Day 5 versus Day 6 blastocyst transfers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical outcomes
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONIs there a difference in clinical pregnancy and live birth rates (LBRs) between blastocysts developing on Day 5 (D5) and blastocysts developing on Day 6 (D6) following fresh and frozen transfers?SUMMARY ANSWERD5 blastocyst transfers (BTs) present higher clinical pregnancy and LBRs than D6 in both fresh and frozen transfers.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYBT is increasingly popular in assisted reproductive technology (ART) centers today. To our knowledge, no meta-analysis has focused on clinical outcomes in both fresh and frozen BT. Concerning frozen blastocysts, one meta-analysis in 2010 found no significant dif...
Source: Human Reproduction - October 23, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Mitochondria-targeted therapy rescues development and quality of embryos derived from oocytes matured under oxidative stress conditions: a bovine in vitro model
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONCan we use a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant (Mitoquinone) duringin vitro embryo culture to rescue developmental competence of oocytes matured under lipotoxic conditions, exhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress?SUMMARY ANSWERSupplementation of embryo culture media with Mitoquinone reduced oxidative stress and prevented mitochondrial uncoupling in embryos derived from metabolically compromised oocytesin vitro, leading to higher blastocyst rates and lower blastomeric apoptosis.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYMaternal metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type-II diabetes are associated with...
Source: Human Reproduction - October 18, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Different mutation profiles between epithelium and stroma in endometriosis and normal endometrium
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONAre there common mutation profiles between epithelial and stromal cells in ovarian endometriotic tissue and the normal endometrium?SUMMARY ANSWEROur study revealed no common mutations between epithelial and stromal cells in ovarian endometriotic tissue and the normal endometrium.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYEpithelial cells in both ovarian endometriotic tissue and the normal endometrium harbor somatic mutations in cancer-associated genes such as phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) and KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase (KRAS).STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONWe performed a retr...
Source: Human Reproduction - October 17, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Association between the number of oocytes retrieved and neonatal outcomes after freeze-all IVF cycles
AbstractStudy questionIs there any association between the number of oocytes retrieved and neonatal outcomes following IVF/ICSI treatment for patients using a freeze-all strategy?Summary answerThere was no increased risk of adverse neonatal outcomes in cycles with high number of oocytes retrieved ( ≥ 16) compared to those with 10–15 oocytes retrieved in freeze-all cycles.What is known alreadyRecent studies have found that there is an increased risk of preterm birth (PTB,20 oocytes. In univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of the association between ovarian response and the outcomes of PTB, early...
Source: Human Reproduction - October 17, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

What is the prognosis for a live birth after unexplained recurrent implantation failure following IVF/ICSI?
This study reports a favorable overall prognosis for achieving live birth in women who have previously experienced RIF, especially in those who continue with further IVF/ICSI treatments. However since 51% did not achieve a live birth during the follow-up period, there is a need to distinguish those most likely to benefit from further treatment. In this study, no clinical factors were found to be predictive of those achieving a subsequent live birth.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)This study was funded by the University Medical Center Utrecht, in Utrecht and the Academic Medical Centre, in Amsterdam. NSM has received con...
Source: Human Reproduction - October 17, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

CFAP70 mutations lead to male infertility due to severe astheno-teratozoospermia. A case report
In conclusion, this work provides the first evidence that loss of CFAP70 function causes MMAF and that ODA-related proteins may be crucial for the assembly and/or stability of the flagellum axoneme in addition to its motility. (Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - October 17, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Voltage-gated proton channels exist in the plasma membrane of human oocytes
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDo human oocytes express voltage-gated proton channels?SUMMARY ANSWERHuman oocytes exhibit voltage-gated proton currents.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYVoltage-gated proton currents have been reported in human sperm, where they contribute to capacitation and motility. No such studies of human oocytes exist.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONVoltage-clamp studies were undertaken using entire oocytes and vesicles derived from oocytes and in excised patches of membrane from oocytes.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODSFrozen, thawed human metaphase II oocytes were obtained from material donated to the gamete repositor...
