Asterion localization - variability of the location for surgical and anthropological relevance.
Abstract This work aimed to study the variability in location of the asterion in a Polish population, which may be important for both surgical and anthropological procedures. In surgical approaches to the posterior cranial fossa, the asterion is of great importance as a reference landmark. Its accurate localization may be impeded by the presence of additional, irregular sutural bones. Dry adult human skulls (n = 113, 60.2% male and 39.8% female) were analyzed for asterion location in relation to the reference points (mastoidale, bregma, porion, inion, lambda, opisthion). The asterion exhibits wide variation in loc...
Source: Homo - October 25, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Tomaszewska A, Bisiecka A, Pawelec Ł Tags: Homo Source Type: research

The position of Neandertal and Homo erectus within the hominid clade based on craniodental morphology and whole mtDNA genomes.
Abstract To evaluate the taxonomic position of the Neandertal and Homo erectus within the hominid clade, the variation among and within the hominid taxa was assessed based on the craniodental morphology and integrated with molecular analyses of the whole mtDNA genomes. Ordination and clustering of the Procrustes craniodental landmarks have showed a notable shape transformation from the earliest hominid species to the modern humans. Although levels of distinction between the analyzed taxa (Homo, Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo) are generally corresponding to probable expectations based on their taxonomic rank, few exceptio...
Source: Homo - October 25, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Abdelhady AA, Elewa AMT, El-Dawy MH Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Sex determination from fragmented human remains - hierarchy of the foramen magnum dimensions.
Abstract Although the foramen magnum is often described in the context of sex determination, to date, it has not been studied in relation to the Polish population. Considering interpopulation variation of human skull dimensions and shapes, study of a Polish population is needed. The aim of this paper is to evaluate a hierarchy of selected measurements of the foramen magnum in terms of their usefulness for sex determination and provide reference data for Polish non-modern populations in order to propose an alternative method of sex determination for fragmented human remains. Adult skulls from skeletal collection fr...
Source: Homo - October 25, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Tomaszewska A, Psonak D, Maślińska P, Kwiatkowska B Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Unexpectedly low levels of dental morphological asymmetry suggesting developmental resilience amongst living Jordanians: A cone beam computed tomography study.
The objective was to determine the degree of fluctuating asymmetry in the expression of 13 dental morphological traits among adult Jordanians. Cone beam computed tomography images for the dentitions of 150 adult Jordanians (67 males, 83 females; age range = 18-58, mean ages 28.2, SD = 10.0 years) were studied in 2017. The traits were classified using the Arizona State University dental anthropology system, and dichotomized according to the most widely accepted criteria to define trait presence. Asymmetry was assessed using three different methods: percentage of discordance including bilateral absence cases (PDIBAC), percen...
Source: Homo - October 25, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Alzer H, Alhadidi A, Al-Shayyab MH, Sabrah AH, Alsoleihat F Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Familial factors more importantly modify the age of achieving motor developmental milestones than duration of breastfeeding amongst Polish children.
Abstract Breastfeeding in the first year of life is an important factor that may modify the child's later development.The aim of this study was to examine the association between the duration of breastfeeding and the time of achieving motor development of Polish children taking into account their familial background. The study material comprised 460 individuals including 252 boys and 208 girls aged 9 to 56 months who were born at term (37-42 weeks) selected in years 1993-1997. The investigated dependent variables were: first attempts of sitting, standing and walking (months). The independent variables were divided...
Source: Homo - October 25, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Pruszkowska-Przybylska P, Rosset I, Sitek A, Żądzińska E Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Human cranium of Candonga Cave site and its implications for the initial peopling of South America.
Abstract The aim of this paper is to analyze the morphology of a skull from Candonga Cave (central Argentina), dating to the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, and to discuss its implications for the early peopling of South-America by Palaeoamerican and Amerindian populations. Although this cranium is fragmented, impeding the standard morphometric analysis, an alternative methodology ad hoc was implemented in order to obtain relevant information about the South American people origins. Results of measurements provide new information to reinforce the hypothesis that Paleoamerican crania possess similar morphological ...
Source: Homo - October 25, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Rivero D, Cornero S, Truyol G, Neves W Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Foraging theory and the propensity to be obese: an alternative to thrift.
