COVID-19 pneumonia versus EVALI, distinguishing the overlapping CT features in the COVID-19 era
Emergency radiologists and general radiologists are increasingly exposed to a myriad of chest pathologies caused by an ever-growing list of environmental and infectious agents. Most recently, this includes Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019)-related pneumonia caused by the SARS-CoV-2 and electronic-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI). Each entity is associated with typical CT manifestations that can usually be differentiated in their classic form; however, when presented with overlapping imaging features, the distinction in the emergency department (ED) setting remains crucial. (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - June 23, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Kianoush Ansari-Gilani, Andrew M Petraszko, Robert C Gilkeson Source Type: research

Increased mortality among hypertensive covid-19 patients: pay a closer look on diuretics in mechanically ventilated patients
Early data on Covid-19 from Wuhan, China, have emphasized that hypertension is a potential risk factor for severe Covid-19 and increased mortality. Accordingly, in the two largest reports on Covid-19 patients receiving mechanical ventilation, one from Lombardy, Italy, and the other from New York, USA, reported high mortality rates; hypertension was the most common comorbidity.1,2 However, there is a lack of data concerning the exact mortality in hypertensive mechanically ventilated patients. Moreover, the specific antihypertensive classes that these patients were receiving, are not known; only data on renin-angiotensin-ald...
Source: Heart and Lung - June 23, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Vasiliki Tsolaki, George E Zakynthinos, Konstantinos Mantzarlis, Dimosthenis Makris Source Type: research

Post-Intensive Care Syndrome and COVID-19: crisis after a crisis?
One thing that didn`t make to the spotlight in this COVID-19 pandemic is a question that what happens to the COVID-19 patients after they are discharged from the critical care? A common assumption around the world is that once a patient is discharged from the hospital and is tested negative the problem is resolved. This may be based on a relative lack of information and knowledge, even among the health care professionals, regarding a condition described as Post-Intensive Care Syndrome (PICS). PICS may be a next public health crisis that we may face when this acute form of COVID-19 crisis settles down a bit. (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - June 18, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Abbis Jaffri, Abbiyha Jaffri Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - June 16, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research

Board of Directors
(Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - June 16, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research

Information for Readers
(Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - June 16, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research

Information for Authors
(Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - June 16, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research

Patient reported outcomes and quality of life in Chinese patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators ✰
The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) has become a standard treatment for patients at risk for potentially life-threatening arrhythmias.1 The ICD employs state-of-the-art technology using both anti-tachycardia pacing and high-energy shock, programmed by the medical team, to identify and terminate arrhythmias.2 The patient experience has garnered a great deal of research attention because of the aversive nature of ICD shock and the patient reality of ongoing risk for life-threateningarrhythmias. (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - June 16, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Xijuan Guo, Connor Tripp, Nichelle L. Huber, Cuihong Hou, Rong Lv, Jing Li, Tao Liang, Samuel F. Sears Source Type: research

NOVEL antioxidant and oxidant biomarkers related to sarcopenia in COPD.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a condition characterized by extrapulmonary consequences affecting functionality and quality of life.1, 2 The observed low levels of daily physical activity may induce a reduction in muscle mass and generate muscle weakness.3 –6 The latter increases in the presence of associated chronic diseases and is directly related to sarcopenia.7 (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - June 13, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Walter Sep úlveda-Loyola, Larissa Araújo de Castro, Andressa Keiko Matsumoto, Carlos Augusto Camillo, Décio Sabbatini Barbosa, Carrie Chueiri Ramos Galvan, Vanessa Suziane Probst Source Type: research

