Editor ’s Choice: Fertility after cancer, these are promising times
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - June 20, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

The impact of cancer on subsequent chance of pregnancy: a population-based analysis
This study was funded by NHS Lothian Cancer and Leukaemia Endowments Fund. Part of this work was undertaken in the MRC Centre for Reproductive Health which is funded by the MRC Centre grant MR/N022556/1. RAA has participated in Advisory Boards and/or received speaker ’s fees from Beckman Coulter, IBSA, Merck and Roche Diagnostics. He has received research support from Roche Diagnostics, Ansh labs and Ferring. The other authors have no conflicts to declare. (Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - June 15, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Novel homozygous nonsense mutations in LHCGR lead to empty follicle syndrome and 46, XY disorder of sex development
AbstractEmpty follicle syndrome (EFS) is a disorder associated with female infertility and presents as a complete failure to retrieve oocytes during ART cycles despite normal follicle development and careful aspiration. To date, only two EFS cases have been reported with homozygous missense mutations in the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) gene, and both cases showed normal estradiol (E2) production during ovulation induction. The molecular genetic mechanisms of EFS remain unknown. Herein, we report two novel homozygous inactivatingLHCGR mutations, c.736 C>T (p.Q246*) and c.846dupT (p.R283*), ...
Source: Human Reproduction - June 15, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

ICSI does not increase the cumulative live birth rate in non-male factor infertility
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONWhat is the cumulative live birth rate following ICSI cycles compared with IVF cycles for couples with non-male factor infertility?SUMMARY ANSWERICSI resulted in a similar cumulative live birth rate compared with IVF for couples with non-male factor infertility.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYThe ICSI procedure was developed for couples with male factor infertility. There has been an increased use of ICSI regardless of the cause of infertility. Cycle-based statistics show that there is no difference in pregnancy rates between ICSI and IVF in couples with non-male factor infertility. However, evidence indicates t...
Source: Human Reproduction - June 12, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Increased AIF-1-mediated TNF- α expression during implantation phase in IVF cycles with GnRH antagonist protocol
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONIs allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1), a cytokine associated with inflammation and allograft rejection, aberrantly elevated inin vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol with potential effects on endometrial receptivity?SUMMARY ANSWEROur findings indicated AIF-1 is increased in IVF cycles with GnRH antagonist protocol and mediates greater TNF- α expression during implantation phase, which may be unfavorable for embryo implantation.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYStudies have shown that GnRH antagonist protocol cycles have lower implantation and cl...
Source: Human Reproduction - June 12, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Latent genital tuberculosis adversely affects the ovarian reserve in infertile women
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONWhat is the effect of latent genital tuberculosis (GTB) on ovarian reserve in infertile women?SUMMARY ANSWERWomen with latent GTB have lower ovarian reserves and yield lower numbers of oocytes in IVF.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYLimited evidence suggests that women with GTB may have a low ovarian reserve. Infertile women have a high incidence of latent GTB and treatment improves fertility outcomes.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONThis prospective study from February 2013 to January 2016 compared 431 infertile women diagnosed with latent GTB (Group I) to 453 infertile women without latent GTB (Group II).PARTICIPANT...
Source: Human Reproduction - June 12, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Premature ovarian insufficiency and early depletion of the ovarian reserve in the monogenic Mulibrey nanism disorder
This study was supported by the Finnish Foundation for Pediatric Research, Finska L äkaresällskapet, the Sigrid Jusélius Foundation and Helsinki University Hospital Research Funds. The authors declare no conflicts of interest.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERNot applicable. (Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - June 1, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Mutation-specific effects in germline transmission of pathogenic mtDNA variants
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDoes germline selection (besides random genetic drift) play a role during the transmission of heteroplasmic pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in humans?SUMMARY ANSWERWe conclude that inheritance of mtDNA is mutation-specific and governed by a combination of random genetic drift and negative and/or positive selection.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYmtDNA inherits maternally through a genetic bottleneck, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Although random genetic drift is recognized as an important mechanism, selection mechanisms are thought to play a role as well.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DU...
