Altered attentional filters in subjects with graded levels of sensorineural hearing loss.
Abstract Near-threshold tones (targets) in noise that are preceded by cues of the same frequency or occur with a high probability are detected better than tones of other frequencies that may occur with a lower probability (probes); the better detection of targets than probes defines the attentional filter. We measured attentional filters using a cued probe-signal procedure with a two-interval forced-choice (2IFC) method in normal-hearing subjects (N = 15) and subjects with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL; N = 14) with a range of hearing levels. Attentional filters were altered in SNHL subjects...
Source: Hearing Research - June 10, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Bester CW, Robertson D, Taljaard D, Hammond G Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Sheep as a large animal ear model: Middle-ear ossicular velocities and intracochlear sound pressure.
This study investigated the middle-ear ossicular velocities and intracochlear sound pressure (ICSP) in sheep temporal bones, with the aim of characterizing the sheep as an experimental model for implantable hearing devices. Measurements were made on fresh sheep temporal bones. Velocity responses of the middle ear ossicles at the umbo, long process of the incus and stapes footplate were measured in the frequency range of 0.25-8 kHz using a laser Doppler vibrometer system. Results were normalized by the corresponding sound pressure level in the external ear canal (PEC). Sequentially, ICSPs at the scala vestibuli and tym...
Source: Hearing Research - June 7, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Péus D, Dobrev I, Prochazka L, Thoele K, Dalbert A, Boss A, Newcomb N, Probst R, Röösli C, Sim JH, Huber A, Pfiffner F Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Editorial: Auditory injury - A military perspective.
PMID: 28526261 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - May 21, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Yankaskas K, Hammill T, Packer M, Zuo J Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Peripheral hearing loss reduces the ability of children to direct selective attention during multi-talker listening.
We examined the ability of hearing-impaired children to direct auditory attention to a voice of interest (based on the talker's spatial location or gender) in the presence of a common form of background noise: the voices of competing talkers (i.e. during multi-talker, or "Cocktail Party" listening). We measured brain activity using electro-encephalography (EEG) when children prepared to direct attention to the spatial location or gender of an upcoming target talker who spoke in a mixture of three talkers. Compared to normally-hearing children, hearing-impaired children showed significantly less evidence of prepar...
Source: Hearing Research - May 10, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Holmes E, Kitterick PT, Summerfield AQ Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Amino acid and acetylcholine chemistry in the central auditory system of young, middle-aged and old rats.
In this study, we used quantitative microchemical methods to map concentrations of amino acids, including the major neurotransmitters of the brain, in all the major central auditory structures of young (6 months), middle-aged (22 months), and old (33 months old) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats. In addition, some amino acid measurements were made for vestibular nuclei, and activities of choline acetyltransferase, the enzyme for acetylcholine synthesis, were mapped in the superior olive and auditory cortex. In old, as compared to young, rats, glutamate concentrations were lower throughout central auditory regions. Aspartate ...
Source: Hearing Research - May 4, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Godfrey DA, Chen K, O'Toole TR, Mustapha AIAA Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Response to letter: Psychometric properties of the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI): Assessment in a UK research volunteer population.
PMID: 28495019 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - May 4, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Fackrell K, Hall DA, Barry JG, Hoare DJ Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Effect of efferent activation on binaural frequency selectivity.
Abstract Binaural notched-noise experiments indicate a reduced frequency selectivity of the binaural system compared to monaural processing. The present study investigates how auditory efferent activation (via the medial olivocochlear system) affects binaural frequency selectivity in normal-hearing listeners. Thresholds were measured for a 1-kHz signal embedded in a diotic notched-noise masker for various notch widths. The signal was either presented in phase (diotic) or in antiphase (dichotic), gated with the noise. Stimulus duration was 25 ms, in order to avoid efferent activation due to the masker or the s...
Source: Hearing Research - May 2, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Verhey JL, Kordus M, Drga V, Yasin I Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Chronic tinnitus and unipolar brush cell alterations in the cerebellum and dorsal cochlear nucleus.
Abstract Animal model research has shown that the central features of tinnitus, the perception of sound without an acoustic correlate, include elevated spontaneous and stimulus-driven activity, enhanced burst-mode firing, decreased variance of inter-spike intervals, and distortion of tonotopic frequency representation. Less well documented are cell-specific correlates of tinnitus. Unipolar brush cell (UBC) alterations in animals with psychophysical evidence of tinnitus has recently been reported. UBCs are glutamatergic interneurons that appear to function as local-circuit signal amplifiers. UBCs are abundant in th...
