Ieee transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering information for authors
These instructions give guidelines for preparing papers for this publication. Presents information for authors publishing in this journal. (Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering)
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Online Grasp Force Estimation From the Transient EMG
Myoelectric upper limb prostheses are controlled using information from the electrical activity of residual muscles (i.e. the electromyogram, EMG). EMG patterns at the onset of a contraction (transient phase) have shown predictive information about upcoming grasps. However, decoding this information for the estimation of the grasp force was so far overlooked. In a previous offline study, we proved that the transient phase of the EMG indeed contains information about the grasp force and determined the best algorithm to extract this information. Here we translated those findings into an online platform to be tested with both...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Region Based Parallel Hierarchy Convolutional Neural Network for Automatic Facial Nerve Paralysis Evaluation
In this article, we propose a parallel hierarchy convolutional neural network (PHCNN) combining a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network structure to quantitatively assess the grading of facial nerve paralysis (FNP) by considering the region-based asymmetric facial features and temporal variation of the image sequences. FNP, such as Bell’s palsy, is the most common facial symptom of neuromotor dysfunctions. It causes the weakness of facial muscles for the normal emotional expression and movements. The subjective judgement by clinicians completely depends on individual experience, which may not lead to a uniform evalua...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dynamic Bayesian Adjustment of Dwell Time for Faster Eye Typing
Eye typing is a hands-free method of human computer interaction, which is especially useful for people with upper limb disabilities. Users select a desired key by gazing at it in an image of a keyboard for a fixed dwell time. There is a tradeoff in selecting the dwell time; shorter dwell times lead to errors due to unintentional selections, while longer dwell times lead to a slow input speed. We propose to speed up eye typing while maintaining low error by dynamically adjusting the dwell time for each letter based on the past input history. More likely letters are assigned shorter dwell times. Our method is based on a prob...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Toward Predicting Infant Developmental Outcomes From Day-Long Inertial Motion Recordings
As improvements in medicine lower infant mortality rates, more infants with neuromotor challenges survive past birth. The motor, social, and cognitive development of these infants are closely interrelated, and challenges in any of these areas can lead to developmental differences. Thus, analyzing one of these domains - the motion of young infants - can yield insights on developmental progress to help identify individuals who would benefit most from early interventions. In the presented data collection, we gathered day-long inertial motion recordings from N = 12 typically developing (TD) infants and N = 24 infants who were ...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Stiffness-Optimized Ankle-Foot Orthoses Improve Walking Energy Cost Compared to Conventional Orthoses in Neuromuscular Disorders: A Prospective Uncontrolled Intervention Study
In persons with calf muscle weakness, walking energy cost is commonly increased due to persistent knee flexion and a diminished push-off. Provided ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) usually lower walking energy cost. To maximize the reduction in energy cost, AFO bending stiffness should be individually optimized, but this is not common practice. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate whether individually stiffness-optimized AFOs reduce walking energy cost compared to conventional AFOs in persons with non-spastic calf muscle weakness and, secondarily, whether stiffness-optimized AFOs improve walking speed and gait biomechanics. Thirty-sev...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Evaluation of a Simultaneous Myoelectric Control Strategy for a Multi-DoF Transradial Prosthesis
This study aims to evaluate the PWR method for the simultaneous and proportional control of multiple DoFs using surface EMG sensors and compare the performance with a classical direct control strategy. To extract the maximum number of DoFs manageable by a user, a first analysis was conducted in a virtually simulated environment with eight able-bodied and four amputee subjects. Results show that, while using surface EMG degraded the PWR performance for the 3-DoFs control, the algorithm demonstrated excellent achievements in the 2-DoFs case. Finally, the two methods were compared on a physical experiment with amputee subject...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Design and Experimental Evaluation of a Semi-Passive Upper-Limb Exoskeleton for Workers With Motorized Tuning of Assistance
This article presents the H-PULSE, a novel semi-passive upper-limb exoskeleton for worker assistance, with motorized tuning of the assistive level. The H-PULSE presents novel design features compared to other passive industrial exoskeletons for the upper limbs, namely joint angle sensors for measuring shoulder flexion/extension and a novel active mechanism for regulating the assistance level. These features could enhance the effectiveness of the system. Along with the presentation of the exoskeleton design, this article reports on the system experimental evaluation with human subjects. The H-PULSE was assessed in prolonged...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

User-Driven Functional Movement Training With a Wearable Hand Robot After Stroke
