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Human induced pluripotent stem cells and male infertility: an overview of current progress and perspectives
AbstractRecently, significant progress has been made in ART for the treatment of male infertility. However, current ART has failed to help infertile patients with non-obstructive azoospermia, unless donor sperm is used. In fact, most couples wish to have their own genetically related child. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can be generated from patients ’ somatic cells andin vitro derivation of functional germ cells from patient-specific iPSCs may provide new therapeutic strategies for infertile couples. The overall developmental dynamics of human primordial germ cells are similar to that in mice, but ac...
Source: Human Reproduction - January 5, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Development of a new comprehensive and reliable endometrial receptivity map (ER Map/ER Grade) based on RT-qPCR gene expression analysis
In this study, a new system for human endometrial receptivity evaluation was optimized and presented for the first time.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONER Map ®/ER Grade® validation was achieved on 312 endometrial samples including fertile women and patients undergoing fertility treatment between July 2014 and March 2016. Expression analyses of 184 genes involved in endometrial receptivity and immune response were performed. Samples were additionally te sted with an independent endometrial receptivity test.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODSA total of 96 fertile women and 120 assisted reproduction treatment (ART) ...
Source: Human Reproduction - January 5, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Adipose tissue-derived stem cells in a fibrin implant enhance neovascularization in a peritoneal grafting site: a potential way to improve ovarian tissue transplantation
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDo two different concentrations of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) embedded inside a fibrin scaffold have the potential to differentiate into vessels and aid vascularization in a peritoneal grafting site intended for ovarian tissue transplantation?SUMMARY ANSWERHuman ASCs in low and high concentrations differentiated into vessels when transplanted to mouse peritoneum inside a fibrin matrix, but only high ASC concentrations significantly increased human vessel area 14 days after transplantation.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYASCs have multilineage differentiation potential, including proangiogenic...
Source: Human Reproduction - January 3, 2018 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

New application of dydrogesterone as a part of a progestin-primed ovarian stimulation protocol for IVF: a randomized controlled trial including 516 first IVF/ICSI cycles
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONCan dydrogesterone (DYG) be used as an alternative progestin in a progesterone primed ovarian stimulation (PPOS) protocol?SUMMARY ANSWERDYG can be used as an appropriate alternative progestin in a PPOS protocol.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYPPOS is a new ovarian stimulation regimen based on a freeze-all strategy that uses progestin as an alternative to a GnRH analog for suppressing a premature LH surge during the follicular phase. Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) has been successfully used as an adjuvant to gonadotrophin in the PPOS protocol. However, the use of MPA may lead to stronger pituitary suppression ...
Source: Human Reproduction - December 29, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Aromatase inhibitor use during ovarian stimulation suppresses growth of uterine endometrial cancer in xenograft mouse model
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONCould aromatase inhibitors (AI) be used to reduce risks of uterine endometrial cancer growth or recurrence during ovarian stimulation?SUMMARY ANSWERIn a xenograft mouse model of endometrial cancer, concomitant AI administration suppressed the growth of endometrial cancer during ovarian stimulation.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYRecurrence and mortality rates of estrogen receptor-positive early breast cancer are reduced by long-term AI administration. Concomitant AI use for ovarian stimulation in patients with breast cancer is recommended for reducing estrogen-related potential risks. However, the efficacy of co...
Source: Human Reproduction - December 28, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Endometrial stromal cell attachment and matrix homeostasis in abdominal wall endometriomas
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONHow does progesterone alter matrix remodeling in abdominal wall endometriomas compared with normal endometrium?SUMMARY ANSWERProgesterone may prevent attachment of endometrial cells to the abdominal wall, but does not ameliorate abnormal stromal cell responses of abdominal wall endometriomas.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYMenstruation is a tightly orchestrated physiologic event in which steroid hormones and inflammatory cells cooperatively initiate shedding of the endometrium. Abdominal wall endometriomas represent a unique form of endometriosis in which endometrial cells inoculate fascia or dermis at the time ...