Abstract The evolutionary origin of obesity is classically believed to be genetic or developmentally induced thrift, as an adaptation to ancestral feast and famine conditions. However, recently the thrift family of hypotheses have attracted serious criticism necessitating alternative thinking. Optimization of foraging behaviour is an important aspect of behavioural evolution. For a species evolved for optimizing nutritional benefits against predation or other foraging risks, reduction in foraging risk below a threshold dramatically increases the steady-state body weight. In modern life where feeding is detached fr...
Source: Homo - October 8, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Baig U, Lokhande L, Lalwani P, Chawla S, Watve M Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Pope Leo XII's death: the twist to a longstanding dispute by novel historical documents and paleopathographic analysis.
Abstract Although the practice of autopsy on the Pope's corpse was performed from the 16th century, autopsy reports are only rarely analysed, and never with the aim of investigating the real causes of the death from a concomitant medical and historical point of view. Here, for the first time, we report on the discovery of new unpublished documents from the Vatican Secret Archives and their investigation by a scientific and inter-disciplinary approach. This analysis allows us to draw new conclusions on the true cause of Leo XII's mysterious death. His sudden death, that occurred on February 10th, 1829 after a short...
Source: Homo - October 8, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Fiumi Sermattei I, Traversari M, Serventi P, Cilli E, Gruppioni G, Tomassini L, Benazzi S, Galassi FM Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Ancient Egyptian health: the prevalence of anemia at the origins of agriculture and state level society.
Abstract Ancient Egyptians experienced a vast increase in population size following the Neolithic Revolution. Nomadic hunter-gatherer groups gradually adopted agriculture as their primary food subsistence strategy. Analyses of human societies shifting from foragers to farmers have provided evidence which suggests this transition is linked with an increase in disease and allostatic load. This paper presents an examination of cribra orbitalia and porotic hyperostosis prevalence in Predynastic and Dynastic Egyptians using public health evidence as a means to interpret the skeletal findings. The sample included 219 in...
Source: Homo - October 8, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Lopez KA, Godde K Tags: Homo Source Type: research

The ethics of investigating cultural and genetic diversity of minority groups.
Abstract The use of genetic information for anthropological purposes requires an effort by the researcher to deal with the ethical issues that may arise. In some cases, these can lead to rather complex relationships between anthropologists and communities. The transparency of the research protocol is a fundamental requirement in order to establish a relationship based on trust and to conduct investigations in the most ethically sustainable way. In addition, researchers must take into consideration further aspects regarding the indigenous conceptions of corporeity, memory and history. Knowledge of these characteris...
Source: Homo - October 8, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Capocasa M, Volpi L Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Evolutionary medicine perspective on coping style and health outcomes: an exploratory study.
Abstract One of the issues within the framework of Darwinian medicine is why individuals develop the specific disease they do. Ethologists have long known that within any given population, there are organisms with the tendency towards higher (Hawks) or lower (Doves) aggressiveness, and since the physiological responses to stressful events are different in Hawks and Doves, it has been suggested that these strategies might be related to health outcomes. The aims of this exploratory study were to determine whether an analogues of Hawks and Doves as basic coping strategies could be defined among chronically ill patien...
Source: Homo - October 8, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Hromatko I, Tadinac M, Jokic-Begic N, Lauri-Korajlija A, Kotrulja L Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Variability in professional athletes: secular changes in the anthropometry of elite handball players.
Abstract Compared to previous surveys, the current model of elite-level athlete is significantly different. The aim of this work was to examine the secular trends in the body dimensions of professional handball players using cohorts from 1977 and 2012. A range of anthropometric data was considered, including skinfold-, height-, length-, breadth-, and girth-based measures. We computed various body indices and the endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy components. Above-average height was exhibited by both cohorts, and the trends observed in body height and the other height-related variables are in line with those r...
Source: Homo - September 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Burdukiewicz A, Pietraszewska J, Andrzejewska J, Stachoń A, Lijewski M Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Changes of mandibular dental arch shape during adolescence and its influence on late mandibular incisor crowding.
