Adenosine Receptors Influence Hypertension in Dahl Salt-Sensitive RatsNovelty and Significance [Adenosine Receptors]
The influence of adenosine receptors on blood pressure in salt-sensitive hypertension is unknown. Here, we examined the effects of salt diets on arterial blood pressures (radiotelemetry) in female and male Dahl salt-sensitive wild-type versus female and male Dahl salt-sensitive A1, A2A, or A2B receptor knockouts (A1KOs, A2AKOs, and A2BKOs, respectively). At baseline, all rats were on a 0.3% salt diet; then separate groups were switched to either 4% or 8% salt diet for 2 weeks. Compared with wild-types, baseline pressures were not affected by knockout of A1 or A2B receptors; yet, mean, systolic, and diastolic pressures were...
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Edwin K. Jackson, Delbert G. Gillespie, Zaichuan Mi, Dongmei Cheng Tags: Animal Models of Human Disease, Basic Science Research, Hemodynamics, Hypertension Original Articles Source Type: research

Advanced and Accurate Mobile Health Tracking Devices Record New Cardiac Vital SignsNovelty and Significance [Pulse Wave Velocity Measurement]
In this study, we made a customized smartphone app and used mobile health devices to track PWV, blood pressure, heart rate, physical activity, sleep duration, and multiple lifestyle risk factors in ≈250 adults for 17 continual weeks. Eligible participants were identified by a company database and then were consented and enrolled using only a smartphone app, without any special training given. Study participants reported high overall satisfaction, and 73% of participants were able to measure blood pressure and PWV, (Source: Hypertension)
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Brian D. Modena, Otmane Bellahsen, Nima Nikzad, Angela Chieh, Nathan Parikh, Danielle Marie Dufek, Gail Ebner, Eric J. Topol, Steven Steinhubl Tags: Clinical Studies, Primary Prevention, Risk Factors, High Blood Pressure, Hypertension Original Articles Source Type: research

mPGES-1 (Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1) Mediates Vascular Dysfunction in Hypertension Through Oxidative StressNovelty and Significance [Oxidative Stress]
mPGES-1 (microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1), the downstream enzyme responsible for PGE2 (prostaglandin E2) synthesis in inflammatory conditions and oxidative stress are increased in vessels from hypertensive animals. We evaluated the role of mPGES-1–derived PGE2 in the vascular dysfunction and remodeling in hypertension and the possible contribution of oxidative stress. We used human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from asymptomatic patients, arteries from untreated and Ang II (angiotensin II)–infused mPGES-1−/− and mPGES-1+/+ mice, and vascular smooth muscle cells exposed to PGE2. In human c...
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Maria S. Avendano, Ana B. Garcia–Redondo, Guillermo Zalba, Maria Gonzalez–Amor, Andrea Aguado, Sonia Martinez–Revelles, Luis M. Beltran, Mercedes Camacho, Victoria Cachofeiro, Maria J. Alonso, Mercedes Salaices, Ana M. Briones Tags: Contractile Function, Endothelium/Vascular Type/Nitric Oxide, Inflammation, Oxidant Stress, Vascular Biology Original Articles Source Type: research

Sympathetic Nerve Traffic Activation in Essential Hypertension and Its CorrelatesNovelty and Significance [Nervous System]
Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) has shown that sympathetic activation may occur in essential hypertension (EHT). However, the small sample size of the studies, the heterogeneity of the patients examined, and the presence of confounders represented major weaknesses not allowing to draw definite conclusions. Among the 432 studies identified providing information in EHT on MSNA, 63 were eligible (1216 patients) and meta-analyzed grouping them on the basis of clinically relevant questions: (1) Is MSNA increased in hypertension of mild/moderate-to-severe degree? (2) Does sympathetic activation occur in borderline, whit...
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Guido Grassi, Anna Pisano, Davide Bolignano, Gino Seravalle, Graziella D’Arrigo, Fosca Quarti–Trevano, Francesca Mallamaci, Carmine Zoccali, Giuseppe Mancia Tags: Autonomic Nervous System, Hypertension Original Articles Source Type: research

Higher Aortic Stiffness Is Associated With Lower Global Cerebrovascular Reserve Among Older HumansNovelty and Significance [Arterial Stiffness]
Greater aortic stiffness and pulse pressure are associated with cerebrovascular remodeling, reduced white matter microstructure, and cognitive performance with aging in humans. However, it is unclear whether aortic stiffness and pulse pressure are associated with reduced basal global cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reserve among older adults. Global CBF was quantified in 205 adults (range, 19–87 years; mean±SE: 30.6±1.3 years) using quantitative [15O]water brain positron emission tomography imaging. In a subset of older adults (n=24; 70.0±2.0 years), aortic stiffness (carotid femora...
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lyndsey E. DuBose, Laura L. Boles Ponto, David J. Moser, Emily Harlynn, Leah Reierson, Gary L. Pierce Tags: Clinical Studies, Hypertension, Blood Pressure, Nuclear Cardiology and PET Original Articles Source Type: research

