Length of FMR1 repeat alleles within the normal range does not substantially affect the risk of early menopause
STUDY QUESTION Is the length of FMR1 repeat alleles within the normal range associated with the risk of early menopause? SUMMARY ANSWER The length of repeat alleles within the normal range does not substantially affect risk of early menopause. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY There is a strong, well-established relationship between length of premutation FMR1 alleles and age at menopause, suggesting that this relationship could continue into the normal range. Within the normal range, there is conflicting evidence; differences in ovarian reserve have been identified with FMR1 repeat allele length, but a recent population-based study ...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Ruth, K. S., Bennett, C. E., Schoemaker, M. J., Weedon, M. N., Swerdlow, A. J., Murray, A. Tags: Reproductive genetics Source Type: research

Embryonic aneuploidy does not differ among genetic ancestry according to continental origin as determined by ancestry informative markers
In this study, when determining continental ancestry utilizing AIMs, genetic ancestry does not have an impact on embryonic aneuploidy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Aneuploidy is one of the best-characterized barriers to ART success and little information exists regarding ethnicity and whole chromosome aneuploidy in IVF. Classifying continental ancestry utilizing genetic profiles from a selected group of single nucleotide polymorphisms, termed AIMs, can determine ancestral origin with more accuracy than self-reported data. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This is a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing their first cycle ...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Franasiak, J. M., Olcha, M., Shastri, S., Molinaro, T. A., Congdon, H., Treff, N. R., Scott, R. T. Tags: Reproductive genetics Source Type: research

Prevalence and patient characteristics of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome: a nationwide registry-based study
STUDY QUESTION What is the prevalence of Mayer–Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser (MRKH) syndrome? SUMMARY ANSWER The prevalence of MRKH syndrome in Denmark is 1 in 4982 (95% confidence interval (CI): 4216–5887) live female births. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The prevalence of MRKH syndrome has been estimated to be around 1 in 4000–5000 females. However, population-based prevalence studies of MRKH syndrome are sparse. Moreover, population-based data on patient characteristics are lacking. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This retrospective cohort study used the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR) to iden...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Herlin, M., Bjorn, A.-M. B., Rasmussen, M., Trolle, B., Petersen, M. B. Tags: Reproductive epidemiology Source Type: research

Endometriomas and deep infiltrating endometriosis in adulthood are strongly associated with anogenital distance, a biomarker for prenatal hormonal environment
STUDY QUESTION Is the length of the anogenital distance (AGD), a biomarker of the in-utero prenatal hormonal environment, associated with the presence of endometriomas and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE)? SUMMARY ANSWER Shorter AGD is associated with presence of endometriomas and DIE. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY It is debated whether hormonal exposure to estrogens in utero may be a risk factor for endometriosis in adulthood. AGD is a biomarker of prenatal hormonal environment and observational studies have shown an association between AGD and reproductive parameters in both sexes. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This case&...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Mendiola, J., Sanchez-Ferrer, M. L., Jimenez-Velazquez, R., Canovas-Lopez, L., Hernandez-Penalver, A. I., Corbalan-Biyang, S., Carmona-Barnosi, A., Prieto-Sanchez, M. T., Nieto, A., Torres-Cantero, A. M. Tags: Reproductive epidemiology Source Type: research

Diabetes, medical comorbidities and couple fecundity
STUDY QUESTION What is the relationship between couple's health and fecundity in a preconception cohort? SUMMARY ANSWER Somatic health may impact fecundity in men and women as couples whose male partner had diabetes or whose female partner had two or more medical conditions had a longer time-to-pregnancy (TTP). WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN The impact of somatic health on human fecundity is hypothesized given the reported declines in spermatogenesis and ovulation among individuals with certain medical comorbidities. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A population-based prospective cohort study recruiting couples from 16 counties in M...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Eisenberg, M. L., Sundaram, R., Maisog, J., Buck Louis, G. M. Tags: Reproductive epidemiology Source Type: research

Adrenocorticotropic hormone elicits gonadotropin secretion in premenopausal women
This study had a mixed factorial design. A total of 60 healthy female participants participated in the experimental study. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS The study sample comprised three distinct hormonal-based populations according to their levels of progesterone (PROG) and estradiol (E2): (i) low-PROG–low-E2, (ii) low-PROG–high-E2 and (iii) high-PROG–high-E2 women. A low dose (1 µg) of ACTH was administered to all study participants. Serum steroid and gonadotropin concentrations were measured prior to, and at 30 and 90 minutes after, intravenous ACTH administration. MAIN RESULTS AND TH...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Aleknaviciute, J., Tulen, J. H. M., Timmermans, M., de Rijke, Y. B., van Rossum, E. F. C., de Jong, F. H., Kushner, S. A. Tags: Reproductive Endocrinology Source Type: research