Abstract The aim was to analyze the changes in mandibular dental arch shape during adolescence and assess its relation to late mandibular incisor crowding. Longitudinal study included 68 orthodontically untreated subjects (49% female) and analyzed their data for the ages of 12, 15, 18 and 21 years. Measurements included anterior arch depth, intercanine, interpremolar/anterior and intermolar/posterior width, Little's Irregularity and Bolton's index and the ratio between anterior arch depth and width. Males had significantly greater posterior widths than females at any age (p
Source: Homo - September 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Zigante M, Pavlic A, Vandevska Radunovic V, Mathewson A, Kotarac Knezevic A, Spalj S Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Osteoarcheological and biomolecular evidence of leprosy from an 11-13th century CE Muslim cemetery in Europe (Orosh áza, Southeast Hungary).
Osteoarcheological and biomolecular evidence of leprosy from an 11-13th century CE Muslim cemetery in Europe (Orosháza, Southeast Hungary). Homo. 2019 Sep 05;: Authors: Balázs J, Rózsa Z, Bereczki Z, Marcsik A, Tihanyi B, Karlinger K, Pölöskei G, Molnár E, Donoghue HD, Pálfi G Abstract Orosháza site no. 10 (Southeast Hungary) contains the partially excavated archaeological remains of an 11-13th century CE Muslim merchant village and its cemetery located in close proximity to Christian villages of the same era. The skeleton of a young woman (grave no....
Source: Homo - September 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Balázs J, Rózsa Z, Bereczki Z, Marcsik A, Tihanyi B, Karlinger K, Pölöskei G, Molnár E, Donoghue HD, Pálfi G Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Ankylosing spondylitis: antiquity and differential diagnosis - a case study of a Bronze Age skeleton from Norabak, southeastern Armenia.
Abstract An excavation of a burial mound at Norabak site (Southeast Armenia) unearthed four burial chambers, the central one contained a single skeleton radiocarbon dated to about 1400-1200 BCE. The skeleton was observed to have a polyarticular erosive arthropathy, primarily affecting the spine, with diagnostic features of ankylosing spondylitis. The antiquity of ankylosing spondylitis is questioned in the literature, because there are few reliable and descriptive reports from prehistoric sites. Excellent preservation of the skeleton from Norabak made it possible to perform a detailed analysis of the pathologic ch...
Source: Homo - September 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Karapetian M, Mkrtchyan R, Simonyan H Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Anatomical variations of maxillary lateral incisors: A comparative analysis of archaeological and modern populations from the Yucatan peninsula.
Ruiz GE, Cucina A Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of anatomical variants of maxillary lateral incisors in archaeological and modern populations from the Maya region. Both populations were derived from the state of Yucatan, Mexico. The archaeological sample consisted of human remains representing 122 individuals from the ancient Maya archaeological site of Xcambo (AD 250-700). The modern sample consisted of 475 dental models from the municipality of Tahdziú, Yucatan. The anatomical variants evaluated included microdontia, barrel-shaped incisors, and talon cusp. The prevalence of ...
Source: Homo - September 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Herrera-Atoche JR, Ríos-Muñoz AM, Sardaneta-Escudero DA, Colomé-Ruiz GE, Cucina A Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Homo naledi did not have flat foot.
Y Abstract The collection of 1550 Homo naledi fossil remains includes six tarsal and five metatarsal bones from the right foot, forming a nearly complete humanlike flat foot arch. The missing right medial cuneiform, however, raises our interest to explore the true structure of Homo naledi's foot arch. We hypothesize that Homo naledi does not have flat foot. To verify our hypothesis, the left medial cuneiform of Homo naledi was mirrored using three-dimensional reconstruction and virtual model analysis. Then, we defined quantities of Euler, standardized the body coordinate system of foot bone and developed a new fo...
Source: Homo - September 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Li R, Fan Y, Liu Y, Antonijevic Ð, Li Z, Djuric M, Fan Y Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Association of body mass index and upper arm body composition with depressive symptoms in old age home and family based elderly.
Abstract The following study was designed to find out the association of the mid-upper arm body composition and body mass index (BMI) with depressive symptoms among the old age home based (group 1) and family based elderly (group 2) subjects. In group 1 elderly males, 51.5% were showing mild depressive symptoms and 17% were showing moderate to severe depressive symptoms. On the other hand, among group 2 elderly males, prevalence of mild depressive symptoms was in 27% and moderate to severe depressive symptoms was in 4.5% of the subjects. Among elderly with and without depressive symptoms, BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR...