Saxagliptin Prevents Increased Coronary Vascular Stiffness in Aortic-Banded Mini SwineNovelty and Significance [Arterial Stiffness]
In conclusion, our data show increased coronary conduit vascular stiffness was prevented by saxagliptin and associated with decreased advanced glycation end products, NF-κB, and nitrotyrosine levels in a swine model with potential relevance to HF with preserved ejection fraction. (Source: Hypertension)
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Bradley S. Fleenor, An Ouyang, T. Dylan Olver, Jessica A. Hiemstra, Melissa S. Cobb, Gianmaria Minervini, Craig A. Emter Tags: Coronary Circulation, Animal Models of Human Disease, Inflammation, Vascular Biology, Heart Failure Original Articles Source Type: research

Evaluation of Hemolysis as a Severe Feature of PreeclampsiaNovelty and Significance [Preeclampsia, Pregnancy, and Hypertension]
Hemolysis predisposes to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Yet, there are limited data on hemolysis in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy other than hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome. To evaluate the prevalence and impact of hemolysis in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, we performed a retrospective cohort study at a single center (October 2013–May 2017), among women screened for hemolysis using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. We compared LDH levels by hypertensive disorder (chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and preeclampsia with severe features) and eval...
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Richard M. Burwick, Monica Rincon, Sridivya S. Beeraka, Megha Gupta, Bruce B. Feinberg Tags: High Blood Pressure, Hypertension, Preeclampsia Original Articles Source Type: research

Risk of Preeclampsia and Pregnancy Complications in Women With a History of Acute Kidney InjuryNovelty and Significance [Preeclampsia, Pregnancy, and Hypertension]
An episode of clinically recovered acute kidney injury (r-AKI) has been identified as a risk factor for future hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to assess whether r-AKI was associated with future preeclampsia and other adverse pregnancy outcomes and to identify whether severity of AKI or time interval between AKI and pregnancy was associated with pregnancy complications. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women who delivered infants between 1998 and 2016 at Massachusetts General Hospital. AKI was defined using the 2012 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes laboratory criteria with subs...
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jessica Sheehan Tangren, Wan Ahmad Hafiz Wan Md Adnan, Camille E. Powe, Jeffrey Ecker, Kate Bramham, Michelle A. Hladunewich, Elizabeth Ankers, S. Ananth Karumanchi, Ravi Thadhani Tags: Epidemiology, Pregnancy, Women Original Articles Source Type: research

Association Between Prepregnancy Cardiovascular Function and Subsequent Preeclampsia or Fetal Growth RestrictionNovelty and Significance [Preeclampsia, Pregnancy, and Hypertension]
Preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction during pregnancy are associated with increased risk of maternal cardiovascular disease later in life. It is unclear whether this association is causal or driven by similar antecedent risk factors. Clarification requires recruitment before conception which is methodologically difficult with high attrition rates and loss of outcome numbers to nonconception/miscarriage. Few prospective studies have, therefore, been adequately powered to address these questions. We recruited 530 healthy women (mean age: 35.0 years) intending to conceive and assessed cardiac output, cardiac index, strok...
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Fung L. Foo, Amita A. Mahendru, Giulia Masini, Abigail Fraser, Stefano Cacciatore, David A. MacIntyre, Carmel M. McEniery, Ian B. Wilkinson, Phillip R. Bennett, Christoph C. Lees Tags: Clinical Studies, Hemodynamics, Preeclampsia Original Articles Source Type: research

Pregnancy Weight Gain Before Diagnosis and Risk of PreeclampsiaNovelty and Significance [Preeclampsia, Pregnancy, and Hypertension]
Weight gain in early pregnancy may influence a woman’s risk of developing preeclampsia. However, the consequences of weight gain throughout pregnancy up to the diagnosis of preeclampsia are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether pregnancy weight gain before the diagnosis of preeclampsia is associated with increased risks of preeclampsia (overall and by preeclampsia subtype). The study population included nulliparous pregnant women in the Swedish counties of Gotland and Stockholm, 2008 to 2013, stratified by early pregnancy body mass index category. Electronic medical records were linked with populati...
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jennifer A. Hutcheon, Olof Stephansson, Sven Cnattingius, Lisa M. Bodnar, Anna–Karin Wikstrom, Kari Johansson Tags: Diet and Nutrition, Epidemiology, Obesity, Pregnancy Original Articles Source Type: research