Source: Hearing Research - May 2, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Brozoski T, Brozoski D, Wisner K, Bauer C Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Salicylate-induced hyperacusis in rats: Dose- and frequency-dependent effects.
Abstract The use of auditory reaction time is a reliable measure of loudness perception in both animals and humans with reaction times (RT) decreasing with increasing stimulus intensity. Since abnormal loudness perception is a common feature of hyperacusis, a potentially debilitating auditory disorder in which moderate-intensity sounds are perceived as uncomfortable or painfully loud, we used RT measures to assess rats for salicylate-induced hyperacusis. A previous study using an operant conditioning RT procedure found that high-dose sodium salicylate (SS) induced hyperacusis-like behavior, i.e., faster than norma...
Source: Hearing Research - April 27, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Radziwon K, Holfoth D, Lindner J, Kaier-Green Z, Bowler R, Urban M, Salvi R Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Effects of noise-induced hearing loss on parvalbumin and perineuronal net expression in the mouse primary auditory cortex.
Abstract Noise induced hearing loss is associated with increased excitability in the central auditory system but the cellular correlates of such changes remain to be characterized. Here we tested the hypothesis that noise-induced hearing loss causes deterioration of perineuronal nets (PNNs) in the auditory cortex of mice. PNNs are specialized extracellular matrix components that commonly enwrap cortical parvalbumin (PV) containing GABAergic interneurons. Compared to somatosensory and visual cortex, relatively less is known about PV/PNN expression patterns in the primary auditory cortex (A1). Whether changes to cor...
Source: Hearing Research - April 27, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Nguyen A, Khaleel HM, Razak KA Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced ototoxicity in organ of Corti explant cultures.
Abstract Hearing loss remains the most common long-term complication of pneumococcal meningitis (PM) reported in up to 30% of survivors. Streptococcus pneumoniae have been shown to possess different ototoxic properties. Here we present a novel ex vivo experimental setup to examine in detail the pattern of hair cell loss upon exposure to different S. pneumoniae strains, therefore recapitulating pathogen derived aspects of PM-induced hearing loss. Our results show a higher susceptibility towards S. pneumoniae-induced cochlear damage for outer hair cells (OHC) compared to inner hair cells (IHC), which ...
Source: Hearing Research - April 25, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Perny M, Solyga M, Grandgirard D, Roccio M, Leib SL, Senn P Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Early cortical metabolic rearrangement related to clinical data in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
Abstract Results in studies concerning cortical changes in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) are not homogeneous, in particular due to the different neuroimaging techniques implemented and the diverse stages of ISSNHL studied. Considering the recent advances in state-of-the-art positron emission tomography (PET) cameras, the aim of this study was to gain more insight into the neuroanatomical differences associated with the earliest stages of unilateral ISSNHL and clinical-perceptual performance changes. After an audiological examination including the mean auditory threshold (mean AT), mean spee...
Source: Hearing Research - April 25, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Micarelli A, Chiaravalloti A, Viziano A, Danieli R, Schillaci O, Alessandrini M Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Neural indices of phonemic discrimination and sentence-level speech intelligibility in quiet and noise: A P3 study.
This study examined how speech babble noise differentially affected the auditory P3 responses and the associated neural oscillatory activities for consonant and vowel discrimination in relation to segmental- and sentence-level speech perception in noise. The data were collected from 16 normal-hearing participants in a double-oddball paradigm that contained a consonant (/ba/ to /da/) and vowel (/ba/ to /bu/) change in quiet and noise (speech-babble background at a -3 dB signal-to-noise ratio) conditions. Time-frequency analysis was applied to obtain inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) and event-related spectral per...
Source: Hearing Research - April 18, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Koerner TK, Zhang Y, Nelson PB, Wang B, Zou H Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Delayed changes in auditory status in cochlear implant users with preserved acoustic hearing.
Abstract This retrospective review explores delayed-onset hearing loss in 85 individuals receiving cochlear implants designed to preserve acoustic hearing at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics between 2001 and 2015. Repeated measures of unaided behavioral audiometric thresholds, electrode impedance, and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) amplitude growth functions were used to characterize longitudinal changes in auditory status. Participants were grouped into two primary categories according to changes in unaided behavioral thresholds: (1) stable hearing or symmetrical hearing loss and...