Source: Human Reproduction - December 28, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Corrigendum: COMPI Fertility Problem Stress Scales is a brief, valid and reliable tool for assessing stress in patients seeking treatment
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - December 28, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Safety of ovarian tissue transplantation in patients with borderline ovarian tumors
This study was supported by grants from the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (FNRS –PDR Convention T.0077.14, Télévie Grant 7.4590.16 awarded to Rossella Masciangelo, and Grant 5/4/150/5 awarded to Marie-Madeleine Dolmans), the Fonds Speciaux de Recherche, and the Foundation Against Cancer. None of the authors have any conflicting interests to declare. (Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - December 21, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

The epigenetic control of transposable elements and imprinted genes in newborns is affected by the mode of conception: ART versus spontaneous conception without underlying infertility
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDo assisted reproductive technologies alter DNA methylation and/or transcription of transposable elements and imprinted genes in cord blood and placenta?SUMMARY ANSWERAfter ART, DNA methylation and/or transcription changes of some transposable elements and imprinted genes were found in placenta samples while transcription modifications for some transposable elements were also discovered in cord blood.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYRecent studies have confirmed the increased risk of placenta-related adverse pregnancy outcomes and the excess of imprinted disorders with abnormal methylation patterns after ART, whi...
Source: Human Reproduction - December 11, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Human-specific subcellular compartmentalization of P-element induced wimpy testis-like (PIWIL) granules during germ cell development and spermatogenesis
This study is limited by the restricted number of samples and consequently stages analyzed.WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGSIn the germline, PIWILs ensure the integrity of the human genome protecting it from ‘parasitic sequences’. This study offers novel insights on the expression dynamics of PIWILs during the window of epigenetic remodeling and meiosis, and highlights important differences between humans and mice, which may prove particularly important to understand causes of infertility and improv e both diagnosis and treatment in humans.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)M.G.F. was funded by Funda ç&...
Source: Human Reproduction - December 11, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Surrogacy families headed by gay men: relationships with surrogates and egg donors, fathers ’ decisions over disclosure and children’s views on their surrogacy origins
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONHow do gay father families experience surrogacy in terms of their relationships with surrogates and egg donors, fathers ’ disclosure decisions and children’s views on their surrogacy origins?SUMMARY ANSWERMore families had a relationship with the surrogate than the egg donor, and almost all had started to disclose to their children, the majority of whom expressed limited interest in their surrogacy conception.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYGay fathers tend to report greater contact with the surrogate than the egg donor and to disclose only the use of a surrogate (omitting discussion of the egg donor...
Source: Human Reproduction - December 11, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Medical treatment or surgery for colorectal endometriosis? Results of a shared decision-making approach
This study was financed by Italian fiscal contribution ‘5 × 1000’—Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca—devolved to Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano, Italy. P.V., M.P.F., R.R., D.D., A.R., P.M., O.D.G. and M.C. declare that they have no co nflicts of interest. E.S. received grants from Ferring and Serono. (Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - December 8, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

New intronic Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1) mutation leading to disrupted splicing and Kallmann syndrome
AbstractCongenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH), which can present with a defective sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome, KS), is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Over 31 genes have been associated with CHH, but most of the patients still lack a molecular genetic diagnosis. Some cases may be explained by mutations that disrupt the splicing of already established CHH genes but that are unrecognized either because they are located deep in introns or are not predicted to disrupt splicing. Here we identified a patient with a previously unreported Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1) mutation, c.1...
Source: Human Reproduction - December 8, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Maternal age at birth and daughters ’ subsequent childlessness
In this study population, women born to older mothers were more likely to be childless.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYAlthough maternal age at childbearing is increasing in many countries, there is limited evidence on whether being born to older parents may influence offspring fertility.STUDY DESIGN SIZE AND DURATIONThis analysis included 43 135 women from the US-based Sister Study, a cohort study of 50 884 sisters of women with breast cancer recruited between 2003 and 2009.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODSParticipants had no breast cancer at baseline. Women were included in the analytic sample if they were born between 1930 ...