We present the clinical outcomes of a pilot study designed as a feasibility test for these hypotheses. 11 chronic stroke (>2 years) patients with moderate muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Scale $leq 2$ in upper extremity) engaged in a month-long training protocol using the orthosis. Individuals were evaluated using standardized outcome measures, both with and without orthosis assistance. Fugl-Meyer post intervention scores without robotic assistance showed improvement focused specifically at the distal joints of the upper limb, suggesting the use of the orthosis as a rehabilitative device for the hand. Action Research Arm...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Portable Gait Lab: Tracking Relative Distances of Feet and CoM Using Three IMUs
In this study, we track the relative distances using the assumptions of the Centroidal Moment Pivot (CMP) theory. An Extended Kalman filter approach was used to fuse information from different sources: strapdown inertial navigation, commonly used constraints such as zero velocity updates, and relative segment distances from the CMP assumption; to eventually track relative feet and CoM positions. These estimates were expressed in a reference frame defined by the heading of each step. The validity of this approach was tested on variable gait. The step lengths and step widths were estimated with an average absolute error of 4...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Adding Haptic Feedback to Virtual Environments With a Cable-Driven Robot Improves Upper Limb Spatio-Temporal Parameters During a Manual Handling Task
Physical interactions within virtual environments are often limited to visual information within a restricted workspace. A new system exploiting a cable-driven parallel robot to combine visual and haptic information related to environmental physical constraints (e.g. shelving, object weight) was developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on user movement patterns of adding haptic feedback in a virtual environment with this robot. Twelve healthy participants executed a manual handling task under three conditions: 1) in a virtual environment with haptic feedback; 2) in a virtual environment without haptic fe...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Characterization of the Time-Varying Nature of Electromechanical Delay During FES-Cycling
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) induced cycling is a common rehabilitative technique for people with neuromuscular disorders. A challenge for closed-loop FES control is that there exists a potentially destabilizing time-varying input delay, termed electromechanical delay (EMD), between the application of the electric field and the corresponding muscle contraction. In this article, the FES-induced torque production and EMD are quantified on an FES-cycle for the quadriceps femoris and gluteal muscle groups. Experiments were performed on five able-bodied individuals and five individuals with neurological conditions. C...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Multi-Directional Ankle Impedance During Standing Postures
In this study, we estimated the multi-directional ankle mechanical impedance in two degrees-of-freedom (DOF) during standing, and determined how the stiffness, damping, and inertia vary with ankle angle and ankle torque at different postures. Fifteen subjects stood on a vibrating instrumented platform in four stationary postures, while subjected to pulse train perturbations in both the sagittal and frontal planes of motion. The four stationary postures were selected to resemble stages within the stance phase of the gait cycle: including post-heel-strike during the loading response, mid-stance, post-mid-stance, and just bef...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Preliminary Assessment of a Hand and Arm Exoskeleton for Enabling Bimanual Tasks for Individuals With Hemiparesis
The design and preliminary assessment of a semi-powered hand and arm exoskeleton is described. The exoskeleton is designed to enable bimanual activities of daily living for individuals with chronic, upper-limb hemiparesis resulting from stroke. Specifically, the device augments the user’s grasp strength and ability to extend the affected hand for bimanual tasks and supplements wrist and elbow stability while conducting these tasks. The exoskeleton is battery-powered and self-contained with all electronics and power units placed within the device structure. A preliminary assessment of the exoskeleton was performed wit...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Adapting to the Mechanical Properties and Active Force of an Exoskeleton by Altering Muscle Synergies in Chronic Stroke Survivors
Chronic stroke survivors often suffer from gait impairment resistant to intervention. Recent rehabilitation strategies based on gait training with powered exoskeletons appear promising, but whether chronic survivors may benefit from them remains controversial. We evaluated the potential of exoskeletal gait training in restoring normal motor outputs in chronic survivors (N = 10) by recording electromyographic signals (EMGs, 28 muscles both legs) as they adapted to exoskeletal perturbations, and examined whether any EMG alterations after adaptation were underpinned by closer-to-normal muscle synergies. A unilateral ankle-foo...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of Varying Plantarflexion Stiffness of Ankle-Foot Orthosis on Achilles Tendon and Propulsion Force During Gait
An ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) with a plantarflexion resistance function, improves post-stroke gait. An AFO with a plantarflexion resistance function not only affects the first rocker function and the weight acceptance but also the late stance phase. Achilles tendon extension is important for ankle joint function and for forward propulsion during the late stance phase; however, the effect of an AFO with a plantarflexion resistance function on the Achilles tendon is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of plantarflexion resistance on the extension of the Achilles tendon and the forward-propulsive f...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Targeted Pelvic Constraint Force Induces Enhanced Use of the Paretic Leg During Walking in Persons Post-Stroke