Source: Human Reproduction - October 16, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Recombinant human granulocyte –colony stimulating factor for all recurrent miscarriage patients or for a select group?
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - October 10, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Reply: Recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor for all recurrent miscarriage patients or for a select group
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - October 10, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Reproduction, DNA methylation and biological age
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONAre reproductive characteristics associated with genome-wide DNA methylation and epigenetic age?SUMMARY ANSWEROur data suggest that increasing parity is associated with differences in blood DNA methylation and small increases in epigenetic age.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYA study of 397 young Filipino women (ages 20 –22) observed increasing epigenetic age with an increasing number of pregnancies.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONWe used data from 2356 non-Hispanic white women (ages 35 –74) enrolled in the Sister Study cohort.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODSData on reproductive history were ascer...
Source: Human Reproduction - October 10, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Evidence that biopsying, fragmentation and auto-transplantation of ovarian tissue should be abandoned as a treatment of diminished ovarian reserve
In the article by Lunding et al. (2019) ( ‘Biopsying, fragmentation and autotransplantation of fresh ovarian cortical tissue in infertile women with diminished ovarian reserve’) published in this journal, we have evidence that suggests this procedure should be abandoned. Previous reports have proposed that dormant follicles could be act ivated in women with premature ovarian insufficiency through biopsy, fragmentation and auto-transplantation of ovarian tissue, as evidenced by resumption of menses (Zhai et al., 2016) or ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation (Suzuki et al., 2015). The authors sought...
Source: Human Reproduction - October 8, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Biopsying, fragmentation and autotransplantation of fresh ovarian cortical tissue in infertile women with diminished ovarian reserve
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONCan ovarian biopsyingper se and/or autotransplantation of fragmented ovarian cortical tissue activate dormant follicles and increase the number of recruitable follicles for IVF/ICSI in women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR)?SUMMARY ANSWEROvarian biopsying followed by immediate autotransplantation of fragmented cortical tissue failed to increase the number of recruitable follicles for IVF/ICSI 10  weeks after the procedure either at the graft site or in the biopsied ovary, but 12 of the 20 women subsequently had a clinical pregnancy during the 1-year follow-up.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYInfertile w...
Source: Human Reproduction - October 8, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Paternal impacts on development: identification of genomic regions vulnerable to oxidative DNA damage in human spermatozoa
AbstractSTUDY QUESTION Do all regions of the paternal genome within the gamete display equivalent vulnerability to oxidative DNA damage?SUMMARY ANSWEROxidative DNA damage is not randomly distributed in mature human spermatozoa but is instead targeted, with particular chromosomes being especially vulnerable to oxidative stress.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYOxidative DNA damage is frequently encountered in the spermatozoa of male infertility patients. Such lesions can influence the incidence ofde novo mutations in children, yet it remains to be established whether all regions of the sperm genome display equivalent susceptibility to a...
Source: Human Reproduction - October 8, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Novel use of COMET parameters of sperm DNA damage may increase its utility to diagnose male infertility and predict live births following both IVF and ICSI
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDo the Comet parameters of the proportions of sperm with low or high DNA damage improve the power of the test in the diagnosis of male infertility and/or prediction of IVF and ICSI live birth rates?SUMMARY ANSWERThe mean Comet score and the scores for proportions of sperm with high or low DNA damage were useful in diagnosing male infertility and provided additional discriminatory information for the prediction of both IVF and ICSI live births.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYSperm DNA damage impacts adversely on male fertility and IVF outcomes.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONA retrospective study was performed involv...
Source: Human Reproduction - October 5, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

A mouse model to investigate the impact of testosterone therapy on reproduction in transgender men
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONCan mice serve as a translational model to investigate the reproductive effects of testosterone (T) therapy commonly used by transgender men?SUMMARY ANSWERT enanthate subcutaneous injections at 0.45  mg twice weekly can be used in the postpubertal C57BL/6N female mouse to investigate the reproductive effects of T therapy given to transgender men.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYMost models of T treatment in female mice involve prenatal or prepubertal administration, which are not applicable to transgender men who often begin T therapy after puberty. Studies that have looked at the impact of postpubertal T tr...