Source: Homo - September 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Singh K, Singh SP, Kaur G, Bose K Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Editorial.
PMID: 31475285 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Homo)
Source: Homo - August 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Henneberg M Tags: Homo Source Type: research

The olecranon aperture of the humerus: a meta-analysis with anthropological and clinical discussion.
Abstract The olecranon aperture is an anatomical variant of the humerus that communicates the olecranon fossa with the coronoid fossa. It is also known as the supratrochlear foramen. Older anatomical textbooks refer to it as a rare variation caused by the perforation of the thin bony plate which separates both fossae. This anatomical variant may be confused as an osteolytic lesion of the humerus in radiographic images. The present work aims to perform a meta-analysis of the olecranon aperture. Heterogeneity between studies was evaluated using I2 estimation and the Cochran Q statistic test. A random effect model wa...
Source: Homo - August 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Pires LAS, Leite TFO, Fonseca Junior A, Babinski MA, Chagas CAA Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Is it worth following the example of a scientist? - or a few words about nutritional status and physical activity of Polish professors.
Abstract Growing problem of overweight and obesity in Polish society needs corrective measures to limit its negative consequences. The purpose of the study is to assess the levels of nutritional status and physical activity of people with university education, professors of Poznań universities. The study included 288 Polish university professors. Their socioeconomic status and lifestyle were determined. Based on the BMI and waist circumference people with normal body proportions and proportions above normal were identified. The effect of biological and environmental variables on normal body proportions was assess...
Source: Homo - August 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Demuth A, Czerniak U Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Double inhumation in the Medieval Islamic Necropolis of Sahl ben Malik in Granada (Spain).
e;n I, Botella MC Abstract Despite the high mortality that have been associated with pregnancy and childbirth in past populations, few cases of the remains of pregnant women burials are described in the bioarchaeological reports. This paper is focused on the case of a double inhumation found in the Medieval Muslim Necropolis (11th to 15th centuries) of Sahl ben Malik in Granada (Spain). A complete skeleton of a woman and the skeletal remains of a full-term fetus located under the mother's left femur, were discovered in this burial. None of the evidence for the mother was decisive in determining the cause of death....
Source: Homo - August 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: López-Morago C, Estéve EJ, Alemán I, Botella MC Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Malocclusion from the prehistoric to the medieval times in Serbian population: Dentoalveolar and skeletal relationship comparisons in samples.
ić B Abstract The aims of this study were to reconstruct and analyze dental occlusion and skeletal jaw relationship in samples from Mesolithic-Neolithic, Bronze Age, Roman and Medieval times in Serbia, to compare results and to determine possible direction of the occlusal changes. Anatomically preserved skulls with mandibles and most of the posterior teeth were included in the investigation. Dental occlusion was reconstructed using the position of centric occlusion and centric relation and analyzed according to Angle's classification. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were traced manually. Site differences were t...
Source: Homo - August 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Pajević T, Juloski J, Glišić B Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Masticatory properties in pre-modern Holocene populations from Northern China.
In this study the mechanical properties of the masticatory system and the integrity of the TMJ in human populations from Northern China, dated to between 3800 BCE and 100 CE, were assessed. The results demonstrate that the mechanical efficiency is comparable to other modern human populations, though variations are present across different populations. While the ratio of overall weighted muscle efficiency for incisor loading vs. molar loading in pastoral and some recent agricultural groups is similar to early Homo sapiens, the ratio in more ancient agricultural groups is similar to the ratio in populations with heavy anteri...
Source: Homo - August 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Wang Q, Zhang Q, Han T, Sun Z, Dechow PC, Zhu H, Zhang Q Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Exploring the risks accompanying child-bearing in aboriginal society on Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, 13th-15th cal. CE): death of a pregnant woman during her third trimester.
Delgado-Darias T Abstract In the pre-Hispanic necropolis of Juan Primo, northwest Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain) a grave was found containing a 20-25 year-old woman with a foetus in her abdominal region, whose age at death was estimated at 33-35 weeks of gestation. The purpose of this study is to discuss the possible cause of death of the woman and foetus. Skeletons of both individuals were well preserved, permitting a good record of the bones found in the burial, which is compatible with a pregnancy at preterm. The age of the foetus and the position of the left upper limb raise the possibility that their d...
