On the method of Hunt's parameter calibration.
Abstract This note comments on the observations of Bernier et al. (2016) regarding errors in Appendix A of Kim and Allen (2013). We acknowledge that the equations in the Appendix are in error, but wish to point out that these equations were not actually used for our analysis. We appreciate their effort in pointing out the errors, and offering corrected equations. PMID: 27343569 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - June 22, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Kim N, Allen J Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

White Matter Structure in the right Planum Temporale Region Correlates with Visual Motion Detection Thresholds in Deaf People.
Abstract The right planum temporale region is typically involved in higher-order auditory processing. After deafness, this area reorganizes to become sensitive to visual motion. This plasticity is thought to support compensatory enhancements to visual ability. In earlier work we showed that enhanced visual motion detection abilities in early-deaf people correlate with cortical thickness in a subregion of the right planum temporale. In the current study, we build on this earlier result by examining the relationship between enhanced visual motion detection ability and white matter structure in this area in the same ...
Source: Hearing Research - June 15, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Shiell MM, Zatorre RJ Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Neural response differences in the rat primary auditory cortex under anesthesia with ketamine versus the mixture of medetomidine, midazolam and butorphanol.
Abstract Anesthesia affects central auditory processing. However, it is unclear to what extent the choice of anesthetic agent affects neural responses to sound stimulation. A mixture of three anesthetics (medetomidine, midazolam and butorphanol; MMB) was recently developed as an alternative to ketamine owing to the latter's addictive potential, yet the effect of this combination of anesthetics on neural responses is not known. Here, we compared the spontaneous activity, tuning properties and temporal responses of primary auditory cortical neurons under these two anesthetic conditions, using electrophysiological an...
Source: Hearing Research - June 15, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Osanai H, Tateno T Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

A Combination of Two Truncating Mutations in USH2A causes more Severe and Progressive Hearing Impairment in Usher syndrome type IIa.
CONCLUSIONS: The results have direct implications for patient counselling in terms of prognosis of hearing and may serve as baseline measures for future (genetic) therapeutic interventions. PMID: 27318125 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - June 14, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Hartel BP, Löfgren M, Huygen PL, Guchelaar I, Lo-A-Njoe Kort N, Sadeghi AM, van Wijk E, Tranebjærg L, Kremer H, Kimberling WJ, Cremers CW, Möller C, Pennings RJ Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Comment on Two-port network analysis and modeling of a balanced armature receiver.
PMID: 27318126 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - June 14, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Bernier A, Herzog P, Voix J Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Origins of thalamic and cortical projections to the posterior auditory field in congenitally deaf cats.
Abstract Crossmodal plasticity takes place following sensory loss, such that areas that normally process the missing modality are reorganized to provide compensatory function in the remaining sensory systems. For example, congenitally deaf cats outperform normal hearing animals on localization of visual stimuli presented in the periphery, and this advantage has been shown to be mediated by the posterior auditory field (PAF). In order to determine the nature of the anatomical differences that underlie this phenomenon, we injected a retrograde tracer into PAF of congenitally deaf animals and quantified the thalamic ...
Source: Hearing Research - June 11, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Butler BE, Chabot N, Kral A, Lomber SG Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Species-dependent role of crossmodal connectivity among the primary sensory cortices.
Abstract When a major sense is lost, crossmodal plasticity substitutes functional processing from the remaining, intact senses. Recent studies of deafness-induced crossmodal plasticity in different subregions of auditory cortex indicate that the phenomenon is largely based on the "unmasking" of existing inputs. However, there is not yet a consensus on the sources or effects of crossmodal inputs to primary sensory cortical areas. In the present review, a rigorous re-examination of the experimental literature indicates that connections between different primary sensory cortices consistently occur in rodent...
Source: Hearing Research - June 8, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Meredith MA, Lomber SG Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Neural correlates of auditory scale illusion.
