Management of Common Cardiovascular Emergencies in Critically Ill Patients
This article reviews treatment and management of common cardiovascular emergencies in critically ill patients, focusing on acute decompensated heart failure, cardiogenic shock, pulmonary embolism, and hypertensive crisis management with inotropes, vasopressors, diuretics, and antiarrhythmic drugs. Clinicians frequently come across challenging clinical scenarios, and there is a gap between evidence-based medicine and clinical practice. Inotropic and vasopressor agents are useful in the acute setting but must be weaned off or used as a bridge for mechanical circulation support devices. Clinicians should aim to lower complica...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - March 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yogamaya Mantha, Rakushumimarika Harada, Michinari Hieda Source Type: research

Back to Basics
This article focuses on the findings of S3, jugular venous pressure, proportional pulse pressure, bendopnea, trepopnea, and various heart murmurs. Incorporating statistical precision in physical assessments, diagnoses of HF can be further refined, providing a sophisticated approach to evaluate patients hemodynamics status noninvasively. (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - March 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Rakushumimarika Harada, Yogamaya Mantha, Michinari Hieda Source Type: research

Acute Decompensated Heart Failure in Patients with Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction
There are few treatment options for acute decompensated heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction, but an increasing number of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. A deeper understanding of the cause, diagnosis, and prognosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction may be informative for clinical practice or clinical decision making and therapeutic investigation in the acute care setting. (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - March 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Tadafumi Sugimoto Source Type: research

Contemporary Management of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure and Cardiogenic Shock
Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a life-threatening condition characterized by end-organ hypoperfusion and hypoxia primarily due to cardiac dysfunction and low cardiac output. Unfortunately, the mortality and morbidity associated with CS have remained high despite notable advances in heart failure management. Treatment should be carefully guided by hemodynamics assessment. Although inotropes, vasopressors, mechanical circulatory support, and catheter intervention for critical valve lesion are not always recommended, they are helpful in selected patients. Early diagnosis, accurate hemodynamic assessment, and prompt therapeutic int...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - March 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Takeshi Kitai, Andrew Xanthopoulos Source Type: research

The Latest Clinical Understandings and Theory of the Cardiovascular Systems for Cardiovascular Emergencies and Their Management
Cardiovascular emergencies (CE) are potentially lethal in patients admitted to emergency departments.1,2 These conditions are remarkable for their sudden onset and often require quick differential diagnosis followed by rapid treatment interventions. For such a purpose, the clinical accurate understandings of the cardiovascular system adaptations during CE and its pathophysiology are mandatory. (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - March 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Michinari Hieda, Giovanni Esposito, Eduardo Bossone Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Emergencies, Part I
HEART FAILURE CLINICS (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - March 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Michinari Hieda, Giovanni Esposito Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - March 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Contributors
EDUARDO BOSSONE, MD, PhD, FCCP, FESC, FACC (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - March 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Contents
Michinari Hieda, Giovanni Esposito, and Eduardo Bossone (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - March 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Cardiovascular Emergencies, Part II (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - March 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Acute and Chronic Effects of Cancer Drugs on the Cardiovascular System
Several cancer treatments cause cardiotoxicity that can lead to heart failure, coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, and pericardial disease. In this review, representative cases of heart failure following cardiotoxicity caused by trastuzumab, anthracycline, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are described with case notes. Additionally, other important points regarding cardiotoxicity related to heart failure are reported. During and after potentially cardiotoxic therapy, periodic cardiac examinations are recommended to detect any cardiovascular disorders; these are ameliorated if appropriately diagnosed at an earli...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - February 11, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Shohei Moriyama, Mitsuhiro Fukata, Hitoshi Kusaba, Toru Maruyama, Koichi Akashi Source Type: research

Acute Mitral Regurgitation and Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair in an Emergency Case
Acute mitral regurgitation is an uncommon, challenging disease that requires emergent care and proper management. To evaluate its etiology, echocardiography is essential. However, echocardiography findings in these patients are often different from that of chronic mitral regurgitation owing to the acute elevation of left atrial and pulmonary artery pressure derived from the small left ventricle and atrium with low compliance. Although surgical correction is usually required owing to the hemodynamic instability, many patients are considered to be at high surgical risk. Transcatheter mitral valve repair using MitraClip (Abbo...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - February 11, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Atsushi Hayashi, Yogamaya Mantha, Rakushumimarika Harada Source Type: research