The purpose of this study was to determine whether activation of muscles in the paretic leg, particularly contributing to propulsion, and gait symmetry can be improved by applying a targeted resistance force to the pelvis in the backward direction during stance phase while walking in individuals post-stroke. Thirteen individuals post-stroke participated in two experimental sessions, which consisted of treadmill walking, with either targeted or constant resistances, together with overground walking. For the targeted condition, a resistance force was applied to the pelvis during the stance phase of the paretic leg. For the c...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Model Predictive Control for Seizure Suppression Based on Nonlinear Auto-Regressive Moving-Average Volterra Model
This article investigates a closed-loop brain stimulation method based on model predictive control strategy to suppress epileptic seizures. A neural mass model (NMM), exhibiting the normal and various epileptic seizures by changing physiologically meaningful parameters, is used as a black-box model of the brain. Based on system identification, an auto-regressive moving-average Volterra model is established to reveal the relationship between stimulation and neuronal responses. Then, the model predictive control strategy is implemented based the Volterra model, which can generate an optimal stimulation waveform to eliminate ...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Topological Network Analysis of Early Alzheimer’s Disease Based on Resting-State EEG
Previous studies made progress in the early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) using electroencephalography (EEG) without considering EEG connectivity. To fill this gap, we explored significant differences between early AD patients and controls based on frequency domain and spatial properties using functional connectivity in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild AD datasets. Four global metrics, network resilience, connection-level metrics and node versatility were used to distinguish between controls and patients. The results show that the main frequency bands that are different between MCI patients and contro...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Bispectrum-Based Channel Selection for Motor Imagery Based Brain-Computer Interfacing
The performance of motor imagery (MI) based Brain-computer interfacing (BCI) is easily affected by noise and redundant information that exists in the multi-channel electroencephalogram (EEG). To solve this problem, many temporal and spatial feature based channel selection methods have been proposed. However, temporal and spatial features do not accurately reflect changes in the power of the oscillatory EEG. Thus, spectral features of MI-related EEG signals may be useful for channel selection. Bispectrum analysis is a technique developed for extracting non-linear and non-Gaussian information from non-linear and non-Gaussian...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Optimal Control Perspective on Parkinson’s Disease: Increased Delay Between State Estimator and Controller Produces Tremor
This article uses an optimal control approach to investigate the hypothesis that an increased delay in the central nervous system—unaccounted by delay compensation mechanisms—produces parkinsonian tremor. This hypothesis is motivated by the excessive inhibition projected from the basal ganglia to the thalamus in Parkinson’s disease. The thalamus relays signals from the cerebellum to the primary motor cortex: previous mapping of optimal control components indicates this prospective delay exists between the estimator (cerebellum) and controller (primary motor cortex). Simulations demonstrate realistic tremo...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

W:Ti Flexible Transversal Electrode Array for Peripheral Nerve Stimulation: A Feasibility Study
The development of hardware for neural interfacing remains a technical challenge. We introduce a flexible, transversal intraneural tungsten:titanium electrode array for acute studies. We characterize the electrochemical properties of this new combination of tungsten and titanium using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. With an in-vivo rodent study, we show that the stimulation of peripheral nerves with this electrode array is possible and that more than half of the electrode contacts can yield a stimulation selectivity index of 0.75 or higher at low stimulation currents. This feasibility study p...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Inter- and Intra-Subject Transfer Reduces Calibration Effort for High-Speed SSVEP-Based BCIs
Conclusion: Inter- and intra-subject transfer helps the recognition method achieve high ITR with extremely little calibration effort. Significance: The proposed approach saves much calibration effort without sacrificing the ITR, which would be significant for practical SSVEP-based BCIs. (Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering)
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The EEG Signal Analysis for Spatial Cognitive Ability Evaluation Based on Multivariate Permutation Conditional Mutual Information-Multi-Spectral Image
This study aims to find an effective method to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive training of spatial memory under a virtual reality environment, by classifying the EEG signals of subjects in the early and late stages of spatial cognitive training. This study proposes a new EEG signal analysis method based on Multivariate Permutation Conditional Mutual Information-Multi-Spectral Image (MPCMIMSI). This method mainly considers the relationship between the coupled features of EEG signals in different channel pairs and transforms the multivariate permutation conditional mutual information features into multi-spectral images. T...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Enhanced Performance of a Brain Switch by Simultaneous Use of EEG and NIRS Data for Asynchronous Brain-Computer Interface