Characteristics of histologically confirmed endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys
STUDY QUESTION What are the characteristics of spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys? SUMMARY ANSWER Spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys exhibited similar characteristics to the human disease. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY One previous report described the prevalence and the basic histopathology of spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Endometriotic lesions that had been histologically confirmed in 8 female cynomolgus monkeys between 5 and 21 years old were subjected to study. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS The monkeys died of, or were sacrificed because o...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Nishimoto-Kakiuchi, A., Netsu, S., Matsuo, S., Hayashi, S., Ito, T., Okabayashi, S., Yasmin, L., Yuzawa, K., Kondoh, O., Kato, A., Suzuki, M., Konno, R., Sankai, T. Tags: Reproductive biology Source Type: research

nm23 regulates decidualization through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathways in mice and humans
STUDY QUESTION Does nm23 have functional significance in decidualization in mice and humans? SUMMARY ANSWER nm23 affects decidualization via the phosphoinositide 3 kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K-Akt-mTOR) signaling pathways in mouse endometrial stromal cells (ESCs; mESCs) and human ESCs. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The function of nm23 in suppressing metastasis has been demonstrated in a variety of cancer types. nm23 also participates in the control of DNA replication and cell proliferation and differentiation. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION We first analyzed the expression profile of nm23 in mice during early pr...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Zhang, X., Fu, L.-J., Liu, X.-Q., Hu, Z.-Y., Jiang, Y., Gao, R.-F., Feng, Q., Lan, X., Geng, Y.-Q., Chen, X.-M., He, J.-L., Wang, Y.-X., Ding, Y.-B. Tags: Reproductive biology Source Type: research

Poor embryo development in post-ovulatory in vivo-aged mouse oocytes is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, but mitochondrial transfer from somatic cells is not sufficient for rejuvenation
STUDY QUESTION Does in vivo aging of mouse oocytes affect mitochondrial function? SUMMARY ANSWER Mitochondrial function was impaired in post-ovulatory in vivo-aged mouse oocytes and microinjection of somatic cell mitochondria did not rescue poor fertilization and embryonic development rates. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The mechanisms underlying the decline in oocyte quality associated with oocyte aging remain unknown, although studies have suggested that the decline is regulated by mitochondrial dysfunction. However, only a limited number of studies have provided direct evidence implicating mitochondrial dysfunction in oocyte ...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Igarashi, H., Takahashi, T., Abe, H., Nakano, H., Nakajima, O., Nagase, S. Tags: Reproductive biology Source Type: research

Development of a new clinically applicable device for embryo evaluation which measures embryo oxygen consumption
This study was supported by grants from the Health and Labor Sciences Research Grant (H24-Hisaichiiki-Shitei-016). The authors have no conflicts of interest. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER Not applicable. (Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Kurosawa, H., Utsunomiya, H., Shiga, N., Takahashi, A., Ihara, M., Ishibashi, M., Nishimoto, M., Watanabe, Z., Abe, H., Kumagai, J., Terada, Y., Igarashi, H., Takahashi, T., Fukui, A., Suganuma, R., Tachibana, M., Yaegashi, N. Tags: Reproductive biology Source Type: research

Childless women's beliefs and knowledge about oocyte freezing for social and medical reasons
STUDY QUESTION What factors inform a woman's decision-making about oocyte freezing to preserve fertility for social and medical reasons? SUMMARY ANSWER Women lacked knowledge about the costs and viability of oocyte freezing as a fertility preservation option for social and medical reasons, and identified health consequences, costs, and viability as being particularly influential in their decision-making. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Having only recently become a viable fertility preservation option, relatively little is known about childless women's beliefs or knowledge about oocyte freezing for social or medical reasons. STUD...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Daniluk, J. C., Koert, E. Tags: Psychology and Counselling Source Type: research

Parents anxiety and depression symptoms after successful infertility treatment and spontaneous conception: does singleton/twin pregnancy matter?
STUDY QUESTION Does mode of conception [spontaneous/after infertility treatment (IT)], type of pregnancy (singleton/twin) and parent gender have an effect on anxiety and depression levels and trajectories during pregnancy and the post-partum period? SUMMARY ANSWER Conception after IT was associated with a transitory increase in anxiety during the perinatal period for parents of singletons, while for IT parents of twins higher levels of psychopathological symptoms tended to persist during pregnancy and the post-partum period. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Most previous studies have shown that successful IT is not associated with ...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tendais, I., Figueiredo, B. Tags: Psychology and counselling Source Type: research