Source: Human Reproduction - May 30, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Testicular microbiome in azoospermic men —first evidence of the impact of an altered microenvironment
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONGiven the relevant role of the extracellular microenvironment in regulating tissue homeostasis, is testicular bacterial microbiome (BM) associated with germ cell aplasia in idiopathic non-obstructive azoospermia (iNOA)?SUMMARY ANSWERA steady increase of dysbiosis was observed among testis with normal spermatogenesis vs. iNOA with positive sperm retrieval and iNOA with complete germ cell aplasia.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYTissue-associated BM has been reported to be a biologically important extracellular microenvironment component for numerous body habitats, but not yet for the human testis.STUDY DESIGN, SIZ...
Source: Human Reproduction - May 30, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Editor ’s Choice: Klinefelter patients lose germ cells earlier than we thought
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - May 24, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Chromosomal mosaicism in human blastocysts: the ultimate challenge of preimplantation genetic testing?
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONTo what extent does a trophectoderm (TE) biopsy reliably reflect the chromosomal constitution of the inner cell mass (ICM) in human blastocysts?SUMMARY ANSWERConcordance between TE and ICM was established in 62.1% of the embryos analysed.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYNext generation sequencing (NGS) platforms have recently been optimised for preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies (PGT-A). However, higher sensitivity has led to an increase in reports of chromosomal mosaicism within a single TE biopsy. This has raised substantial controversy surrounding the prevalence of mosaicism in human blastocysts ...
Source: Human Reproduction - May 23, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Anxiety and depressive symptoms, and stress biomarkers in pregnant women after in vitro fertilization: a prospective cohort study
This study was performed in the Division of Obstetrics in a regional referral center. The State scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) and the Beck Depression Inventory-Sort Form (BDI/SF) were used as anxiety and depression indicators, respectively; salivary cortisol and α-amylase levels as stress biomarkers. Anxiety, depression and stress biomarkers were measured at the third trimester of pregnancy (T1), at 48 h after birth (T2) and at 3 months after birth (T3). Associations with IVF were assessed using ordinal mixed models for anxiety and depressive symptoms and linear quantile models for stress biomar...
Source: Human Reproduction - May 23, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Prevalence of XXY karyotypes in human blastocysts: multicentre data from 7549 trophectoderm biopsies obtained during preimplantation genetic testing cycles in IVF
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONWhich is the prevalence of a 47,XXY karyotype in human blastocysts biopsied during preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies (PGT-A) cycles?SUMMARY ANSWERThe prevalence of a 47,XXY karyotype amongst male blastocysts without autosomal aneuploides is ~1%.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYThe prevalence of Klinefelter syndrome is estimated as 0.1 –0.2% in male newborns. However, the KS phenotype is extremely variable and there are men with a 47,XXY karyotype and less evident signs, who may go undetected. No risk factor for the 47,XXY karyotype in products of conception has been yet clearly defined, and n...
Source: Human Reproduction - May 19, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Reply: An informed decision between cleavage-stage and blastocyst-stage transfers in IVF requires data on the transfers of frozen –thawed embryos
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - May 18, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

An informed decision between cleavage-stage and blastocyst-stage transfer in IVF requires data on the transfers of frozen –thawed embryos
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - May 18, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

An experimental evaluation of the benefits and costs of providing fertility information to adolescents and emerging adults
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDoes the provision of fertility (compared to control) information affect fertility-related knowledge, perceived threat of infertility, anxiety, physical stress and fertility plans in adolescents and emerging adults?SUMMARY ANSWERThe provision of fertility information was associated with increased fertility knowledge (emerging adults) and greater infertility threat (adolescents and emerging adults).WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYAccording to fertility education research, adolescents and emerging adults know less than they should know about fertility topics. Fertility knowledge can be improved through the provisi...
Source: Human Reproduction - May 17, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Pregnancy after vasectomy: surgical reversal or assisted reproduction?
This study was a retrospective single-center cohort analysis of all males with a vasectomy in the past seeking treatment between 2006 and 2011 (n = 163). One group of patients opted for a reanastomosis procedure while the others opted for an immediate IVF/ICSI treatment. This included 99 males who underwent reanastomosis and 64 couples who immediately underwent ICSI treatment.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODSAll reanastomosis procedures were done by the same surgeon. ICSI was used in all cases where testicular sperm were extracted by fine needle aspiration (FNA) or testicular sperm extraction (TESE).MAIN RESULTS AND...