In this study, we developed such a hybrid EEG/NIRS brain switch and compared its performance with single modality EEG- and NIRS-based brain switch respectively, in terms of true positive rate (TPR), false positive rate (FPR), onset detection time (ODT), and information transfer rate (ITR). In an offline analysis, the performance of a hybrid EEG/NIRS brain switch was significantly improved over that of EEG- and NIRS-based brain switches in general, and in particular a significantly lower FPR was observed for the hybrid EEG/NIRS brain switch. A pseudo-online analysis was additionally performed to confirm the feasibility of i...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Table of contents
Presents the table of contents for this issue of the publication. (Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering)
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering publication information
Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication. (Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering)
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Front cover
Presents the front cover for this issue of the publication. (Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering)
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - October 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Modeling of Human Operator Behavior for Brain-Actuated Mobile Robots Steering
Human operator control of brain-actuated robot steering based on electroencephalograph (EEG)-signals is a complex behavior consisting of surroundings perceiving, decision making, and commands issuing and differs among individual operators. However, no existing models allow decoupling the user from the loop to improve the system design and testing process, which can capture such behavior of a brain-actuated robot. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose an operator brain-controlled steering model consisting of an operator decision model based on the queuing network (QN) cognitive architecture and a brain-machine ...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - August 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Backpack Minimizing the Vertical Acceleration of the Load Improves the Economy of Human Walking
Loaded walking with a rucksack results in both gravitational and inertial forces of the load that must be borne by human carriers. The inertial force may be the source of metabolic burden and musculoskeletal injuries. This paper presents a lightweight backpack with a disturbance observer-based acceleration control to minimize the inertial force. The backpack was evaluated by seven participants walking on a treadmill at 5 km h−1 with a 19.4 kg load. Three experimental conditions were involved, including walking with a locked load (LOCKED), with an acceleration-controlled load (ACTIVE) using the designed backpack and w...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - August 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Special Issue on Wearable Robotics and Assistive Technology
This special issue highlights some of the best work presented at the 4th International Symposium on Wearable Robotics (WeRob2018), held October 16–20, 2018, in Pisa, Italy. The papers focus on new technologies in the areas of neural interfaces, soft wearable robots, sensor and actuator technologies, and robotic exoskeletons. Based on the quality and significance of presentations at the conference, some of the presenters were invited to submit substantially expanded versions of their papers to IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering (TNSRE). The papers went through the normal journal peer-re...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - August 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering information for authors
(Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering)
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - August 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Computer Vision-Based Grasp Pattern Recognition With Application to Myoelectric Control of Dexterous Hand Prosthesis
Artificial intelligence provides new feasibilities to the control of dexterous prostheses. To achieve suitable grasps over various objects, a novel computer vision-based classification method assorting objects into different grasp patterns is proposed in this paper. This method can be applied in the autonomous control of the multi-fingered prosthetic hand, as it can help users rapidly complete “reach-and-pick up” tasks on various daily objects with low demand on the myoelectric control. Firstly, an RGB-D image database (121 objects) was established according to four important grasp patterns (cylindrical, spheri...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - August 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

EEG Functional Connectivity Predicts Individual Behavioural Impairment During Mental Fatigue
Mental fatigue deteriorates ability to perform daily activities − known as time-on-task (TOT) effect and becomes a common complaint in contemporary society. However, an applicable technique for fatigue detection/prediction is hindered due to substantial inter-subject differences in behavioural impairment and brain activity. Here, we developed a fully cross-validated, data-driven analysis framework incorporating multivariate regression model to explore the feasibility of utilizing functional connectivity (FC) to predict the fatigue-related behavioural impairment at individual level. EEG was recorded from 40 healthy ad...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - August 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Deep Cerebellar Low-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Stimulation Restores Interhemispheric Balance after Ischemic Stroke in Mice
Ischemic damage after stroke disrupts the complex balance of inhibitory and excitatory activity within cortical network causing brain functional asymmetry. Cerebellar deep nuclei with its extensive projections to cortical regions could be a prospective target for stimulation to restore inter-hemispheric balance and enhance neural plasticity after stroke. In our study, we repeatedly stimulated the lateral cerebellar nucleus (LCN) by low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) for 3 days to enhance rehabilitation after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in a mouse stroke model. The neural activity of the mice sensorimotor c...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - August 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Actuation Selection for Assistive Exoskeletons: Matching Capabilities to Task Requirements
