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Targeted metabolomics reveals reduced levels of polyunsaturated choline plasmalogens and a smaller dimethylarginine/arginine ratio in the follicular fluid of patients with a diminished ovarian reserve
This study presents two limitations. First, with this targeted metabolomics analysis, we have explored only a limited portion of the FF metabolome. Second, although the signature found was highly significant, the mechanism underlying the dysfunction remains undetermined.WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGSThe understanding of the mechanisms implied in ovarian ageing is essential for providing an adequate response to affected women desiring pregnancy. Our study proposes an incoming signature that may open new paths towards this goal.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)This study was supported by the University Hospital of Ange...
Source: Human Reproduction - October 13, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Immobilization or mobilization after IUI: an RCT
This study shows no positive effect of 15 min of immobilization following IUI on pregnancy rates. Based on available evidence today, including our study, a possible beneficial effect of supine immobilization after IUI is at least doubtful and straightforward implementation does not seem to be justified.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)No funding was received. All authors have nothing to disclose.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERDutch Trial Register NTR 2418.TRIAL REGISTRATION DATE20 July 2010.DATE OF FIRST PATIENT's ENROLMENT11 August 2010. (Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - October 13, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Placental Nano-vesicles Target to Specific Organs and Modulate Vascular Tone In Vivo
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONHow do nano-vesicles extruded from normal first trimester human placentae affect maternal vascular function?SUMMARY ANSWERPlacental nano-vesicles affect the ability of systemic mesenteric arteries to undergo endothelium- and nitric oxide- (NO-) dependent vasodilationin vivo in pregnant mice.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYDramatic cardiovascular adaptations occur during human pregnancy, including a substantial decrease in total peripheral resistance in the first trimester. The human placenta constantly extrudes extracellular vesicles that can enter the maternal circulation and these vesicles may play an importan...
Source: Human Reproduction - October 13, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Constructing the crystal ball: how to get reliable prognostic information for the management of subfertile couples
AbstractCouples in whom the results of an initial fertility workup fail to identify the presence of any obvious barriers to conception are diagnosed with unexplained subfertility. Couples who have tried to conceive for a relatively short time have a good chance of natural conception and thus may not benefit from immediate access to ART. As fertility decreases over time, the main dilemma that clinicians and couples face is when to abandon an expectant approach in favour of active treatment. Several prognostic or predictive models have been used to try to discriminate between couples with high and low chances of conception b...
Source: Human Reproduction - October 12, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Taste receptor polymorphisms and male infertility
This study has showed the associations between three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in taste receptors genes (TASR) and male infertility.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYRecent studies showed the expression of taste receptors in the testis and in spermatozoa, suggesting their possible role in infertility. The vast genetic variability in taste genes results in a large degree of diversity in various human phenotypes.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONIn this study, we genotyped 19 SNPs in 12 taste related genes in a total of 494 Caucasian male patients undergoing semen evaluation at the Centre of Couple Sterility of the Siena Universit...
Source: Human Reproduction - October 12, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

