Gradient Field Deviation (GFD) Correction Using a Hybrid-Norm Approach With Wavelet Sub-Band Dependent Regularization: Implementation for Radial MRI at 9.4 T
In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), system imperfections and eddy currents can cause gradient field deviation (GFD), leading to various image distortions, such as increased noise, ghosting artifacts, and geometric deformation. These distortions can degrade the clinical value of MR images. Generally, non-Cartesian image sequences, such as radial sampling, produce larger gradient deviations than Cartesian sampling, as a result of stronger eddy current-induced gradient delays and phase errors. In this paper, we developed a GFD encoding method to reduce image noise and artifacts for radial MRI. In the proposed method, a hybri...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Bayesian Inference Identifies Combination Therapeutic Targets in Breast Cancer
Conclusion: Using a mathematical framework, we showed that the combination therapy of mTOR and STAT3 genes yields the best apoptosis in breast cancer. Significance: The computational results we arrived at are consistent with the experimental results that we obtained using Cryptotanshinone on MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines and also by the past results of others from the literature, thereby demonstrating the effectiveness of our model. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Electroporation-Induced Stress Response and Its Effect on Gene Electrotransfer Efficacy: In Vivo Imaging and Numerical Modeling
Objective: Skin is an attractive target tissue for gene transfer due to its size, accessibility, and its immune competence. One of the promising delivery methods is gene delivery by means of electroporation (EP), i.e., gene electrotransfer (GET). To assess the importance of different effects of electroporation for successful GET we investigated: stress response and transfection efficacy upon different pulse protocols. Moreover, numerical modeling was used to explain experimental results and to test the agreement of experimental results with current knowledge about GET. Methods: Double transgenic mice Hspa1b-LucF (+/+) Hspa...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

A New RF Heating Strategy for Thermal Treatment of Atherosclerosis
Conclusion: By the control of RF heating and convection coefficient of the internal cooling agent, a targeted heating region away from the inner surface of the blood vessel can be realized. Significance: This study has illustrated the possibility of achieving a precision thermal treatment of atherosclerosis in favor of inhibiting further restenosis. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Noninvasive Imaging of Epicardial and Endocardial Potentials With Low Rank and Sparsity Constraints
In this study, we explore the use of low rank and sparse constraints for the noninvasive estimation of epicardial and endocardial extracellular potentials from body-surface electrocardiographic data to locate the focus of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). The proposed strategy formulates the dynamic spatiotemporal distribution of cardiac potentials by means of low rank and sparse decomposition, where the low rank term represents the smooth background and the anomalous potentials are extracted in the sparse matrix. Compared to the most previous potential-based approaches, the proposed low rank and sparse constraint...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Liver Extraction Using Residual Convolution Neural Networks From Low-Dose CT Images
This study aims to extract a liver model from LDCT images for facilitating medical expert in surgical planning and post-operative assessment along with low radiation risk to the patient. Our method carried out liver extraction by employing residual convolutional neural networks (LER-CN), which is further refined by noise removal and structure preservation components. After patch-based training, our LER-CN shows a competitive performance relative to state-of-the-art methods for both clinical and publicly available MICCAI Sliver07 datasets. We have proposed training and learning algorithms for LER-CN based on back propagatio...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Toward Unobtrusive In-Home Gait Analysis Based on Radar Micro-Doppler Signatures
Conclusion: Radar micro-Doppler signatures and their Fourier transforms are well suited to capture changes in gait. Five different walking styles are recognized with high accuracy. Significance: Radar-based sensing of gait is an emerging technology with multi-faceted applications in security and health care industries. We show that radar, as a contact-less sensing technology, can supplement existing gait diagnostic tools with respect to long-term monitoring and reproducibility of the examinations. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Auto-Regressive Discrete Acquisition Points Transformation for Diffusion Weighted MRI Data
Objective: A new method for fitting diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) data composed of an unknown number of multi-exponential components is presented and evaluated. Methods: The auto-regressive discrete acquisition points transformation (ADAPT) method is an adaption of the auto-regressive moving average system, which allows for the modeling of multi-exponential data and enables the estimation of the number of exponential components without prior assumptions. ADAPT was evaluated on simulated DW-MRI data. The optimum ADAPT fit was then applied to human brain DWI data and the correlation between the ADAPT...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Maximum Entropy Based Non-Negative Optoacoustic Tomographic Image Reconstruction
Conclusion: The proposed algorithm demonstrates superior reconstruction performance by delivering non-negative pixel values with no visible distortion of anatomical structures. Significance: Our method can enable quantitative optoacoustic imaging, and has the potential to improve preclinical and translational imaging applications. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Lower Limb Pulse Rise Time as a Marker of Peripheral Arterial Disease
Objective: The aim of the study was to show if pulse rise times (PRTs) extracted from photoplethysmographic (PPG) pulse waves (PWs) have an association with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) or its endovascular treatment, percutanoeus transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the superficial femoral artery. Methods: Lower and upper limb PPG PWs were recorded and analyzed from 24 patients who suffered from PAD. The measurements were conducted before and after the treatment, and one month later by using transmission-mode PPG-probes placed in the index finger and second toe. Ankle-to-brachial pressure index and toe pressures were use...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Sparse Deconvolution of Electrodermal Activity via Continuous-Time System Identification
Conclusion: We develop a novel approach for deconvolution of SC by employing the HMF method and capturing the significant spectral components of SC data. Significance: Recovering the underlying neural stimuli more accurately using this approach will potentially improve tracking emotional states in affective computing. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Combining Metrics From Clinical Simulators and Sensorimotor Tasks Can Reveal the Training Background of Surgeons
Conclusions: These results suggest that each simulator-type provided crucial information for evaluating surgical proficiency. The methods developed in this paper could improve evaluations of a surgeon's clinical proficiency as well as training potential in terms of basic- sensorimotor ability. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