In this study, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging using sequential tones that induced scale illusion (ILL) and those that mimicked the percept of scale illusion (PCP), and we compared the activation responses evoked by those stimuli by region-of-interest analysis. We examined the effects of adaptation, i.e., the attenuation of response that occurs when close-frequency sounds are repeated, which might interfere with the changes in activation by the illusion process. Results of the activation difference of the two stimuli, measured at varied tempi of tone presentation, in the superior temporal auditory cortex...
Source: Hearing Research - June 8, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Kuriki S, Numao R, Nemoto I Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Postnatal maturation of auditory-nerve response heterogeneity as seen in spatial gradients of synapse morphology in the inner hair cell area.
Abstract Auditory nerve fibers in the adult ear are divided into functional subgroups according to spontaneous rate (SR) and threshold sensitivity. The high-threshold, low-SR fibers are morphologically and spatially distinct from the low-threshold high-SR fibers at their synaptic contacts with inner hair cells. This distinction between SR groups in the adult ear is visible in confocal microscopy as complementary size gradients of presynaptic ribbons and post-synaptic glutamate receptor patches across the modiolar-pillar and habenular-cuticular axes in the inner hair cell area. The aim of the present study was to t...
Source: Hearing Research - June 7, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Liberman LD, Liberman MC Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Neural indices of phonemic discrimination and sentence-level speech intelligibility in quiet and noise: A mismatch negativity study.
Abstract Successful speech communication requires the extraction of important acoustic cues from irrelevant background noise. In order to better understand this process, this study examined the effects of background noise on mismatch negativity (MMN) latency, amplitude, and spectral power measures as well as behavioral speech intelligibility tasks. Auditory event-related potentials (AERPs) were obtained from 15 normal-hearing participants to determine whether pre-attentive MMN measures recorded in response to a consonant and vowel change in a double-oddball paradigm can predict sentence-level speech perception. Th...
Source: Hearing Research - June 3, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Koerner TK, Zhang Y, Nelson P, Wang B, Zou H Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Membrane prestin expression correlates with the magnitude of prestin-associated charge movement.
Abstract Full expression of electromotility, generation of non-linear capacitance (NLC), and high-acuity mammalian hearing require prestin function in the lateral wall of cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs). Estimates of the number of prestin molecules in the OHC membrane vary, and a consensus has not emerged about the correlation between prestin expression and prestin-associated charge movement in the OHC. Using an inducible prestin-expressing cell line, we demonstrate that the charge density, but not the voltage at peak capacitance, directly correlates with the amount of prestin in the plasma membrane. This correla...
Source: Hearing Research - May 31, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Seymour ML, Rajagopalan L, Duret G, Volk MJ, Liu H, Brownell WE, Pereira FA Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Origin of the Thalamic Projection to Dorsal Auditory Cortex in Hearing and Deafness.
Abstract While it is now well accepted that the brain reorganizes following sensory loss, the neural mechanisms that give rise to this plasticity are not well understood. Anatomical tract tracing studies have begun to shed light on the structural underpinnings of cross-modal reorganization by comparing cerebral connectivity in sensory-deprived animals to that of their non-deprived counterparts. However, so far, full documentation of connectional patterns within hearing, congenitally deaf, as well as animals deafened early versus later in life exist only for primary auditory cortex, a region not known to undergo cr...
Source: Hearing Research - May 31, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Kok MA, Lomber SG Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Detection efficiency of Auditory Steady State evoked by modulated noise.
CONCLUSION: The stimuli that include high-frequency content showed higher detection rates (>90%) and lower detection times (
Source: Hearing Research - May 31, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Santos TS, Silva JJ, Lins OG, Melges DB, Tierra-Criollo CJ Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

A cool approach to reducing electrode-induced trauma: Localized therapeutic hypothermia conserves residual hearing in cochlear implantation.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The trauma caused during cochlear implant insertion can lead to cell death and a loss of residual hair cells in the cochlea. Various therapeutic approaches have been studied to prevent cochlear implant-induced residual hearing loss with limited success. In the present study, we show the efficacy of mild to moderate therapeutic hypothermia of 4 to 6 °C applied to the cochlea in reducing residual hearing loss associated with the electrode insertion trauma. APPROACH: Rats were randomly distributed in three groups: control contralateral cochleae, normothermic implanted cochleae and hy...