Selecting actuators for assistive exoskeletons involves decisions in which designers usually face contrasting requirements. While certain choices may depend on the application context or design philosophy, it is generally desirable to avoid oversizing actuators in order to obtain more lightweight and transparent systems, ultimately promoting the adoption of a given device. In many cases, the torque and power requirements can be relaxed by exploiting the contribution of an elastic element acting in mechanical parallel. This contribution considers one such case and introduces a methodology for the evaluation of different act...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - August 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

IoT Services and Applications in Rehabilitation: An Interdisciplinary and Meta-Analysis Review
Conclusions: This systematic review presents the current state of the art on the IoT in health rehabilitation and identifies findings in interdisciplinary researches in different clinical cases with technological systems including wearable devices and cloud computing. The gaps in IoT for rehabilitation include the need for more clinical randomized controlled trials and longitudinal studies. Clinical Impact: This paper has an interdisciplinary feature and includes areas such as Internet of Things Information and Communication Technology with their application to the medical and rehabilitation domains. (Source: IEE Transacti...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - August 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Test-Retest Reliability of Kinematic Assessments for Upper Limb Robotic Rehabilitation
This study aimed at evaluating the test-retest reliability of typically-used robot-measured kinematic variables in healthy subjects (HS) and patients with stroke (SP). Sixty-one participants (40 HS, 21 SP) carried out a planar robot-pointing task on two consecutive days. Nine robot-measured kinematic variables were computed: movement time (T), mean velocity (mV), maximal velocity (MV), smoothness error (SE), number of velocity peaks (nP), mean arrest period ratio (MAPR), normalized path length (NPL), root mean square error (RMS) from a straight line and the orthogonal projection of the last point of movement (LP). Intracla...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - August 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Motor Modules are Impacted by the Number of Reaching Directions Included in the Analysis
In this study, we investigated how the number of reaching directions included in the synergy analysis influences the validity of the extracted synergies. We used a musculoskeletal model to compute muscle activations required to perform 36 evenly spaced planar reaches. Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) and principal component analysis (PCA) were then used to extract reference synergies. We then selected several subsets of reaches and compared the ability of the extracted synergies from each subset to represent the muscle activation from all 36 reaches. We found that 6 reaches were required to extract valid synergies, a...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - August 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Can Momentum-Based Control Predict Human Balance Recovery Strategies?
Human-like balance controllers are desired for wearable exoskeletons in order to enhance human-robot interaction. Momentum-based controllers (MBC) have been successfully applied in bipeds, however, it is unknown to what degree they are able to mimic human balance responses. In this paper, we investigated the ability of an MBC to generate human-like balance recovery strategies during stance, and compared the results to those obtained with a linear full-state feedback (FSF) law. We used experimental data consisting of balance recovery responses of nine healthy subjects to anteroposterior platform translations of three differ...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - August 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Evaluating Reachable Workspace and User Control Over Prehensor Aperture for a Body-Powered Prosthesis
Using a shoulder harness and control cable, a person can control the opening and closing of a body-powered prosthesis prehensor. In many setups the cable does not pass adjacent to the shoulder joint center allowing shoulder flexion on the prosthetic side to be used for prehensor control. However, this makes cable setup a difficult compromise as prosthesis control is dependent on arm posture; too short and the space within which a person can reach may be unduly restricted, too long and the user may not be able to move their shoulder sufficiently to take up the inevitable slack at some postures and hence have no control over...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - August 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Gait Adaptation Using a Cable-Driven Active Leg Exoskeleton (C-ALEX) With Post-Stroke Participants
In this study, we assessed the ability of C-ALEX to induce a change in the walking patterns of ten post-stroke participants using a single-session training protocol. The ability of C-ALEX to accurately provide forces and torques in the desired directions was also evaluated to compare its design performance to traditional rigid-link designs. Participants were able to reach 91% ± 12% of their target step length and 89% ± 13% of their target step height. The achieved step parameters differed significantly from participant baselines ( ${p}
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - August 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Should Hands Be Restricted When Measuring Able-Bodied Participants to Evaluate Machine Learning Controlled Prosthetic Hands?
