during walking. The analysis of such signals leads to non-invasive detection of knee osteoarthritis with high accuracy and could potentially extend the range of available tools for the assessment of the disease as a more practical and cost effective method without requiring clinical setups....
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

ValveTech: A Novel Robotic Approach for Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement
Conclusion: The trials successfully proved the proposed system for valve delivery under endoscopic vision. Significance: The ValveTech robot can be an alternative solution for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and improve the quality of the operation both for surgeons and patients. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Infusion Mechanisms in Brain White Matter and Their Dependence on Microstructure: An Experimental Study of Hydraulic Permeability
Objective: Hydraulic permeability is a topic of deep interest in biological materials because of its important role in a range of drug delivery-based therapies. The strong dependence of permeability on the geometry and topology of pore structure and the lack of detailed knowledge of these parameters in the case of brain tissue makes the study more challenging. Although theoretical models have been developed for hydraulic permeability, there is limited consensus on the validity of existing experimental evidence to complement these models. In the present study, we measure the permeability of white matter (WM) of fresh ovine ...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Assessment of Collaborative Robot (Cobot)-Assisted Histotripsy for Venous Clot Ablation
Conclusion: Cobots provide an effective means to apply histotripsy pulses over a treatment volume, with the ablation precision contingent on the quality of image guidance. Significance: Overall, these results demonstrate cobots can be used to guide histotripsy ablation for targets that extend beyond the natural focus of the transducer. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

A Model-Based Insulin Dose Optimization Algorithm for People With Type 1 Diabetes on Multiple Daily Injections Therapy
Objective: Multiple daily injections (MDI) therapy is the most common treatment for type 1 diabetes (T1D) including basal insulin doses to keep glucose levels constant during fasting conditions and bolus insulin doses with meals. Optimal insulin dosing is critical to achieving satisfactory glycemia but is challenging due to inter- and intra-individual variability. Here, we present a novel model-based iterative algorithm that optimizes insulin doses using previous-day glucose, insulin, and meal data. Methods: Our algorithm employs a maximum-a-posteriori method to estimate parameters of a model describing the effects of chan...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Model of Magnetic Particle Capture Under Physiological Flow Rates for Cytokine Removal During Cardiopulmonary Bypass
Conclusion: The model achieved a predicted efficiency up to 100% capture in a single-pass of fluid flowing at 1.75 L/min. Significance: This work is an important step in designing a magnetic flow chamber that can remove the magnetically tagged cytokines under high flow employed during CPB. Cytokines have been shown to stimulate the systemic inflammatory response (SIR) associated with CPB and are an established therapeutic target to mitigate the SIR. In the long term, this work aims to guide researchers in the more accurate design of magnetic separation systems. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Metamaterial-Inspired Radiofrequency (RF) Shield With Reduced Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and Improved Transmit Efficiency for UHF MRI
To prevent the interferences between radiofrequency (RF) coils and other components in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system such as gradient coils, it is essential to place an RF shield between the RF coils and gradient coils. However, the induced currents on conventional RF shields have negative influences on the RF coil performance. To reduce these influences, metamaterial absorbers (MA), a class of metamaterials exhibiting nearly unity absorption rate for the incident electromagnetic fields, can be employed for the design of a novel RF shield. However, the adoption of metamaterials in MRI systems is usually probl...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Towards 3D Ultrasound Guided Needle Steering Robust to Uncertainties, Noise, and Tissue Heterogeneity
This paper presents a new solution for 3D steering of flexible needles guided by 3D B-mode ultrasound imaging. It aims to realize a robust steering, by accounting for uncertainties, noise and tissue heterogeneities, while limiting tissue-related disturbances. The proposed solution features interconnected state observer, automatic needle tip segmentation and path planning algorithms. Measurement quality, state uncertainties and tissue heterogeneity are considered for robust needle steering with helical paths of variable curvature. Fast replanning allows for adaptability to unexpected disturbances. An experimental validation...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Correlation Guided Graph Learning to Estimate Functional Connectivity Patterns From fMRI Data
Conclusion: Our method increases the predictive power of the constructed FC patterns when establishing brain-behavior relationships, and gains meaningful insights into relevant biological mechanisms. Significance: The proposed CGGL offers a more powerful, and reliable method to estimate FC patterns, which can be used as fingerprints in many brain network studies. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