Source: Hearing Research - May 30, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Tamames I, King C, Bas E, Dietrich WD, Telischi F, Rajguru SM Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Impact of peripheral hearing loss on top-down auditory processing.
Abstract The auditory system consists of an intricate set of connections interposed between hierarchically arranged nuclei. The ascending pathways carrying sound information from the cochlea to the auditory cortex are, predictably, altered in instances of hearing loss resulting from blockage or damage to peripheral auditory structures. However, hearing loss-induced changes in descending connections that emanate from higher auditory centers and project back toward the periphery are still poorly understood. These pathways, which are the hypothesized substrate of high-level contextual and plasticity cues, are intimat...
Source: Hearing Research - May 30, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Lesicko AM, Llano DA Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

A systematic review of the reporting of tinnitus prevalence and severity.
CONCLUSION: Deriving global estimates of the prevalence of tinnitus involves combining results from studies which are consistent in their definition and measurement of tinnitus, survey methodology and in the reporting and analysis of the results. Ultimately comparison among studies is unachievable without such consistency. The strength of this systematic review is in providing a record of all the available, recent epidemiological data in each global region and in making recommendations for promoting standardisation. PMID: 27246985 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - May 27, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: McCormack A, Edmondson-Jones M, Somerset S, Hall D Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Technical note for post-auricular route surgery in Mongolian gerbil.
Abstract The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) is commonly used in hearing research because the hearing frequency spectrum of the gerbil is rather similar to that of the human being. However, a precise description of the surgical post-auricular route has not been reported. The aim of this technical note is to provide details on the procedure and the surgical anatomy of the post-auricular route in the Mongolian gerbil. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia on eight (2 males and 6 females) adult Mongolian gerbils. All steps of the post-auricular route were detailed. This surgery provided an access to...
Source: Hearing Research - May 27, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Risoud M, Bonne NX, Fourdrinier M, Hubert T, Vincent C Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Effect of motion on speech recognition.
Abstract The benefit of spatial separation for talkers in a multi-talker environment is well documented. However, few studies have examined the effect of talker motion on speech recognition. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of (1) motion of the target or distracters, (2) a priori information about the target and distracter spatial configurations, and (3) target and distracter location. In total, seventeen young adults with normal hearing were tested in a large anechoic chamber in two experiments. In Experiment 1, seven stimulus conditions were tested using the Coordinate Response Measure (Bolia et&nb...
Source: Hearing Research - May 26, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Davis TJ, Grantham DW, Gifford RH Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Characterization of the nonlinear elastic behavior of chinchilla tympanic membrane using micro-fringe projection.
Abstract The mechanical properties of an intact, full tympanic membrane (TM) inside the bulla of a fresh chinchilla were measured under quasi-static pressure from -1.0 kPa to 1.0 kPa applied on the TM lateral side. Images of the fringes projected onto the TM were acquired by a digital camera connected to a surgical microscope and analyzed using a phase-shift method to reconstruct the surface topography. The relationship between the applied pressure and the resulting volume displacement was determined and analyzed using a finite element model implementing a hyperelastic 2(nd)-order Ogden model. Through an inverse m...
Source: Hearing Research - May 26, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Liang J, Luo H, Yokell Z, Nakmali DU, Gan RZ, Lu H Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Auditory training improves auditory performance in cochlear implanted children.
d E Abstract While the positive benefits of pediatric cochlear implantation on language perception skills are now proven, the heterogeneity of outcomes remains high. The understanding of this heterogeneity and possible strategies to minimize it is of utmost importance. Our scope here is to test the effects of an auditory training strategy, "sound in Hands", using playful tasks grounded on the theoretical and empirical findings of cognitive sciences. Indeed, several basic auditory operations, such as auditory scene analysis (ASA) are not trained in the usual therapeutic interventions in deaf children. How...