Unusual presentations of COVID-19 pneumonia on CT scans with spontaneous pneumomediastinum and loculated pneumothorax: a report of two cases and a review of the literature.
An increased number of cases of pneumonia with 'unknown cause' were initially reported in December 2019 in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. The cause of this type of pneumonia was found to be related to a newly discovered SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus responsible for the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Despite travel restrictions, border controls, and quarantine measures applied all over the world, the disease was declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the β-coronavirus family, which also includes the virus responsible for severe acute respiratory syndromes (SARS) and Middle East respiratory synd...
Source: Heart and Lung - June 13, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Barbara Brogna, Elio Bignardi, Petronilla Salvatore, Martino Alberigo, Claudia Brogna, Antonia Megliola, Giovanni Fontanella, Emerico Maria Mazza, Lanfranco Musto Source Type: research

Ensuring the rigor in systematic reviews: Part 1, the overview
Well-executed systematic reviews synthesize all the relevant evidence on a topic in order to answer a clinical question. The growth in the number of systematic reviews and evidence syntheses and the potential for poor methodical design in conducting these studies are significant concerns.1,11 Over the next few journal issues, Heart and Lung will present a series of columns that highlight the process of conducting a well-executed systematic review. This first column begins with a general overview of systematic reviews. (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - June 9, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Alexandria Brackett, Janene Batten Source Type: research

Physical activity and serious adverse events in patients with atrial fibrillation and/or atrial flutter treated with catheter ablation
Clinical research indicates a positive effect of physical activity in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in reducing the progression of established AF and increasing physical capacity.1 –3 However, some patients experience episodes of AF when being physically active. Therefore, they become reluctant to be physically active.4 Atrial flutter (AFL) differs from AF in terms of mechanism and management but has many similar clinical characteristics.5 Heart diseases represent a major pu blic health concern and have serious implications for individuals and societies. (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - June 8, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Signe Westh Christensen, Selina Kikkenborg Berg, Naja Hulvej Rod, Ann-Dorthe Olsen Zwisler, Lau Caspar Thygesen, Signe Stelling Risom Source Type: research

The Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Admitted to the ICU with Acute Respiratory Failure
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown etiology occurring primarily in older adults.1 IPF is a fatal lung disease with a median survival of 3 to 5 years.1,2 Patients with IPF and acute respiratory failure (ARF) are often admitted to the ICU and require ventilator support.2 The primary causes of respiratory failure in IPF patients admitted to the ICU are pneumonia and IPF exacerbations.2,3 The definition of an IPF exacerbation was recently revised and it- refers to an acute, clinically significant respiratory deterioration characterized by new widespread alv...
Source: Heart and Lung - June 8, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Rory A. Smith, Matheni Sathananthan, Prabhleen Kaur, Niranjan Jeganathan Source Type: research

Is there a Link between endocrine disruptors and COVID-19 severe pneumonia?
Since the beginning of the year 2020, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had taken its toll on the world. The epicenter of this pandemic is shifting with the spread of the infection. At first, it was located in China, then in Europe, particularly Italy, and since the beginning of April the United States of America has become the epicenter with the number of cases affected, but above all the number of deaths linked to COVID-19 infection. (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - June 8, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Hassan OULEGHZAL, Mostafa RAFAI, Jalal ELBENAYE Source Type: research

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) presenting as purulent fulminant myopericarditis and cardiac tamponade: a case report and literature review.
In December 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) was notified about multiple cases of pneumonia of unknown etiology originating in Wuhan city, Hubei province, China. The novel virus, named severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-Cov-2) was isolated on January 7th, 20201. The acute respiratory disease, renamed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19), was declared a pandemic on March 11th, 20202. (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - June 8, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Akshay Khatri, Frances Wallach Source Type: research

Elevated chronic bronchitis diagnosis risk among women in a local emergency department patient population associated with the 2012 heatwave and drought in Douglas county, NE USA
Concerns about global climate change force local public health agencies to assess potential local disease risk. (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - June 7, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Larry W. Figgs Source Type: research