Source: Human Reproduction - December 4, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Reduced live-birth rates after IVF/ICSI in women with previous unilateral oophorectomy: results of a multicentre cohort study
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONIs there a reduced live-birth rate (LBR) after IVF/ICSI treatment in women with a previous unilateral oophorectomy (UO)?SUMMARY ANSWERA significantly reduced LBR after IVF/ICSI was found in women with previous UO when compared with women with intact ovaries in this large multicentre cohort, both crudely and after adjustment for age, BMI, fertility centre and calendar period and regardless of whether the analysis was based on transfer of embryos in the fresh cycle only or on cumulative results including transfers using frozen-thawed embryos.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYSimilar pregnancy rates after IVF/ICSI ha...
Source: Human Reproduction - December 4, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Fertility preservation in women harboring deleterious BRCA mutations: ready for prime time?
AbstractFertility issues have become critical in the management and counseling of BRCA mutation carriers. In this setting four points deserve consideration. (1) Women in general lose their ability to conceive at a mean age of 41 years, thus the suggested policy of prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy at age 40 for BRCA mutation carriers does not affect the chances of natural pregnancy. Conversely, if the procedure is chosen at 35 years old, oocyte cryopreservation prior to surgery should be considered. (2) Some evidence suggests that ovarian reserve may actually be partly reduced in BRCA mutations carriers and that...
Source: Human Reproduction - December 1, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

The direct and indirect effects of kisspeptin-54 on granulosa lutein cell function
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONWhat are thein vivo andin vitro actions of kisspeptin-54 on the expression of genes involved in ovarian reproductive function, steroidogenesis and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in granulosa lutein (GL) cells when compared with traditional triggers of oocyte maturation?SUMMARY ANSWERThe use of kisspeptin-54 as an oocyte maturation trigger augmented expression of genes involved in ovarian steroidogenesis in human GL cells including, FSH receptor (FSHR), LH/hCG receptor (LHCGR), steroid acute regulatory protein (STAR), aromatase, estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ESR1, ESR2), 3-beta-hydroxyst...
Source: Human Reproduction - December 1, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Birthweight of singletons born after cleavage-stage or blastocyst transfer in fresh and warming cycles
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDoes extended culture to the blastocyst stage affect singleton birthweight after either fresh or vitrified-warmed embryo transfer?SUMMARY ANSWERSingleton birthweightz-scores did not vary significantly after a fresh blastocyst transfer, whereas the additional effect of vitrification remains inconclusive.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYObservational studies have associated extended culture with an increased risk of preterm birth and low birthweight. On the contrary, in terms of birthweight and gestational age, singletons born after vitrification have been associated with a better perinatal outcome when compared to...
Source: Human Reproduction - December 1, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Reply: Clinical trial registry alone is not adequate: on the perception of possible endpoint switching and P-hacking
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - November 29, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical trial registry alone is not adequate: on the perception of possible endpoint switching and P-hacking
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - November 29, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Conservative surgery versus colorectal resection in deep endometriosis infiltrating the rectum: a randomized trial
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONIs there a difference in functional outcome between conservative versus radical rectal surgery in patients with large deep endometriosis infiltrating the rectum 2 years postoperatively?SUMMARY ANSWERNo evidence was found that functional outcomes differed when conservative surgery was compared to radical rectal surgery for deeply invasive endometriosis involving the bowel.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYAdopting a conservative approach to the surgical management of deep endometriosis infiltrating the rectum, by employing shaving or disc excision, appears to yield improved digestive functional outcomes. However, p...
Source: Human Reproduction - November 29, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Broad support for regulating the clinical implementation of future reproductive techniques
This study reports on the perspective of the majority and this is not per definition the morally right perspective. The transferability of our findings to other cultures and other techniques remains unclear.WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGSA national bioethics committee, consulting with advisors from various backgrounds, should regulate the clinical implementation of future stem cell-based fertility treatments. Whether this broad support for regulation applies to novel techniques from other fields of medicine should be examined.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)The Young Academy of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts a...