Source: Human Reproduction - May 17, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Bowel surgery as a fertility-enhancing procedure in patients with colorectal endometriosis: methodological, pathogenic and ethical issues
AbstractBowel surgery for colorectal endometriosis is being promoted to infertile women without severe sub-occlusive symptoms, with the objective of improving the likelihood of conception. Contrary to rectal shaving, bowel surgery involving full-thickness disk excision and segmental resection entails opening of the intestinal lumen thus increasing the risk of postoperative infectious complications. About 1 in 10 patients undergoing colorectal resection for intestinal endometriosis will experience severe sequelae, including anastomotic dehiscence, rectovaginal fistula formation, and bladder and bowel denervation. Similar to...
Source: Human Reproduction - May 7, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Pre-pregnancy fast food and fruit intake is associated with time to pregnancy
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONIs preconception dietary intake associated with reduced fecundity as measured by a longer time to pregnancy (TTP)?SUMMARY ANSWERLower intake of fruit and higher intake of fast food in the preconception period were both associated with a longer TTP.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYSeveral lifestyle factors, such as smoking and obesity, have consistently been associated with a longer TTP or infertility, but the role of preconception diet in women remains poorly studied. Healthier foods or dietary patterns have been associated with improved fertility, however, these studies focused on women already diagnosed with or...
Source: Human Reproduction - May 4, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Defining quality assurance and quality control measures in connection with ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation: a call to action
AbstractFreezing of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation has been gaining ground as a valid method in recent years. More than 100 children have been born from this procedure worldwide. As a result, many fertility clinics are now implementing this method. However, the practical procedures that need to be mastered to successfully implement the freezing of ovarian tissue are different in many aspects from those normally used in fertility clinics and are not well defined. Furthermore, success is difficult to measure since patients usually do not return for transplantation until several years after freezing, which puts ext...
Source: Human Reproduction - April 27, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Decreased clinical pregnancy and live birth rates after short interval from delivery to subsequent assisted reproductive treatment cycle
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDoes the interval from delivery to initiation of a subsequent ART treatment cycle impact clinical pregnancy or live birth rates?SUMMARY ANSWERAn interval from delivery to treatment start of
Source: Human Reproduction - April 27, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Letter to the Editor: Individualized FSH dosing improves safety and reduces iatrogenic poor response while maintaining live-birth rates
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - April 27, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Novel mutations in PATL2 cause female infertility with oocyte germinal vesicle arrest
In this study, nine unrelated primary infertile females presenting with oocyte GV arrest were recruited during the treatment of early rescue ICSI or ICSI from January 2013 to December 2016.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODSGenomic DNA was isolated from blood samples obtained from all nine affected individuals and all of their available family members. All the coding regions ofPATL2 were sequenced by Sanger sequencing. The pathogenicity of the identified variants and their possible effects on the protein were evaluatedin silico.MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCEFive novel point mutations and one recurrent splicing mu...
Source: Human Reproduction - April 25, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Single-cell analysis of [Ca2+]i signalling in sub-fertile men: characteristics and relation to fertilization outcome
This study reveals important details of impaired [Ca2+]i signalling in sperm from sub-fertile men that cannot be detected in population studies.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)This study was funded by a MRC project grant (MR/M012492/1; MR/K013343/1). Additional funding was provided by Chief Scientist Office/NHS research Scotland. (Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - April 25, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Discordance between serum anti-M üllerian hormone concentrations and antral follicle counts: not only technical issues
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDo patient-specific features contribute to the differences between measured serum anti-M üllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations and AMH values expected from the corresponding antral follicle count (AFC)?SUMMARY ANSWERPatient-specific features contribute to the differences between measured AMH values and AMH values expected from the corresponding AFC (AMHp), potentially through their effect on follicular AMH production.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYBoth patient counselling and patient management could be hampered by finding of disagreement between AFC and AMH if both are used for the prediction of ovarian r...