Evaluation of minimal disseminated disease in cryopreserved ovarian tissue from bone and soft tissue sarcoma patients
STUDY QUESTION What is the risk of finding malignant cells in cryopreserved ovarian tissue from sarcoma patients? SUMMARY ANSWER Minimal disseminated disease (MDD) was not detected in frozen-thawed ovarian tissue from 26 patients by any of the sensitive methods applied. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY In case of leukemia, the risk of malignant cell transmission through the graft is well known and widely documented. However, for bone cancer, like Ewing sarcoma or osteosarcoma, only a small number of case reports, have been published. These cancers often affect prepubertal girls, in whom ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplan...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Dolmans, M. M., Iwahara, Y., Donnez, J., Soares, M., Vaerman, J. L., Amorim, C. A., Poirel, H. Tags: Infertility Source Type: research

Performance of outpatient transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy
STUDY QUESTION What is the feasibility of performing transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy (THL) in an outpatient setting? SUMMARY ANSWER It is feasible to perform THL in an outpatient setting, reflected by a low complication and failure rate and a high patients' satisfaction. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY THL is a safe method to investigate tubal patency and exploring the pelvis in subfertile women. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Retrospective cohort study of 1127 subfertile women who underwent THL as primary diagnostic method for testing tubal patency in an outpatient setting. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS We studied all TH...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Coenders-Tros, R., van Kessel, M. A., Vernooij, M. M. A., Oosterhuis, G. J. E., Kuchenbecker, W. K. H., Mol, B. W. J., Koks, C. A. M. Tags: Infertility Source Type: research

Disparities between online assisted reproduction patient education for same-sex and heterosexual couples
STUDY QUESTION Does the prevalence of online education in fertility center websites differ for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) couples compared to online education for heterosexual couples? SUMMARY ANSWER This review of fertility center websites showed that the majority of websites with patient education for heterosexual couples do not have similar materials for LGBT couples. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY In order to have biologically related children, LGBT individuals or couples utilize assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Fertility clinic websites provide online education to familiarize patients with the differ...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Jin, H., Dasgupta, S. Tags: Infertility Source Type: research

Fertility-related quality of life from two RCT cohorts with infertility: unexplained infertility and polycystic ovary syndrome
STUDY QUESTION Does fertility-related quality of life (FertiQOL) differ by infertility diagnosis between women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and their partners, compared with couples with unexplained infertility (UI)? SUMMARY ANSWER Women with PCOS report lower QOL than those with UI, whereas males with UI report lower QOL than males with PCOS partners. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The fertility-specific QOL survey, FertiQOL, has been used to examine fertility-related QOL in a number of worldwide cohorts. Few data have addressed fertility-related QOL as a function of infertility diagnosis. Overall, men report better QOL...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Santoro, N., Eisenberg, E., Trussell, J. C., Craig, L. B., Gracia, C., Huang, H., Alvero, R., Casson, P., Christman, G., Coutifaris, C., Diamond, M., Jin, S., Legro, R. S., Robinson, R. D., Schlaff, W. D., Zhang, H., for the Reproductive Medicine Network Tags: Infertility Source Type: research

Live birth and perinatal outcomes following stimulated and unstimulated IVF: analysis of over two decades of a nationwide data
STUDY QUESTION Does ovarian stimulation affect perinatal outcomes of preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) following IVF treatment. SUMMARY ANSWER Despite no significant differences in the risks of PTB and LBW between stimulated and unstimulated IVF in the present study, the study cannot exclude the effect of ovarian stimulation on the perinatal outcomes following IVF. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN Pregnancies resulting from assisted reproductive treatments (ART) are associated with a higher risk of pregnancy complications compared to spontaneously conceived pregnancies attributed to the underlying infertility and the i...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Sunkara, S. K., LaMarca, A., Polyzos, N. P., Seed, P. T., Khalaf, Y. Tags: Infertility Source Type: research

A prospective randomized controlled trial of 3D versus 2D ultrasound-guided embryo transfer in women undergoing ART treatment
This study recruited unselected women undergoing routine ET and was therefore not sufficiently powered to assess differences in subsets of women. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Although 3D US may be a modern method for demonstrating the ET procedure, it should not be currently recommended as a strategy to improve clinical outcomes in women undergoing ART treatment. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This study was funded by the Health and Medical Research Fund of Hong Kong. The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02413697. TRIAL REGISTRATIO...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Saravelos, S. H., Kong, G. W. S., Chung, J. P. W., Mak, J. S. M., Chung, C. H. S., Cheung, L. P., Li, T.-C. Tags: Infertility Source Type: research