3-D Microwave Tomography Using the Soft Prior Regularization Technique: Evaluation in Anatomically Realistic MRI-Derived Numerical Breast Phantoms
Conclusion: This study confirmed that the soft prior algorithm is robust in 3-D and can function successfully across a range of complex geometries and tissue property distributions. Significance: This study demonstrates that our microwave tomography is capable of recovering accurate tissue property distributions when spatial information from MRI is incorporated through soft prior regularization. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Evolving Gaussian Process Autoregression Based Learning of Human Motion Intent Using Improved Energy Kernel Method of EMG
Continuous human motion intent learning may be modeled using a Gaussian process (GP) autoregression based evolving system to cope with the unspecified and time-varying motion patterns. Electromyography (EMG) signals are the primary input. GP is used as a mathematical foundation to model human kinematics by adopting the nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (NARX) framework, and an evolving system is applied to learn the irregular and unspecified dynamic features. The statistical nature of the GP offers superior flexibility for learning human kinematics and is capable of giving credibility to motion intent predicti...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Dominant-Current Deep Learning Scheme for Electrical Impedance Tomography
Conclusions and Significance: Significant performance improvements of the proposed methods are shown in reconstructing targets with sharp corners or edges. It is also demonstrated that the proposed methods are capable of fast, stable, and high-quality EIT imaging, which is promising in providing quantitative images for potential clinical applications. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Long-Term Developmental Process of the Human Cortex Revealed In Vitro by Axon-Targeted Recording Using a Microtunnel-Augmented Microelectrode Array
Conclusion: The use of a microtunnel MEA enables the monitoring of the long-term development of human neuronal networks of cell populations that are relatively natural given their lack of astrocyte feeders. Significance: We report a more accurate method for culturing cortical neurons differentiated from hiPSCs, validating their use in elucidating cortical development and pathogenic mechanisms in humans. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Robotic Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Prostate Biopsy
We present a robot-assisted approach for transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy. The robot is a hands-free probe manipulator that moves the probe with the same 4 DoF that are used manually. Software was developed for three-dimensional (3-D) imaging, biopsy planning, robot control, and navigation. Methods to minimize the deformation of the prostate caused by the probe at 3-D imaging and needle targeting were developed to reduce biopsy targeting errors. We also present a prostate coordinate system (PCS). The PCS helps defining a systematic biopsy plan without the need for prostate segmentation. Comprehensive te...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Visualizing Interactions of Circulating Tumor Cell and Dendritic Cell in the Blood Circulation Using In Vivo Imaging Flow Cytometry
Conclusion: Using this technique, single CTCs and CTC clusters were readily distinguished by their morphology. Interactions of CTCs and DCs were identified, while their moving velocities were analyzed. The CTC-DC clusters moved at a slower velocity than that of single CTCs or DCs. This may provide new insights into tumor metastasis and blood rheology. Significance: This in vivo imaging flow cytometry system holds great potential for assessing the efficiency of targeting CTCs with anticancer immune cells or drugs. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