Source: Human Reproduction - October 4, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Reply: Methodological concerns on `Assessment of ovarian reserve after cystectomy versus “one-step” laser vaporization in the treatment of ovarian endometrioma: a small randomized clinical trial’
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - October 4, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Methodological concerns on ‘Assessment of ovarian reserve after cystectomy versus “one-step” laser vaporization in the treatment of ovarian endometrioma: a small randomized clinical trial’
Sir, (Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - October 4, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Detection of chlamydia infection within human testicular biopsies
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONCanChlamydia be found in the testes of infertile men?SUMMARY ANSWERChlamydia can be found in 16.7% of fresh testicular biopsies and 45.3% of fixed testicular biopsies taken from a selection of infertile men.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYMale chlamydial infection has been understudied despite male and female infections occurring at similar rates. This is particularly true of asymptomatic infections, which occur in 50% of cases. Chlamydial infection has also been associated with increased sperm DNA damage and reduced male fertility.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONWe collected diagnostic (fixed,n = 100) a...
Source: Human Reproduction - October 4, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

The perioperative period: a critical yet neglected time window for reducing the recurrence risk of endometriosis?
AbstractWhile surgery is commonly the management of symptomatic endometriosis when patients do not respond to medical or supportive therapy, recurrence after surgery poses a serious challenge, and repeat surgery increases the risk of premature ovarian failure, adhesion and organ injury. Conceivably, the recurrent endometriotic lesions could arise from minimal residual lesions (MRLs) or fromde novo lesions. However, several lines of evidence suggest that the former is more likely. So far, most, if not all, efforts to combat recurrence have been focused on postoperative medication of hormonal drugs to reduce recurrence risk ...
Source: Human Reproduction - October 4, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Tissue stiffness at the human maternal –fetal interface
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONWhat is the stiffness (elastic modulus) of human nonpregnant secretory phase endometrium, first trimester decidua, and placenta?SUMMARY ANSWERThe stiffness of decidua basalis, the site of placental invasion, was an order of magnitude higher at 103 Pa compared to 102 Pa for decidua parietalis, nonpregnant endometrium and placenta.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYMechanical forces have profound effects on cell behavior, regulating both cell differentiation and migration. Despite their importance, very little is known about their effects on blastocyst implantation and trophoblast migration during placental...
Source: Human Reproduction - October 3, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Non-transparent and insufficient descriptions of non-validated microbiome methods and related reproductive outcome results should be interpreted with caution
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - October 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Reply: Non-transparent and insufficient descriptions of non-validated microbiome methods and related reproductive outcome results should be interpreted with caution
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - October 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Anogenital distance in children born of mothers with polycystic ovary syndrome: the Odense Child Cohort
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONAre higher testosterone levels during pregnancy in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) associated with longer offspring anogenital distance (AGD)?SUMMARY ANSWERAGD was similar in 3-month-old children born of mothers with PCOS compared to controls.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYAGD is considered a marker of prenatal androgenization.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONMaternal testosterone levels were measured by mass spectrometry at Gestational Week 28 in 1127 women. Maternal diagnosis of PCOS before pregnancy was defined according to Rotterdam criteria. Offspring measures included AGD from anus to posterior fou...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 27, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Predicting suboptimal oocyte yield following GnRH agonist trigger by measuring serum LH at the start of ovarian stimulation
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONAre the LH levels at the start of ovarian stimulation predictive of suboptimal oocyte yield from GnRH agonist triggering in GnRH antagonist down-regulated cycles?SUMMARY ANSWERLH levels at the start of ovarian stimulation are an independent predictor of suboptimal oocyte yield following a GnRH agonist trigger.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYA GnRH agonist ovulation trigger may result in an inadequate oocyte yield in a small subset of patients. This failure can range from empty follicle syndrome to the retrieval of much fewer oocytes than expected. Suboptimal response to a GnRH agonist trigger has been defined as...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 27, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

In vitro maturation for expected high responders: balancing the effectiveness and safety
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - September 27, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Reply: IVM for expected high responders: balancing the effectiveness and safety
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - September 27, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Declining realisation of reproductive intentions with age