Source: Hearing Research - May 26, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Roman S, Rochette F, Triglia JM, Schön D, Bigand E Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Acquired hearing loss and brain plasticity.
Abstract Acquired hearing loss results in an imbalance of the cochlear output across frequency. Central auditory system homeostatic processes responding to this result in frequency specific gain changes consequent to the emerging imbalance between excitation and inhibition. Several consequences thereof are increased spontaneous firing rates, increased neural synchrony, and (in adults) potentially restricted to the auditory thalamus and cortex a reorganization of tonotopic areas. It does not seem to matter much whether the hearing loss is acquired neonatally or in adulthood. In humans, no clear evidence of tonotopi...
Source: Hearing Research - May 23, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Eggermont JJ Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Functional segregation of monaural and binaural selectivity in the pallid bat auditory cortex.
Abstract Different fields of the auditory cortex can be distinguished by the extent and level tolerance of spatial selectivity. The mechanisms underlying the range of spatial tuning properties observed across cortical fields are unclear. Here, this issue was addressed in the pallid bat because its auditory cortex contains two segregated regions of response selectivity that serve two different behaviors: echolocation for obstacle avoidance and localization of prey-generated noise. This provides the unique opportunity to examine mechanisms of spatial properties in two functionally distinct regions. Previous studies ...
Source: Hearing Research - May 23, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Razak KA Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Sound coding in the auditory nerve of gerbils.
Abstract Gerbils possess a very specialized cochlea in which the low-frequency inner hair cells (IHCs) are contacted by auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) having a high spontaneous rate (SR), whereas high frequency IHCs are innervated by ANFs with a greater SR-based diversity. This specificity makes this animal a unique model to investigate, in the same cochlea, the functional role of different pools of ANFs. The distribution of the characteristic frequencies of fibers shows a clear bimodal shape (with a first mode around 1.5 kHz and a second around 12 kHz) and a notch in the histogram near 3.5 kHz. Whereas the mean thr...
Source: Hearing Research - May 20, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Huet A, Batrel C, Tang Y, Desmadryl G, Wang J, Puel JL, Bourien J Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Cochlear perfusion with a viscous fluid.
Abstract The flow of viscous fluid in the cochlea induces shear forces, which could provide benefit in clinical practice, for example to guide cochlear implant insertion or produce static pressure to the cochlear partition or wall. From a research standpoint, studying the effects of a viscous fluid in the cochlea provides data for better understanding cochlear fluid mechanics. However, cochlear perfusion with a viscous fluid may damage the cochlea. In this work we studied the physiological and anatomical effects of perfusing the cochlea with a viscous fluid. Gerbil cochleae were perfused at a rate of 2.4 μL/min...
Source: Hearing Research - May 20, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Wang Y, Olson ES Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Perceptually aligning apical frequency regions leads to more binaural fusion of speech in a CI simulation.
Abstract For bilateral cochlear implant users, the left and right arrays are typically not physically aligned, resulting in a degradation of binaural fusion, which can be detrimental to binaural abilities. Perceptually aligning the two arrays can be accomplished by disabling electrodes in one ear that do not have a perceptually corresponding electrode in the other side. However, disabling electrodes at the edges of the array will cause compression of the input frequency range into a smaller cochlear extent, which may result in reduced spectral resolution. An alternative approach to overcome this mismatch would be ...
Source: Hearing Research - May 17, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Staisloff HE, Lee DH, Aronoff JM Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Loss of glycine receptors containing the α3 subunit compromises auditory nerve activity, but not outer hair cell function.