A Novel Controllable Cell Array Printing Technique on Microfluidic Chips
Conclusion: This novel controllable cell array printing technique on the microfluidic platforms provides a useful method with high-quality printing and cell viability for the applications of single-cell analysis and high-throughput drug screening. Significance: The controllable cell printing technique could apply in many biological processes and biomedical engineering applications, such as cell analysis, cancer development, and drug screening and metabolism. Combined with the microfluidic chips, tissue engineering, and sensors, this technique will be widely used for the construction and analysis of biological and biomedica...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Impedance-Based Gaussian Processes for Modeling Human Motor Behavior in Physical and Non-Physical Interaction
Conclusion: We derive the correlations of an impedance-based GP model of human motor behavior that exploits a priori knowledge. Significance: The model effectively predicts interaction forces by inferring a latent desired human trajectory in previously observed as well as unobserved regions of the input space. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Fluidic Bypass Structures for Improving the Robustness of Liquid Scanning Probes
Conclusion: The presented passive design element counters both failure modes in a simple and highly compatible manner. Significance: Liquid scanning probes enabling targeted interfacing with biological surfaces are compatible with a wide range of workflows and bioanalytical applications. An improved operational robustness would facilitate rapid and widespread adoption of liquid scanning probes in research as well as in diagnostics. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Stimulation and Artifact-Suppression Techniques for In Vitro High-Density Microelectrode Array Systems
We present novel voltage stimulation buffers with controlled output current, along with recording circuits featuring adjustable high-pass cut-off filtering to perform efficient stimulation while actively suppressing stimulation artifacts in high-density microelectrode arrays. Owing to the dense packing and close proximity of the electrodes in such systems, a stimulation through one electrode can cause large electrical artifacts on neighboring electrodes that easily saturate the corresponding recording amplifiers. To suppress such artifacts, the high-pass corner frequencies of all available 2048 recording channels can be ra...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Three-Dimensional Electrical Impedance Tomography With Multiplicative Regularization
Conclusion: The multiplicative regularization can be applied to EIT image reconstruction with promising applications in thorax imaging. Significance: In the multiplicative regularization scheme, there is no need to set an artificial regularization parameter in the cost functional. This helps to reduce the workload related to choosing a regularization parameter which may require expertise and many numerical experiments. The DEC-based method provides a systematic and rigorous way to formulate operators on unstructured meshes. This may help EIT image reconstructions using regularizations imposing structural or spatial constra...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Bayesian Electromagnetic Spatio-Temporal Imaging of Extended Sources Based on Matrix Factorization
In this study, we proposed a new fully data-driven source imaging method, source imaging based on spatio-temporal basis function (SI-STBF), which is built upon a Bayesian framework, to address this issue. The SI-STBF is based on the factorization of a source matrix as a product of a sparse coding matrix and a temporal basis function (TBF) matrix, which includes a few TBFs. The prior of the TBF is set in the empirical Bayesian manner. Similarly, for the spatial constraint, the SI-STBF assumes the prior covariance of the coding matrix as a weighted sum of several spatial covariance components. Both the TBFs and the coding ma...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Label-Free 3-D Optical Coherence Microscopy Images of Human Cervical Tissue
Conclusion: The proposed deep-learning-based CADx method outperformed four human experts. It was also able to identify morphological characteristics in OCM images that were consistent with histopathological interpretations. Significance: Label-free OCM imaging, combined with deep-learning-based - ADx methods, holds a great promise to be used in clinical settings for the effective screening and diagnosis of cervical diseases. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Time-Varying Respiratory Mechanics as a Novel Mechanism Behind Frequency Dependence of Impedance: A Modeling Approach
Frequency dependence of respiratory mechanics is a well-established behavior of the respiratory system and is known to be an indicator of severity of obstructive disease, attributed to both tissue viscoelasticity and heterogeneity of airflow in the lung. Despite the fact that respiratory parameters are known to vary in time, often amplified in disease, all analysis methods assume stationarity or short-time stationarity in the parameters used to describe the respiratory system, and the effects of this assumption have not yet been examined in any detail. Here, using a generalized approach, we developed a theory for time-vary...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Reliable Label-Efficient Learning for Biomedical Image Recognition
The use of deep neural networks for biomedical image analysis requires a sufficient number of labeled datasets. To acquire accurate labels as the gold standard, multiple observers with specific expertise are required for both annotation and proofreading. This process can be time-consuming and labor-intensive, making high-quality, and large-annotated biomedical datasets difficult. To address this problem, we propose a deep active learning framework that enables the active selection of both informative queries and reliable experts. To measure the uncertainty of the unlabeled data, a dropout-based strategy is integrated with ...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Table of Contents
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Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