This study analyses two waves of the nationally representative Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey. The analytical sample interviewed in 2011 included 447 men aged 18 –45 and 528 women aged 18–41. These respondents expressed a strong intention to have a child in the next 3 years. We followed them up in 2015 to track whether their reproductive intention was achieved or revised.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS, METHODSMultinomial logistic regression is used to account for the three possible outcomes: (i) having a child, (ii) not having a child but still intending to have one in ...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 27, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Adherence to diet quality indices in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones in young men
This study was carried out on young men from the general population. However, results may differ among other populations (e.g. infertile men). Therefore, further research is needed to confirm these findings and extend these results to other populations.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)This work was supported by Fundaci ón Séneca, grants No 08808/PI/08 and No 19443/PI/14; Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (AES), grants No PI10/00985 and No PI13/01237; and grant P30DK046200 from the National Institutes of Health. Authors have no competing interests to declare. (Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - September 27, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Human chorionic gonadotropin-induced amphiregulin stimulates aromatase expression in human granulosa-lutein cells: a mechanism for estradiol production in the luteal phase
This study is an experimental study performed over a 1-year period.In vitro investigations examined the role of AREG in the regulation of aromatase expression and E2 production in primary hGL cells.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODSPrimary hGL cells were obtained from women undergoing IVF treatment in an academic research center. Aromatase mRNA and protein levels were examined after exposure of hGL cells to recombinant human AREG, hCG or LH. The EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478, PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and siRNAs targeting EGFR, LH receptor, StAR and AREG were used to verify the specificity of the effects and to...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 26, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Fertility preservation: should we reconsider the terminology?
AbstractThe term ‘fertility preservation’ embraces techniques that are actually mostly based on gamete and gonadal tissue cryopreservation. While the efficiency of these techniques in terms of live births remains difficult to establish, it is remarkable that this ambiguous terminology is routinely used and seems currently well accepted. In order to limit false hopes about the real chances of truly preserving fertility, our medical community should discuss qualifying the term ‘fertility preservation’. ‘Gamete or gonadal tissue cryopreservation’ could appear as a more unambiguous and reali...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 25, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Ambient air pollution and in vitro fertilization treatment outcomes
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONIs air pollution associated with IVF treatment outcomes in the USA?SUMMARY ANSWERWe did not find clear evidence of a meaningful association between reproductive outcomes and average daily concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ozone (O3).WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYMaternal exposure to air pollution such as PM2.5, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide or O3 may increase risks for adverse perinatal outcomes. Findings from the few studies using data from IVF populations to investigate associations between specific pollutants and treatment outcomes are inconc...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 4, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Fecundity among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) —a population-based study
This study was funded by the Swedish Society of Medicine. Inger Sundstr öm Poromaa has, over the past 3 years, received compensation as a consultant and lecturer for Bayer Schering Pharma, MSD, Gedeon Richter, Peptonics and Lundbeck A/S. The other authors declare no competing interests. (Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - September 2, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Whole-exome sequencing identifies a GREB1L variant in a three-generation family with M üllerian and renal agenesis: a novel candidate gene in Mayer–Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser (MRKH) syndrome. A case report
AbstractThe aetiology of Mayer –Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser (MRKH) syndrome, characterized by uterovaginal agenesis in 46,XX women, remains poorly understood. Since familial occurrences are rare, genetic findings reported so far only apply to a minority of mainly sporadic cases and most studies have not included other family members enabling segregation analysis. Herein, we report on the investigation of a unique three-generation family of two female cousins with MRKH syndrome and unilateral renal agenesis (RA) and two deceased male relatives with RA. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) in eight f...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 19, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Genetic databases and donor anonymity
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - August 16, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Reply: Ethics of anonymity in gamete donation and genetic databases
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - August 16, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Ethical reflections about the anonymity in gamete donation
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - August 16, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Perinatal outcomes in singleton live births after fresh blastocyst-stage embryo transfer: a retrospective analysis of 67  147 IVF/ICSI cycles