Correlation between aneuploidy, standard morphology evaluation and morphokinetic development in 1730 biopsied blastocysts: a consecutive case series study
STUDY QUESTION Are there correlations among human blastocyst ploidy status, standard morphology evaluation and time-lapse kinetics? SUMMARY ANSWER Correlations were observed, in that euploid human blastocysts showed a higher percentage with top quality inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE), higher expansion grades and shorter time to start of blastulation, expansion and hatching, compared to aneuploid ones. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Embryo quality has always been considered an important predictor of successful implantation and pregnancy. Nevertheless, knowledge of the relative impact of each morphological parameter at...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Minasi, M. G., Colasante, A., Riccio, T., Ruberti, A., Casciani, V., Scarselli, F., Spinella, F., Fiorentino, F., Varricchio, M. T., Greco, E. Tags: Embryology Source Type: research

Development of a generally applicable morphokinetic algorithm capable of predicting the implantation potential of embryos transferred on Day 3
This study was funded by Vitrolife A/S, Denmark and Vitrolife AB, Sweden. B.M.P.’s company BMP Analytics is performing consultancy for Vitrolife A/S. M.B. is employed at Vitrolife A/S. M.M.’s company ilabcomm GmbH received honorarium for consultancy from Vitrolife AB. D.K.G. received research support from Vitrolife AB. (Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Petersen, B. M., Boel, M., Montag, M., Gardner, D. K. Tags: Embryology Source Type: research

Influence of embryo culture medium (G5 and HTF) on pregnancy and perinatal outcome after IVF: a multicenter RCT
STUDY QUESTION Does embryo culture medium influence pregnancy and perinatal outcome in IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER Embryo culture media used in IVF affect treatment efficacy and the birthweight of newborns. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY A wide variety of culture media for human preimplantation embryos in IVF/ICSI treatments currently exists. It is unknown which medium is best in terms of clinical outcomes. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the culture medium used for the in vitro culture of embryos affects birthweight, but this has never been demonstrated by large randomized trials. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION We conducted a mul...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Kleijkers, S. H. M., Mantikou, E., Slappendel, E., Consten, D., van Echten-Arends, J., Wetzels, A. M., van Wely, M., Smits, L. J. M., van Montfoort, A. P. A., Repping, S., Dumoulin, J. C. M., Mastenbroek, S. Tags: Embryology Source Type: research

Correlation between chromosomal distribution and embryonic findings on ultrasound in early pregnancy loss after IVF-embryo transfer
STUDY QUESTION Do early pregnancy losses (EPLs) with and without embryos differ in chromosomal distributions? SUMMARY ANSWER The chromosomal abnormality rate is significantly higher in miscarriages with embryos than without after in vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Chromosomal abnormalities are the main causes of EPLs, the rate of which is up to 24–30% in the IVF population. Little research has been conducted on the correlations between the chromosomal distributions of EPL and the existence of an embryo or with the postmortem embryonic pole length, and the existing results have been ...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Ouyang, Y., Tan, Y., Yi, Y., Gong, F., Lin, G., Li, X., Lu, G. Tags: Early pregnancy Source Type: research

Classification of pregnancies of unknown location according to four different hCG-based protocols
STUDY QUESTION How do four protocols based on serial human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) measurements perform when classifying pregnancies of unknown location (PULs) as low or high risk of being an ectopic pregnancy (EP)? SUMMARY ANSWER The use of cut-offs in hCG level changes published by NICE, and a logistic regression model, M4, correctly classify more PULs as high risk, compared with two other protocols. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY A logistic regression model, M4, based on the mean of two consecutive hCG values and the hCG ratio (hCG 48 h/hCG 0 h) that classify PULs into low- and high-risk groups for triage purposes, identi...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Fistouris, J., Bergh, C., Strandell, A. Tags: Early pregnancy Source Type: research

Specific immune cell and cytokine characteristics of human testicular germ cell neoplasia
Conclusions about cytokine levels in testes with GCNIS are based on a small number of samples. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS The unique B cell presence and the significantly increased expression level of IL-6 in testicular germ cell neoplasia (P
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Klein, B., Haggeney, T., Fietz, D., Indumathy, S., Loveland, K. L., Hedger, M., Kliesch, S., Weidner, W., Bergmann, M., Schuppe, H.-C. Tags: Andrology Source Type: research

Seminal plasma transforming growth factor-{beta}, activin A and follistatin fluctuate within men over time
This study was supported by grants from the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, ID453556 and APP1041332. The authors have no competing interests to disclose. (Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Sharkey, D. J., Tremellen, K. P., Briggs, N. E., Dekker, G. A., Robertson, S. A. Tags: Andrology Source Type: research