Source: Hearing Research - April 12, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Scheperle RA, Tejani VD, Omtvedt JK, Brown CJ, Abbas PJ, Hansen MR, Gantz BJ, Oleson JJ, Ozanne MV Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

A non-toxic dose of cobalt chloride blocks hair cells of the zebrafish lateral line.
Abstract Experiments on the flow-sensitive lateral line system of fishes have provided important insights into the function and sensory transduction of vertebrate hair cells. A common experimental approach has been to pharmacologically block lateral line hair cells and measure how behavior changes. Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) blocks the lateral line by inhibiting calcium movement through the membrane channels of hair cells, but high concentrations can be toxic, making it unclear whether changes in behavior are due to a blocked lateral line or poor health. Here, we identify a non-toxic treatment of cobalt that complete...
Source: Hearing Research - April 12, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Stewart WJ, Johansen JL, Liao JC Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

On the role of ephrinA2 in auditory function.
Abstract Recent findings suggest that the manipulation of the EphA/ephrinA system can improve hearing threshold sensitivity in the auditory system (Yates et al., 2014). These results appear to open-up the possibility that pharmacological manipulation of this system could lead to the development of treatments to cure some types of hearing loss. As a first step towards this goal, we have performed a further series of auditory brainstem evoked potential recordings on ephrinA2 homozygous knockout mice and their wildtype littermates in order to replicate the previously reported findings. However, we found that eph...
Source: Hearing Research - April 5, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Ingham NJ, Steel KP, Drescher U Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Reply to "Critical examination of the article: Impulse noise injury prediction based on the cochlear energy".
Reply to "Critical examination of the article: Impulse noise injury prediction based on the cochlear energy". Hear Res. 2017 Mar 30;: Authors: Zagadou B, Chan P, Ho K, Shelley D PMID: 28390736 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - March 30, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Zagadou B, Chan P, Ho K, Shelley D Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

The intelligibility of speech in a harmonic masker varying in fundamental frequency contour, broadband temporal envelope, and spatial location.
he ML Abstract Differences in fundamental frequency (F0), modulations in the masker envelope, and differences in spatial location between a speech target and a masker can improve speech intelligibility in cocktail-party situations. These cues have been thoroughly investigated independently and associated with unmasking mechanisms: F0 segregation, temporal dip listening and spatial unmasking, respectively. Two experiments were conducted to examine whether F0 segregation interacts with spatial unmasking (experiment 1) or temporal modulations in the masker envelope (experiment 2) by measuring speech reception thresho...
Source: Hearing Research - March 29, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Leclère T, Lavandier M, Deroche ML Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Modulation of auditory percepts by transcutaneous electrical stimulation.
Abstract Transcutaneous, electrical stimulation with electrodes placed on the mastoid processes represents a specific way to elicit vestibular reflexes in humans without active or passive subject movements, for which the term galvanic vestibular stimulation was coined. It has been suggested that galvanic vestibular stimulation mainly affects the vestibular periphery, but whether vestibular hair cells, vestibular afferents, or a combination of both are excited, is still a matter of debate. Galvanic vestibular stimulation has been in use since the late 18(th) century, but despite the long-known and well-documented e...
Source: Hearing Research - March 17, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Ueberfuhr MA, Braun A, Wiegrebe L, Grothe B, Drexl M Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Comparison of perceptual properties of auditory streaming between spectral and amplitude modulation domains.
Abstract The two-tone sequence (ABA_), which comprises two different sounds (A and B) and a silent gap, has been used to investigate how the auditory system organizes sequential sounds depending on various stimulus conditions or brain states. Auditory streaming can be evoked by differences not only in the tone frequency ("spectral cue": ΔFTONE, TONE condition) but also in the amplitude modulation rate ("AM cue": ΔFAM, AM condition). The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between the perceptual properties of auditory streaming for the TONE and AM conditions. A s...
Source: Hearing Research - March 17, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Yamagishi S, Otsuka S, Furukawa S, Kashino M Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Speech intelligibility and subjective benefit in single-sided deaf adults after cochlear implantation.
, Illg A Abstract Treatment with cochlear implants (CIs) in single-sided deaf individuals started less than a decade ago. CIs can successfully reduce incapacitating tinnitus on the deaf ear and allow, so some extent, the restoration of binaural hearing. Until now, systematic evaluations of subjective CI benefit in post-lingually single-sided deaf individuals and analyses of speech intelligibility outcome for the CI in isolation have been lacking. For the prospective part of this study, the Bern Benefit in Single-Sided Deafness Questionnaire (BBSS) was administered to 48 single-sided deaf CI users to evaluate the s...