A New Shoulder Orthosis to Dynamically Support Glenohumeral Subluxation
Conclusion: In this research we developed a shoulder orthosis based on two statically balanced springs that support the shoulder of patients with glenohumeral subluxation that have residual shoulder muscle force. Compared to existing shoulder supports, our design does not impede the range of motion of the arm, and continues to provide a stabilizing force to the shoulder, even if the arm is moved away from the neutral position. Tests with two participants showed promising results. Significance: The device presented in this work could have a significant impact on the shoulder function which may improve rehabilitation outcome...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Unsupervised Classification of Atrial Electrograms for Electroanatomic Mapping of Human Persistent Atrial Fibrillation
Objective: Ablation treatment for persistent atrial fibrillation (persAF) remains challenging due to the absence of a ‘ground truth’ for atrial substrate characterization and the presence of multiple mechanisms driving the arrhythmia. We implemented an unsupervised classification to identify clusters of atrial electrograms (AEGs) with similar patterns, which were then validated by AEG-derived markers. Methods: 956 bipolar AEGs were collected from 11 persAF patients. CARTO variables (Biosense Webster; ICL, ACI and SCI) were used to create a 3D space, and subsequently used to perform an unsupervised classificatio...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Advanced Signal Processing Methods for Characterization of Schizophrenia
Conclusion: The findings imply that the extracted features are from the regions that are mainly affected by SCZ and can be used to distinguish SCZs from HCs. Significance: The proposed ML algorithm may prove to be a promising tool for the clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

A Unified Approach to Wearable Ballistocardiogram Gating and Wave Localization
Conclusion: We demonstrated the proof-of-concept of a unified approach to localize wearable BCG waves suited to various gating and localization reference signals compatible with wearable measurement. Significance: Prior work using the BCG itself or the ECG to gate the BCG beats and localize the waves to compute PTT are not ideally suited to the wearable BCG. Our approach may foster the development of cuff-less BP monitoring technologies based on the wearable BCG. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Optimization of a Close-Fitting Volume RF Coil for Brain Imaging at 6.5 mT Using Linear Programming
Conclusion: The method we outline here provide new insight into the conductor layout needed for magnetic optimization of structurally complex coils, especially when tradeoffs between competing attributes (SNR and homogeneity in this case) must be made. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Table of Contents
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Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

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Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

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Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

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Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

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Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - March 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