Hemodynamic response to low-flow acute supplemental oxygen in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and elderly healthy subjects
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fibrotic and progressive disease with a median survival time since diagnosis of 2-4 years.1,2 It is more common in male adults aged 50 years or older.3 The world incidence and prevalence of the disease is not well-known, but it is estimated an overall incidence range of 2.8-9.3 per 100 000 per year, with a presumptive rising trend in the aging population.3 (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - June 7, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Laura Mercedes Santiago-Fuentes, Ram ón González-Camarena, Sonia Charleston-Villalobos, Mayra Edith Mejía-Ávila, Sina Reulecke, Ivette Buendía-Roldán, Mercedes Jatziri Gaitán-González, Geovanni Benítez-Valdez, Tomás Aljama-Corrales Source Type: research

The health outcomes of inflammation and obesity in patients with heart failure
Obesity is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease and for other cardiovascular disease risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia.1 The association of obesity and chronic subclinical inflammation is considered one of the major pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for the development of cardiovascular disease in obese individuals.2,3 Subclinical inflammation in obesity is thought to be related to excretion of several proinflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α). (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - June 5, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Zyad T. Saleh, Terry A. Lennie, Muhammad Darawad, Hamza Alduraidi, Rami A. Elshatarat, Issa M. Almansour, Debra K. Moser Source Type: research

Response to letter to the editor ‘E-cigarette use related lung disease, review of clinical and imaging findings in 3 cases’
The letter from Lal et al.1 in response to our paper titled ‘E-cigarette use related lung disease, review of clinical and imaging findings in 3 cases’2 is welcome and reviewed. In response: (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - June 4, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Kianoush Ansari-Gilani, Nikhil H Ramaiya Source Type: research

COVID-19 and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever: Similarities and Differences
Dear Editor, (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - June 2, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Ahmet Cemal Pazarl ı, Zafer Parlak, Timur Ekiz Source Type: research

COVID-19 and Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever: Similarities and Differences
Dear Editor, (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - June 2, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Ahmet Cemal Pazarl ı, Zafer Parlak, Timur Ekiz Source Type: research

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in patients with SARS-CoV-2
Coronaviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses that cause respiratory and intestinal infections in humans. The coronaviruses (HCoV-NL63, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43 and HKU1), were known to cause mild infections in immunocompromised persons. However, at the beginning of the XXI century, two new coronaviruses with high pathogenicity were described; the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)  and the middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In the Wuhan city, the capital of China's Hubei province in december 2019 a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was identified. (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - May 31, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Valdir Assis dos Reis Filho, Felipe Ara újo Pimenta Source Type: research

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by COVID-19
Coronaviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses that cause respiratory and intestinal infections in humans. At the beginning of the XXI century, two new coronaviruses with high pathogenicity were described; the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The coronaviruses (HCoV-NL63, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43 and HKU1), were known to cause mild infections in immunocompromised persons. In the Wuhan city, the capital of China's Hubei province in december 2019 a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was identified 1,2. (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - May 31, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Valdir Assis dos Reis Filho, Felipe Ara újo Pimenta Source Type: research

Identification of microRNA biomarkers in serum of patients at different stages of atrial fibrillation
The most common form of sustained cardiac arrhythmia, which is characterized by irregular heartbeats, is atrial fibrillation (AF). The maintenance of AF is mediated by changes in the atrial structural and electrical properties.1 AF is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke and heart failure,2,3 which are associated with enhanced morbidity, mortality, and socioeconomic burden.4 The prevalence of AF is estimated to markedly increase as the population ages. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying AF. (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - May 29, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Hao Wang, Yadong Chen, Tao Tao, Xiaoning Zhao, Yutang Wang, Jun Luo, Yutao Guo Source Type: research