Time to take human embryo culture seriously
STUDY QUESTION Is it important that end-users know the composition of human embryo culture media? SUMMARY ANSWER We argue that there is as strong case for full transparency concerning the composition of embryo culture media intended for human use. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Published data suggest that the composition of embryo culture media may influence the phenotype of the offspring. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A review of the literature was carried out. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Data concerning the potential effects on embryo development of culture media were assessed and recommendations for users made. ...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Sunde, A., Brison, D., Dumoulin, J., Harper, J., Lundin, K., Magli, M. C., Van den Abbeel, E., Veiga, A. Tags: Eshre Pages Source Type: research

Corticosteroid therapy in assisted reproduction - immune suppression is a faulty premise
There is ongoing interest in immune-suppressant corticosteroid drugs such as prednisolone to treat infertility in women with repeated IVF failure and recurrent miscarriage. The rationale draws on the pervasive but flawed view that immune activation is inconsistent with normal pregnancy. This ignores clear evidence that controlled inflammation and activation of the immune response is essential for embryo implantation. Generally, the immune response actively promotes reproductive success – by facilitating endometrial receptivity and tolerance of the foreign embryo, and promoting vascular adaptation to support placental...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Robertson, S. A., Jin, M., Yu, D., Moldenhauer, L. M., Davies, M. J., Hull, M. L., Norman, R. J. Tags: Opinion Source Type: research

Data collection systems in ART must follow the pace of change in clinical practice
In assisted reproductive technology (ART), quality control necessitates the collection of outcome data and occurring complications. Traditional quality assurance is based on data derived from single ART centres and more recently from national registries, both recording outcome parameters during well-defined observation periods. Nowadays, ART is moving towards much more diverse approaches, with sequential activities including short- or long-term freezing of gametes, gonadal tissues and embryos, and cross-border reproductive care. Hence, long-term cumulative treatment rates and an international approach are becoming a necess...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: De Geyter, C., Wyns, C., Mocanu, E., de Mouzon, J., Calhaz-Jorge, C. Tags: Opinion Source Type: research

Peanut butter
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: (Hans) Evers, J. L. H. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Genetic variations in the 3'-untranslated region of SLC18A2 are associated with serum FSH concentration in polycystic ovary syndrome patients and regulate gene expression in vitro
This study was a cross-sectional examination in women with PCOS (n = 319) and controls (n = 220) from China. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS The PCOS patients were diagnosed based on the criteria of the Androgen Excess Society, including clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenemia plus oligoamenorrhea or polycystic ovaries. Controls had regular menstrual cycles and no hyperandrogenism or other endocrine disorders related to PCOS. Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected based on resequencing data in 48 PCOS patients and linkage disequilibrium analysis. Allele frequencies for variants (r...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Li, Q., Yan, Z., Kuang, Y., Zhou, X., Jin, L., He, L., Sun, X., Tao, T., Wang, L. Tags: Reproductive genetics Source Type: research

Is underage abortion associated with adverse outcomes in early adulthood? A longitudinal birth cohort study up to 25 years of age
STUDY QUESTION Is underage abortion associated with adverse socioeconomic and health outcomes in early adulthood when compared with underage delivery? SUMMARY ANSWER Underage abortion was not found to be associated with mental health problems in early adulthood, and socioeconomic outcomes were better among those who experienced abortion compared with those who gave birth. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Teenage motherhood has been linked with numerous adverse outcomes in later life, including low educational levels and poor physical and mental health. Whether abortion at a young age predisposes to similar consequences is not clear...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Leppälahti, S., Heikinheimo, O., Kalliala, I., Santalahti, P., Gissler, M. Tags: Reproductive epidemiology Source Type: research

A nested case-control study of prenatal vanadium exposure and low birthweight
STUDY QUESTION Is prenatal vanadium exposure associated with adverse birth outcomes? SUMMARY ANSWER The odds of low birthweight (LBW) are increased 2.23-fold in mothers with a urinary vanadium of ≥2.91 μg/g creatinine compared with that in mothers with a urinary vanadium of ≤1.42 μg/g creatinine. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Human exposure to vanadium occurs through intake of food, water and polluted air. Vanadium has been suggested to have fetotoxicity and developmental toxicity in animal studies, and epidemiological studies have reported an association between a decrease in birthweight and vanadium exposure estima...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Jiang, M., Li, Y., Zhang, B., Zhou, A., Zheng, T., Qian, Z., Du, X., Zhou, Y., Pan, X., Hu, J., Wu, C., Peng, Y., Liu, W., Zhang, C., Xia, W., Xu, S. Tags: Reproductive epidemiology Source Type: research