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Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

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Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

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Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

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Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Foot Inertial Sensing for Combined Cognitive-Motor Exercise of the Sustained Attention Domain
Objective: In the past decade, cognitive training tools have been used to improve brain functioning, and some have been applied to cognitive decline in dementia. Recently, research studies have demonstrated that aerobic exercise could play an important restorative role toward cognitive impairments. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to present the innovative use of the SmartWalk tool, which combines aerobic exercise and cognitive protocols traditionally used to stimulate cognitive function. Methods: The primary goal of this study to demonstrate if our tool is correlated with traditional computerized test in sti...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - July 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Intracortical Neural Stimulation With Untethered, Ultrasmall Carbon Fiber Electrodes Mediated by the Photoelectric Effect
Conclusion: Our results support the hypothesis that the proposed photoelectric method for neural stimulation is effective. Significance: Photoelectric stimulation is precise and avoids the need for a potentially destructive tether, making- it a promising alternative to electrical stimulation. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - July 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Riemannian Procrustes Analysis: Transfer Learning for Brain–Computer Interfaces
Conclusion and significance: We present a simple yet powerful method for matching the statistical distributions of two datasets, thus paving the way to BCI systems capable of reusing data from previous sessions and avoid the need of a calibration procedure. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - July 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Altered Neural Control Reduces Shear Forces and Ankle Impedance on a Slippery Surface
Conclusion: These results suggest that reduced muscle activity on slippery surfaces serves to reduce shear forces, and possibly also stiffness, during late mid-stance. Significance: These results have implications for identifying and training likely fallers, and possibly for designing prosthetic systems that help prevent falls when walking across different terrains. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - July 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Feature-Less Automatic Classification of Independent Components in Multi-Channel Electrophysiological Brain Recordings
Conclusion: High CNN classification performances were achieved through heuristical selection of machinery hyperparameters and through the CNN self-selection of the features of interest. Significance: Considering the large data availability of multi-ch- nnel EEG and MEG recordings, CNNs may be suited for classification of ICs of multi-channel brain electrophysiological recordings. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - July 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Cascaded Multi-Column RVFL+ Classifier for Single-Modal Neuroimaging-Based Diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease
The neuroimaging-based computer-aided diagnosis for Parkinson's disease (PD) has attracted considerable attention in recent years, where the classifier plays a critical role. Random vector functional link network (RVFL) has shown its effectiveness for classification task, while its extended version, namely RVFL plus (RVFL+), integrates the additional privileged information (PI) about training samples in RVFL to help training a more effective classifier. On the other hand, it is still a popular way to adopt only a single neuroimaging modality for PD diagnosis in a clinical practice. In this work, we construct a novel...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - July 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Using Brain Activation to Evaluate Arrangements Aiding Hand–Eye Coordination in Surgical Robot Systems
Conclusion: There are two common arrangements of the monitor and master at the brain activation's peak: One is placing the monitor behind the master, so the user feels that the system is an extension of his arms into the monitor; the other arranges the monitor in front of the master, so the user feels the correspondence between his own arm and the virtual arm in the monitor. Significance: From these results, we conclude that the arrangement between the monitor and master impacts embodiment, enabling the participant to feel apparent posture matches in master–slave surgical robot systems. (Source: IEEE Transacti...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - July 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

The Resolution Matrix in Tomographic Multiplexing: Optimization of Inter-Parameter Cross-Talk, Relative Quantitation, and Localization
Conclusion: The ATD and CCTD inversion methods provide significant advantages over DTD for accurately estimating multiple overlapping fluorophores. Significance: Time domain fluorescence tomography, using zero cross-talk estimators, can serve as a powerful tool for quantifying multiple fluorescently labeled biological processes. The Bayesian framework presented here can be applied to general multiparameter inverse problems for the quantitative estimation of multiple overlapping parameters. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - July 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

MRI-Compatible Injection System for Magnetic Microparticle Embolization
Conclusion and Significance: This system has the capability to operate within the strong magnetic field of a clinical 3-T MRI, to form proper particle aggregates and to automatically inject these aggregates into the MRI bore. Moreover, the versatility of the proposed injector renders it suitable for selective injections of MDEBs during MR-guided embolization procedures. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - July 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