High gonadotropin dosage does not affect euploidy and pregnancy rates in IVF PGS cycles with single embryo transfer
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDoes high gonadotropin dosage affect euploidy and pregnancy rates in PGS cycles with single embryo transfer?SUMMARY ANSWERHigh gonadotropin dosage does NOT affect euploidy and pregnancy rates in PGS cycles with single embryo transfer.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYPGS has been proven to be the most effective and reliable method for embryo selection in IVF cycles. Euploidy and blastulation rates decrease significantly with advancing maternal age. In order to recruit an adequate number of follicles, the average dosage of gonadotropins administered during controlled ovarian stimulation in IVF cycles often increase...
Source: Human Reproduction - October 12, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Cultural determinants influence assisted reproduction usage in Europe more than economic and demographic factors
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONTo what extent do financial, demographic and cultural determinants explain the vast cross-national differences in ART treatments in Europe?SUMMARY ANSWERThe normative cultural acceptance of ART is a major driver of ART treatments in Europe, above and beyond differences in country wealth, demographic aspects and religious composition.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYThere are vast differences in the number of ART treatments across European countries, which are to some extent related to country affluence, regulation, and insurance coverage and costs. The role and impact of cultural and normative factors has not bee...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 29, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is not increased in normal-weight women with PCOS
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONIs oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) needed in all women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)?SUMMARY QNSWEROGTT is not routinely needed in women with PCOS and BMI
Source: Human Reproduction - September 29, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Endometriosis fertility index predicts live births following surgical resection of moderate and severe endometriosis
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONCan live birth be accurately predicted following surgical resection of moderate-severe (Stage III –IV) endometriosis?SUMMARY ANSWERLive births can accurately be predicted with the endometriosis fertility index (EFI), with adnexal function being the most important factor to predict non-assisted reproductive technology (non-ART) fertility or the requirement for ART (www.endometriosisefi.com).WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYFertility prognosis is important to many women with severe endometriosis. Controversy persists regarding optimal post-operative management to achieve pregnancy and the counselling of patie...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 29, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Genomic fragmentation and extrachromosomal telomeric repeats impact assessment of telomere length in human spermatozoa: quantitative experiments and systematic review
ABSTRACTSTUDY QUESTIONCan differences in DNA isolation alter assessment of sperm telomere length (spTL) and do they account for conflicting results in the literature on spTL and male fertility?SUMMARY ANSWERDNA isolation methods preferentially include or exclude short, extrachromosomal (EC) telomere-specific sequences that alter spTL measurements, and are responsible for a proportion of the disparity observed between investigations.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYThe relationship between spTL and male fertility has become an active area of research. The results across investigations, however, have been discordant, generating a need t...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 29, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Fertility-related knowledge and reproductive goals in childhood cancer survivors: short communication
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDo young adult survivors of childhood cancer know their fertility status, in the context of their parenthood goals and screening for gonadal functioning?SUMMARY ANSWERWhile 80% of survivors (who were without children) wanted children in the future, most did not know their fertility status, and screening for gonadal functioning was underutilized.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYSurvivors of childhood cancer are at risk for infertility, but fertility counseling and assessment are underutilized. Separate studies indicated that survivors ’ fertility-related knowledge is poor and that they often wanted to have c...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 29, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

N-cadherin identifies human endometrial epithelial progenitor cells by in vitro stem cell assays
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONIs there a specific surface marker that identifies human endometrial epithelial progenitor cells with adult stem cell activity usingin vitro assays?SUMMARY ANSWERN-cadherin isolates clonogenic, self-renewing human endometrial epithelial progenitor cells with high proliferative potential that differentiate into cytokeratin+ gland-like structuresin vitro and identifies their location in some cells of gland profiles predominantly in basalis endometrium adjacent to the myometrium.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYHuman endometrium contains a small population of clonogenic, self-renewing epithelial cells with high prol...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 27, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Genome stability of bovine in vivo -conceived cleavage-stage embryos is higher compared to in vitro -produced embryos
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONIs the rate and nature of chromosome instability (CIN) similar between bovinein vivo-derived andin vitro-cultured cleavage-stage embryos?SUMMARY ANSWERThere is a major difference regarding chromosome stability ofin vivo-derived and invitro-cultured embryos, as CIN is significantly lower inin vivo-derived cleavage-stage embryos compared toin vitro-cultured embryos.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYCIN is common duringin vitro embryogenesis and is associated with early embryonic loss in humans, but the stability ofin vivo-conceived cleavage-stage embryos remains largely unknown.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONBecause hu...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 23, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical implications of mitochondrial DNA quantification on pregnancy outcomes: a blinded prospective non-selection study
This study demonstrated that euploid blastocysts of good morphology, but with high mtDNA levels had a greatly reduced implantation potential.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYBetter methods of embryo selection leading to IVF outcome improvement are necessary, as the transfer of chromosomally normal embryos of high morphological grade cannot guarantee the establishment of an ongoing pregnancy. The quantity of mtDNA in embryonic cells has been proposed as a new biomarker of viability —higher levels of mtDNA associated with reduced implantation potential.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONmtDNA was quantified in 199 blastocysts, previously...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 23, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Corifollitropin alfa followed by highly purified HMG versus recombinant FSH in young poor ovarian responders: a multicentre randomized controlled clinical trial
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDoes administration of corifollitropin alfa followed by highly purified (hp) HMG result in higher ongoing pregnancy rates compared with daily recombinant FSH (rFSH) in young poor responders?SUMMARY ANSWERCorifollitropin alfa followed by hp-HMG does not increase ongoing pregnancy rates compared with rFSH in young poor responders, although more supernumerary cryopreserved embryos were obtained with corifollitropin alfa and hp-HMG.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYPoor ovarian response remains one of the main therapeutic challenges in women undergoing ovarian stimulation, given that very low live birth rates of 6% ha...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 23, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Cumulative live birth rates following miscarriage in an initial complete cycle of IVF: a retrospective cohort study of 112 549 women
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONIn women undergoing IVF/ICSI who miscarry in their first complete cycle, what is the chance of a live birth in subsequent complete cycles, and how does this compare with those whose first complete cycle ends with live birth or without a pregnancy?SUMMARY ANSWERAfter two further complete cycles of IVF/ICSI, women who had miscarried or had a live birth in their first complete cycle had a higher chance of live birth (40.9 and 49.0%, respectively) than those who had no pregnancies (30.1%).WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYCumulative live birth rates (CLBRs) after one or more complete cycles of IVF have been reported p...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 20, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Differing molecular response of young and advanced maternal age human oocytes to IVM
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONWhat effect does maternal age have on the human oocyte's molecular response toin vitro oocyte maturation?SUMMARY ANSWERAlthough polyadenylated transcript abundance is similar between young and advanced maternal age (AMA) germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes, metaphase II (MII) oocytes exhibit a divergent transcriptome resulting from a differential response toin vitro oocyte maturation.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYMicroarray studies considering maternal age or maturation stage have shown that either of these factors will affect oocyte polyadenylated transcript abundance in human oocytes. However, studies considering ...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 15, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Factor V Leiden is associated with increased sperm count
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONIs the thrombophilia mutation factor V Leiden (FVL) associated with an increased total sperm count?SUMMARY ANSWERCarriers of FVL have a higher total sperm count than non-FVL-carriers, which could not be explained by genetic linkage or by observations in a FVL-mouse model.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYFVL has a high prevalence in Caucasians despite detrimental health effects. Carriers have been shown to have higher fecundity, which might partly explain this evolutionary paradox.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONWe determined FVL status in two cohorts (Dutch,n = 627; Danish,n = 854) of consecutively included men witho...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 12, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