Female digit length ratio (2D:4D) and time-to-pregnancy
STUDY QUESTION Is the female 2th- to 4th-finger ratio (2D:4D) associated with fecundity as measured by time-to-pregnancy (TTP)? SUMMARY ANSWER Our study does not support an association between female 2D:4D and TTP. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The 2th- to 4th-finger ratio (2D:4D) has been proposed as a potential indicator of greater androgen exposure during fetal development. Women exposed in utero to unbalanced steroid hormones may have impaired fecundity in the adulthood. Fecundity is often measured by TTP, an epidemiological tool commonly used to assess the impact of environmental factors in human conception. STUDY DESIGN, ...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Velez, M. P., Arbuckle, T. E., Monnier, P., Fraser, W. D. Tags: Reproductive epidemiology Source Type: research

Urinary paracetamol and time-to-pregnancy
STUDY QUESTION Is preconception urinary paracetamol (acetaminophen) associated with time-to-pregnancy (TTP)? SUMMARY ANSWER Higher urinary paracetamol concentrations among male partners were associated with a longer TTP. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Paracetamol is a commonly used analgesic among women and men of all ages. As metabolites of select chemicals used in the manufacturing of polyurethane foam, dyes and various industrial products, as well as a common medicinal product, paracetamol and its primary metabolite p-aminophenol, are ubiquitous in the environment. Studies investigating the relationship between adult urinary c...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Smarr, M. M., Grantz, K. L., Sundaram, R., Maisog, J. M., Honda, M., Kannan, K., Buck Louis, G. M. Tags: Reproductive epidemiology Source Type: research

Prevalence of infertility and help seeking among 15 000 women and men
STUDY QUESTION What is the prevalence of infertility and of help seeking among women and men in Britain? SUMMARY ANSWER One in eight women and one in ten men aged 16–74 years had experienced infertility, defined by unsuccessfully attempting pregnancy for a year or longer, and little more than half of these people sought medical or professional help. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Estimates of infertility and help seeking in Britain vary widely and are not easily comparable because of different definitions and study populations. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A cross-sectional population survey was conducted between 2010 and ...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Datta, J., Palmer, M. J., Tanton, C., Gibson, L. J., Jones, K. G., Macdowall, W., Glasier, A., Sonnenberg, P., Field, N., Mercer, C. H., Johnson, A. M., Wellings, K. Tags: Reproductive epidemiology Source Type: research

Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist mediates toll-like receptor 3-induced inhibition of trophoblast adhesion to endometrial cells in vitro
STUDY QUESTION Is interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) involved in the toll-like receptor 3 (TLR 3)-induced inhibition of trophoblast cells' adhesion to endometrial cells in vitro? SUMMARY ANSWER IL-1RA mediates the TLR 3-induced inhibition of trophoblast cells' adhesion to endometrial cells in vitro. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY It is well documented that endometrial TLR 3 activation leads to impairment of trophoblast binding to endometrial cells in vitro. IL-1RA is known as an anti-implantation factor, as its injection significantly reduced implantation rates in mice by an effect on endometrial receptivity. STUDY DESIG...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Montazeri, M., Sanchez-Lopez, J. A., Caballero, I., Maslehat Lay, N., Elliott, S., Fazeli, A. Tags: Reproductive biology Source Type: research

Obesity-induced oocyte mitochondrial defects are partially prevented and rescued by supplementation with co-enzyme Q10 in a mouse model
STUDY QUESTION Does supplementation with co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10) improve the oocyte mitochondrial abnormalities associated with obesity in mice? SUMMARY ANSWER In an obese mouse model, CoQ10 improves the mitochondrial function of oocytes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Obesity impairs oocyte quality. Oocytes from mice fed a high-fat/high-sugar (HF/HS) diet have abnormalities in mitochondrial distribution and function and in meiotic progression. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Mice were randomly assigned to a normal, chow diet or an isocaloric HF/HS diet for 12 weeks. After 6 weeks on the diet, half of the mice receiving a normal diet...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Boots, C. E., Boudoures, A., Zhang, W., Drury, A., Moley, K. H. Tags: Reproductive biology Source Type: research

Online sperm donation: a survey of the demographic characteristics, motivations, preferences and experiences of sperm donors on a connection website
STUDY QUESTION What are the demographic characteristics, motivations, preferences and experiences of heterosexual, gay and bisexual sperm donors on a connection website (i.e. a website that facilitates direct contact between donors and recipients of gametes)? SUMMARY ANSWER This demographically diverse group of men was donating for altruistic reasons and perceived the website as providing greater choice over donation arrangements: approximately one third favoured anonymous donation, most of whom were heterosexual, whilst gay and bisexual donors were more likely to be in contact with children conceived with their sperm. W...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Freeman, T., Jadva, V., Tranfield, E., Golombok, S. Tags: Psychology and counselling Source Type: research