Source: Human Reproduction - April 24, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Freeze-all: 51% live births in first cycle
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - April 24, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Assessing the clinical significance of elevated progesterone during controlled ovarian stimulation: the unanswered question about embryo quality
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - April 23, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Incidence and prevalence of diabetes and cost of illness analysis of polycystic ovary syndrome: a Bayesian modelling study
This study suggests that a large number of women with symptoms indicative of PCOS never receive a definitive diagnosis yet can suffer from a rapid conversion to diabetes. This significantly reduces the quality of life for individual patients and incurs high costs for healthcare providers. As the risk of diabetes in women with PCOS is similar to that seen in populations at high risks of diabetes, it is possible that including them in national screening programmes may be cost effective.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)There was no funding for the current study. There are no conflicts of interest.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERNo...
Source: Human Reproduction - April 19, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys as a clinically relevant experimental model
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDoes spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys have the characteristics required of a good experimental model?SUMMARY ANSWERSpontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys exhibited similar clinicopathological characteristics to the human disease and was useful as an experimental model.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYThe prevalence of endometriosis in autopsied cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in a breeding colony was reported to be 28.7% in 1993. The histopathological findings we reported recently showed that components of spontaneous endometriosis were not only endometriotic epithelium and stroma...
Source: Human Reproduction - April 19, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

When does germ cell loss and fibrosis occur in patients with Klinefelter syndrome?
In this study, we give an update on fertility preservation in adolescent KS patients and evaluate whether fertility preservation would be beneficial at prepubertal age. The possibility of retrieving testicular spermatozoa by TESE was evaluated in adolescent and adult KS men. The presence of spermatogonia and the degree of fibrosis were also analysed in testicular biopsies from KS patients at different ages. The patients were divided into four age groups: foetal (n = 5), prepubertal (aged 4 –7 years;n = 4), peripubertal (aged 12 –16 years;n = 20) and adult (aged 18 –41 years;n = 27) KS patients.PARTICIPANT...
Source: Human Reproduction - April 19, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Maternal polycystic ovarian syndrome and early offspring development
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONIs maternal polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) associated with developmental delays in offspring?SUMMARY ANSWEROffspring of mothers with PCOS were at higher risk of failure on the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ).WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYThere is growing evidence that offspring of mothers with PCOS may be at higher risk for developmental disorders due to potential exposure to hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. Few studies exist regarding maternal PCOS and early childhood development in the USA.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONThe Upstate KIDS Study is a population-based prospective cohort study of inf...
Source: Human Reproduction - April 16, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Fertility and neonatal outcomes of embryos achieving blastulation on Day 7: are they of clinical value?
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONIs transferring embryos that achieve blastulation on Day 7 effective and safe?SUMMARY ANSWEREmbryos that achieve blastulation on Day 7 resulted in clinically relevant rates of clinical pregnancy (32.5%) and live birth (25.2%), and newborns have a similar risk of low birth weight, congenital malformations or early neonatal death compared with those derived from Days 5 and 6 blastocysts.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYPotential advantages of blastocyst transfer over cleavage embryo transfer have led to a shift toward the former in IVF practice. However, published data about the fertility outcomes of transferring e...
Source: Human Reproduction - April 16, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

The perspectives of adolescents conceived using surrogacy, egg or sperm donation
This study was funded by the Wellcome Trust [097857/Z/11/Z]. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. (Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - April 12, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Average sperm count remains unchanged despite reduction in maternal smoking: results from a large cross-sectional study with annual investigations over 21 years
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONHow are temporal trends in lifestyle factors, including exposure to maternal smokingin utero, associated to semen quality in young men from the general population?SUMMARY ANSWERExposure to maternal smoking was associated with lower sperm counts but no overall increase in sperm counts was observed during the study period despite a decrease in this exposure.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYMeta-analyses suggest a continuous decline in semen quality but few studies have investigated temporal trends in unselected populations recruited and analysed with the same protocol over a long period and none have studied simult...
Source: Human Reproduction - April 11, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Why after 50 years of effective contraception do we still have unintended pregnancy? A European perspective
AbstractUnintended pregnancy is a public health concern throughout Europe. There is no common definition and no standard way to measure unintended pregnancy. Identifying unintended births is difficult and prevalence estimates vary depending on how and when the question is asked. Abortion rates are not a proxy and are themselves notoriously inaccurate. An estimated 34% (in Western Europe) to 54% (in Eastern Europe) of pregnancies are unintended. The determinants of unintended pregnancy are the length of the reproductive span and exposure to the risk of conception; the desired number of children and contraceptive use and eff...