The expression characteristics of FAM71D and its association with sperm motility
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONWhat are the features of FAM71D (Family with sequence similarity 71, member D) expression and is there an association between FAM71D expression and sperm motility?SUMMARY ANSWERFAM71D, a novel protein exclusively expressed in the testis, is located in sperm flagella and is functionally involved in sperm motility.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYSome testis-specific proteins have been reported as potential diagnostic biomarkers to evaluate the spermatogenesis process and sperm quality. We have identified a novel testis-specific protein, FAM71D, through microarray data analysis, yet little is known about its expres...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 12, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Preconception urinary phthalate concentrations and sperm DNA methylation profiles among men undergoing IVF treatment: a cross-sectional study
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONAre preconception phthalate and phthalate replacements associated with sperm differentially methylated regions (DMRs) among men undergoing IVF?SUMMARY ANSWERTen phthalate metabolites were associated with 131 sperm DMRs that were enriched in genes related to growth and development, cell movement and cytoskeleton structure.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYSeveral phthalate compounds and their metabolites are known endocrine disrupting compounds and are pervasive environmental contaminants. Rodent studies report that prenatal phthalate exposures induce sperm DMRs, but the influence of preconception phthalate exposur...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 12, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Random start ovarian stimulation for fertility preservation appears unlikely to delay initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer
ABSTRACTSTUDY QUESTIONIs random start ovarian stimulation associated with delays in initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer?SUMMARY ANSWERAmong women who complete fertility preservation (FP) consultation, random start ovarian stimulation is unlikely to delay time to initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy start.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYNeoadjuvant chemotherapy is now a widely accepted treatment modality for operable breast cancer and random start ovarian stimulation is an increasingly-utilized modality for FP. While conventional ovarian stimulation does not appear to delay starting adjuvant chemotherapy, the re...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 9, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Frozen embryo transfer: a review on the optimal endometrial preparation and timing
ABSTRACTSTUDY QUESTIONWhat is the optimal endometrial preparation protocol for a frozen embryo transfer (FET)?SUMMARY ANSWERAlthough the optimal endometrial preparation protocol for FET needs further research and is yet to be determined, we propose a standardized timing strategy based on the current available evidence which could assist in the harmonization and comparability of clinic practice and future trials.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYAmid a continuous increase in the number of FET cycles, determining the optimal endometrial preparation protocol has become paramount to maximize ART success. In current daily practice, differen...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 8, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Vanishing twin syndrome among ART singletons and pregnancy outcomes
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONAmong babies born by ART, do singleton survivors of a vanishing twin have lower birth weight than other singletons?SUMMARY ANSWERVanishing twin syndrome (VTS) was associated with lower birth weight among ART singletons; a sibship analysis indicated that the association was not confounded by maternal characteristics that remain stable between deliveries.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYPrevious studies indicate that ART singletons with VTS have increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, compared with other ART singletons. The potential contribution of unmeasured maternal background characteristics has been uncl...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 31, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Allowable warm ischemic time and morphological and biochemical changes in uterine ischemia/reperfusion injury in cynomolgus macaque: a basic study for uterus transplantation
This study was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI Grant Number 26713050. None of the authors has a conflict of interest to declare. (Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - August 31, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