A Breast-Specific MR Guided Focused Ultrasound Platform and Treatment Protocol: First-in-Human Technical Evaluation
Conclusion: The targeting accuracy allows the accurate placement of the focal spot using electronic steering capabilities of the transducer. The use of both volumetric MRTI and MR-ARFI provides complementary treatment planning and monitoring information during the- treatment, allowing the treatment of all breast anatomies, including homogeneously fatty breasts. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - February 23, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Proactive Air Management in CT Power Injections: A Comprehensive Approach to Reducing Air Embolization
This study reviews the challenges associated with reactive air management approaches employed on contemporary systems, proposes a novel air management approach using proactive methods, and compares the impact of reactive and proactive approaches on injected air volumes under simulated clinical use. Methods: Injected air volumes from three power injection systems were measured under simulated clinical use via custom air trap fixture. Two of the systems employed reactive air management approaches, while a new system implemented the proposed proactive air management approach. Results: The proactive system injected significant...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - February 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Prediction of Individual Knee Kinematics From an MRI Representation of the Articular Surfaces
Conclusion: The proposed approach allows the prediction of individual joint motion based on non-ionizing MRI data. Significance: This method may help to characterize healthy and, by comparison, pathological knee behavior. Moreover, it may provide an individual reference motion for the personalization of musculoskeletal models, opening the way to their clinical application. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - February 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Principal Component Analysis in Projection and Image Domains—Another Form of Spectral Imaging in Photon-Counting CT
Conclusion: The PCA in either projection or image domain provides another form of spectral imaging in photon-counting CT that fits the essential requirements on spectral imaging in true color. Significance: The verification of PCA's feasibility in CT as a form spectral imaging and observation of its potential superiority in CNR over conventional polychromatic CT are meaningful in theory and practice. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - February 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Fiber Optic Sensors-Based Thermal Analysis of Perfusion-Mediated Tissue Cooling in Liver Undergoing Laser Ablation
The current challenge in the field of thermo-ablative treatments of tumors is to achieve a balance between complete destruction of malignant cells and safeguarding of the surrounding healthy tissue. Blood perfusion plays a key role for thermal ablation success, especially in the case of highly vascularized organs like liver. This work aims at monitoring the temperature within perfused swine liver undergoing laser ablation (LA). Temperature was measured through seven arrays of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors (FBGs) around the laser applicator. To mimic reality, blood perfusion within the ex-vivo liver was simulated using artifi...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - February 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Electrocardiogram Derived Respiratory Rate Using a Wearable Armband
A method for deriving respiratory rate from an armband, which records three-channel electrocardiogram (ECG) using three pairs of dry (no hydrogel) electrodes, is presented. The armband device is especially convenient for long-term (months-years) monitoring because it does not use obstructive leads nor hydrogels/adhesives, which cause skin irritation even after few days. An ECG-derived respiration (EDR) based on respiration-related modulation of QRS slopes and R-wave angle approach was used. Moreover, we modified the EDR algorithm to lower the computational cost. Respiratory rates were estimated with the armband-ECG and the...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - February 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Evaluation of Non-Invasive Ankle Joint Effort Prediction Methods for Use in Neurorehabilitation Using Electromyography and Ultrasound Imaging
Conclusion: The findings indicate FFNN or HNM approach and using pennation angle or fascicle length predict human ankle movement intent with higher accuracy. Significance: The accurate ankle effort prediction will pave the path to safe and reliable robotic assistance in patients with drop foot. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - February 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Efficient Medical Instrument Detection in 3D Volumetric Ultrasound Data
Ultrasound-guided procedures have been applied in many clinical therapies, such as cardiac catheterization and regional anesthesia. Medical instrument detection in 3D Ultrasound (US) is highly desired, but the existing approaches are far from real-time performance. Our objective is to investigate an efficient instrument detection method in 3D US for practical clinical use. We propose a novel Multi-dimensional Mixed Network for efficient instrument detection in 3D US, which extracts the discriminating features at 3D full-image level by a 3D encoder, and then applies a specially designed dimension reduction block to reduce t...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - February 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Image Guidance in Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery to Treat Parkinson's Disease: A Comprehensive Review
This article surveys the state-of-the-art techniques in image-guided DBS surgery to treat PD, and discusses their benefits and drawbacks, as well as future directions on the topic. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - February 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Low-Frequency Impedance-Based Cell Discrimination Considering Ion Transport Model in Cell Suspension
Low-frequency impedance-based (LFI) cell discrimination as a novel non-destructive and non-invasive cell discrimination is proposed. LFI cell discrimination discriminates the cell type by considering an ion transport model in cell suspension. Ion transport model in cell suspension is constructed on the basis of Fick's laws of diffusion in the extracellular region under ion permeability P which represents the characteristics of cell type. P is achieved using the ion transport model equation through an iterative curve fitting to an ion concentration in extracellular region obtained from low-frequency impedance which i...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - February 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Evaluation of Respiratory Muscle Activity by Means of Concentric Ring Electrodes
Surface electromyography (sEMG) can be used for the evaluation of respiratory muscle activity. Recording sEMG involves the use of surface electrodes in a bipolar configuration. However, electrocardiographic (ECG) interference and electrode orientation represent considerable drawbacks to bipolar acquisition. As an alternative, concentric ring electrodes (CREs) can be used for sEMG acquisition and offer great potential for the evaluation of respiratory muscle activity due to their enhanced spatial resolution and simple placement protocol, which does not depend on muscle fiber orientation. The aim of this work was to analyze ...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - February 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Unified Expression of the Quasi-Static Electromagnetic Field: Demonstration With MEG and EEG Signals
Conclusion: The VSH model is a powerful and simple approach for modeling quasi-static electromagnetic fields. Significance: Our formalism provides a unified framework for interpreting resolution questions, and paves the way for new processing and analysis methods. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - February 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

A Novel Estimation Approach of Pressure Gradient and Haemodynamic Stresses as Indicators of Pathological Aortic Flow Using Subvoxel Modelling
Conclusion: Our novel approach based on the modelling of subvoxel stress offers a validated and- more accurate way to estimate pressure gradient, irreversible pressure loss and SVS stress. Significance: We anticipate that the approach may potentially be applied to image-based in vivo, in vitro 4D flow data or in silico data with limited spatial resolution to assess pressure loss and SVS stresses in disturbed aortic blood flow. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - February 19, 2021 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research