The Utility of Whole Body 18F-FDG PET-CT in Diagnosing Isolated Cardiac Sarcoidosis: The Western Australian Cardiac Sarcoid Study
This study aims to determine the rate of isolated cardiac involvement with clinically manifest CS using cardiac 18F-FDG PET-CT. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - August 20, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lauren Giudicatti, James Marangou, David Nolan, Lawrence Dembo, Jay Baumwol, Girish Dwivedi Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Transcatheter Transseptal Mitral Valve-in-Valve Replacement: An Early Australian Case Series and Literature Review
Transcatheter mitral valve implantation for degenerated bioprostheses has recently emerged as an alternative to redo mitral valve surgery, particularly in patients at high risk for reoperative cardiac surgery. We sought to examine our early experience of transcatheter transseptal mitral valve-in-valve procedures. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - August 19, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Niamh M. Keenan, Jayme S. Bennetts, Andrew D. McGavigan, Gregory D. Rice, Majo X. Joseph, Robert A. Baker, Ajay Sinhal Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Masked Hypertension: A Systematic Review
Masked phenomenon, Masked Hypertension (MHT) and Masked Uncontrolled Hypertension (MUCH) is a well-defined clinical entity. However, many aspects of MHT/MUCH remain unclear. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - August 16, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Harsh V. Thakkar, Alun Pope, Mahesan Anpalahan Tags: Review Source Type: research

Improving the Monitoring of Cardiac Rehabilitation Delivery and Quality: A Call to Action for Australia
(Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - August 14, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Emma Thomas, Carolyn Astley, Robyn Gallagher, Rachelle Foreman, Julie-Anne Mitchell, Sherry L Grace, Dominique A Cadilhac, Stephen Bunker, Alexander Clark, Adrienne O ’Neil Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Is Atrial Fibrillation a Stroke Risk Factor or Risk Marker? An Appraisal Using the Bradford Hill Framework for Causality
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is strongly associated with stroke risk but association on its own does not necessarily imply causality. Is AF a cause (risk factor) of stroke? Would treatment that reduces AF burden also reduce the burden of stroke? Or, perhaps, AF is a risk marker associated with a vascular syndrome in which there is co-existing atrial structural and electrical remodelling that results in the clinical manifestation of AF and the risk of stroke in parallel. A number of recent studies appear to detach AF as a direct cause of stroke. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - August 14, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: V. Malik, A.N. Ganesan, J.B. Selvanayagam, D.P. Chew, A.D. McGavigan Tags: Review Source Type: research

Rare and Anomalous Retro-Oesophageal Course of the Left Brachiocephalic Vein in Tetralogy of Fallot: Evaluation on CT Angiography With Relevant Embryology
We describe two cases of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) depicting an unusual retro-oesophageal course of the left brachiocephalic vein (LBCV). The first case was a 20-month-old female patient presenting with cyanosis and failure to thrive. Review of computed tomography angiography (CTA) images confirmed the echocardiographic diagnosis of TOF. Incidentally, the LBCV was seen to be coursing posterior to the trachea and oesophagus and receiving the azygous vein before draining into the superior vena cava (SVC). (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - August 14, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Niraj Nirmal Pandey, Kanika Bhambri, Sanjeev Kumar Tags: Image Source Type: research

Perceptions of Risk of Cardiac Arrest in Individuals Living With a Cardiac Inherited Disease: Are the Doctor and the Patient on the Same Page?
Risk perceptions influence patient engagement with treatment recommendations, yet it is unknown whether patients with a cardiac inherited disease (CID) hold accurate risk perceptions. The study aimed to examine whether CID patients ’ and clinician’s risk perceptions correlate and factors associated with patient perceptions. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - August 8, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Claire E. O ’Donovan, Jonathan R. Skinner, Elizabeth Broadbent Source Type: research

Barriers to Engagement in Chronic Heart Failure Rehabilitation
While exercise has been shown to improve quality of life and physical function and reduce hospital admission rates in people with chronic heart failure (CHF), engagement is poor in condition specific rehabilitation programs. This project aims to identify barriers to engagement in rehabilitation, strategies to address these, and comprehensively detail CHF rehabilitation practise in Australia. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - August 7, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Katie Palmer, Kelly-Ann Bowles, Rebecca Lane, Julia Morphet Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Impact of Oxidative Stress on Long-Term Heart Rate Variability: Linear Versus Non-Linear Heart Rate Dynamics
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a widely used non-invasive and quantitative marker of cardiac autonomic control. Elevated oxidative stress (OS) and reduced HRV have been proven in specific disease subsets. However, the impact of OS on the long-term heart rate dynamics of both conventional linear and non-linear origin in the general population is not known. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - August 6, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chan-Hee Lee, Hyun-Woo Shin, Dong-Gu Shin Source Type: research