Source: Human Reproduction - April 11, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

A prospective study of physical activity and fecundability in women with a history of pregnancy loss
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONIs physical activity (PA) associated with fecundability in women with a history of prior pregnancy loss?SUMMARY ANSWERHigher fecundability was related to walking among overweight/obese women and to vigorous PA in women overall.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYPA may influence fecundability through altered endocrine function. Studies evaluating this association have primarily utilized Internet-based recruitment and self-report for pregnancy assessment and have yielded conflicting results.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONThis is a secondary analysis of the Effects of Aspirin in Gestation and Reproduction (EAGeR) trial (...
Source: Human Reproduction - April 10, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Should extended blastocyst culture include Day 7?
AbstractExtended culture to the blastocyst stage is widely practised, improving embryo selection and promoting single embryo transfer. Selection of useable blastocysts typically occurs on Days 5 and 6 of embryo culture. Embryos not suitable for transfer, biopsy or cryopreservation after Day 6 are routinely discarded. Some embryos develop at a slower rate, however, forming blastocysts on Day 7 of culture. Day 7 blastocysts can be viable, they can be of top morphological grade, euploid and result in a healthy live birth. Since ending culture on Day 6 is current practice in most clinics, viable Day 7 blastocysts may be premat...
Source: Human Reproduction - April 10, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Does human endometrial LGR5 gene expression suggest the existence of another hormonally regulated epithelial stem cell niche?
In this study, we used the gold standard method,in situ hybridisation (ISH) along with qPCR and a systems biology approach to study the location ofLGR5 gene expression in full thickness human endometrium and Fallopian tubes. The progesterone regulation of endometrialLGR5 was examinedin vivo and in short-term cultured endometrial tissue explantsin vitro.LGR5 expression was correlated with epithelial proliferation (Ki67), and expression of previously reported epithelia progenitor markers (SOX9 and SSEA-1) immunohistochemistry (IHC).MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCELGR5 gene expression was significantly higher in the endome...
Source: Human Reproduction - April 10, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

The relation of age at menarche with age at natural menopause: a population study of 336 788 women in Norway
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONIs age at menarche associated with age at menopause or with duration of the reproductive period (interval between menarche and menopause)?SUMMARY ANSWERThe association of age at menarche with age at menopause was weak and non-linear, and the duration of the reproductive period decreased by increasing age at menarche.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYIt remains uncertain whether age at menarche is associated with age at menopause. Some studies report that women with early menarche also have early menopause. Other studies report that women with early menarche have late menopause, or they report no association. The d...
Source: Human Reproduction - April 9, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Creatine enhances the duration of sperm capacitation: a novel factor for improving in vitro fertilization with small numbers of sperm
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONWhy are many sperm required for successful fertilization of oocytesin vitro, even though fertilization occursin vivo when only a few sperm reach the oocyte?SUMMARY ANSWERCreatine produced in the ovary promotes efficient fertilizationin vivo; however,in vitro, creatine is not contained in thein vitro fertilization (IVF) medium.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYThe IVF medium enables capacitation of sperm. However, the IVF medium does not fully mimic thein vivo environment during fertilization. Consequently, fertilizationin vitro is more inefficient than in the oviduct.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONFollicular and ovid...
Source: Human Reproduction - April 9, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Two-step transplantation with adipose tissue-derived stem cells increases follicle survival by enhancing vascularization in xenografted frozen –thawed human ovarian tissue
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDo adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) enhance vascularization and follicle survival in xenografted ovarian tissue using a two-step transplantation approach?SUMMARY ANSWERHigher rates of oxygenation and vascularization of ovarian tissue, as well as increased follicle survival rates, were detected in the early post-grafting period.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYASCs have multilineage differentiation potential, proangiogenic properties and enhance vascularization in a peritoneal grafting site. Some studies suggest that using ASCs may improve ovarian tissue quality by enhancing graft angiogenesis.STUDY DESIGN...