Self-Management of Postnatal HypertensionNovelty and Significance [Preeclampsia, Pregnancy, and Hypertension]
Hypertension affects 1 in 10 pregnancies, often persisting postpartum, when antihypertensive requirements may vary substantially. This unmasked, randomized controlled trial evaluated the feasibility and effects on blood pressure (BP) of self-management of postpartum hypertension. Women with gestational hypertension or preeclampsia, requiring postnatal antihypertensive treatment, were randomized to self-management or usual care. Self-management entailed daily home BP monitoring and automated medication reduction via telemonitoring. Women attended 5 follow-up visits during 6 months. The primary outcome was feasibility: speci...
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Alexandra E. Cairns, Katherine L. Tucker, Paul Leeson, Lucy H. Mackillop, Mauro Santos, Carmelo Velardo, Dario Salvi, Sam Mort, Jill Mollison, Lionel Tarassenko, Richard J. McManus, on behalf of the SNAP-HT Investigators Tags: Hypertension, Preeclampsia Original Articles Source Type: research

Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Profiles in Pregnant Women With Chronic HypertensionNovelty and Significance [Preeclampsia, Pregnancy, and Hypertension]
Pregnant women with chronic hypertension are at risk for increased blood pressure and superimposed preeclampsia (SPE) in late pregnancy. Alterations in the renin-aldosterone system are a feature of normal pregnancy; however, their role in chronic hypertension with and without SPE is less clear. We performed a prospective, longitudinal trial of 108 women with chronic hypertension and measured plasma renin activity (PRA), 24-hour urine sodium, urine potassium, and urine aldosterone (Ualdo) at 12, 20, 28, and 36 weeks and postpartum. SPE developed in 34% of pregnancies. PRA was lower in women who developed SPE at weeks 28 (5....
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Line Malha, Cristina P. Sison, Geraldine Helseth, Jean E. Sealey, Phyllis August Tags: ACE/Angiotensin Receptors/Renin Angiotensin System, Physiology, Hypertension, Preeclampsia Original Articles Source Type: research

Gene-Centric Analysis of Preeclampsia Identifies Maternal Association at PLEKHG1Novelty and Significance [Preeclampsia, Pregnancy, and Hypertension]
The genetic susceptibility to preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific complication with significant maternal and fetal morbidity, has been poorly characterized. To identify maternal genes associated with preeclampsia risk, we assembled 498 cases and 1864 controls of European ancestry from preeclampsia case-control collections in 5 different US sites (with additional matched population controls), genotyped samples on a cardiovascular gene-centric array composed of variants from ≈2000 genes selected based on prior genetic studies of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and performed case-control genetic association analysi...
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kathryn J. Gray, Vesela P. Kovacheva, Hooman Mirzakhani, Andrew C. Bjonnes, Berta Almoguera, Andrew T. DeWan, Elizabeth W. Triche, Audrey F. Saftlas, Josephine Hoh, Dale L. Bodian, Elisabeth Klein, Kathi C. Huddleston, Sue Ann Ingles, Charles J. Lockwood, Tags: Genetic, Association Studies, Genetics, Hypertension, Preeclampsia Original Articles Source Type: research

Does Obstructive Sleep Apnea Influence Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffness in Response to Antihypertensive Treatment?Novelty and Significance [Obstructive Sleep Apnea]
In this study, we recruited hypertensive patients who underwent treatment with a 30-day regimen of hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg plus enalapril (20 mg BID) or losartan (50 mg BID) and were assessed with a baseline clinical evaluation, polysomnography, 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. All the examinations except for polysomnography were repeated at 6 and 18 months of follow-up. We studied 94 hypertensive patients (mean age, 55±9 years). The frequency of OSA was 55%. Compared with baseline, we did not observe significant differences between groups in 24-hour BP, daytime systolic a...
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Fernanda Fatureto–Borges, Raimundo Jenner, Valeria Costa–Hong, Heno F. Lopes, Sandra H. Teixeira, Elias Marum, Dante A.M. Giorgi, Fernanda M. Consolim–Colombo, Luiz A. Bortolotto, Geraldo Lorenzi–Filho, Eduardo M. Krieger, Luciano Tags: Hypertension Original Articles Source Type: research