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONAre perinatal outcomes different between singleton live births conceived from fresh blastocyst transfer and those following the transfer of fresh cleavage-stage embryos?SUMMARY ANSWERFresh blastocyst transfer does not increase risks of preterm birth (PTB), low/high birth weight or congenital anomaly and does not alter the sex ratio at birth or prejudice the chance of having a healthy baby.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYExtended embryo culture is currently considered the best option for embryo selection, but concerns have been raised about increased risks of preterm delivery and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) b...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 16, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Sexual functioning, sexual esteem, genital self-image and psychological and relational functioning in women with Mayer –Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser syndrome: a case–control study
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDo sexual functioning, sexual esteem, genital self-image and psychological and relational functioning in women with Mayer –Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser (MRKH) syndrome differ from a comparison group of women without the condition?SUMMARY ANSWERIn comparison to controls, women with MRKH with a non-surgically or surgically created neovagina did not differ in psychological and relational functioning but reported lower sexual esteem and more negative genital self-image, intercourse-related pain, clinically relevant sexual distress and sexual dysfunction, with sexual esteem levels strong...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 16, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Definition and validation of a custom protocol to detect miRNAs in the spent media after blastocyst culture: searching for biomarkers of implantation
This study was conducted in two phases from September 2015 to December 2017. In Phase 1, the human blastocyst miRNome profile was defined from the inner cell mass (ICM) and the corresponding whole-trophectoderm (TE) of six donated blastocysts. Two different protocols were adopted to this end. In parallel, 6 pools of 10 SBM each were run (3 from only implanted euploid blastocysts, IEBs; and 3 from only not-implanted euploid blastocysts, not-IEBs). A fast, inexpensive and user-friendly custom protocol for miRNA SBM profiling was designed. In Phase 2, 239 SBM from IEB and not-IEB were collected at three IVF centres. After 18 ...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 16, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Plasma miRNAs as biomarkers for endometriosis
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONCan plasma miRNAs be used for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis in infertile women?SUMMARY ANSWERmiRNA-based diagnostic models for endometriosis failed the test of independent validation.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYCirculating miRNAs have been described to be differentially expressed in patients with endometriosis compared with women without endometriosis, suggesting that they could be used for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis. However, these studies have shown limited consistency or conflicting results, and no miRNA-based diagnostic test has been validated in an independent patient coho...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 14, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Marijuana smoking and outcomes of infertility treatment with assisted reproductive technologies
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONWhat is the association of female and male partner marijuana smoking with infertility treatment outcomes with ART?SUMMARY ANSWERWomen who were marijuana smokers at enrollment had a significantly higher adjusted probability of pregnancy loss during infertility treatment with ART whereas, unexpectedly, there was a suggestion of more favorable treatment outcomes in couples where the man was a marijuana smoker at enrollment.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYData on the relation of female and male partner marijuana use with outcomes of infertility treatment is scarce despite increased use and legalization worldwide.STU...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 14, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Women from diverse minority ethnic or religious backgrounds desire more infertility education and more culturally and personally sensitive fertility care
This study was based on a one-day drawing workshop to collect visual (artwork produced by participants) and textual (all conversations and discussions during the workshop) data about the participants ’ views and experiences of infertility and their fertility care needs.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODSParticipants were nine adult women with a minority ethnic or religious status living in Wales, UK, who were experiencing or had experienced infertility in the past. The workshop comprised five activities: (i) small and large group discussion of infertility-related drawings, (ii) lide-based lecture consisting of a...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 14, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Impact of first-line cancer treatment on the follicle quality in cryopreserved ovarian samples from girls and young women
This study provides for the first time a comprehensive analysis of the effects of first-line chemotherapy on the health, density and functionality of follicles categorized according to the developmental stage in patients under 24 years of age. When exposed to these treatments, patients were considered at low/medium risk of infertility. Our data suggest a profound impact of these relatively safe therapies on ovarian health and encourages further exploration of this effect in follow-up studies in order to optimize fertility preservation for young cancer patients.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)This study was funded by the...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 14, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Perinatal outcomes of singletons following vitrification versus slow-freezing of embryos: a multicenter cohort study using propensity score analysis