Young women's psychological distress after a diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome or endometriosis
STUDY QUESTION Do young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or endometriosis report more psychological distress than their peers without a history of these conditions? SUMMARY ANSWER Young women (aged 18–23 years) with PCOS or endometriosis had a greater risk of moderate to severe psychological distress than women without a history of these conditions. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Psychological distress appears common among women with PCOS and endometriosis. However, population-based studies that examine the psychological outcomes for adolescents and young women are generally absent from the literature. STUDY DES...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Rowlands, I. J., Teede, H., Lucke, J., Dobson, A. J., Mishra, G. D. Tags: Psychology and counselling Source Type: research

The Fertility Quality of Life Questionnaire (FertiQoL) Relational subscale: psychometric properties and discriminant validity across gender
STUDY QUESTION Is the Fertility Quality of Life Questionnaire (FertiQoL)—Relational Scale a valid measure to assess the relational domain regarding quality of life in women and men undergoing infertility treatment? SUMMARY ANSWER The FertiQoL-Relational scale (FertiQoL-REL) showed good psychometric properties and captured core aspects of couple relationships. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY FertiQoL has become a gold standard for the assessment of infertility-related quality of life in patients undergoing assisted reproduction treatment (ART). Despite its growing importance, no previous studies have examined the convergent v...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Donarelli, Z., Lo Coco, G., Gullo, S., Salerno, L., Marino, A., Sammartano, F., Allegra, A. Tags: Psychology and counselling Source Type: research

Effects of fertility education on knowledge, desires and anxiety among the reproductive-aged population: findings from a randomized controlled trial
STUDY QUESTION What are the effects of fertility education on knowledge, childbearing desires and anxiety? SUMMARY ANSWER Providing fertility information contributed to greater knowledge, but increased anxiety. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Past studies have found that exposure to educational material improved fertility awareness and changed desires toward childbearing and its timing. Existing educational websites with evidence-based medical information provided in a non-judgmental manner have received favorable responses from reproductive-aged men and women. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This three-armed (one intervention and t...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Maeda, E., Nakamura, F., Kobayashi, Y., Boivin, J., Sugimori, H., Murata, K., Saito, H. Tags: Psychology and counselling Source Type: research

Reduced homeobox protein MSX1 in human endometrial tissue is linked to infertility
STUDY QUESTION Is protein expression of the muscle segment homeobox gene family member MSX1 altered in the human secretory endometrium by cell type, developmental stage or fertility? SUMMARY ANSWER MSX1 protein levels, normally elevated in the secretory phase endometrium, were significantly reduced in endometrial biopsies obtained from women of infertile couples. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Molecular changes in the endometrium are important for fertility in both animals and humans. Msx1 is expressed in the preimplantation mouse uterus and regulates uterine receptivity for implantation. The MSX protein persists a short time, af...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Bolnick, A. D., Bolnick, J. M., Kilburn, B. A., Stewart, T., Oakes, J., Rodriguez-Kovacs, J., Kohan-Ghadr, H.-R., Dai, J., Diamond, M. P., Hirota, Y., Drewlo, S., Dey, S. K., Armant, D. R., the NICHD National Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network Tags: Infertility Source Type: research

Ninety-five orthotopic transplantations in 74 women of ovarian tissue after cytotoxic treatment in a fertility preservation network: tissue activity, pregnancy and delivery rates
This study was in part funded from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (# DI 1525) and the Wilhelm Sander Foundation (2012.127.1) and did not receive any funding from a commercial company. No competing interests. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER None. (Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - August 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Van der Ven, H., Liebenthron, J., Beckmann, M., Toth, B., Korell, M., Krüssel, J., Frambach, T., Kupka, M., Hohl, M. K., Winkler-Crepaz, K., Seitz, S., Dogan, A., Griesinger, G., Häberlin, F., Henes, M., Schwab, R., Sütterlin, M., Tags: Infertility Source Type: research

Fertility, pregnancy and gynecological outcomes after fetoscopic surgery for congenital diaphragmatic hernia
STUDY QUESTION What is the impact of fetoscopic surgery for isolated Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH) on future reproductive and gynecological outcomes? SUMMARY ANSWER We did not observe an increase of obstetric or gynecological problems after fetoscopic surgery nor was there an increased risk for subsequent infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The reproductive and gynecological outcomes of patients undergoing open maternal-fetal surgery are known. The most relevant counseling items are the elevated risk for uterine dehiscence and rupture (up to 14%). STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Bi-centric study over a 10-year perio...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Gregoir, C., Engels, A. C., Gomez, O., DeKoninck, P., Lewi, L., Gratacos, E., Deprest, J. A. Tags: Infertility Source Type: research