Source: Homo - August 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Santana-Cabrera J, Alamón-Núñez M, Alberto-Barroso V, Delgado-Darias T Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Sex estimation by Mastoid Triangle using 3D models.
Abstract Mastoid Triangle (MT) is a triangle constructed between the landmarks porion, mastoidale and asterion. The aim of the study is to evaluate the sex differences in the MT size in Bulgarian adults and to develop discriminant functions for sex estimation based on the MT sides and area. The study was carried out on 148 head CT scans. A sample of 53 males and 53 females was used for development of discriminant functions, and a test sample of 21 males and 21 females was applied for their validation. Using the software InVesalius©, 3D models of the skulls were segmented and exported in STL format. The 3D coo...
Source: Homo - August 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Toneva DH, Nikolova SY, Zlatareva DK, Hadjidekov VG, Lazarov NE Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Deciduous dental variation in Chalcolithic India: methods, metrics and meaning.
Abstract Deciduous teeth are occasionally well represented in archaeological skeletal samples, yet their potential value in reconstructing biological adaptations of prehistoric populations is often overlooked. Independent investigations of the metric dimensions of deciduous dental remains from the Chalcolithic site of Nevasa (Deccan Plateau, western India) yield a unique opportunity to compare odontometric methods and gain insight regarding dental variation in prehistoric India. Mesiodistal (MD) and buccolingual (BL) dimensions of deciduous teeth were measured by two researchers. Intra- and inter-observer precisio...
Source: Homo - August 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Lukacs JR Tags: Homo Source Type: research

The space of man's death. A modern age secondary burial case in northern Italy.
Abstract Much of the recent archaeological and anthropological research on Italian modern age secondary burials has focused primarily on source analysis and the funerary context descriptions. To enable a clearer understanding of these atypical burials we need more archaeological data. To comprehend the mortuary practices it is necessary to investigate the surviving funeral monuments, burials and human remains. In fact, through the correct analysis of cultural material and human remains, it is possible to highlight the taphonomic changes of the corpse experiences during the entire ritual process. This will allow us...
Source: Homo - August 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Licata M, Motto M, Grassi B, Badino P, Iorio S Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Genetic variation study on fifteen STR loci in isolated Slovenian "Inland Island" human populations of the Sel ška Valley Region.
This study was conducted to confirm preliminary anthropological research indicating the specificity of isolated Selška Valley populations and implement clear mapping of genetic distances between neighboring populations and similar "inland island" populations from the region. The sample consisted of 86 unrelated individuals born in the Selška Valley from the lowland villages (Bukovica, Ševlje, Dolenja Vas, Selca, Železniki and Zali Log) and the mountain villages (Podlonk, Prtovč, Spodnje Danje, Zgornja Sorica and Spodnja Sorica). The for mentioned 15 STR loci (D3S1358, TH01, D21S11, D18S51, ...
Source: Homo - August 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Hadžić Metjahić N, Vidović M, Čakar J, Džehverović M, Pilav A, Dogan S, Marjanović D Tags: Homo Source Type: research

The effect of prolonged thermal stress on the physiological parameters of young, sedentary men and the correlations with somatic features and body composition parameters.
Abstract Little is known about the effect of prolonged thermal stress on the physiological parameters of young and sedentary men. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of prolonged thermal stress on the physiological parameters of young men and the correlations with somatic features and body composition parameters. Forty-two sedentary men aged 20.24 ± 1.68 years were exposed to 10-, 12- and 14-minute sauna sessions (temperature: 90-91 °C; relative humidity: 14-16%). The participants' body composition parameters were determined pre-sauna exposure, and their body mass and blood pressure were me...
Source: Homo - August 29, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Podstawski R, Borysławski K, Laukkanen JA, Clark CCT, Choszcz D Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Influence of maternal height on children's health status and mortality: A cross-sectional study in poor Roma communities in rural Serbia.
Abstract To determine possible variations in children's health status and mortality associated with variations in maternal stature, an anthropometric and demographic study was conducted in a Roma population of poor socio-economic status in rural Serbia. Data were collected during several years of anthropological fieldwork. The sample consisted of 691 women, ranging from 16 to 80 years of age. In addition to stature, Roma women's demographics, reproductive history, reproductive outcomes and health status of their children were collected. The results provide evidence of a significant association between mother's s...