New permeable cryoprotectant-free vitrification method for native human sperm
This study included 18 normozoospermic sperm samples from patients seeking ART treatment between 2014 and 2015. The effects of a new vitrification protocol on functional and structural sperm quality parameters in comparison to fresh and slow-frozen samples were assessed.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODSAll samples were divided into three aliquots: fresh (F), slow freezing –thawing (S) and vitrification-warming (V). Sperm concentration, motility, morphology, vitality, DNA fragmentation, cytoskeleton integrity and spontaneous acrosome reaction were assessed and compared between the groups.MAIN RESULTS AND THE RO...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 31, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Presence of polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with longer anogenital distance in adult Mediterranean women
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONIs polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) associated with anogenital distance (AGD), a biomarker of fetal androgen exposure, in adult Mediterranean women?SUMMARY ANSWERLonger AGD is associated with PCOS in adult Mediterranean women.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYAGD is a biomarker of prenatal androgen milieu. Human observational studies have reported that associations between AGD and reproductive parameters in both sexes. Exposure of the female fetus to intrauterine androgens may be a risk factor for PCOS in adulthood.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONThis was a case –control study of 126 women with PCOS and 159 cont...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 30, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

A closer look at expanded carrier screening from a PGD perspective
AbstractConventionally, the search for carrier status was based on ethnicity and/or family history and targeted to a restricted number of genetic conditions and mutations. This is now being replaced by extended panels testing for hundreds of genetic disorders with a broad range of phenotypes, in what is called ‘expanded carrier screening’. While the ultimate aim of these panels is to increase the reproductive autonomy of the individuals and couples by providing preconception knowledge that could lead to the broadest range of available options, including PGD, we argue that: (i) Given the number and het erogeneit...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 30, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Prevalence of endocrine and genetic abnormalities in boys evaluated systematically for a disorder of sex development
This study was a retrospective review of investigations performed on 122 boys.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODSAll boys who attended the Glasgow DSD clinic, between 2010 and 2015 were included in the study. The median external masculinization score (EMS) of this group was 9 (range 1 –11). Details of phenotype, endocrine and genetic investigations were obtained from case records.MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCEAn endocrine abnormality of gonadal function was present in 28 (23%) with a median EMS of 8.3 (1 –10.5) whilst the median EMS of boys with normal endocrine investigations was 9 (1.5–11) (P ...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 30, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

The age of fathers in the USA is rising: an analysis of 168 867 480 births from 1972 to 2015
ABSTRACTSTUDY QUESTIONHow has the mean paternal age in the USA changed over the past 4 decades?SUMMARY ANSWERThe age at which men are fathering children in the USA has been increasing over time, although it varies by race, geographic region and paternal education level.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYWhile the rise in mean maternal age and its implications for fertility, birth outcomes and public health have been well documented, little is known about paternal characteristics of births within the USA.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONA retrospective data analysis of paternal age and reporting patterns for 168 867 480 live births within the...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 30, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