Source: Human Reproduction - November 28, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Chronic hyperandrogenemia in the presence and absence of a western-style diet impairs ovarian and uterine structure/function in young adult rhesus monkeys
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDoes chronic hyperandrogenemia beginning at menarche, in the absence and presence of a western-style diet (WSD), alter ovarian and uterine structure-function in young adult rhesus monkeys?SUMMARY ANSWERPhenotypic alterations in ovarian and uterine structure/function were induced by exogenous testosterone (T), and compounded in the presence of a WSD (T+WSD).WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYHyperandrogenemia is a well-established component of PCOS and is observed in adolescent girls, indicating a potential pubertal onset of disease symptoms. Obesity is often associated with hyperandrogenemia and it is hypothesized ...
Source: Human Reproduction - November 28, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Antenatal paternal adjustment and paternal attitudes after infertility treatment
This study was conducted at Psychology Research Centre (UID/PSI/ 01662/2013), University of Minho, and at the Unidade de Investiga ção em Epidemiologia—Instituto de Saúde Pública da Universidade do Porto (EPIUnit) (UID/DTP/04750/2013). It was supported by the Foundation for Science and Technology (Portuguese Ministry of Education and Science) through National funds and co-financed by FEDER through COMPETE2020 under the PT 2020 Partnership Agreement (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007653) and through the Operational Programme Factors of Competitiveness–COMPETE within the project ‘Health, Go...
Source: Human Reproduction - November 24, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Health-related knowledge, beliefs and self-efficacy in women with polycystic ovary syndrome
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDo health-related knowledge, beliefs and self-efficacy differ between women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)?SUMMARY ANSWERWomen with PCOS felt at greater risk for adverse health outcomes, yet believed a healthy lifestyle was less beneficial to prevent weight gain relative to a comparison group.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYDiet and physical activity are often used to treat PCOS, but there are high attrition rates and less engagement in self-help methods. It is unclear whether there are unique psychosocial considerations in PCOS that should be incorporated into these interventions.STUDY DESIGN...
Source: Human Reproduction - November 22, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Low serum progesterone on the day of embryo transfer is associated with a diminished ongoing pregnancy rate in oocyte donation cycles after artificial endometrial preparation: a prospective study
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - November 21, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Optimal timing for blastomere biopsy of 8-cell embryos for preimplantation genetic diagnosis
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONWhat is the optimal timing for blastomere biopsy during the 8-cell stage, at which embryos will have the best implantation potential?SUMMARY ANSWERFast-cleaving embryos that are biopsied during the last quarter (Q4) of the 8-cell stage and are less affected by the biopsy procedure, and their implantation potential is better than that of embryos biopsied earlier during the 8-cell stage (Q1 –Q3).WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYBlastomer biopsy from cleavage-stage embryos is usually performed on the morning of Day 3 when the embryos are at the 6- to 8-cell stage and is still the preferred biopsy method for pr...
Source: Human Reproduction - November 20, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Long-term health in recipients of transplanted in vitro propagated spermatogonial stem cells
This study was designed as a murine equivalent of a clinical prospective study design. Long-term follow-up was performed for mice who received a busulfan treatment followed by either an intratesticular transplantation ofin vitro propagated enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) positive SSCs (cases,n = 34) or no transplantation (control,n = 37). Using a power calculation, we estimated that 36 animals per group would be sufficient to provide an 80% power and with a 5% level of significance to demonstrate a 25% increase in cancer incidence in the transplanted group. The survival rate and cancer incidence was investigated ...
Source: Human Reproduction - November 18, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Down-regulation of miR-378a-3p induces decidual cell apoptosis: a possible mechanism for early pregnancy loss
This study focused on the function of miR-378a-3p and its target Caspase-3, however, numerous other targets and miRNAs may also be responsible for the pathogenesis of EPL. Therefore, further studies are required to elucidate the role of miRNAs in EPL.WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGSOur findings indicate that miR-378a-3p may contribute to the development of EPL, and that it could serve as a new potential predictive and therapeutic target of progesterone-treatment for EPL.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTThis study was supported by National Basic Research Program of China (No.2012CB944900); National Science Foundation of Ch...