Loss of glycine receptors containing the α3 subunit compromises auditory nerve activity, but not outer hair cell function. Hear Res. 2016 May 18; Authors: Dlugaiczyk J, Hecker D, Neubert C, Buerbank S, Campanelli D, Becker CM, Betz H, Knipper M, Rüttiger L, Schick B Abstract Inhibitory glycine receptors containing the α3 subunit (GlyRα3) regulate sensory information processing in the CNS and retina. In previous work, we demonstrated the presence of postsynaptic GlyR alpha3 immunoreactivity at efferent synapses of the medial and lateral olivocochlear bundle in the organ of Corti;...
Source: Hearing Research - May 17, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Dlugaiczyk J, Hecker D, Neubert C, Buerbank S, Campanelli D, Becker CM, Betz H, Knipper M, Rüttiger L, Schick B Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

EEG activity evoked in preparation for multi-talker listening by adults and children.
Abstract Selective attention is critical for successful speech perception because speech is often encountered in the presence of other sounds, including the voices of competing talkers. Faced with the need to attend selectively, listeners perceive speech more accurately when they know characteristics of upcoming talkers before they begin to speak. However, the neural processes that underlie the preparation of selective attention for voices are not fully understood. The current experiments used electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate the time course of brain activity during preparation for an upcoming talker in...
Source: Hearing Research - May 9, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Holmes E, Kitterick PT, Summerfield AQ Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Horizontal Sound Localization in Cochlear Implant Users with a Contralateral Hearing Aid.
Abstract Interaural differences in sound arrival time (ITD) and in level (ILD) enable us to localize sounds in the horizontal plane, and can support source segregation and speech understanding in noisy environments. It is uncertain whether these cues are also available to hearing-impaired listeners who are bimodally fitted, i.e. with a cochlear implant (CI) and a contralateral hearing aid (HA). Here, we assessed sound localization behavior of fourteen bimodal listeners, all using the same Phonak HA and an Advanced Bionics CI processor, matched with respect to loudness growth. We aimed to determine the availability...
Source: Hearing Research - May 9, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Veugen LC, Hendrikse MM, van Wanrooij MM, Agterberg MJ, Chalupper J, Mens LH, Snik AF, John van Opstal A Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Aging effects on the Binaural Interaction Component of the Auditory Brainstem Response in the Mongolian Gerbil: Effects of Interaural Time and Level Differences.
Abstract The effect of interaural time difference (ITD) and interaural level difference (ILD) on wave 4 of the binaural and summed monaural auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) as well as on the DN1 component of the binaural interaction component (BIC) of the ABR in young and old Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) was investigated. Measurements were made at a fixed sound pressure level (SPL) and a fixed level above visually detected ABR threshold to compensate for individual hearing threshold differences. In both stimulation modes (fixed SPL and fixed level above visually detected ABR threshold) an effect of...
Source: Hearing Research - May 8, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Laumen G, Tollin DJ, Beutelmann R, Klump GM Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Long-term treatment with aldosterone slows the progression of age-related hearing loss.
Abstract Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), clinically referred to as presbycusis, is one of the three most prevalent chronic medical conditions of our elderly, with the majority of persons over the age of 60 suffering from some degree of ARHL. The progressive loss of auditory sensitivity and perceptual capability results in significant declines in workplace productivity, quality of life, cognition and abilities to communicate effectively. Aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid hormone produced in the adrenal glands and plays a role in the maintenance of key ion pumps, including the Na-K+-Cl co-transporter 1 or NKCC1, w...
Source: Hearing Research - May 4, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Halonen J, Hinton A, Frisina RD, Ding B, Zhu X, Walton JP Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Frequency selectivity of the human cochlea: Suppression tuning of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions.
Abstract Frequency selectivity is a key functional property of the inner ear and since hearing research began, the frequency resolution of the human ear has been a central question. In contrast to animal studies, which permit invasive recording of neural activity, human studies must rely on indirect methods to determine hearing selectivity. Psychophysical studies, which used masking of a tone by other sounds, indicate a modest frequency selectivity in humans. By contrast, estimates using the phase delays of stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAE) predict a remarkably high selectivity, unique among mammals...
Source: Hearing Research - April 28, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Manley GA, van Dijk P Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

MEMRO 2015 - Basic Science meets Clinical Otology.