Effect of Adherence to Antihypertensive Medication on the Long-Term Outcome After Hemorrhagic Stroke in KoreaNovelty and Significance [Hemorrhagic Stroke]
Hypertension is the single most important risk factor for hemorrhagic stroke, a leading cause of mortality and disability worldwide. Adherence to antihypertensive medication is essential to achieving strict blood pressure control, but poor adherence is common in clinical practice. We evaluated adherence to antihypertensive medication in patients with acute hemorrhagic stroke and its effects on long-term outcome. This was a retrospective cohort study based on a nationwide health insurance claims database in South Korea. We included 1872 hypertensive patients who were admitted with acute hemorrhagic stroke during 2002 to 201...
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jinkwon Kim, Cheryl D. Bushnell, Hye Sun Lee, Sang Won Han Tags: Secondary Prevention, Hypertension, Compliance/Adherence, Intracranial Hemorrhage Original Articles Source Type: research

Renal Denervation in Resistant Hypertension and Obstructive Sleep ApneaNovelty and Significance [Renal Denervation]
It has been postulated that catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) may lower blood pressure (BP) and improve severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in resistant hypertensive patients. The aim of our study (NCT01366625) was to investigate in a prospective randomized trial the effect of RDN on BP and clinical course of OSA. Sixty patients with true resistant hypertension coexisting with moderate-to-severe OSA (apnea/hypopnea index, ≥15) were randomly allocated to RDN group (30 patients) and to control group (30 patients). The primary end point was reduction in office systolic BP at 3 months. Secondary end points includ...
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ewa Warchol-Celinska, Aleksander Prejbisz, Jacek Kadziela, Elzbieta Florczak, Magdalena Januszewicz, Ilona Michalowska, Piotr Dobrowolski, Marek Kabat, Pawel Sliwinski, Anna Klisiewicz, Roman Topor-Madry, Krzysztof Narkiewicz, Virend K. Somers, Paul A. So Tags: High Blood Pressure, Hypertension Original Articles Source Type: research

Angiotensin II-Induced End-Organ Damage in Mice Is Attenuated by Human Exosomes and by an Exosomal Y RNA FragmentNovelty and Significance [Kidney]
Hypertension often leads to cardiovascular disease and kidney dysfunction. Exosomes secreted from cardiosphere-derived cells (CDC-exo) and their most abundant small RNA constituent, the Y RNA fragment EV-YF1, exert therapeutic benefits after myocardial infarction. Here, we investigated the effects of CDC-exo and EV-YF1, each administered individually, in a model of cardiac hypertrophy and kidney injury induced by chronic infusion of Ang (angiotensin) II. After 2 weeks of Ang II, multiple doses of CDC-exo or EV-YF1 were administered retro-orbitally. Ang II infusion induced an elevation in systolic blood pressure that was no...
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Linda Cambier, Jorge F. Giani, Weixin Liu, Takeshi Iȷichi, Antonio K. Echavez, Jackelyn Valle, Eduardo Marban Tags: Hypertrophy Original Articles Source Type: research

Bradykinin Stimulates Renal Na+ and K+ Excretion by Inhibiting the K+ Channel (Kir4.1) in the Distal Convoluted TubuleNovelty and Significance [Kidney]
Stimulation of BK2R (bradykinin [BK] B2 receptor) has been shown to increase renal Na+ excretion. The aim of the present study is to explore the role of BK2R in regulating Kir4.1 and NCC (NaCl cotransporter) in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT). Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that BK2R was highly expressed in both apical and lateral membrane of Kir4.1-positive tubules, such as DCT. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that BK inhibited the basolateral 40-pS K+ channel (a Kir4.1/5.1 heterotetramer) in the DCT, and this effect was blocked by BK2R antagonist but not by BK1R (BK B1 receptor) antagonist. Whole-cell r...
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Dan-Dan Zhang, Zhong-Xiuzi Gao, Carlos P. Vio, Yu Xiao, Peng Wu, Hao Zhang, Xi-Wen Guo, Xin-Xin Meng, Li Gu, Jun-Lin Wang, Xin-Peng Duan, Dao-Hong Lin, Wen-Hui Wang, Ruimin Gu Tags: Hypertension Original Articles Source Type: research

Suppression of Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition by SIRT (Sirtuin) 3 Alleviated the Development of Hypertensive Renal InjuryNovelty and Significance [Kidney]
In conclusion, these results established the SIRT3-Foxo3a-catalase pathway as a critical factor in the maintenance of endothelial homeostasis and point to an important role of EndoMT in the vascular pathology of renal fibrosis, which may provide a new therapeutic target to impede the progression of hypertensive renal injury. (Source: Hypertension)
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jing-rong Lin, Yan-jun Zheng, Ze-bei Zhang, Wei-li Shen, Xiao-dong Li, Tong Wei, Cheng-chao Ruan, Xiao-hui Chen, Ding-liang Zhu, Ping-jin Gao Tags: Endothelium/Vascular Type/Nitric Oxide, Oxidant Stress, Vascular Biology, Hypertension Original Articles Source Type: research