Source: Human Reproduction - November 18, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Battling bias
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - November 18, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Focused time-lapse analysis reveals novel aspects of human fertilization and suggests new parameters of embryo viability
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONCan focused application of time-lapse microscopy (TLM) lead to a more detailed map of the morphokinetics of human fertilization, revealing novel or neglected aspects of this process?SUMMARY ANSWERIntensive harnessing of TLM reveals novel or previously poorly characterised phenomena of fertilization, such as a cytoplasmic wave (CW) preceding pronuclear formation and kinetics of pronuclear chromatin polarization, thereby suggesting novel non-invasive biomarkers of embryo quality.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYIn recent years, human preimplantation development has been the object of TLM studies with the intent to ...
Source: Human Reproduction - November 15, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Survey of Reproductive Experiences and Outcomes of Cancer Survivors Who Stored Reproductive Material Before Treatment
(Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - November 15, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Waddlia chondrophila, a Chlamydia-related bacterium, has a negative impact on human spermatozoa
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONWhat is the impact ofWaddlia chondrophila, an emergingChlamydia-related bacterium associated with miscarriage, on human spermatozoa?SUMMARY ANSWERW. chondrophila had a negative impact on human spermatozoa (decrease in viability and mitochondrial membrane potential) and was not entirely removed from infected samples by density gradient centrifugation.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYBacterial infection or colonization might have a deleterious effect on male fertility.Waddlia chondrophila was previously associated with miscarriage, but its impact on male reproductive function has never been studied.STUDY DESIGN SIZ...
Source: Human Reproduction - November 14, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Wellbeing of gay fathers with children born through surrogacy: a comparison with lesbian-mother families and heterosexual IVF parent families
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONAre there differences in levels of parental wellbeing (parental stress, psychological adjustment and partner relationship satisfaction) between gay-father families with infants born through surrogacy, lesbian-mother families with infants born through donor insemination, and heterosexual-parent families with infants born through IVF?SUMMARY ANSWERThere were no differences in parental wellbeing.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYThe only other study of parental wellbeing in gay-father families formed through surrogacy (mean age children: 4 years old) found no difference in couple relationship satisfaction between the...
Source: Human Reproduction - November 14, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rates for assisted reproductive technology (ART) and other births
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONIs perinatal mortality rate higher among births born following assisted reproductive technology (ART) compared to non-ART births?SUMMARY ANSWEROverall perinatal mortality rates in ART births was higher compared to non-ART births, but gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rate of ART births was lower for very preterm and moderate to late preterm births.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYBirths born following ART are reported to have higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes compared to non-ART births.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONThis population-based retrospective cohort study included 407 368 babies (391 952 ...
Source: Human Reproduction - November 13, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

The number of oocytes retrieved during IVF: a balance between efficacy and safety
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONWhat is the relationship between the number of oocytes collected in fresh IVF treatments and the likelihood of cumulative delivery rate (fresh and frozen) per oocyte aspiration, severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and thromboembolic events?SUMMARY ANSWERCumulative delivery rate per aspiration increases up to 20 oocytes retrieved and then evens out while the incidence of severe OHSS increases more rapidly from around 18 oocytes and thromboembolic events, although rare, occurs in particular if 15 or more oocytes are retrieved.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY?Previous studies have shown that the number ...
Source: Human Reproduction - November 10, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Time-varying cycle average and daily variation in ambient air pollution and fecundability
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDoes ambient air pollution affect fecundability?SUMMARY ANSWERWhile cycle-average air pollution exposure was not associated with fecundability, we observed some associations for acute exposure around ovulation and implantation with fecundability.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYAmbient air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and decrements in semen quality.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONThe LIFE study (2005 –2009), a prospective time-to-pregnancy study, enrolled 501 couples who were followed for up to one year of attempting pregnancy.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODSAv...