Evaluation serum levels of YKL-40, Periostin, and some inflammatory cytokines together with IL-37, a new anti-inflammatory cytokine, in patients with stable and exacerbated asthma
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by bronchial hyperreactivity, airway obstruction and remodelling.1,2 Numerous cells and inflammatory mediators are known to play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma.3 Frequent variability in the clinical status of asthmatic patients, and the presence of numerous pathways which relate to asthma pathogenesis, have led researchers to investigate the role of various associated markers.4 (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - May 29, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Hanifi Yildiz, Hamit Hakan Alp, Aysel S ünnetçioğlu, Selami Ekin, Buket Mermit Çilingir Source Type: research

Sustaining Frontline ICU Healthcare Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic and Beyond
Healthcare workers (HCWs) on the frontlines of the COVID-19 pandemic in the intensive care unit (ICU) are under immense pressure as they provide essential care with challenges few have previously encountered. Fear, anxiety, and uncertainty have been reported by even the most experienced ICU HCWs as they care for escalating numbers of critically ill patients, each of whom pose a risk to the HCWs ’ own health. Inconsistent messaging from government health agencies on appropriate precautions, often framed around availability of personal protective equipment (PPE) instead of best practices, has shaken the foundation of w...
Source: Heart and Lung - May 29, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Kathleen M. Akg ün, David Collett, Shelli L. Feder, Tracy Shamas, Dena Schulman-Green Source Type: research

Mixed methods feasibility study of Breathe2Sleep ™ a peer modeling approach to PAP self-management.
Persons diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) experience repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction or collapse reducing airflow (apneas) during sleep. The apneic events in turn, result in hypoxemia which triggers central nervous system arousals to restore normal breathing, but profoundly fragment sleep, undermine its restorative capacity, and results in pathologic daytime sleepiness. Untreated OSA is a significant risk factor for cardiometabolic disease, diminished daytime performance, accidents and injuries, and overall reduced quality of life, leading to socioeconomic burdens [1-15]. (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - May 28, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Suzanne S. Dickerson, Eric TenBrock, Patricia Smith, Misol Kwon, Thomas Chacko, Chin-Shang Li, Grace E. Dean Source Type: research

Challenging report of cardiopulmonary bypass in 16th week pregnant patient with endoventricular mass
Pregnancy usually represents a risk factor for aortic dissection or thrombotic events, but therapeutic options are very scarce because the foetus limits the common approaches especially in the early stages of pregnancy. (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - May 28, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Emanuele Pilato, Giovanni Battista Pinna, Loredana Grande, Vera Cirillo, Raffaele Izzo, Antonella Tufano, Maurizio Guida, Laura Sarno, Rosie Browning, Giuseppe Comentale Source Type: research

Measuring Grip Strength in COVID-19: A Simple Way to Predict Overall Frailty/Impairment
Determining the risk factors for morbidity and mortality in ongoing Covid-19 pandemic as well as prompt diagnosis/treatment of relevant patients indisputably necessitate urgency. It is well-known that increased age and comorbidities - particularly hypertension - seem to be the strongest risk factors. In this sense, a simple and reliable predictor to stratify the risk of pertinent patients i.e. particularly elderly hypertensive patients vulnerable to sarcopenia and frailty - is absolutely required. (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - May 27, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Timur Ekiz, Murat Kara, Levent Özçakar Source Type: research

Early tracheostomy in acute heart failure exacerbation
Heart failure is one of the leading causes of high morbidity and mortality. It was estimated that a total of 5.7 million Americans>20 years of age had heart failure from 2009 to 2012. That number is anticipated to increase 46% by 2030.1 Acute heart failure (AHF) exacerbation is a potentially fatal condition that may result in acute respiratory failure and requires mechanical ventilation. Despite ongoing treatment, not all patients can be weaned off the ventilator. In such cases, tracheostomy is indicated to obtain the benefit of comfort for the patients, less sedation and more stable airway compare to an endotracheal tu...
Source: Heart and Lung - May 24, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Min Ji Kwak, Lincy S. Lal, John M. Swint, Xianglin L. Du, Wenyaw Chan, Bindu Akkanti, Abhijeet Dhoble Source Type: research