Single-Centre Experience of Surgical Myectomy for Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy
This study aimed to evaluate the results from patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who had undergone septal myectomy. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - August 5, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Alexander V. Afanasyev, Alexander V. Bogachev-Prokophiev, Michail A. Ovcharov, Alexey N. Pivkin, Anton S. Zalesov, Sergei A. Budagaev, Ravil M. Sharifulin, Sergei I. Zheleznev, Alexander M. Karaskov Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

SSRI/SNRI Therapy is Associated With a Higher Risk of Gastrointestinal Bleeding in LVAD Patients
Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is common in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) patients. Serotonin release from platelets promotes platelet aggregation, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI/SNRI) therapy inhibits the transporter responsible for re-uptake. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - August 3, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: George Mawardi, Tim M. Markman, Rahatullah Muslem, Minoosh Sobhanian, Maureen Converse, Holly B. Meadows, Walter E. Uber, Stuart D. Russell, Rosanne Rouf, Bhavadharini Ramu, Daniel P. Judge, Ryan J. Tedford, Brian A. Houston Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Original ArticleManagement and Outcomes of Prosthetic Valve Thrombosis. An Australian Case Series From the Northern Territory
Prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT) is an uncommon but serious cause of morbidity and mortality after cardiac valve implantation. The most common cause leading to PVT is inadequate anticoagulation. Royal Darwin Hospital is a major referral centre for the Top End of Australia and is unique in having a high burden of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) requiring valve surgery, issues with adherence with oral anticoagulants, and the absence of onsite cardiothoracic facility. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - July 30, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Owen Milne, Rohit Barthwal, Ian Agahari, Marcus Ilton, Nadarajah Kangaharan Source Type: research

Management and Outcomes of Prosthetic Valve Thrombosis. An Australian Case Series From the Northern Territory
Prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT) is an uncommon but serious cause of morbidity and mortality after cardiac valve implantation. The most common cause leading to PVT is inadequate anticoagulation. Royal Darwin Hospital is a major referral centre for the Top End of Australia and is unique in having a high burden of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) requiring valve surgery, issues with adherence with oral anticoagulants, and the absence of onsite cardiothoracic facility. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - July 30, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Owen Milne, Rohit Barthwal, Ian Agahari, Marcus Ilton, Nadarajah Kangaharan Source Type: research

Infective Endocarditis: A Contemporary Study of Microbiology, Echocardiography and Associated Clinical Outcomes at a Major Tertiary Referral Centre
This study aimed to provide a contemporary review of the microbiology and antimicrobial management of IE and report echocardiographic findings and predictors of adverse outcomes in community-acquired and health care-associated IE. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - July 30, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: David J. Holland, Peter A. Simos, Jang Yoon, Pirathaban Sivabalan, Jaineel Ramnarain, Naomi J. Runnegar Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Feasibility of Device Closure for Multiple Atrial Septal Defects With an Inferior Sinus Venosus Defect: Procedural Planning Using Three-Dimensional Printed Models
Multiple atrial septal defects (ASD) with an inferior sinus venosus defect (SVD) have always been considered to be contraindications for interventional therapy. On the basis of early experience using a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) occluder for interventional treatment for inferior ASD, this study investigated the feasibility of transcatheter closure of multiple ASDs with an inferior SVD under the guidance of three-dimensional (3D) printed heart models. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - July 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lu He, Ge-sheng Cheng, Ya-juan Du, Yu-shun Zhang Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Echocardiography: Navigating Complexities to Provide Many Useful Applications in Contemporary Clinical Cardiology
Echocardiography has been around for more than half a century [1]. Recent decades have seen significant technological advances, with increasing clinical applications of this non-invasive imaging tool, beyond the basic assessment of left ventricular function, with further evolution evident on the horizon. There has also been a burgeoning increase in use: According to the 2017 Australian Medicare Medical Benefits Schedule (MBS) Taskforce, about 900,000 echocardiographic procedures (excluding stress echo) are reimbursed annually, at a cost of over $180 million each year [2]. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - July 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ann T. Gregory, Tony Stanton, Liza Thomas, Joseph B. Selvanayagam, A. Robert Denniss Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

The Value of a Regional Asian-Pacific Organisation for Echocardiography
After its introduction in 1953 by Edler and Hertz, echocardiography has become the most widely available and practical imaging and haemodynamic diagnostic tool in cardiovascular medicine. It has evolved from a single line, produced by “A” mode ultrasound reflected from a cardiac structure, to a technique to provide three-dimensional as well as two-dimensional images and Doppler velocities reliably measuring pressure gradients [1,2]. Moreover, echocardiography can be performed at any location where it is needed for optimal pat ient care. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - July 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jae K. Oh Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - July 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand
(Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - July 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Adult Congenital Heart Disease — Australia and New Zealand: A Call for Optimal Care
Discussion Paper [1] advocating the need for increased resources and improved training for those caring for adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). Gone are the claims that any cardiologist can care for such patients. The need for specialised training has been clearly emphasised by the authors and echoed by others. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - July 22, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Samuel Menahem Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