PMID: 27130517 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - April 25, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Gaihede M, Dirckx J, von Unge M, Rosowski JJ Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Cochlear implant and inflammation reaction: safety study of a new steroid-eluting electrode.
Abstract Dexamethasone is a common anti-inflammatory agent added to cochlear implants to reduce hearing loss due to electrode insertion trauma. We evaluated the safety of eluting silicone rods containing 10% dexamethasone in a Guinea pig model. Animals were implanted with a dexamethasone eluting silicone electrode (DER) or with a non-eluting electrode (NER). The control group only underwent a cochleostomy (CS). Prior to implantation and during the two weeks following implantation, the hearing status of the animals was assessed by means of Compound Action Potentials (CAPs) with an electrode placed near the round wi...
Source: Hearing Research - April 20, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Astolfi L, Simoni E, Giarbini N, Giordano P, Pannella M, Hatzopoulos S, Martini A Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Transmucosal Gas-Loss Rates in Middle Ears Initially Filled with O2 or CO2.
This study investigates the role of different gases in clearance of gas in the middle ear cavity (ME) by its mucosal blood flow. A rat model was used to measure gas volume changes in the ME cavity at constant pressure without ventilation. We disturbed the normal gas composition of the ME by filling it with O2 or CO2, measured the consequent changes in gas volume over time and compared these results with previously obtained ones for air and N2. The first 5 min of the primary transient phase (phase I) for O2 or CO2 was characterized by a volume loss decrease of -0.49 ± 0.34 μL and -46.28 ± 8.49 μL, respec...
Source: Hearing Research - April 18, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Kania RE, Verillaud B, Ars B, Ba Huy PT, Herman P, Ar A Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

The contribution of visual information to the perception of speech in noise with and without informative temporal fine structure.
Abstract Understanding what is said in demanding listening situations is assisted greatly by looking at the face of a talker. Previous studies have observed that normal-hearing listeners can benefit from this visual information when a talker's voice is presented in background noise. These benefits have also been observed in quiet listening conditions in cochlear-implant users, whose device does not convey the informative temporal fine structure cues in speech, and when normal-hearing individuals listen to speech processed to remove these informative temporal fine structure cues. The current study (1) characterised...
Source: Hearing Research - April 12, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Stacey PC, Kitterick PT, Morris SD, Sumner CJ Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Tonal frequency affects amplitude but not topography of rhesus monkey cranial EEG components.
Abstract The rhesus monkey is an important model of human auditory function in general and auditory deficits in neuro-psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia in particular. Several rhesus monkey studies have described homologs of clinically relevant auditory evoked potentials such as pitch-based mismatch negativity, a fronto-central negativity that can be observed when a series of regularly repeating sounds is disrupted by a sound of different tonal frequency. As a result it is well known how differences of tonal frequency are represented in rhesus monkey EEG. However, to date there is no study that systematica...
Source: Hearing Research - April 12, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Teichert T Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Categorization of common sounds by cochlear implanted and normal hearing adults.
Abstract Auditory categorization involves grouping of acoustic events along one or more shared perceptual dimensions which can relate to both semantic and physical attributes. This process involves both high level cognitive processes (categorization) and low-level perceptual encoding of the acoustic signal, both of which are affected by the use of a cochlear implant (CI) device. The goal of this study was twofold: I) compare the categorization strategies of CI users and normal hearing listeners (NHL) II) investigate if any characteristics of the raw acoustic signal could explain the results. 16 experienced CI user...
Source: Hearing Research - April 1, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Collett E, Marx M, Gaillard P, Roby B, Fraysse B, Deguine O, Barone P Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Fully implantable hearing aid in the incudostapedial joint gap.
rt T Abstract A fully implantable hearing aid is introduced which is a combined sensor-actuator-transducer designed for insertion into the incudostapedial joint gap (ISJ). The active elements each consist of a thin titanium membrane with an applied piezoelectric single crystal. The effectiveness of the operating principle is verified in a temporal bone study. We also take a closer look at the influence of an implantation-induced increase in middle ear stiffness on the transducer's output. An assembly of the transducer with 1 mm thickness is built and inserted into six temporal bones. At this thickness, the stiffne...