Effects of upper extremity aerobic exercise training on oxygen consumption, exercise capacity, dyspnea and quality of life in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive cardiopulmonary disease in which the mean pulmonary artery pressure is greater than 25  mmHg at rest.1 The most prevalent symptoms in PAH are dyspnea, fatigue, chest pain, and syncope. The presence of these symptoms negatively affects physical functioning in patients. The patients experience a decrease in exercise capacity, increase in dyspnea, and deterioration in the quality of lif e.2,3 Despite improvements in the prognosis of PAH through medical treatments, dyspnea and deterioration in exercise capacity continue to adversely affect the patients&rsq...
Source: Heart and Lung - May 24, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Burcu Camc ıoğlu Yılmaz, Meral Boşnak Güçlü, Müşerrefe Nur Keleş, Gülten Aydoğdu Taçoy, Atiye Çengel Source Type: research

Association between admission time and in-hospital mortality in acute aortic dissection patients: a retrospective cohort study
Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is a rare, life-threatening medical emergency associated with high morbidity and mortality.1,2 Patients with AAD have a mortality rate of 1 to 2%, which usually occurs within the first 48 hours if no surgical intervention is sorted. Delay in diagnosis and treatment of the condition is associated with a poor prognosis. Although improvements have been made in the management of AAD, about 20% of AAD patients still die before hospitalization, and nearly 30% die during admission. (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - May 22, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Yang Zhou, Guifang Yang, Huaping He, Xiaogao Pan, Wen Peng, Xiangping Chai Source Type: research

Pulmonary embolism and Sars-Cov-2 infection: a new indication for surgical pulmonary endarterectomy?
The day after. Sars-Cov-2 is a novel RNA virus that is raging the world since the last months of 2019 causing hundreds of thousands of deaths among over than 2 million infected people. The strengths of this microorganism are the long incubation period and the high percentage of asymptomatic patients that allow the virus to be widely in the population. In symptomatic patients, COVID-19 shows a high variability in clinical presentation: sometimes patients can develop only mild symptoms such as cold, cough, gastro-intestinal disorders, fever, skin rushes or ageusia/dysgeusia, whereas other patients have a severe interstitial ...
Source: Heart and Lung - May 17, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Emanuele Pilato, Rachele Manzo, Giuseppe Comentale Source Type: research

Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of hospitalized elderly patients for heart failure with reduced, mid-range and preserved ejection fraction
Heart failure (HF) is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The incidence and prevelance of HF progressively increases in parallel with the population's age.1 The incidence of HF reaches 10 per 1000 population after age of 65.2 Besides the higher incidence, elderly patients also have lower survival rates.3 In addition to this, HF is the leading cause of frequent hospitalizations among the elderly.4 Nearly 80% of patients hospitalized with HF are more than 65 years old.5 Despite the higher incidence, mortality and hospitalization rates, a large knowledge gap exists regarding epidemiology, clinical charact...
Source: Heart and Lung - May 17, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: G ülay Gök, Salih Kılıç, Ümit Yaşar Sinan, Ebru Turkoglu, Hatice Kemal, Mehdi Zoghi Source Type: research

Identifying unique profiles of perceived dyspnea burden in heart failure
Dyspnea is a common symptom of heart failure (HF) that limits activities of daily living and contributes to poor quality of life.1 –3 Although patients with HF report multiple symptoms, dyspnea is frequently the symptom prompting patients to seek care for worsening HF. Dyspnea also is a significant predictor of hospitalization and subsequent outcomes.4–6 For example, among hospitalized patients with HF, higher dyspnea sever ity is associated with longer length of stay and higher mortality rates.6 The degree to which HF patients are bothered by the effects dyspnea has on daily activities varies greatly among HF ...
Source: Heart and Lung - May 17, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Kenneth M. Faulkner, Corrine Y. Jurgens, Quin E. Denfeld, Karen S. Lyons, Jessica Harman Thompson, Christopher S. Lee Source Type: research