Source: Homo - November 27, 2018 Category: Physiology Authors: Čvorović J Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Mitochondrial DNA diversity of the Roma from northeastern Bosnia, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
This study is the first report on the mtDNA diversity in the Roma population from Bosnia. The main aim of this study was to analyse the mtDNA diversity in the studied population, evaluate the genetic relations with other European Roma populations, and analyse the influences of the Roma gene flow on the mitochondrial profile of the Roma from northeastern Bosnia. MtDNA variability in the analysed population has been studied by means of hypervariable segment I and II (HVSI/II) of the control region sequencing and analysis of restriction fragment-length polymorphisms of the coding region. Our results show that genetic structur...
Source: Homo - November 7, 2018 Category: Physiology Authors: Ahmic A, Kalamujic B, Ismailovic A, Lasic L, Halilovic E, Mujkic I, Pojskic N Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Reevaluation of the earlobe types in Koreans.
In conclusion, the findings in this study suggest that the attached earlobe type is the most common among Koreans, and the proportion of earlobe types among males and females is significantly different. Further studies are needed to understand the genetic background of earlobe types among Koreans. PMID: 30392739 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Homo)
Source: Homo - October 29, 2018 Category: Physiology Authors: Kim KE, Song WJ, Kim DK Tags: Homo Source Type: research

New linear regression equations to calculate body height from tibial length in modern Maya populations.
This study presents two new linear regression equations for estimating height from tibial length among Maya populations. Body height and percutaneous tibial length were measured in two living Maya samples from the state of Yucatan, Mexico. The first sample comprises 100 adults (63 females and 37 males) from the community of Dzemul, (Group 1) and the second sample comprises 71 adults (26 females and 45 males) from the city of Mérida (Group 2). A linear regression model equation was then adjusted to estimate height from tibia length for each group. These models were then compared using 95% confidence intervals for the...
Source: Homo - September 29, 2018 Category: Physiology Authors: Chay S, Batún J, Vázquez-Gómez A, Tiesler V, Dickinson F Tags: Homo Source Type: research

The asymmetry of dermatoglyphic finger ridge counts and the geographic altitude of the Jujenean population in northwest Argentina.
guez MC, Alfaro E Abstract Asymmetry is omnipresent in the living world and therefore is a measure of developmental noise and instability. The main stressing agent in high-altitude ecosystems is hypobaric hypoxia. The variation in bilateral dermatoglyphic symmetry in populations from the Province of Jujuy in northwest Argentina is analyzed, and these results are compared to those for other populations with different ethnic and environmental backgrounds. Fingerprints were collected from 310 healthy students (140 males and 170 females) aged 18-20 years from three localities in Jujuy Province-Abra Pampa (3484 m a...
Source: Homo - September 29, 2018 Category: Physiology Authors: Dipierri JE, Gutiérrez-Redomero E, Rivaldería N, Alonso-Rodríguez MC, Alfaro E Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Union of the medial clavicular epiphysis in a South African Black skeletal sample.
Abstract Current research points to an increase in the interest in and focus on the age at which the medial end of the clavicle begins and completes union in various populations worldwide. As it currently stands, no information exists for the South African population detailing the age at which this skeletal developmental marker commences or completes union. The aim of this study was to establish the age at which partial and complete unions occur and to find if there is any correlation between the age and the assigned stage score in a South African Black skeletal sample. Paired clavicles of 211 males and females (M...
Source: Homo - September 21, 2018 Category: Physiology Authors: Mahon T, Friedling LJ, Gordon GM Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Sex estimation from cranial morphological traits: Use of the methods across American Indians, modern North Americans, and ancient Egyptians.
This study evaluates again the general hypothesis that populations vary in their pattern of sexual dimorphism. Specifically, the study tests the degree of expression of four cranial morphological traits (glabella, supraorbital margins, nuchal crest, and mastoid process) across three samples from different time periods and which vary in sociocultural transitions: 1) modern Americans of rural and urban areas spanning the last 186 years; 2) Dynastic Egyptians; and 3) Averbuch American Indians, spanning approximately 1255 CE to 1425 CE, from the southeastern United States. These three populations were specifically chosen for s...