Source: Hearing Research - March 30, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Koch M, Eßinger TM, Stoppe T, Lasurashvili N, Bornitz M, Zahnert T Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Response to Letter : Psychometric properties of the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI): Assessment in a UK research volunteer population.
PMID: 27039256 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - March 29, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Fackrell K, Hall DA, Barry JG, Hoare DJ Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Coupling of an active middle-ear implant to the long process of the incus using an elastic clip attachment.
In conclusion, attachment of the FMT to the LPI with the LP coupler leads to generally good mechanical and functional coupling in temporal-bone preparations with a notable disadvantage between 1.8 and 6 kHz. Due to its elastic clip attachment it is expected that the LP coupler will reduce the risk of necrosis of the incus long process, which has to been shown in further studies. Clinical results of the LP coupler are pending. PMID: 27037037 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - March 28, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Schraven SP, Mlynski R, Dalhoff E, Heyd A, Wildenstein D, Rak K, Radeloff A, Hagen R, Gummer AW Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Intraoperative assessment of ossicular fixation.
We report measurements of the vibration response at the umbo, the tip of the incus long process and the lateral posterior crus of the stapes before and after artificially fixing the stapes footplate and anterior mallear ligament with luting cement. Results were obtained on temporal bones, but the practicality of the method allows easy clinical implementation. Velocity ratios between different measurement points along the ossicular chain may provide a quantitative indication of the degree of stapes fixation. Isolated anterior mallear ligament fixation was not distinguishable from the unfixed condition. PMID: 27034152 [...
Source: Hearing Research - March 27, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Peacock J, Dirckx J, von Unge M Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Balancing current levels in children with bilateral cochlear implants using electrophysiological and behavioral measures.
Abstract Children have benefited from bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) over unilateral CIs despite often missing important periods in bilateral auditory development. This suggests a remarkable perceptual ability by children to "work around" abnormal changes in the auditory pathways. Nonetheless, these children rely primarily on interaural level differences as interaural timing cues are more difficult to access or detect. Mismatched levels provided to the two implants could distort interaural level cues thus compromising the benefits of bilateral CI use. We asked whether "balanced" or "cen...
Source: Hearing Research - March 24, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Gordon KA, Abbasalipour P, Papsin BC Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

The afferent signaling complex: regulation of type I spiral ganglion neuron responses in the auditory periphery.
Abstract The spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are the first action potential generating neurons in the auditory pathway. The type I SGNs contact the sensory inner hair cells via their peripheral dendrites and relay auditory information to the brainstem via their central axon fibers. Individual afferent fibers show differences in response properties that are essential for normal hearing. The mechanisms that give rise to the heterogeneity of afferent responses are very poorly understood but are likely already in place at the peripheral dendrites where synapses are formed and action potentials are generated. To identif...
Source: Hearing Research - March 23, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Reijntjes DO, Pyott SJ Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

The Calyx of Held in the auditory system: structure, function, and development.
Abstract The calyx of Held synapse plays an important role in the auditory system, relaying information about sound localization via fast and precise synaptic transmission, which is achieved by its specialized structure and giant size. During development, the calyx of Held undergoes anatomical, morphological, and physiological changes necessary for performing its functions. The large dimensions of the calyx of Held nerve terminal are well suited for direct electrophysiological recording of many presynaptic events that are difficult, if not impossible to record at small conventional synapses. This unique accessibil...
Source: Hearing Research - March 23, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Baydyuk M, Xu J, Wu LG Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Spectral and binaural loudness summation for hearing-impaired listeners.