Refractory Hypertension Is not Attributable to Intravascular Fluid Retention as Determined by Intracardiac VolumesNovelty and Significance [Heart]
Refractory hypertension (RfHTN) is an extreme phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure defined as lack of blood pressure control with ≥5 medications, including a long-acting thiazide and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. RfHTN is a subgroup of resistant hypertension (RHTN), which is defined as blood pressure>135/85 mm Hg with ≥3 antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic. RHTN is generally attributed to persistent intravascular fluid retention. It is unknown whether alternative mechanisms are operative in RfHTN. Our objective was to determine whether RfHTN is characterized by persisten...
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Alejandro Velasco, Mohammed Siddiqui, Eric Kreps, Pavani Kolakalapudi, Tanja Dudenbostel, Garima Arora, Eric K. Judd, Sumanth D. Prabhu, Steven G. Lloyd, Suzanne Oparil, David A. Calhoun Tags: Hypertrophy Original Articles Source Type: research

Hypoxia-Induced Mitogenic Factor Promotes Cardiac Hypertrophy via Calcium-Dependent and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1{alpha} MechanismsNovelty and Significance [Heart]
In conclusion, HIMF has a critical role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, and targeting HIMF may represent a potential therapeutic strategy. (Source: Hypertension)
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Santosh Kumar, Gang Wang, Wenjuan Liu, Wenwen Ding, Ming Dong, Na Zheng, Hongyu Ye, Jie Liu Tags: Heart Failure, Hypertrophy Original Articles Source Type: research

Benefits of Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Receiving Standard but Not Intensive Glycemic ControlNovelty and Significance [Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension]
This study aimed to assess whether intensive blood pressure (BP) treatment has benefits in preventing cardiovascular events, including heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Using the ACCORD BP trial (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Blood Pressure) data, hazard ratios for cardiovascular events with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard models to compare the time to the first cardiovascular event in patients receiving standard (n=2362) or intensive glycemic control (n=2371). The overall mean follow-up period was 4.5 years, and cardiovascular events wer...
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Tetsuro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Kajio Tags: Hypertension Original Articles Source Type: research

Lixisenatide Versus Insulin Glulisine on Fasting and Postbreakfast Systemic Hemodynamics in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus PatientsNovelty and Significance [Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension]
The prolonged treatment effects of a short-acting GLP-1RA (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist), such as lixisenatide, on fasting and postprandial systemic hemodynamics in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients are unknown. In this secondary analysis, we included 34 overweight insulin glargine–treated type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (mean±SD age, 62±7 years; HbA1c, 8.0±0.9%; systolic blood pressure [BP], 133.9±16.1 mm Hg; diastolic BP, 75.4±8.39 mm Hg) that were randomized to once-daily lixisenatide 20 μg or once-daily titrated insulin glulisine for 8 weeks. Syste...
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lennart Tonneiȷck, Marcel H.A. Muskiet, Jos W. Twisk, Mark H.H. Kramer, A.H. Jan Danser, Jaap A. Joles, Mark M. Smits, Daniel H. van Raalte Tags: High Blood Pressure, Hypertension, Vascular Disease Original Articles Source Type: research

Pharmacological Treatment of Arterial Hypertension in Children and AdolescentsNovelty and Significance [Childhood Blood Pressures]
Pharmacological treatment is indicated in children and adolescents with hypertension unresponsive to lifestyle modifications, but there is not enough evidence to recommend 1 class of antihypertensive drugs over others. We performed a network meta-analysis to compare the results of available randomized clinical trials on pharmacological treatment of pediatric hypertension. From a total of 554 potentially relevant studies, 13 randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials enrolling ≥50 patients and a follow-up ≥4 weeks were included. The reduction of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) after treatment w...
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jacopo Burrello, Elvira M. Erhardt, Gaelle Saint–Hilary, Franco Veglio, Franco Rabbia, Paolo Mulatero, Silvia Monticone, Fabrizio D’Ascenzo Tags: Hypertension Original Articles Source Type: research