Source: Homo - September 21, 2018 Category: Physiology Authors: Godde K, Thompson MM, Hens SM Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Secular trend in growth and nutritional status in a sample of girls aged 7-9  years from Serbia.
Secular trend in growth and nutritional status in a sample of girls aged 7-9 years from Serbia. Homo. 2018 Sep 19;: Authors: Pavlica TM, Rakić RS, Popović BK, Puškaš VP Abstract Secular trend changes over time and therefore is a marker of the public health of the populations. The aim of the study is to compare the anthropometric data of 7-9 year-old girls obtained in recent investigations in Serbia with data from 1980/81, by using Z-score and percentile classification systems, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention - CDC anthropometric criteria. In 1980 and 1981...
Source: Homo - September 19, 2018 Category: Physiology Authors: Pavlica TM, Rakić RS, Popović BK, Puškaš VP Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Juvenile scurvy from Late Medieval Knin, Croatia.
In this study, we examine the scurvy associated skeletal lesions among juveniles from the late Medieval site Uzdolje-Grablje in Croatia. The study aims to establish a demographic pattern of scurvy using existing diagnostic criteria. The sample consists of 16 well-preserved and fairly complete juveniles, excavated from a cemetery dating to 1420-1920. Skeletal remains were analyzed macroscopically for signs of porosity and new bone formation. Scurvy is diagnosed using the "Ortner criteria" of cranial and postcranial lesions. Depending on the location of the lesions, individuals were diagnosed with either scurvy or ...
Source: Homo - September 5, 2018 Category: Physiology Authors: Nikitovic D, Rajić Šikanjić P Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Hemihyperplasia: History of medicine assists medical genetics.
Abstract This paper examines the role of the history of medicine in case of congenital isolated hemihyperplasia. Isolated hemihyperplasia is a genetic disorder in which one side of the body grows more than the other, causing visible lateral asymmetry of the human body. The date of the occurrence of the genetic mutation that leads to hemihyperplasia is not known yet. The aim of the current research was to confirm or to disprove the fact that isolated hemihyperplasia was first described in the first half of the 19th century. Using the case of hemihyperplasia we aimed to demonstrate how historical analysis may assist...
Source: Homo - September 1, 2018 Category: Physiology Authors: Shterenshis M, Roitblat Y, Rosenberg S, Singer M, Lumbroso J Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Age estimation accuracies from black South African os coxae.
Abstract The accurate estimation of age is considered important from an ethical, legal and archaeological perspective. Among the numerous methods based on macroscopic skeletal studies for age estimation, the Brooks and Suchey (1990) method for aging from the pubic symphysis and the Buckberry and Chamberlain (2002) method for aging from the auricular surface are considered more reliable. However, both these methods have been derived from American populations. Therefore, the following study aimed to assess the accuracy of the estimation of age-at-death from morphological age related changes seen on the pubic symphys...
Source: Homo - August 21, 2018 Category: Physiology Authors: Jones M, Gordon G, Brits D Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Biological living standards in North Korea as reflected in famine to post-famine trends in birthweight, 1998-2009.
Abstract This research investigates the trend in birthweight as an indicator of living conditions in early life inside North Korea, one of the most secluded nations in the world that experienced a great famine in the 1990s. Descriptive analysis based on data taken from officially released national nutrition survey reports suggests that prevalence of low birthweight (= below 2500 g) declined from 9.0% in the famine year of 1998-5.7% in the post-famine period of 2009. Mean birthweight improved from 2800 g in 1998-2940 g in 2002, although more recent surveys await implementation. Based on raw data comprising ...
Source: Homo - August 21, 2018 Category: Physiology Authors: Schwekendiek D Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Bone mineral density, hand grip strength, smoking status and physical activity in Polish young men.
Abstract The human skeleton undergoes constant changes encompassing the phases of growth, consolidation and involution of the bone tissue. The aim of the research was to assess the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and such factors as hand grip strength, somatic structure or attitudes to tobacco smoking in men with different levels of physical activity. The study included 172 males aged 20-30 years. Mineral density and forearm bone mass were measured using the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method. Physical activity levels were assessed with the use of the International Physical Activity Question...