Balance performance in patients with heart failure
Heart Failure (HF) is defined as a complex clinical syndrome caused by a structural and/or functional cardiac abnormality, resulting in reduced cardiac output and/or elevated intracardiac pressures at rest or during stress.1,2 Decreased cardiac performance is one of the major causes of exercise intolerance.3 Additionally, changes in skeletal muscle mass, density, fiber type, oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial function lead to muscle dysfunction in HF.4 Functional difficulties mentioned above have been reported to increase the likelihood of falling in HF. (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - May 17, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Aylin Tanriverdi, Buse Ozcan Kahraman, Ismail Ozsoy, Serap Acar, Bihter Senturk, Ebru Ozpelit, Bahri Akdeniz, Sema Savci Source Type: research

Evaluating delirium outcomes among older adults in the surgical intensive care unit
Delirium is an acute brain dysfunction characterized by disturbances in attention, awareness and cognition not explained by a pre-existing neurocognitive disorder.1 Delirium is common for hospitalized older adult patients ( ≥ 65 years) in the intensive care unit (ICU) due to the severity of their illnesses, the number of comorbidities and advanced age.1–3 Delirium occurs in approximately 50% of all older hospitalized adults2 and has been reported to occur in 73% of adults admitted to surgical intensive care unit (S ICUs). (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - May 17, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Kara J. Pavone, Juliane Jablonski, Paul Junker, Pamela Z. Cacchione, Peggy Compton, Rosemary C. Polomano Source Type: research

Red blood cell distribution width is associated with mortality risk in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome based on the Berlin definition: A propensity score matched cohort study
More than 50 years after its first description, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is still a significant public health problem to be solved, with a high incidence rate of 10-86 cases per 100,0001 and a mortality rate of 40%.2 (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - May 17, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Xue-Shu Yu, Zhi-Qiang Chen, Yu-Feng Hu, Jia-Xiu Chen, Wen-Wei Xu, Jie Shu, Jing-Ye Pan Source Type: research

Effect of physical and psychocognitive function and perceived health status on 12-month adverse cardiac events among implantable cardioverter-defibrillator recipients
Sudden cardiac death, which accounts for approximately half of cardiovascular disease mortality,1 has declined with use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy.2 Further, survival advantage associated with an ICD in older adults has also increased its utilization,3,4 particularly for primary prevention using ICD therapy for those with systolic ventricular dysfunction.5,6 For example, more than half of the total 175,000 ICD placements were performed on older adults aged  > 70 years in the United States. (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - May 17, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: JinShil Kim, Jiin Choi, Mi-Seung Shin, Jin-Kyu Park, Minjeong An, Sun Hwa Kim, Nayeon Choi, Mee Ok Lee, Seongkum Heo Source Type: research

Early manifestation of ARDS in COVID-19 infection in a 51- year-old man affected by Mounier-Kuhn Syndrome
We present the first patient of a 51-year-old man with fever, dyspnea and deterioration of his chronic coughs, who was referred to the Mounier-Kuhn syndrome (MKS). Chest computed tomography (CT) scan revealed increased diameter of his trachea (39 mm), right (30 mm) and left (26 mm) main bronchi, because of MKS. Then, COIVD-19 infection was eventually confirmed by RT-PCR. To our knowledge, COIVD-19 has not been reported in patients with the MKS. (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - May 16, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Ramezan Jafari, Luca Cegolon, Fatemeh Dehghanpoor, Mohammad Javanbakht, Morteza Izadi, Seyed Hassan Saadat, Babak Otoukesh, Behzad Einollahi Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Cardiac Valves: Another “Disaster-Hit Area” of COVID-19 Patients?
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), characterized by acute respiratory failure and multiple organs damages, has been becoming a pandemic disease around the world since December 2019. The pathogen induced COVID-19 is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) 1, 2. According the data from the World Health Organization (WHO), by 27 April, 2020, there have been 2,883,603 confirmed cases of COVID-19 with 198,842 deaths3. Although respiratory failure is the main clinical character of COVID-19 patients, quite a few patients developed cardiovascular diseases, such as cardiac arrest, myocarditis and arrhythmia4....
Source: Heart and Lung - May 14, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Xiaoyong Li, Sha Yu Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Leader update for Heart and Lung
(Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - May 13, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research