An Asian Perspective on Gender Differences in Clinical Outcomes and Echocardiographic Profiles of Patients With Medically Managed Severe Aortic Stenosis
Gender differences in valvular heart disease are increasingly recognised. A prior study has suggested better surgical outcomes in women with symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). We investigate gender differences in medically managed severe AS. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - July 22, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jinghao Nicholas Ngiam, Nicholas Chew, Yong-Qiang Benjamin Tan, Hui-Wen Sim, Ching-Hui Sia, Ting-Ting Low, William K.F. Kong, Edgar Tay, Kang Giap Swee, Tiong-Cheng Yeo, Kian-Keong Poh Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Using Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring as Preventative Health Tool to Reduce the High Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Indigenous Australians
Indigenous Australians suffer higher rates of ischaemic heart disease resulting in premature mortality. Despite this, Indigenous Australians undergo less cardiovascular investigation and intervention than their non-Indigenous counterparts. Recent evidence suggests that computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) is not only able to accurately predict cardiovascular risk, but also results in reduced rates of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - July 21, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hannah R. Kempton, Timothy Bemand, Nikki K. Bart, Joseph J. Suttie Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Changes in Right Ventricle Function After Mitral Valve Repair Surgery
Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction can occur after cardiac surgery and persist for years. We assessed perioperative RV systolic function in patients undergoing mitral valve (MV) repair and further compared minimally invasive robotic-assisted mitral valve repair (MIMVr) vs standard ‘open’ MV repair (MVr). Speckle tracking (RV free wall strain [RVS]) was used as a sensitive echocardiography method to assess RV function. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - July 9, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sam R. Orde, Sheng-Ying Chung, Juan N. Pulido, Rakesh M. Suri, John M. Stulak, Jae K. Oh, Sorin V. Pislaru, Hector M. Michelena, Richard C. Daly, Garvan C. Kane Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Renal Artery Denervation in Resistant Hypertension: The Good, The Bad and the Future
Early studies of renal artery denervation (RAD) demonstrated efficacy in treating resistant hypertension patients with significant reduction in office blood pressure (BP). This resulted in a growing enthusiasm in the field and a rapid evolution of technology with expanding procedural indications. However, the first randomised sham-controlled trial, Symplicity HTN-3, failed to demonstrate a significant difference in BP reduction between the RAD and the sham control arm, which subsequently led to a major drawback in the clinical application of this procedure. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - July 6, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sara I. Al Raisi, Jim Pouliopoulos, John Swinnenc, Aravinda Thiagalingam, Pramesh Kovoor Tags: Review Source Type: research

Quantitative and Qualitative Coronary Plaque Assessment Using Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography: A Comparison With Intravascular Ultrasound
To compare computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in quantitative and qualitative plaque assessment. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - July 5, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ravi Kiran Munnur, Jordan Andrews, Yu Kataoka, Nitesh Nerlekar, Peter J. Psaltis, Stephen J. Nicholls, Yuvaraj Malaiapan, James D. Cameron, Ian T. Meredith, Sujith Seneviratne, Dennis T.L. Wong Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Response to “Paradise Lost? New National Heart Foundation of Australia Guidelines on Heart Failure Fail to Recognise the Intensity of Exercise Evidence
We reaffirm that the highest GRADE [2], level and strength, of evidence for exercise training in patients with heart failure in the new national guidelines is “up to moderate intensity” [3]. The largest randomised trial of high intensity interval training in 261 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - July 5, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Tom Briffa, John J. Atherton, Cia Connell Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The Effect of Stent Artefact on Quantification of Plaque Features Using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): A Feasibility and Clinical Utility Study
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can detect detailed plaque features in native coronary arteries. Stent struts cause shadows that partially obscure the vessel wall, but plaque features can still be seen. We investigated the impact of stent artefact on plaque quantification and whether the plaque behind struts is associated with microvascular dysfunction. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - July 3, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kamran Majeed, Eline Hartman, Trevor A. Mori, Richard Alcock, Jon Spiro, Jurgen Ligthart, Karen Witberg, Graham Hillis, Gijs van Soest, Carl Schultz Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Commissuroplasty as a Main Operative Technique in Rheumatic Mitral Valve Repair: Surgical Experiences and Mid-Term Results
We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of commissuroplasty in mitral valve repair for rheumatic mitral valve disease. For this purpose, we summarised our experience with this technique and analysed the mid-term postoperative outcomes. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - July 2, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Luo Tiange, Xu Meng, Yan Zhiguo, Zhan Yufei, Mohammad Sharif Popal Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Biomarkers in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction: An Update on Progress and Future Challenges
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a major health care problem, with no treatment available that significantly reduces mortality. HFpEF is a phenotypically diverse syndrome, which creates difficulties in establishing an accurate diagnosis, determining prognosis, and developing effective management strategies. The number of serum biomarkers being investigated to further our understanding of HFpEF is rapidly expanding. In this review, we critically appraise the current clinical utility of biomarkers in HFpEF, particularly for pathophysiological pathways involving cardiomyocyte stretch, injury, fibrosis...
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - July 1, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jonathan Carnes, Gary Gordon Tags: Review Source Type: research

Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Minority Indigenous Populations: A Systematic Review
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the commonest cause of death across the globe; incidence and prevalence rates are increasing. Together, CVD and diabetes mellitus are responsible for a quarter of the health gap observed between Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, and non-Indigenous Australians. Numerous programs have been proposed and implemented to Close the Gap; ideally, these should be evidence-based. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - July 1, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lea Merone, Robyn McDermott, Jacki Mein, Philip Clarke, Malcolm McDonald Tags: Review Source Type: research

Retrograde Versus Antegrade Approach for Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion in an Algorithm-Driven Contemporary Asia-Pacific Multicenter Registry: Comparison of Outcomes
This study established a new algorithm and applied it to current CTO practice and collected a CTO registry to document the results. It compared the outcomes of a retrograde versus antegrade approach in a contemporary multicentre CTO registry. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - June 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Eugene B. Wu, Etsuo Tsuchikane, Lei Ge, Scott A. Harding, Sidney Lo, Soo Teik Lim, Ji-Yan Chen, Seung-Whan Lee, Jie Qian, Hsien-Li Kao, Bryan P.Y. Yan Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Rugby player ’s aorta: Alarming prevalence of ascending aortic dilatation and effacement in elite rugby players
Prompted by a cluster of observations concerning ascending aortic pathology in elite rugby players, we assessed over 150 asymptomatic predominantly retired players with echocardiography, aiming to document the prevalence and severity of ascending aortic dilatation and/or anterior aortic effacement, both ‘risk factors’ for potentially catastrophic aortic complications. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - June 25, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sharon Kay, Benjamin M. Moore, Laura Moore, Michael Seco, Christopher Barnes, David Marshman, Stuart M. Grieve, David S. Celermajer Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Effect of Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty on Mortality in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis Prior to Conservative Treatment and Surgical or Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement
Outcomes following an initial strategy of balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) prior to medical therapy or intervention with surgical or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (SAVR or TAVR) are unclear in the modern transcatheter intervention era. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - June 25, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Dylan R. Jones, Derek P. Chew, Matthew J. Horsfall, Anthony M. Chuang, Ajay R. Sinhal, Majo X. Joseph, Robert A. Baker, Jayme S. Bennetts, Joseph B Selvanayagam, Sam J. Lehman Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Increased Incidence of Noise in the Tendril Pacemaker Lead Detected via Remote Monitoring
Prior studies suggest increased rates of noise on the Tendril (St Jude Medical/Abbott, St. Paul, MN, USA) pacemaker lead. We aim to assess the incidence of lead noise in the Tendril and 5076 (Medtronic PLC, Minneapolis, MN, USA) pacemaker leads in our cohort and in the process assess the utility of remote monitoring for identifying lead malfunction. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - June 25, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Samuel Lovibond, Nicholas Youngs, Emily Kotschet, David Adam, Anton Antonov, Justin A. Mariani Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

This abstract has been withdrawn
(Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - June 24, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: 062 Source Type: research

Six-year registry data for patients with left ventricular dysfunction and severe mitral regurgitation undergoing transcatheter repair with the MitraClip ™ system at St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney
We present the 6-year registry data for all patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (ejection fraction [EF] (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - June 24, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: N. Song, S. Hungerford, N. Bart, C. Hayward, D. Muller Tags: 688 Source Type: research

Fibulin-3 is Necessary for the Formation of Infarct-Induced Cardiac Fibrosis
Background: Cardiac fibrosis is the final stage of every cardiac disease. Despite its prevalence, there are limited effective treatments. Understanding the underlying mechanisms is essential if effective therapies are to be discovered. We hypothesis that fibulin-3 is pro-fibrotic. Here, we aimed to characterise the role of fibulin-3 in ischaemic cardiac fibrosis. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - June 24, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: L. Murtha, N. Mabotuwana, S. Hardy, M. Bigland, B. Coulter, J. Hwang, J. Ye, R. Hume, J. Chong, R. Lee, A. Boyle Tags: 001 Source Type: research