Source: Human Reproduction - April 9, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Follicle growth and endocrine dynamics in women with spontaneous luteinized unruptured follicles versus ovulation
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDo growth patterns and endocrine profiles differ between ovulatory follicles (OvFs) and luteinized unruptured follicles (LUFs) in women?SUMMARY ANSWERGrowth rates, diameters and associated endocrine profiles differed between OvFs and LUFs in unstimulated cycles.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYTwo-three waves of antral follicles develop during the menstrual cycle in ovulatory women of reproductive age, with the second or third wave terminating in ovulation. In contrast, some women can develop LUFs, where a preovulatory follicle fails to rupture and there is subsequent luteinization of the follicle wall. However, ...
Source: Human Reproduction - April 6, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Thank you to our reviewers – 2017
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - April 6, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Take a break!
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - April 6, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Anti-M üllerian hormone levels and incidence of early natural menopause in a prospective study
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONAre anti-M üllerian hormone (AMH) levels assessed in women aged 32–44 associated with risk of incident early natural menopause?SUMMARY ANSWERWe observed strong, significant associations between lower AMH levels and higher risk of early menopause.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYThe ability to predict risk early menopause, defined as menopause before age 45, prior to fertility decline would improve options for family planning and cardiovascular disease prevention. Though AMH is an established marker of menopause timing in older reproductive-aged women, whether AMH is associated with risk of early menopa...
Source: Human Reproduction - April 5, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Association between ambient air pollution and pregnancy rate in women who underwent IVF
This study provided evidence of an association between increased ambient concentrations of PM10, NO2 and CO and reduced probabilities for achieving intrauterine pregnancy using multiple IVF cycle data. Specifically, our results indicated that lower intrauterine pregnancy rates in IVF cycles may be linked to ambient air pollution during COS and the post-transfer period.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2013 R1A6A3A04059017, 2016 R1D1A1B03933410 and 2018 R1A2B6004608) and...
Source: Human Reproduction - April 5, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

A MEI1 homozygous missense mutation associated with meiotic arrest in a consanguineous family
AbstractAlthough meiotic arrest in males is observed in about 25% of azoospermic patients, pure homogeneous arrest in all seminiferous tubules is less frequent, and may be due to mutation of a single gene. However, given the large number of genes involved in meiosis, this gives rises to extensive genetic heterogeneity. Only two genetic abnormalities have been reported on a regular basis: the X-linked exonicTEX11 deletion, and the AZFb microdeletion on the Y chromosome. Other single gene defects were private and found in consanguineous families. Here, we report on a homozygous missense mutation in the gene coding for meioti...
Source: Human Reproduction - April 5, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Exosomal microRNAs in seminal plasma are markers of the origin of azoospermia and can predict the presence of sperm in testicular tissue
This study compares the miRNA content of exosomes in semen samples obtained from nine normozoospermic fertile individuals (control group), 14 infertile men diagnosed with azoospermia due to spermatogenic failure, and 13 individuals with obstructive azoospermia and conserved spermatogenesis. Additionally, three severe oligozoospermic individuals (90%). The efficacy of the predictive test was even better when the blood FSH values were included in the analysis. Furthermore a model that included miR-539-5p and miR-941 expression values is also described as being useful for predicting the presence of residual spermatogenesis in...
Source: Human Reproduction - April 4, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

A practical blueprint to systematically study life-long health consequences of novel medically assisted reproductive treatments
AbstractIn medicine, safety and efficacy are the two pillars on which the implementation of novel treatments rest. To protect the patient from unnecessary or unsafe treatments, usually, a stringent path of (pre) clinical testing is followed before a treatment is introduced into routine patient care. However, in reproductive medicine several techniques have been clinically introduced without elaborate preclinical studies. Moreover, novel reproductive techniques may harbor safety risks not only for the patients undergoing treatment, but also for the offspring conceived through these techniques. If preclinical (animal) studie...
Source: Human Reproduction - April 4, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Is there a relation between the time to ICSI and the reproductive outcomes?
This study indicates thatin vitro ageing of mature oocytes significantly affects the chances to become pregnant. Effect on live birth rates, although not evident in this study, cannot be excluded. Limiting incubation time of mature oocytes in the embryology laboratory should improve reproductive results for patients using their own oocytes and with a transfer of fresh embryos.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)None.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERNA. (Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - April 4, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research