RCT to evaluate the influence of adjuvant medical treatment of peritoneal endometriosis on the outcome of IVF
STUDY QUESTION Does a 3-month adjuvant hormonal treatment of mild peritoneal endometriosis after laparoscopic surgery influence the outcome of IVF stimulation in terms of number of mature oocytes obtained per cycle? SUMMARY ANSWER Complementary medical treatment of mild peritoneal endometriosis does not influence the number of oocytes per treatment cycle. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Endometriosis is a disease known to be related to infertility. However, the influence of superficial endometriosis—and its treatment—is still a matter of debate. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A prospective controlled, randomized, open l...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Decleer, W., Osmanagaoglu, K., Verschueren, K., Comhaire, F., Devroey, P. Tags: Infertility Source Type: research

Hysteroscopic proximal tubal occlusion versus laparoscopic salpingectomy as a treatment for hydrosalpinges prior to IVF or ICSI: an RCT
STUDY QUESTION Does hysteroscopic proximal tubal occlusion by intratubal devices as a treatment for hydrosalpinges result in comparable ongoing pregnancy rates following IVF/ICSI when compared with laparoscopic salpingectomy? SUMMARY ANSWER Hysteroscopic proximal tubal occlusion by intratubal devices is inferior to laparoscopic salpingectomy in the treatment of hydrosalpinges in women undergoing IVF/ICSI with respect to ongoing pregnancy rates. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY It is known that women with hydrosalpinges undergoing IVF have poorer pregnancy outcomes compared with women with other forms of tubal infertility. In these ...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Dreyer, K., Lier, M. C. I., Emanuel, M. H., Twisk, J. W. R., Mol, B. W. J., Schats, R., Hompes, P. G. A., Mijatovic, V. Tags: Infertility Source Type: research

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: review and new classification criteria for reporting in clinical trials
STUDY QUESTION What is an objective approach that employs measurable and reproducible physiologic changes as the basis for the classification of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in order to facilitate more accurate reporting of incidence rates within and across clinical trials? SUMMARY ANSWER The OHSS flow diagram is an objective approach that will facilitate consistent capture, classification and reporting of OHSS within and across clinical trials. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY OHSS is a potentially life-threatening iatrogenic complication of the early luteal phase and/or early pregnancy after ovulation induction (OI) o...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Humaidan, P., Nelson, S. M., Devroey, P., Coddington, C. C., Schwartz, L. B., Gordon, K., Frattarelli, J. L., Tarlatzis, B. C., Fatemi, H. M., Lutjen, P., Stegmann, B. J. Tags: Infertility Source Type: research

No change in live birthweight of IVF singleton deliveries over an 18-year period despite significant clinical and laboratory changes
STUDY QUESTION Has live birthweight changed over 18 years of autologous fresh and frozen IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER Regardless of changes in clinical care and laboratory practice over 18 years, birthweight has remained stable. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Birthweight has historically been used as a marker of neonatal health. Frozen embryo transfers lead to heavier live birthweights compared with fresh embryo transfers. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This retrospective cohort study included 7295 singletons from autologous fresh (n = 6265) and frozen (n = 1030) IVF cycles from 1996 to 2013. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS All p...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Maas, K., Galkina, E., Thornton, K., Penzias, A. S., Sakkas, D. Tags: Infertility Source Type: research

Dienogest mediates midkine suppression in endometriosis
STUDY QUESTION What are the effects of dienogest (DNG) on midkine (MK) production in women with endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER DNG-mediated down-regulation of MK in vivo and in vitro. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY DNG is an oral progestin that alleviates painful symptoms of women with endometriosis with a favourable tolerability and safety profile. Its effects on MK, a growth factor that plays an important role in endometriosis, have not yet been investigated. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Prospective in vivo study on 283 patients subjected to laparoscopy for benign pathologies in a University hospital and in vitro cultures of pr...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Nirgianakis, K., Grandi, G., McKinnon, B., Bersinger, N., Cagnacci, A., Mueller, M. Tags: Gynaecology Source Type: research

Advanced maternal age causes adverse programming of mouse blastocysts leading to altered growth and impaired cardiometabolic health in post-natal life
STUDY QUESTION Does advanced maternal age (AMA) in mice affect cardiometabolic health during post-natal life in offspring derived from an assisted reproduction technology (ART) procedure? SUMMARY ANSWER Offspring derived from blastocysts collected from aged female mice displayed impaired body weight gain, blood pressure, glucose metabolism and organ allometry during post-natal life compared with offspring derived from blastocysts from young females; since all blastocysts were transferred to normalized young mothers, this effect is independent of maternal pregnancy conditions. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Although studies in mic...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Velazquez, M. A., Smith, C. G. C., Smyth, N. R., Osmond, C., Fleming, T. P. Tags: Embryology Source Type: research