A Machine Hearing System for Robust Cough Detection Based on a High-Level Representation of Band-Specific Audio Features
Conclusion: Our research outcome paves the way to create a device for cough monitoring in real-life situations. Significance: Our proposal is aligned with a more comfortable and less disruptive patient monitoring, with benefits for patients (allows self-monitoring of cough symptoms), practitioners (e.g., assessment of treatments or better clinical understanding of cough patterns), and national health systems (by reducing hospitalizations). (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - July 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Development of Algorithms for Automated Detection of Cervical Pre-Cancers With a Low-Cost, Point-of-Care, Pocket Colposcope
Conclusion: The results suggest that utilizing simple color- and textural-based features from visual inspection with acetic acid and visual inspection with Lugol's iodine images may provide unbiased automation of cervigrams. Significance: This would enable automated, expert-level diagnosis of cervical pre-cancer at the point of care. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - July 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Detectability of Breast Tumors in Excised Breast Tissues of Total Mastectomy by IR-UWB-Radar-Based Breast Cancer Detector
The objective of this paper is to investigate the detectability of breast tumors having various histological types in excised breast tissues of total mastectomy. The tumor images measured by a portable impulse-radio-ultra-wideband (IR-UWB)-radar-based breast cancer detector are compared with both pathological images and images of dedicated breast positron emission tomography. It is found that the detector can detect invasive-ductal-carcinomas and extensive intraductal component in the dense breast. The density of the breast has a correlation to the effective permittivity derived from the reconstructed confocal images. The ...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - July 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Localization of Activation Origin on Patient-Specific Endocardial Surface by the Equivalent Double Layer (EDL) Source Model With Sparse Bayesian Learning
Conclusion: The results of our clinical and simulation experiments demonstrate that localization - f left-ventricular endocardial activation by means of the Bayesian approach, based on sparse representation of sources by EDL, is feasible and accurate. Significance: The proposed approach to localizing endocardial sources may have important applications in pre-procedure assessment of arrhythmias and in guiding their ablation treatment. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - July 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Detection of Vesicoureteral Reflux Using Electrical Impedance Tomography
Conclusion: In animal models, EIT has the capability to detect reflux in the kidneys with high accuracy. The results show promise for EIT to be used for screening of VUR in children. Significance: VUR is the most common congenital urinary tract abnormality in children. The condition predisposes children to urinary tract infections and kidney damage. The current gold standard diagnostic test, a voiding cystourethrogram, is invasive and uses ionizing radiation; therefore, there is a need for new tools for identifying VUR in children. This study presents a noninvasive method to detect VUR in animal models, illustrating the po...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - July 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Bayesian Inference-Based Estimation of Normal Aortic, Aneurysmal and Atherosclerotic Tissue Mechanical Properties: From Material Testing, Modeling and Histology
Conclusion: Bayesian inference-based estimation robustly determines material const- nts in the modified Mooney-Rivlin SEDF and these constants can reflect the inherent physiological and pathological features of the tissue structure. Significance: This study suggested a robust procedure to determine the material constants in SEDF and demonstrated that the obtained constants can be used to characterize tissues from different types of lesions, while associating with their inherent microstructures. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - July 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Variations of Intracellular Ca2+ Mobilization Initiated by Nanosecond and Microsecond Electrical Pulses in HeLa Cells
Conclusion: These results suggest that the 10-μs PEF takes a large amount of extracellular Na+ into the cell through the electropermeabilized plasma membrane, especially at the anodic side, resulting in the suppression of the Ca2+ influx. On the contrary, the 20-ns-long PEF increased Ca2+ concentration in the surrounding region of the nucleus only in the presence of extracellular Ca2+. The PEF exposure with inhibition of the IP3R indicates that increased Ca2+ ions are released from the ER via the activated IP3R. Significance: These mechanisms could induce specific cell responses, such as Ca2+ oscillations, Ca2+ waves, a...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - July 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Importance of Exposure Duration and Metrics on Correlation Between RF Energy Absorption and Temperature Increase in a Human Model
Conclusions: In general, SAR provides a better correlation with temperature compared to VAR for short exposures, while VAR renders better correlations for higher frequencies and longer exposures. Significance: The correlation between electromagnetic absorption and temperature increases has implications in guidelines for limiting human exposure to electromagnetic fields and in biomedical applications such as imaging, sensing, and hyperthermia. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - July 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Modified Dominant Mode Rejection Beamformer for Localizing Brain Activities When Data Covariance Matrix Is Rank Deficient
Conclusion: Empirical results illustrate the superiority of the proposed DMR method to the DL_MVB and FFA in localizing brain short time activities. Significance: The proposed method can be utilized in source localization of epilepsy for presurgical clinical evaluation purpose and also in applications dealing with the localization of evoked potentials and fields. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - July 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research