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONIs embryo vitrification associated with a higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes than slow-freezing?SUMMARY ANSWEREmbryo vitrification was not associated with increased risks of adverse perinatal outcomes of pre-term birth (PTB), low birthweight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA) and macrosomia, as compared to slow-freezing.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYVitrification is becoming a widely adopted technology for embryo cryopreservation with higher embryo survival rate and live birth rate than the slow-freezing technique. However, limited data are currently available on ris...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 13, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Association between depression risk and polycystic ovarian syndrome in young women: a retrospective nationwide population-based cohort study (1998 –2013)
This study was supported in part by the Taiwan Ministry of Health and Welfare Clinical Trial Center (MOHW108-TDU-B-212-133  004), China Medical University Hospital, Academia Sinica Stroke Biosignature Project (BM10701010021), MOST Clinical Trial Consortium for Stroke (MOST 107-2321-B-039 -004-), Tseng-Lien Lin Foundation, Taichung, Taiwan and Katsuzo and Kiyo Aoshima Memorial Funds, Japan. No competing interest existe d.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERN/A. (Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - August 13, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Decreased pulmonary vascular distensibility in adolescents conceived by in vitro fertilization
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONWhat is the functional relevance of decreased pulmonary vascular distensibility in adolescents conceived by IVF?SUMMARY ANSWERChildren born by IVF have a slight decrease in pulmonary vascular distensibility observed during normoxic exercise that is not associated with altered right ventricular function and aerobic exercise capacity.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYGeneral vascular dysfunction and increased hypoxic pulmonary hypertension have been reported in ART children as compared to controls. Pulmonary hypertension or decreased pulmonary vascular distensibility may affect right ventricular function and thereby...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 13, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Worth the wait? Day 7 blastocysts have lower euploidy rates but similar sustained implantation rates as Day 5 and Day 6 blastocysts
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDoes the reproductive potential of embryos change when blastocyst development takes longer than the traditionally accepted 5 days when accounting for aneuploidy and endometrial-embryo asynchrony?SUMMARY ANSWERAneuploidy increases with increasing duration of blastulation, but if blastocyst morphologic quality and endometrial-embryo asynchrony are controlled for, euploid Day 7 embryos have similar sustained implantation as compared to Days 5 and 6 euploid blastocysts.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYThe relative contributions of diminished embryo quality versus endometrial and embryo asynchrony to poor outcomes ass...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 12, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

What is the reproductive potential of day 7 euploid embryos?
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONWhat is the rate of euploidy and the reproductive potential of embryos biopsied after 6  days of development?SUMMARY ANSWEREmbryos biopsied after 6  days of development have higher rates of aneuploidy; however, day 7 euploid embryos selected at transfer can achieve acceptable pregnancy rates and live birth (LB) outcomes.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYRecent publications have shown promising treatment results after euploid day 7 embryo transfers (ETs), albeit these studies were limited by small sample sizes. Whereas the current clinical standard has been to discard embryos that do not reach expansion b...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 9, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Aneuploid rescue precedes X-chromosome inactivation and increases the incidence of its skewness by reducing the size of the embryonic progenitor cell pool
This study provides evidence that the onset of XCI is determined by an intrinsic clock, irrespectively of the number of embryonic progenitor cells. Our findings can also be applied to individuals without UPD or imprinting disorders. This study provides a clue to understand chromosomal and cellular dynamics in the first few days of human development, their effects on XCI skewing and the possible implications for the expression of X-linked diseases in females.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)This study was supported by the Grants-in-aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (17H06428) and for Scientific Research (B) ...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 9, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Primary human testicular PDGFR α+ cells are multipotent and can be differentiated into cells with Leydig cell characteristics in vitro
This study was performed using tissue from only four donors because of limitations in donor material. Because of the need of sufficient cell numbers, we first propagated cells to passage 3 before FACS of the desired cell population was performed. We cannot rule out this propagation of the cells resulted in loss of stem cell properties.WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGSA lot of information on Leydig cell development is obtained from rodent studies, while the knowledge on human Leydig cell development is very limited. Our study shows that human testicular interstitial PDGFR α+ cells have different characteristics compa...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 9, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research