How to Bail Out Patients with Severe Acute Myocardial Infarction
Cardiogenic shock (CS) is the most serious complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The practice of early revascularization by percutaneous coronary intervention, and advances in pharmacotherapy have reduced the rate of complications of CS. However, when CS is combined with AMI, mortality from AMI is still high, and many clinicians are wondering how to treat CS with AMI. In recent years, mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices have improved the clinical outcome in AMI patients with CS. For best outcome, treatment of AMI with CS should always consider treatments that improve the prognosis of the patients. (So...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - February 11, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yuichiro Toma Source Type: research

Palliative Care in Patients with Advanced Heart Failure
The heart failure (HF) guidelines recommend palliative care; however, it can often be difficult to determine the timing of palliative care referral. Because HF with fluid retention and low-cardiac output may trigger several unpleasant symptoms, continuous HF treatment is required to alleviate these symptoms in advanced HF. The patients with HF often suffer from total pain; therefore, the support from a multidisciplinary team plays a crucial role to improve quality of life of the patients and their families not only in the terminal phase but also from the early stage. (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - February 11, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Keisuke Kida, Shunichi Doi, Norio Suzuki Source Type: research

Acute Decompensated Heart Failure in Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction
Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) requires immediate treatments because it impairs perfusion to systemic organs and their function. Half of all patients with ADHF are diagnosed with heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF). The initial goal of management for ADHF is to stabilize hemodynamic status. Pulmonary edema is treated with vasodilators or diuretics. Inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and β-blockers should be started and/or increased to meet the maximum dose, ideally the target dose, that the patient can tolerate as a treatment of HFrEF. Patients with sever...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - February 11, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mitsuhiro Fukata Source Type: research

Echocardiography Tips in the Emergency Room
This article contributes to physicians in the emergency room, general practitioners in training, and medical staff who engage in emergency medicine. This article emphasized the role of echocardiography in light of pathophysiology of acute heart failure in the emergency room and refining the clinical workflow by integrating conventional and innovative knowledge for the initial management of acute heart failure. (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - January 28, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Masataka Sugahara, Tohru Masuyama Source Type: research

The Gut Axis Involvement in Heart Failure
A novel pathophysiological model of interest is the association between heart failure (HF) and the gastrointestinal system, the ‘gut hypothesis’. The choline and carnitine metabolic by-product, Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is one of the more prominent molecules associated with the link between HF and the gut. Indeed, TMAO levels are increased in HF populations and higher TMAO levels are associated with poor prognosis, w hereas low TMAO levels either at baseline/follow up confer better prognosis. Considering that TMAO levels seem not to be affected by guideline-HF treatment, this model could represent a novel a...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Andrea Salzano, Shabana Cassambai, Yoshiyuki Yazaki, Muhammad Zubair Israr, Dennis Bernieh, Max Wong, Toru Suzuki Source Type: research

Thyroid Abnormalities in Heart Failure
This article discusses the basic science and clinical data that support the hypothesis that these changes pose pathophysiologic and potential novel therapeutic challenges. (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sara Danzi, Irwin Klein Source Type: research

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Heart Failure
Heart failure (HF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are both common causes of breathlessness and often conspire to confound accurate diagnosis and optimal therapy. Risk factors (such as aging, smoking, and obesity) and clinical presentation (eg, cough and breathlessness on exertion) can be very similar, but the treatment and prognostic implications are very different. This review discusses the diagnostic challenges in individuals with exertional dyspnea. Also highlighted are the prevalence, clinical relevance, and therapeutic implications of a concurrent diagnosis of COPD and HF. (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Pierpaolo Pellicori, John G.F. Cleland, Andrew L. Clark Source Type: research

When Pulmonary Hypertension Complicates Heart Failure
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) often complicates chronic left-sided heart failure, with a remarkable impact on quality of life, exercise capacity, and survival. PH in chronic left-sided heart failure (PH-LHD) is not only caused by backward transmission of pressures but also involves impairment of atrial function, inflammation, and vasoconstriction. Once the left atrium loses its reservoir capacity, usually pulmonary vascular resistances increase. Right atrial dilation commonly represents the first sign of PH-LHD, before right ventricle dilatation and systolic dysfunction develop, leading to right heart insufficiency, and ulti...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Alberto-Maria Marra, Nicola Benjamin, Antonio Cittadini, Eduardo Bossone, Ekkehard Gr ünig Source Type: research