Secular Trends in Blood Pressure and Overweight and Obesity in Chinese Boys and Girls Aged 7 to 17 Years From 1995 to 2014Novelty and Significance [Epidemiology/Population]
The current study aimed to assess the secular trends in overweight and obesity status and high blood pressure (HBP) in Chinese children and adolescents for 2 decades. Data on 943 128 participants aged 7 to 17 years were obtained from the Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health from 1995 to 2014. The population attributable risk of overweight status for HBP was calculated. The prevalence of overweight increased from 4.3% in 1995 to 18.4% in 2014, whereas HBP prevalence fluctuated in the range of 4.4% to 6.4% during the same time period, the lowest in 2005. Within each survey year, blood pre...
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yanhui Dong, Jun Ma, Yi Song, Yinghua Ma, Bin Dong, Zhiyong Zou, Judith J. Prochaska Tags: Epidemiology, Obesity, Pediatrics, High Blood Pressure, Hypertension Original Articles Source Type: research

Can Blood Pressure Self-Monitoring Improve Postpartum Management of Pregnancy-Associated Hypertension? [Editorial Commentary]
(Source: Hypertension)
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jessica Sheehan Tangren Tags: Clinical Studies Editorial Commentaries Source Type: research

Activity Tracking’s Newest Companion [Editorial Commentary]
(Source: Hypertension)
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kathryn Sandberg, Stephen P. Wright, Jason G. Umans Tags: Cardiovascular Disease, Exercise, Lifestyle Editorial Commentaries Source Type: research

Does Intensive Glucose Control Cancel Out Benefits of Systolic Blood Pressure Target
(Source: Hypertension)
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sverre E. Kjeldsen, Ingrid Os, Peter M. Nilsson Tags: Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, Type 2, Risk Factors, High Blood Pressure, Hypertension Editorial Commentaries Source Type: research

Renal Denervation—Ready for Prime Time!? [Editorial Commentary]
(Source: Hypertension)
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Markus P. Schlaich, Marcio G. Kiuchi, Murray D. Esler Tags: High Blood Pressure, Hypertension Editorial Commentaries Source Type: research

Genes for Preeclampsia [Editorial Commentary]
(Source: Hypertension)
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Georg Ehret Tags: Genetic, Association Studies, Hypertension Editorial Commentaries Source Type: research

Adenosine Receptors [Editorial Commentary]
(Source: Hypertension)
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kate M. Denton Tags: Animal Models of Human Disease, Basic Science Research, Hypertension Editorial Commentaries Source Type: research

Resistant Hypertension and Obstructive Sleep Apnea [Editorial Commentary]
(Source: Hypertension)
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Michel Azizi, Laurence Amar, Aurelien Lorthioir Tags: Hypertension Editorial Commentaries Source Type: research

Cell-Derived Exosomes for Cardiovascular Therapies [Editorial Commentary]
(Source: Hypertension)
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Isotta Chimenti, Giacomo Frati Tags: Cell Therapy, Stem Cells, Translational Studies Editorial Commentaries Source Type: research

Unraveling New Mechanisms of Renal Fibrosis With Potential Therapeutic Implications [Editorial Commentary]
(Source: Hypertension)
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Francisco Maduell, Nuria Garcia–Fernandez, Joaquin Manrique, Arantxa Gonzalez, Javier Diez Tags: Fibrosis, Oxidant Stress, Hypertension Editorial Commentaries Source Type: research

Natriuretic Peptides in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Crosstalk [Brief Review]
(Source: Hypertension)
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jens Jordan, Andreas L. Birkenfeld, Olle Melander, Cedric Moro Tags: Metabolism, Diabetes, Type 2, Diet and Nutrition, Exercise, Obesity Brief Reviews Source Type: research

Hypertension in Blacks [Brief Review]
(Source: Hypertension)
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: J. David Spence, Brian L. Rayner Tags: Genetics, Hypertension, Diagnostic Testing Brief Reviews Source Type: research

Are the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology High Blood Pressure Guidelines Fit for Global Purpose?: Thoughts From the International Society of Hypertension [Guidelines Conversation]
(Source: Hypertension)
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Neil R. Poulter, Rafael Castillo, Fadi J. Charchar, Markus P. Schlaich, Aletta E. Schutte, Maciej Tomaszewski, Rhian M. Touyz, Ji-Guang Wang Tags: High Blood Pressure, Hypertension, Ethics and Policy, Health Services, Statements and Guidelines Guidelines Conversation Source Type: research

Impact of the Discordance Between the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Diabetes Association Recommendations on Hypertension in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus in the United States [Guidelines Conversation]
(Source: Hypertension)
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Doosup Shin, Chandrashekar Bohra, Kullatham Kongpakpaisarn Tags: Epidemiology, Hypertension Guidelines Conversation Source Type: research

Professor Anthony Fairclough Lever [In Memoriam]
(Source: Hypertension)
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Anna Dominiczak, John Connell, J. Ian S. Robertson Tags: Hypertension In Memoriam Source Type: research