Flattening the Disability Curve: Rehabilitation and Recovery after COVID-19 Infection
The coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a surge of hospitalizations, many of which have required prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stays and mechanical ventilation.1,2 While considerable attention has been paid to survival rates among the rapidly increasing population of patients infected with COVID-19, a second crisis is emerging —the challenge of managing the high disability burden associated with ICU survivorship.3 ICU survivors, especially those who are mechanically ventilated, often suffer from new or worsening impairments in physical function, cognitive function, and/or emotional health collectively...
Source: Heart and Lung - May 10, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Jason R. Falvey, Lauren E. Ferrante Source Type: research

Year of the Nurse – How Does Nursing Research Fit In?
(Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - May 10, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research

Interest of hand grip strength to predict outcome in mechanically ventilated patients
Respiratory failure is the primary condition requiring mechanical ventilation (MV).1 Evaluation of readiness for weaning from MV is an important procedure for reducing morbidity and mortality. Assessment processes for weaning in mechanically ventilated patients can be divided into clinical assessment and physical assessment. Clinical assessments include adequacy of cough reflex, reduction of sputum production and lack of symptoms requiring intubation. Physical assessments are stable vital signs, adequate oxygenation, good lung mechanics, and rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) less than 105/liter/minute. (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - May 6, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Narongkorn Saiphoklang, Chatkarin Tepwimonpetkun Source Type: research

Communication strategies to mitigate fear and suffering among COVID-19 patients isolated in the ICU and their families
The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged modern health care practices globally. With insufficient preparation, healthcare providers are facing high volume of severely ill patients requiring advanced life-sustaining treatments (LSTs) in intensive care units (ICUs). Many of these patients are unable to communicate consistently, if at all, with their ICU medical teams due to work of breathing from respiratory failure, mechanical ventilation to support respiratory failure, or delirium associated with their severity of illness. (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - May 3, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Kathleen M. Akg ün, Tracy L. Shamas, Shelli L. Feder, Dena Schulman-Green Source Type: research

A review of cardiac manifestations and predictors of outcome in patients with COVID – 19
Starting from the initial clusters of cases in December 2019 to date; presentation, knowledge, and implications of novel coronavirus infection have changed significantly. With an ongoing spread worldwide and increasing mortality, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is now a pandemic and public health emergency of international concern as per the World Health Organization.[1] As of April 24th, the total number of reported cases of COVID-19 globally has been 2.79 million of which 923, 000 have been in the United States. (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - May 3, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Ajay Kumar Mishra, Kamal Kant Sahu, Anu Anna George, Amos Lal Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

2020 - The Year that Needed the Nurse: Considerations for Critical Care Nursing Research and Practice Emerging in the Midst of COVID-19
The daily disruption and toll of the global COVID-19 pandemic is palpable. As the number of COVID-19 cases and deaths continue to rise in the United States, there is no escaping the impact of this pandemic. Critical care nurses are on the frontlines, shouldering the heavy burden of managing the ‘sickest of the sick’ patients who are in need of life-saving mechanical ventilatory support. Now more than ever, ICU nurses must rely on their tremendous knowledge base, impeccable technical skills, and compassion to ensure positive outcomes for critically ill patients in the COVID-19 era. (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - May 3, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Breanna Hetland, Heidi Lindroth, Jill Guttormson, Linda L. Chlan Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - May 1, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research

Board of Directors
(Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - May 1, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research