The testicular transcriptome associated with spermatogonia differentiation initiated by gonadotrophin stimulation in the juvenile rhesus monkey ( Macaca mulatta )
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONWhat is the genetic landscape within the testis of the juvenile rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) that underlies the decision of undifferentiated spermatogonia to commit to a pathway of differentiation when puberty is induced prematurely by exogenous LH and FSH stimulation?SUMMARY ANSWERForty-eight hours of gonadotrophin stimulation of the juvenile monkey testis resulted in the appearance of differentiating B spermatogonia and the emergence of 1362 up-regulated and 225 down-regulated testicular mRNAs encoding a complex network of proteins ranging from enzymes regulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis to mem...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 30, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Women's career priority is associated with attitudes towards family planning and ethical acceptance of reproductive technologies
ABSTRACTSTUDY QUESTIONDo women who place high importance on career success have different perceptions of pregnancy planning, delayed reproduction, and the ethical acceptability of ART than women with less emphasis on their career?SUMMARY ANSWERCareer-focused women place more importance on pregnancy planning, have greater confidence in delayed childbearing, and are more ethically accepting of donor gamete ART than women who do not place as much importance on career success.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYWomen in high-professional careers are more likely to delay childbearing while simultaneously possessing a stronger desire for mothe...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 30, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

An improved IVM method for cumulus-oocyte complexes from small follicles in polycystic ovary syndrome patients enhances oocyte competence and embryo yield
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONAre meiotic and developmental competence of human oocytes from small (2 –8 mm) antral follicles improved by applying an optimized IVM method involving a prematuration step in presence of C-Type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP) followed by a maturation step in presence of FSH and Amphiregulin (AREG)?SUMMARY ANSWERA strategy involving prematuration culture (PMC) in the presence of CNP followed by IVM using FSH + AREG increases oocyte maturation potential leading to a higher availability of Day 3 embryos and good-quality blastocysts for single embryo transfer.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYIVM is a minimal-stimulat...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 30, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

ESHRE PGD Consortium data collection XIV –XV: cycles from January 2011 to December 2012 with pregnancy follow-up to October 2013
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONHow does the data collection XIV –XV of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) PGD Consortium compare with the cumulative data for data collections I–XIII?SUMMARY ANSWERThe 14th and 15th retrospective collection represents valuable data on PGD/PGS cycles, pregnancies and children: the main trend observed is the increased application of array technology at the cost of FISH testing in PGS cycles and in PGD cycles for chromosomal abnormalities.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYSince 1999, the PGD Consortium has collected, analysed and published 13 previous data sets and an overv...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 30, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Sequence variants of KHDRBS1 as high penetrance susceptibility risks for primary ovarian insufficiency by mis-regulating mRNA alternative splicing
This study was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2012CB944704; 2012CB966702), National Research Institute for Family Planning (2017GJZ05), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31171429) and Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structural Biology. The authors declare no conflict of interest. (Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - August 29, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Selective outcome reporting and sponsorship in randomized controlled trials in IVF and ICSI
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONAre randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on IVF and ICSI subject to selective outcome reporting and is this related to sponsorship?SUMMARY ANSWERThere are inconsistencies, independent from sponsorship, in the reporting of primary outcome measures in the majority of IVF and ICSI trials, indicating selective outcome reporting.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYRCTs are subject to bias at various levels. Of these biases, selective outcome reporting is particularly relevant to IVF and ICSI trials since there is a wide variety of outcome measures to choose from. An established cause of reporting bias is sponsorship. It i...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 29, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Resolution of infertility and number of children: 1386 couples followed for a median of 13 years
This study was co-funded by a University of Otago PhD Scholarship and the Department of Women's and Children's Health, University of Otago. There were no competing interests to declare. (Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - August 29, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Reply: Mitochondrial DNA Quantification —the devil in the detail
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - August 29, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Mitochondrial DNA quantitation —making sense of contradictory reports
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - August 29, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Pharmaceutical industry contribution to research is essential but full transparency and guidelines are required
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - August 29, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Deep sequencing shows that oocytes are not prone to accumulate mtDNA heteroplasmic mutations during ovarian ageing
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDoes ovarian ageing increase the number of heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations in oocytes?SUMMARY ANSWEROur results suggest that oocytes are not subject to the accumulation of mtDNA point mutations during ovarian ageing.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYAgeing is associated with the alteration of mtDNA integrity in various tissues. Primary oocytes, present in the ovary since embryonic life, may accumulate mtDNA mutations during the process of ovarian ageing.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONThis was an observational study of 53 immature oocyte –cumulus complexes retrieved from 35 women undergoi...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 28, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Hyperspectral microscopy can detect metabolic heterogeneity within bovine post-compaction embryos incubated under two oxygen concentrations (7% versus 20%)
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONCan we separate embryos cultured under either 7% or 20% oxygen atmospheres by measuring their metabolic heterogeneity?SUMMARY ANSWERMetabolic heterogeneity and changes in metabolic profiles in morula exposed to two different oxygen concentrations were not detectable using traditional fluorophore and two-channel autofluorescence but were detectable using hyperspectral microscopy.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYIncreased genetic and morphological blastomere heterogeneity is associated with compromised developmental competence of embryos and currently forms the basis for embryo scoring within the clinic. However, t...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 28, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Complex CatSper-dependent and independent [Ca 2+ ] i signalling in human spermatozoa induced by follicular fluid
This study directly demonstrates that hFF activates CatSper and establishes that the biologically important effects of hFF reflect, at least in part, action on this channel, primarily via progesterone. However, these experiments also demonstrate that other components of hFF both contribute to the [Ca2+]i signal and modulate the activation of CatSper. Simplein vitro experiments performed out of the context of the complexin vivo environment need to be interpreted with caution.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)Funding was provided by MRC (MR/K013343/1, MR/012492/1) (S.G.B., S.J.P., C.L.R.B.) and University of Abertay (sabbat...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 28, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2013: results generated from European registers by ESHRE
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONAre there any changes in the treatments involving ART and IUI initiated in Europe during 2013 compared with previous years?SUMMARY ANSWERAn increase in the overall number of ART cycles resulting from a higher number of countries reporting data was evident, the pregnancy rates (PRs) in 2013 remained stable compared with those reported in 2012, the number of transfers with multiple embryos (3+) was lower than ever before yet the multiple delivery rates (DRs) remained unchanged, and IUI activity and success rates were similar to those of last years.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYSince 1997, ART data in Europe have...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 28, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