Sex and Gender-Related Issues in Heart Failure
Understanding the role of sex- and gender-related factors, when dealing with a global growing epidemic such as heart failure, is a much needed and unmet goal for health care providers and scientists in order to design targeted strategies, aimed at improving both clinical and patient reported outcomes measures in women and men with heart failure. The present review provides an overview of the current available evidence on sex- and gender-related differences in heart failure. (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Giulio Francesco Romiti, Fabrizio Recchia, Andrea Zito, Giacomo Visioli, Stefania Basili, Valeria Raparelli Source Type: research

Cardiac Cachexia Revisited
Cardiac cachexia is a co-morbidity of heart failure (HF) defined by a non-edematous weight loss of ≥6% within the previous 6–12 months. Cachexia affects about 10-39% patients with HF and occurs typically in advanced stages of HF, especially in the presence of congestive right ventricular dysfunction. This review elucidates the approaches and pitfalls in the diagnosis of cachexia. It summarize s the prevalence and impact of cardiac cachexia. It also discusses changes in body composition over the course of HF and provides an overview of the mechanisms involved in wasting in HF. (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Miroslava Valentova, Stefan D. Anker, Stephan von Haehling Source Type: research

Atrial Fibrillation in Heart Failure
This article explores the relationship between AF and HF and the thromboembolic effect of these diseases. Morbidity and mortality are increased when the 2 conditions are seen together. Stroke risks are significant with AF and all subtypes of HF. This article suggests that all patients with AF and HF should be considered for anticoagulation. Current evidence suggests that non –vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants are effective and safe in AF and HF in comparison with warfarin. (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mohammed Obeidat, Malcolm Burgess, Gregory Y.H. Lip Source Type: research

The Impact of Obesity in Heart Failure
Obesity has reached worldwide epidemic proportions, adversely impacting health on a global scale. Overweight and obesity adversely impact cardiac structure and function, affecting systolic and diastolic ventricular function. Studies and meta-analyses have documented an obesity paradox in large heart failure cohorts, where overweight and obese individuals with established heart failure have a better short- and medium-term prognosis compared with lean patients; this relationship is strongly impacted by level of cardiorespiratory fitness. There are implications for therapies aimed at increasing lean and muscle mass, and weigh...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Salvatore Carbone, Carl J. Lavie, Andrew Elagizi, Ross Arena, Hector O. Ventura Source Type: research

The Cardiorenal Syndrome in Heart Failure
Abnormal fluid handling leads to physiologic abnormalities in multiple organ systems. Deranged hemodynamics, neurohormonal activation, excessive tubular sodium reabsorption, inflammation, oxidative stress, and nephrotoxic medications are important drivers of harmful cardiorenal interactions in patients with heart failure. Accurate quantitative measurement of fluid volume is vital to individualizing therapy for such patients. Blood volume analysis and pulmonary artery pressure monitoring seem the most reliable methods for assessing fluid volume and guiding decongestive therapies. Still the cornerstone of decongestive therap...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Maria Rosa Costanzo Source Type: research

Psychological Disorders in Heart Failure
This article describes the prevalence, identification, and treatment of common comorbid psychological disorders. (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Katherine E. Di Palo Source Type: research

Anabolic Deficiencies in Heart Failure
“Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a complex syndrome characterized by symptoms and signs supported by different forms of cardiac impairment. The link between multiple hormonal and metabolic derangements and the development of CHF and the beneficial effects seen with hormonal replacement therapy sugg est that a reduction of anabolic pathways might contribute to the onset of CHF. Therefore, an imbalance between anabolic and catabolic forces could be responsible for the development of CHF. There are sufficient evidence to support the screening in patients with CHF of hormonal deficiencies and thei r correction with replac...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Raffaele Napoli, Roberta D ’Assante, Martina Miniero, Andrea Salzano, Antonio Cittadini Source Type: research