Abstract Sensorineural hearing loss typically results in a steepened loudness function and a reduced dynamic range from elevated thresholds to uncomfortably loud levels for narrowband and broadband signals. Restoring narrowband loudness perception for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners can lead to overly loud perception of broadband signals and it is unclear how binaural presentation affects loudness perception in this case. Here, loudness perception quantified by categorical loudness scaling for nine normal-hearing (NH) and ten HI listeners was compared for signals with different bandwidth and different spectral sha...
Source: Hearing Research - March 18, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Oetting D, Hohmann V, Appell JE, Kollmeier B, Ewert SD Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Auditory steady-state responses in cochlear implant users: Effect of modulation frequency and stimulation artifacts.
Abstract Previous studies have shown that objective measures based on stimulation with low-rate pulse trains fail to predict the threshold levels of cochlear implant (CI) users for high-rate pulse trains, as used in clinical devices. Electrically evoked auditory steady-state responses (EASSRs) can be elicited by modulated high-rate pulse trains, and can potentially be used to objectively determine threshold levels of CI users. The responsiveness of the auditory pathway of profoundly hearing-impaired CI users to modulation frequencies is, however, not known. In the present study we investigated the responsiveness o...
Source: Hearing Research - March 16, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Gransier R, Deprez H, Hofmann M, Moonen M, van Wieringen A, Wouters J Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

The effect of noise exposure during the developmental period on the function of the auditory system.
J, Syka J Abstract Recently, there has been growing evidence that development and maturation of the auditory system depends substantially on the afferent activity supplying inputs to the developing centers. In cases when this activity is altered during early ontogeny as a consequence of, e.g., an unnatural acoustic environment or acoustic trauma, the structure and function of the auditory system may be severely affected. Pathological alterations may be found in populations of ribbon synapses of the inner hair cells, in the structure and function of neuronal circuits, or in auditory driven behavioral and psychoph...
Source: Hearing Research - March 15, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Bureš Z, Popelář J, Syka J Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Design, Fabrication, and In Vitro Testing of Novel Three-Dimensionally Printed Tympanic Membrane Grafts.
This study demonstrates the design, fabrication and preliminary in vitro acoustic and mechanical evaluation of 3D printed TM grafts. Data illustrate the feasibility of creating TM grafts with acoustic properties that reflect sound induced motion patterns of the human TM; furthermore, 3D printed grafts have mechanical properties that demonstrate increased resistance to deformation compared to temporalis fascia. PMID: 26994661 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - March 15, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Kozin ED, Black NL, Cheng JT, Cotler MJ, McKenna MJ, Lee DJ, Lewis JA, Rosowski JJ, Remenschneider AK Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Time-frequency decomposition of click evoked otoacoustic emissions in children.
This study investigated the time-frequency properties of CEOAEs in 5 to 10 year old children. In the first part, we examined the feasibility of the S transform to characterize the time-frequency features of CEOAEs. A synthetic signal with known gammatones was analyzed using the S transform, as well as a wavelet transform with the basis function used traditionally for CEOAE analysis. The S and wavelet transforms provided similar representations of the gammatones of the synthetic signal in the mid and high frequencies. However, the S transform yielded a slightly more precise time-frequency representation at low frequencies (...
Source: Hearing Research - March 11, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Mishra SK, Biswal M Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Effects of high intensity noise on the vestibular system in rats.
Abstract Some individuals with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) also report balance problems. These accompanying vestibular complaints are not well understood. The present study used a rat model to examine the effects of noise exposure on the vestibular system. Rats were exposed to continuous broadband white noise (0-24kHz) at an intensity of 116dB sound pressure level (SPL) via insert ear phones in one ear for three hours under isoflurane anesthesia. Seven days after the exposure, a significant increase in ABR threshold (43.3+1.9dB) was observed in the noise-exposed ears, indicating hearing loss. Effects of nois...
Source: Hearing Research - March 9, 2016 Category: Audiology Authors: Stewart C, Yu Y, Huang J, Maklad A, Tang X, Allison J, Mustain W, Zhou W, Zhu H Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research