Source: Human Reproduction - November 10, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Serum omega-3 fatty acids and treatment outcomes among women undergoing assisted reproduction
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONAre serum polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentrations, including omega-3 ( ω3-PUFA) and omega-6 (ω6-PUFA), related to ART outcomes?SUMMARY ANSWERSerum levels of long-chain ω3-PUFA were positively associated with probability of live birth among women undergoing ART.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYIntake of ω3-PUFA improves oocyte and embryo quality in animal and human studies. However, a recent cohort study found no relation between circulating ω3-PUFA levels and pregnancy rates after ART.STUDY DESIGN SIZE, AND DURATIONThis analysis included a random sample of 100 women from a ...
Source: Human Reproduction - November 10, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Developmental outcome of 9-year-old children born after PGS: follow-up of a randomized trial
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDoes Day-3 cleavage-stage PGS affect neurodevelopment of 9-year-old IVF offspring?SUMMARY ANSWERWe did not find evidence of adverse consequences of Day-3 cleavage-stage PGS on neurodevelopment of 9-year-old IVF offspring, although children born after IVF with or without PGS often had a non-optimal neurological condition.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYKnowledge on long-term sequelae for development and health of children born following PGS is lacking. This is striking as evidence accumulates that IVF itself is associated with increased risk for impaired health and development in the offspring.STUDY DESIGN SIZE, ...
Source: Human Reproduction - November 10, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Antioxidants improve IVF outcome and subsequent embryo development in the mouse
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONWhat is the effect of a combination of three antioxidants (Acetyl-L-Carnitine,N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine and α-Lipoic Acid), present in IVF medium during mouse oocyte and sperm collection, on fertilization and subsequent IVF embryo development?SUMMARY ANSWERA combination of antioxidants resulted in faster developmental times from the 2-cell stage through to expanded blastocyst stage, accompanied by a significant increase in blastocyst cell number and a reduction of intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYThe antioxidant combination Acetyl-L-Carnitine,N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine and &...
Source: Human Reproduction - November 10, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Early first trimester uteroplacental flow and the progressive disintegration of spiral artery plugs: new insights from contrast-enhanced ultrasound and tissue histopathology
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDoes the use of a vascular contrast agent facilitate earlier detection of maternal flow to the placental intervillous space (IVS) in the first trimester of pregnancy?SUMMARY ANSWERMicrovascular filling of the IVS was demonstrated by contrast-enhanced ultrasound from 6 weeks of gestation onwards, earlier than previously believed.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYDuring placental establishment and remodeling of maternal spiral arteries, endovascular trophoblast cells invade and accumulate in the lumen of these vessels to form ‘trophoblast plugs’. Prior evidence from morphological and Doppler ultrasound s...
Source: Human Reproduction - November 10, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

The incidence and origin of segmental aneuploidy in human oocytes and preimplantation embryos
This study was supported by institutional funding (Reprogenetics UK). Additionally, DW is supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Oxford Biomedical Research Centre Programme. DB was supported by the University of Oxford's Clarendon funding. No conflict of interests to declare. (Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - November 8, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Malignant testicular germ cell tumors in postpubertal individuals with androgen insensitivity: prevalence, pathology and relevance of single nucleotide polymorphism-based susceptibility profiling
This study was supported by research grants from the Research Foundation Flanders (FWO) (to M.C.), the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cient ífico e Tecnológico (CNPq G0D6713N) (to B.B.M. and M.C.) and the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology (ESPE), granted by Novo Nordisk AB (to J.K.). There are no competing interests. (Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - November 7, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Individualized versus standard FSH dosing in women starting IVF/ICSI: an RCT. Part 2: The predicted hyper responder
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDoes a reduced FSH dose in women with a predicted hyper response, apparent from a high antral follicle count (AFC), who are scheduled for IVF/ICSI lead to a different outcome with respect to cumulative live birth rate and safety?SUMMARY ANSWERAlthough in women with a predicted hyper response (AFC> 15) undergoing IVF/ICSI a reduced FSH dose (100 IU per day) results in similar cumulative live birth rates and a lower occurrence of any grade of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) as compared to a standard dose (150 IU/day), a higher first cycle cancellation rate and similar severe OHSS rate were o...