Clinical Implications [Clinical Implications]
(Source: Hypertension)
Source: Hypertension - July 11, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Clinical Implications Source Type: research

Antihypertensive Treatment Fails to Control Blood Pressure During Exercise Novelty and Significance [Exercise Blood Pressure]
An exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to maximal exercise is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events and mortality. It is unclear whether treating BP to guideline recommended levels could normalize the rise in BP during exercise, which is mediated by the metaboreflex. We aimed to assess the BP response to incremental exercise testing and metaboreflex activation in treated–controlled hypertension (n=16), treated–uncontrolled hypertension (n=16), and untreated hypertension (n=11) and 16 control participants with normal BP (n=16). All groups were matched for age and body mass index. BP was measu...
Source: Hypertension - June 13, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Benjamin Chant, Majda Bakali, Thomas Hinton, Amy E. Burchell, Angus K. Nightingale, Julian F.R. Paton, Emma C. Hart Tags: High Blood Pressure, Hypertension Original Articles Source Type: research

Age-Related Blood Pressure Sensitivity to Aldosterone in Blacks and WhitesNovelty and Significance [Aldosterone]
Aldosterone sensitivity, defined as the magnitude of the association of plasma aldosterone concentration with blood pressure (BP), seems to be a function of plasma volume. It increases as plasma renin activity decreases, and it is more significant in blacks but less so in whites. Age is a strong determinant of BP, and an increase in aldosterone sensitivity could contribute to the increase in BP. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that aldosterone sensitivity increases with age. We used observational data collected from normotensive blacks and whites enrolled in a prospective cohort study. They were studied as c...
Source: Hypertension - June 13, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Wanzhu Tu, Ruohong Li, Vivek Bhalla, George J. Eckert, J. Howard Pratt Tags: Hypertension Original Articles Source Type: research

Vascular Nox (NADPH Oxidase) Compartmentalization, Protein Hyperoxidation, and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in HypertensionNovelty and Significance [Oxidative Stress]
Vascular Nox (NADPH oxidase)-derived reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been implicated in hypertension. However, relationships between these processes are unclear. We hypothesized that Nox isoforms localize in a subcellular compartment-specific manner, contributing to oxidative and ER stress, which influence the oxidative proteome and vascular function in hypertension. Nox compartmentalization (cell fractionation), O2− (lucigenin), H2O2 (amplex red), reversible protein oxidation (sulfenylation), irreversible protein oxidation (protein tyrosine phosphatase, peroxiredoxin oxidation), an...
Source: Hypertension - June 13, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Livia L. Camargo, Adam P. Harvey, Francisco J. Rios, Sofia Tsiropoulou, Renee de Nazare Oliveira Da Silva, Zhenbo Cao, Delyth Graham, Claire McMaster, Richard J. Burchmore, Richard C. Hartley, Neil Bulleid, Augusto C. Montezano, Rhian M. Touyz Tags: Hypertension Original Articles Source Type: research

Endothelial PPAR{gamma} (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-{gamma}) Is Essential for Preventing Endothelial Dysfunction With AgingNovelty and Significance [Oxidative Stress]
Little is known about mechanisms that control vascular aging, particularly at the cell-specific level. PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ) exerts protective effects in the vasculature when activated pharmacologically. To gain insight into the cell-specific impact of PPARγ, we examined the hypothesis that genetic interference with endothelial PPARγ would augment age-induced vascular dysfunction. We studied carotid arteries from adult (11.6±0.3 months) and old (24.7±0.6 months) mice with endothelial-specific expression of a human dominant negative mutation in PPAR&...
Source: Hypertension - June 13, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: T. Michael De Silva, Ying Li, Dale A. Kinzenbaw, Curt D. Sigmund, Frank M. Faraci Tags: Vascular Biology, Vascular Disease Original Articles Source Type: research

Cerebrospinal Fluid Protein Changes in PreeclampsiaNovelty and Significance [Preeclampsia]
The molecular mechanisms underlying seizure susceptibility in preeclampsia are unknown. We hypothesized that altered expression of distinct proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may reflect pathophysiological changes in the central nervous system that contribute to the neurological manifestations of severe preeclampsia. We obtained CSF samples from 13 patients with preeclampsia and 14 control patients during spinal anesthesia before delivery and analyzed them by SOMAscan, an aptamer-based proteomics platform for alterations in 1310 protein levels. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was conducted to highlight relationships betw...
Source: Hypertension - June 13, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Erin Ciampa, Yunping Li, Simon Dillon, Edouard Lecarpentier, Laura Sorabella, Towia A. Libermann, S. Ananth Karumanchi, Philip E. Hess Tags: Angiogenesis, Biomarkers, Inflammation, Hypertension, Preeclampsia Original Articles Source Type: research