Hypertension and Heart Failure
Hypertension is possibly the most powerful, modifiable risk factor for the development of heart failure. Chronic hypertension drives cardiac remodeling within the left ventricle resulting in hypertensive heart disease, which ultimately manifests as heart failure. Early detection and appropriate management are necessary to prevent heart failure as well as other cardiovascular diseases. Achieving blood pressure goals in conjunction with using evidence-based treatments can improve clinical outcomes for patients with comorbid hypertension and heart failure. (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Katherine E. Di Palo, Nicholas J. Barone Source Type: research

Emerging Comorbidities in Heart Failure
Heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem worldwide, and its prevalence, incidence, hospitalizations, and cost continue to increase.1 In addition, it is important to point out that patients with HF display several chronic conditions coexisting with the main diagnosis.2 The presence of comorbidities and their role have generated a great deal of interest for several reasons.3 First, comorbidities impact not only morbidity and mortality but also health-related quality of life.4 Second, the presence of comorbidities leads to a more complex medical management of patients; finally, comorbidities are often associated wi...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Antonio Cittadini, Eduardo Bossone, Hector O. Ventura Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Emerging Comorbidities in Heart Failure
HEART FAILURE CLINICS (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Antonio Cittadini, Hector O. Ventura Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Contributors
EDUARDO BOSSONE, MD, PhD, FCCP, FESC, FACC (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Contents
Antonio Cittadini, Eduardo Bossone, and Hector O. Ventura (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Cardiovascular Emergencies, Part I (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - November 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Sleep Breathing Disorders in Heart Failure
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), including obstructive sleep apnea, central sleep apnea (CSA), and Cheyne-Stokes respiration, is common in patients with heart failure (HF) and associated with lower left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), increased arrhythmia burden, and increased mortality. Continuous positive airway pressure therapy improves short-term and long-term outcomes in HF patients. Adaptive servoventilation (ASV) therapy in patients with low-EF HF with predominant CSA is not recommended. Ongoing trials are evaluating whether ASV will have a role in SDB treatment. Phrenic nerve stimulation is an emerging treatme...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - October 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Amanda C. Coniglio, Robert J. Mentz Source Type: research

Hypertension Treatment in Diabetes
Diabetes is strongly associated with development of cardiovascular disease and poor cardiovascular outcomes. Management of hypertension reduces cardiovascular outcomes among patients with diabetes. Many studies have examined the benefits of various classes of antihypertensives among patients with diabetes. Based on these, the American Diabetes Association has advised that all patients (particularly those with microalbuminuria) be treated first with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an aldosterone receptor blocker followed by a calcium channel blocker or diuretic. Recently, sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitor...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - August 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hannah F. Bensimhon, Matthew A. Cavender Source Type: research

Management of Acute Hypertensive Heart Failure
Heart failure presents a particularly difficult public health challenge. Of the heart failure presentations, acute hypertensive heart failure represents a distinct clinical phenotype and is characterized by sudden-onset systemic hypertension and pulmonary edema. The pathophysiology of acute hypertensive heart failure is primarily driven by an abnormal ventricular-vascular relationship, and the medical management is aimed at improving this relationship. (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - August 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jim X. Liu, Saurav Uppal, Viren Patel Source Type: research

Hypertension in the Cardio-Oncology Clinic
As cancer therapies improve, the population of survivors of cancer has increased, and the long-term effects of cancer treatments have become more apparent. Cardiotoxicity is a well-established adverse effect of many antineoplastic agents. Hypertension is common in survivors of cancer, can be caused or worsened by certain agents, and has been shown to increase the risk of other cardiovascular diseases including heart failure. Pretreatment risk assessment and careful monitoring of blood pressure during therapy is essential. Aggressive management of preexisting or incident hypertension in survivors of cancer is paramount to d...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - August 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lauren J. Hassen, Daniel J. Lenihan, Ragavendra R. Baliga Source Type: research

Hypertension and Arrhythmias
Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular risk factor and underlies heart failure, coronary artery disease, stroke, and chronic kidney disease. Hypertensive heart disease can manifest as cardiac arrhythmias. Supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias may occur in the hypertensive patients. Atrial fibrillation and hypertension contribute to an increased risk of stroke. Some antihypertensive drugs predispose to electrolyte abnormalities, which may result in atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. A multipronged strategy involving appropriate screening, aggressive lifestyle modifications, and optimal pharmacotherapy can re...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - August 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Muhammad R. Afzal, Salvatore Savona, Omar Mohamed, Aayah Mohamed-Osman, Steven J. Kalbfleisch Source Type: research