Source: Human Reproduction - November 7, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Individualized versus standard FSH dosing in women starting IVF/ICSI: an RCT. Part 1: The predicted poor responder
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDoes an increased FSH dose result in higher cumulative live birth rates in women with a predicted poor ovarian response, apparent from a low antral follicle count (AFC), scheduled for IVF or ICSI?SUMMARY ANSWERIn women with a predicted poor ovarian response (AFC
Source: Human Reproduction - November 7, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Individualized FSH dosing based on ovarian reserve testing in women starting IVF/ICSI: a multicentre trial and cost-effectiveness analysis
This study was funded by The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMW number 171102020). AMH measurements were performed free of charge by Roche Diagnostics. TCT, HLT and SCO received an unrestricted personal grant from Merck BV. AH declares that the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Medical Centre Groningen receives an unrestricted research grant from Ferring pharmaceutics BV, The Netherlands. CBL receives grants from Merck, Ferring and Guerbet. BWJM is supported by a NHMRC Practitioner Fellowship (GNT1082548) and reports consultancy for OvsEva, Merck and Guerbet. FJMB receives...
Source: Human Reproduction - November 7, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone at emergency contraception dose on the embryo-endometrial attachment using an in vitro human trophoblastic spheroid and endometrial cell co-culture model
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDo both ulipristal acetate (UPA) and mifepristone inhibit embryo-endometrial attachment at concentrations corresponding to the emergency contraception (EC) dose?SUMMARY ANSWERBoth UPA and mifepristone at concentrations corresponding to the EC dose do not have an inhibitory effect on embryo implantation, although mifepristone at a higher concentration appeared to have such an effect.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYLevonorgestrel is commonly used for EC, but it only acts through inhibition of ovulation. UPA and mifepristone have higher efficacy as EC compared to levonorgestrel; while there is some suggestion that ...
Source: Human Reproduction - November 7, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

The protective role of melatonin in porcine oocyte meiotic failure caused by the exposure to benzo(a)pyrene
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONDoes melatonin restore the benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-induced meiotic failure in porcine oocytes?SUMMARY ANSWERMelatonin effectively inhibits the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and apoptotic rate in BaP-exposed porcine oocytes to recover the meiotic failure.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYBaP, a widespread environmental carcinogen found in particulate matter, 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5), has been shown to have toxicity at the level of the reproductive systems. BaP exposure disrupts the steroid balance, alters the expression of ovarian estrogen receptor and causes premature ovarian failure through the r...
Source: Human Reproduction - November 3, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Cancer risk in children born after donor ART
This study showed no overall increased risk of childhood cancer in individuals born after donor ART.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYMost large population-based studies have shown no increase in overall childhood cancer incidence after non-donor ART; however, other studies have suggested small increased risks in specific cancer types, including haematological cancers. Cancer risk specifically in children born after donor ART has not been investigated to date.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONThis retrospective cohort study utilized record linkage to determine the outcome status of all children born in Great Britain (1992 –2008) after ...
Source: Human Reproduction - November 2, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Vitamin D and assisted reproductive treatment outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis
AbstractSTUDY QUESTIONIs serum vitamin D associated with live birth rates in women undergoing ART?SUMMARY ANSWERWomen undergoing ART who are replete in vitamin D have a higher live birth rate than women who are vitamin D deficient or insufficient.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYVitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of abnormal pregnancy implantation as well as obstetric complications such as pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction. However, the effect of vitamin D on conception and early pregnancy outcomes in couples undergoing ART is poorly understood.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATIONA systematic review and m...
Source: Human Reproduction - October 31, 2017 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research