Conclusion: Limb restriction is a viable method to make the EMG of able-bodied participants more similar to that of participants with ULA. Significance: Future research that evaluates methods for machine learning controlled hands in able-bodied participants should restrict the participants’ hand and wrist. (Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering)
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - August 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A New Framework for Automatic Detection of Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Resting-State EEG Signals
This study aims to develop a new framework that can use EEG data to automatically distinguish MCI patients from healthy control subjects. The proposed framework consists of noise removal (baseline drift and power line interference noises), segmentation, data compression, feature extraction, classification, and performance evaluation. This study introduces Piecewise Aggregate Approximation (PAA) for compressing massive volumes of EEG data for reliable analysis. Permutation entropy (PE) and auto-regressive (AR) model features are investigated to explore whether the changes in EEG signals can effectively distinguish MCI from ...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - August 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dreem Open Datasets: Multi-Scored Sleep Datasets to Compare Human and Automated Sleep Staging
Sleep stage classification constitutes an important element of sleep disorder diagnosis. It relies on the visual inspection of polysomnography records by trained sleep technologists. Automated approaches have been designed to alleviate this resource-intensive task. However, such approaches are usually compared to a single human scorer annotation despite an inter-rater agreement of about 85% only. The present study introduces two publicly-available datasets, DOD-H including 25 healthy volunteers and DOD-O including 55 patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Both datasets have been scored by 5 sleep technologi...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - August 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Effect of the Graphic Structures of Humanoid Robot on N200 and P300 Potentials
This study used different graphic structures of an NAO humanoid robot to design three types of robot stimuli: a global robot, its local information, and its topological action. Ten subjects first conducted an odd-ball-based BCI (OD-BCI) by applying these stimuli. Then, they accomplished a delayed matching-to-sample task (DMST) that was used to specialize the encoding and retrieval phases of the OD-BCI task. In the retrieval phase of the DMST, the global stimulus induces the largest N200 and P300 potentials with the shortest latencies in the frontal, central, and occipital areas. This finding is in accordance with the P300 ...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - August 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Asynchronous Video Target Detection Based on Single-Trial EEG Signals
Event-related potentials (ERPs) are widely used in brain-computer interface (BCI) systems to detect sensitive targets. However, asynchronous BCI systems based on video-target-evoked ERPs can pose a challenge in real-world applications due to the absence of an explicit target onset time and the time jitter of the detection latency. To address this challenge, we developed an asynchronous detection framework for video target detection. In this framework, an ERP alignment method based on the principle of iterative minimum distance square error (MDSE) was proposed for constructing an ERP template and aligning signals on the sam...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - August 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Retinal Degeneration Reduces Consistency of Network-Mediated Responses Arising in Ganglion Cells to Electric Stimulation
Retinal prostheses use periodic repetition of electrical stimuli to form artificial vision. To enhance the reliability of evoked visual percepts, repeating stimuli need to evoke consistent spiking activity in individual retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). However, it is not well known whether outer retinal degeneration alters the consistency of RGC responses. Hence, here we systematically investigated the trial-to-trial variability in network-mediated responses as a function of the degeneration level. We patch-clamp recorded spikes in ON and OFF types of alpha RGCs from r d10 mice at four different postnatal days (P15, P19, P31...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - August 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Multi-View Broad Learning System for Primate Oculomotor Decision Decoding
Multi-view learning improves the learning performance by utilizing multi-view data: data collected from multiple sources, or feature sets extracted from the same data source. This approach is suitable for primate brain state decoding using cortical neural signals. This is because the complementary components of simultaneously recorded neural signals, local field potentials (LFPs) and action potentials (spikes), can be treated as two views. In this paper, we extended broad learning system (BLS), a recently proposed wide neural network architecture, from single-view learning to multi-view learning, and validated its performa...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - August 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Virtual-Reality System Integrated With Neuro-Behavior Sensing for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Intelligent Assessment
In this study, an immersive VR classroom embedded with sustained and selective attention tasks was developed in which visual, audio, and visual-audio hybrid distractions, were triggered while attention tasks were conducted. A clinical experiment with 37 ADHD and 31 healthy subjects was performed. Data from BRS was compared with VR task performance and analyzed by rank-sum tests and Pearson Correlation. Results showed that 23 features out of total 28 were related to distinguish the ADHD and non-ADHD children. Several features of task performance and neuro-behavioral measurements were also correlated with features of the BRS...
Source: IEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering - August 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research