Source: Homo - August 14, 2018 Category: Physiology Authors: Kopiczko A, Gryko K, Łopuszańska-Dawid M Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Women's height in several African countries in the first half of the 20th century.
The objective is to provide information on the stature of females from those areas at that time and to compare the results with those from the literature, which refer to more recent times. Data were recovered from original individual forms and/or monographs of the time, and when possible, changes in mean statures were reported, considering two age classes: 20.0-29.9 years and 30.0 years and over. Individual heights were plotted according to year of birth. The main results show tendencies toward height increases in Eritrea and Ethiopia, stable values of stature in Somalia and decreasing heights in women mainly from the ...
Source: Homo - August 4, 2018 Category: Physiology Authors: Danubio ME, Masedu F Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Comparison of cranial fluctuating asymmetry between normal and pathological specimens from a modern Thai skeletal group.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare fluctuating asymmetry (FA) levels across cranial modules of normal and pathological cranial specimens. It was examined whether pathological specimens have significantly higher FA scores than normal specimens in cranial regions affected by a developmental disorder. For this study, a modern Thai skeletal sample from Chulalongkorn University was analyzed. Ninety-two cranial landmarks were digitized on 66 adult and eight sub-adult normal specimens and on five pathological specimens including two adults with abnormal palates, two sub-adults with craniosynostosis, and on...
Source: Homo - July 26, 2018 Category: Physiology Authors: Jung H, von Cramon-Taubadel N Tags: Homo Source Type: research

A new analysis interpreting Nilotic relationships and peopling of the Nile Valley.
This study seeks to evaluate the relationships of Nubian and Egyptian groups in the context of the original peopling event. Cranial nonmetric traits from 18 Nubian and Egyptian samples, spanning Lower Egypt to Lower Nubia and approximately 7400 years, were analyzed using Mahalanobis D2 as a measure of biological distance. A principal coordinates analysis and spatial-temporal model were applied to these data. The results reveal temporal and spatial patterning consistent with documented events in Egyptian and Nubian population history. Moreover, the Mesolithic Nubian sample clustered with later Nubian and Egyptian samples,...
Source: Homo - July 25, 2018 Category: Physiology Authors: Godde K Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Spatial diffusion of surnames by long transhumance routes between highland and lowland: A study in Sardinia.
nna E Abstract RIASSUNTO. PMID: 30017379 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Homo)
Source: Homo - July 12, 2018 Category: Physiology Authors: Orrù A, De Iasio S, Frederic P, Girotti M, Boano R, Sanna E Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Discrepancies between reported and cadaveric body size measurements associated with a modern donated skeletal collection.
This study encourages researchers using modern documented collections and their body size information to openly acknowledge the types of weight and stature data used and to discuss potential problems associated with them. PMID: 30007497 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Homo)
Source: Homo - June 30, 2018 Category: Physiology Authors: Maijanen H, Jeong Y Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Molar crenulation trait definition and variation in modern human populations.
This study provides a formal definition of molar crenulations and data on their presence in a large sample. Data were collected on maxillary and mandibular molars of modern dental material from various populations: South African, Hispanic, Japanese, American White, and American Black (n = 750). Molar crenulations were defined and a rank-scale created. Statistical analyses include chi-squared, correspondence analysis, and trait correlations. Significant statistical differences were found between populations in all molars. Minimal sexual dimorphism was noted, and is most pronounced among the American Black sample. Genera...
Source: Homo - June 12, 2018 Category: Physiology Authors: Pilloud MA, Maier C, Scott GR, Edgar HJH Tags: Homo Source Type: research

Variability of facial movements in relation to sexual dimorphism and age: three-dimensional geometric morphometric study.
Červenková L, Krajíček V Abstract The aim of this study was to introduce suitable imaging technique and analytical methods for a detailed description of the facial movements in relation to sexual dimorphism and age in adult individuals. Removing of size factor from the analysis, we hypothesised that there will be no significant intersexual difference in facial mobility. We assume facial movements to be more pronounced in the older age category due to increasing the facial surface. We have compared five facial movements - raising eyebrows, closing eyes, pursing of the lips, inflating of the cheeks ...
Source: Homo - June 12, 2018 Category: Physiology Authors: Velemínská J, Danková S, Břízová M, Červenková L, Krajíček V Tags: Homo Source Type: research