Modeling Superimposed Preeclampsia Using Ang II (Angiotensin II) Infusion in Pregnant Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive RatsNovelty and Significance [Preeclampsia]
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are the second leading cause of maternal deaths worldwide. Superimposed preeclampsia is an increasingly common problem and often associated with impaired placental perfusion. Understanding the underlying mechanisms and developing treatment options are crucial. The pregnant stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat has impaired uteroplacental blood flow and abnormal uterine artery remodeling. We used Ang II (angiotensin II) infusion in pregnant stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats to mimic the increased cardiovascular stress associated with superimposed preeclampsia and examine ...
Source: Hypertension - June 13, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hannah L. Morgan, Elaine Butler, Shona Ritchie, Florian Herse, Ralf Dechend, Elisabeth Beattie, Martin W. McBride, Delyth Graham Tags: ACE/Angiotensin Receptors/Renin Angiotensin System, Animal Models of Human Disease, Hypertension, Preeclampsia Original Articles Source Type: research

Aspirin Effect on Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes Associated With Stage 1 Hypertension in a High-Risk CohortNovelty and Significance [Pregnancy and Hypertension]
Recently, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines revised the recommendations for diagnosis of chronic hypertension. The new classification system includes a diagnosis of stage 1 hypertension in adults with blood pressures 130 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg. We sought to compare outcomes among women at high risk for preeclampsia with stage 1 hypertension and assessed whether women with stage 1 hypertension had benefit from aspirin treatment compared with high-risk normotensive women. We performed a secondary analysis of the high-risk aspirin trial and included ...
Source: Hypertension - June 13, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Alisse Hauspurg, Elizabeth F. Sutton, Janet M. Catov, Steve N. Caritis Tags: Hypertension, Preeclampsia Original Articles Source Type: research

Maternal Exposure to Ambient Particulate Matter
Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with greater risk of elevated blood pressure (BP) in adults and children. Recent evidence suggests that air pollution exposure in pregnancy may also portend increased risk for the next generation; however, few studies have examined this relationship. We conducted a prospective study of 1293 mothers in the Boston Birth Cohort (enrolled 1998–2012) and their children who had follow-up visits between 3 and 9 years of age and complete exposure and outcome data. Our primary exposure, ambient particulate matter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) concentration during pregnancy, was...
Source: Hypertension - June 13, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mingyu Zhang, Noel T. Mueller, Hongjian Wang, Xiumei Hong, Lawrence J. Appel, Xiaobin Wang Tags: Cardiovascular Disease, Pediatrics, Pregnancy, High Blood Pressure, Hypertension Original Articles Source Type: research

Activin A and Late Postpartum Cardiac Dysfunction Among Women With Hypertensive Disorders of PregnancyNovelty and Significance [Pregnancy and Hypertension]
Women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy have an increased risk of subsequent heart failure and cardiovascular disease when compared with women with normotensive pregnancies. Although the mechanisms underlying these findings are unclear, elevated levels of the biomarker activin A are associated with myocardial dysfunction and may have predictive value. We hypothesized that elevated levels of antepartum activin A levels would correlate with postpartum cardiac dysfunction in women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. We prospectively studied 85 women to determine whether increased antepartum activin A levels were ...
Source: Hypertension - June 13, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sajid Shahul, Hadi Ramadan, Junaid Nizamuddin, Ariel Mueller, Vijal Patel, John Dreixler, Avery Tung, Roberto M. Lang, Lynn Weinert, Rabab Nasim, Sireesha Chinthala, Sarosh Rana Tags: Biomarkers Original Articles Source Type: research

Reduction in Regulatory T Cells in Early Pregnancy Causes Uterine Artery Dysfunction in MiceNovelty and Significance [Pregnancy and Hypertension]
Preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and miscarriage remain important causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. These complications are associated with reduced numbers of a specialized T lymphocyte subset called regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in the maternal circulation, decidua, and placenta. Treg cells suppress inflammation and prevent maternal immunity toward the fetus, which expresses foreign paternal alloantigens. Treg cells are demonstrated to contribute to vascular homeostasis, but whether Treg cells influence the vascular adaptations essential for a healthy pregnancy is unknown. Thus, using a mo...
Source: Hypertension - June 13, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Alison S. Care, Stephane L. Bourque, Jude S. Morton, Emma P. Hjartarson, Sarah A. Robertson, Sandra T. Davidge Tags: Basic Science Research, Vascular Biology, Pregnancy Original Articles Source Type: research