Hypertensive Heart Failure: Sprinting to the Finish Line to Prevent End-Organ Damage
Hypertension affects a billion individuals globally,1 and with the aging population (79% of men and 85% of women>75 years old have high blood pressure [BP]), this number continues to grow,2,3 and the consequences of hypertension are expected to increase. High BP is second only to cigarette smoking as a preventable cause of death in the United States,4 and uncontrolled hypertension results in heart failure, coronary artery disease, kidney disease, stroke, and aortic dissection.5 Progress over the last few decades has led to better understanding and a new knowledge of this growing worldwide epidemic of high BP. (Source: H...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - August 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ragavendra R. Baliga, Eduardo Bossone, George L. Bakris Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Hypertensive Heart Disease
HEART FAILURE CLINICS (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - August 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ragavendra R. Baliga, George L. Bakris Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - August 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Contributors
EDUARDO BOSSONE, MD, PhD, FCCP, FESC, FACC (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - August 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Contents
Ragavendra R. Baliga, Eduardo Bossone, and George L. Bakris (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - August 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Emerging Comorbidities in Heart Failure (Source: Heart Failure Clinics)
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - August 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors, Reverse J-Curve Pattern, and Mortality in Heart Failure
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and heart failure is increasing. The novel sodium-glucose cotransporters 2 inhibitors offer multidimensional ameliorating effects on cardiovascular and heart failure risk factors. Several studies have assessed the impact on cardiovascular events, with data suggesting beneficial effects on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients with diabetes in patients with heart failure. The reverse J-curve pattern between blood pressure levels and mortality has emerged as an important topic in the field of heart failure. There is no significant evidence to propose any potential effect of sodium-gl...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - August 7, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Konstantinos Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Vasilios Papademetriou Source Type: research

Hypertensive Heart Disease and Obesity
Metabolic syndrome is an increasingly prevalent constellation of disease processes among the global population. Hypertension and obesity are among the contributing etiologies, and obesity increases the likelihood of hypertensive heart disease by creating a proinflammatory state, as well as increasing sympathetic tone and formation of reactive oxygen species. Hypertensive heart disease is characterized by myocardial fibrosis, which portends higher risk of developing reduced ejection fraction, diastolic dysfunction, ischemia, and arrhythmias, making early diagnosis and treatment essential to the prevention of cardiac events....
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - August 7, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: L. Joseph Saliba, Scott Maffett Source Type: research

Sodium-Glucose Co-transporters 2 Inhibitors, Reverse J-Curve Pattern, and Mortality in Heart Failure
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and heart failure is increasing. The novel sodium-glucose cotransporters 2 inhibitors offer multidimensional ameliorating effects on cardiovascular and heart failure risk factors. Several studies have assessed the impact on cardiovascular events, with data suggesting beneficial effects on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients with diabetes in patients with heart failure. The reverse J-curve pattern between blood pressure levels and mortality has emerged as an important topic in the field of heart failure. There is no significant evidence to propose any potential effect of sodium-gl...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - August 7, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Konstantinos Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Vasilios Papademetriou Source Type: research

The Evolution from Hypertension to Heart Failure
Hypertensive heart disease includes the development of diastolic dysfunction, left ventricular hypertrophy, and heart failure with preserved and reduced ejection fraction. The development of heart failure can occur because of complications of ischemic heart disease or from progression of diastolic dysfunction to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction degenerating to a dilated heart with systolic dysfunction or heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Hypertension clinical trials have shown that the treatment of hypertension can prevent the development of heart failure. In addition, lifestyle modification with ...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - August 7, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Matthew J. Sorrentino Source Type: research

Hypertensive Heart Failure in the Very Old
The incidence and prevalence of both hypertension (HTN) and heart failure (HF) increase progressively with age. As a result, hypertensive HF (HHF) is highly prevalent among older adults and is one of the most common phenotypes of HF in the very old. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis, management, prognosis, and prevention of HHF in the elderly population. Reducing the prevalence of HTN and ameliorating the progression from HTN to HF hold the greatest promise for limiting the impact of HHF on the health and well-being of older adults. (Source: ...
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - August 2, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Gmerice Hammond, Michael W. Rich Source Type: research