The importance of genetic parenthood for infertile men and women
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDo men and women beginning to attend a fertility clinic prefer genetic over non-genetic parenthood?SUMMARY ANSWERNearly, all infertile men and women prefer genetic parenthood.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYClinicians assume that all infertile couples prefer genetic parenthood over non-genetic parenthood and, therefore, consider treatments with donor gametes an option of last resort. Previous studies of the desire for parenthood identified 30 motivations for genetic parenthood, and 51 motivations for which having a genetically related child is not strictly necessary but might be deemed required. The exact streng...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 23, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Prevalence of occult leiomyosarcomas and atypical leiomyomas after laparoscopic morcellation of leiomyomas in reproductive-age women
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONWhat is the prevalence of leiomyosarcomas and atypical leiomyomas after laparoscopic morcellation of fibroids in reproductive age women?SUMMARY ANSWERNo case of leiomyosarcomas but seven atypical leiomyomas were found in 1216 subjects.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYAlthough uterine sarcoma is a rare entity affecting usually older peri- or post-menopausal women, the Food and Drug Administration discourages use of laparoscopic power morcellation of uterine fibroids.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONRetrospective review of data extracted from a single center database of 1216 consecutive women who underwent laparoscopic ...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 23, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

A Phase III randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy, safety and tolerability of oral dydrogesterone versus micronized vaginal progesterone for luteal support in in vitro fertilization
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - August 23, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Modeling of live-birth rates and cost-effectiveness of oocyte cryopreservation for cancer patients prior to high- and low-risk gonadotoxic chemotherapy
This study used a Decision Analysis Model to estimate effectiveness and cost of FP for cancer patients.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODSAge-based estimates of LBR and cost per live birth were calculated for ages 25 –40 years based on gonadotoxicity of treatment. A decision analysis model was constructed using Treeage Pro 2015 with case base probabilities derived from national registries, practice guidelines and medical records from a national network of infertility practices (IntegraMed).MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCECompared to no FP –OC, FP–OC improved LBRs for women of all ages undergoing e...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 18, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Reply: “Weight and See” is not an option: birds of a feather
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - August 18, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

‘Weight and See’ is not an option!
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - August 18, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

A second dose of kisspeptin-54 improves oocyte maturation in women at high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: a Phase 2 randomized controlled trial
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONCan increasing the duration of LH-exposure with a second dose of kisspeptin-54 improve oocyte maturation in women at high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)?SUMMARY ANSWERA second dose of kisspeptin-54 at 10 h following the first improves oocyte yield in women at high risk of OHSS.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYKisspeptin acts at the hypothalamus to stimulate the release of an endogenous pool of GnRH from the hypothalamus. We have previously reported that a single dose of kisspeptin-54 results in an LH-surge of ~12 –14 h duration, which safely triggers oocyte maturation in women at high risk...
Source: Human Reproduction - August 8, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research