Source: Hearing Research - March 8, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Finke M, Strauß-Schier A, Kludt E, Büchner A, Illg A Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Isolating spectral cues in amplitude and quasi-frequency modulation discrimination by reducing stimulus duration.
This study investigated the psychophysical effects of distortion products in a listening task traditionally used to estimate the bandwidth of phase sensitivity. For a 2000 Hz carrier, estimates of modulation depth necessary to discriminate amplitude modulated (AM) tones and quasi-frequency modulated (QFM) were measured in a two interval forced choice task as a function modulation frequency. Temporal modulation transfer functions were often non-monotonic at modulation frequencies above 300 Hz. This was likely to be due to a spectral cue arising from the interaction of auditory distortion products and the lower sid...
Source: Hearing Research - March 7, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Borucki E, Berg BG Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Contributions of sensory tuning to auditory-vocal interactions in marmoset auditory cortex.
Abstract During speech, humans continuously listen to their own vocal output to ensure accurate communication. Such self-monitoring is thought to require the integration of information about the feedback of vocal acoustics with internal motor control signals. The neural mechanism of this auditory-vocal interaction remains largely unknown at the cellular level. Previous studies in naturally vocalizing marmosets have demonstrated diverse neural activities in auditory cortex during vocalization, dominated by a vocalization-induced suppression of neural firing. How underlying auditory tuning properties of these neuron...
Source: Hearing Research - March 7, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Eliades SJ, Wang X Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Laser-capture micro dissection combined with next-generation sequencing analysis of cell type-specific deafness gene expression in the mouse cochlea.
Abstract Cochlear implantation (CI), which directly stimulates the cochlear nerves, is the most effective and widely used medical intervention for patients with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. The etiology of the hearing loss is speculated to have a major influence of CI outcomes, particularly in cases resulting from mutations in genes preferentially expressed in the spiral ganglion region. To elucidate precise gene expression levels in each part of the cochlea, we performed laser-capture micro dissection in combination with next generation-sequencing analysis and determined the expression levels of...
Source: Hearing Research - March 1, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Nishio SY, Takumi Y, Usami SI Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Indexing cortical entrainment to natural speech at the phonemic level: Methodological considerations for applied research.
Abstract Speech is central to human life. As such, any delay or impairment in receptive speech processing can have a profoundly negative impact on the social and professional life of a person. Thus, being able to assess the integrity of speech processing in different populations is an important goal. Current standardized assessment is mostly based on psychometric measures that do not capture the full extent of a person's speech processing abilities and that are difficult to administer in some subjects groups. A potential alternative to these tests would be to derive "direct", objective measures of speech...
Source: Hearing Research - February 24, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Di Liberto GM, Lalor EC Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

On the relation between pitch and level.
Abstract Pitch is the perceptual dimension along which musical notes are ordered from low to high. It is often described as the perceptual correlate of the periodicity of the sound's waveform. Previous reports have shown that pitch can depend slightly on sound level. We wanted to verify that these observations reflect genuine changes in perceived pitch, and were not due to procedural factors or confusion between dimensions of pitch and level. We first conducted a systematic pitch matching task and confirmed that the pitch of low frequency pure tones, but not complex tones, decreases by an amount equivalent to a ch...
Source: Hearing Research - February 22, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Zheng Y, Brette R Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

The auditory evoked-gamma response and its relation with the N1m.
This study explored the patterns of oscillatory activity that underpin the N1m auditory evoked response. Evoked gamma activity is a small and relatively rarely-reported component of the auditory evoked response, and the objective of this work was to determine how this component relates to the larger and more prolonged changes in lower frequency bands. An event-related beamformer analysis of MEG data from monaural click stimulation was used to reconstruct volumetric images and virtual electrode time series. Group analysis of localisations showed that activity in the gamma band originated from a source that was more medial t...
Source: Hearing Research - February 21, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Witton C, Eckert MA, Stanford IM, Gascoyne LE, Furlong PL, Worthen SF, Hillebrand A Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Association of TagSNP in lncRNA HOTAIR with susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss in a Chinese population.
CONCLUSIONS: The genetic polymorphism within HOTAIR gene may play a crucial role in the occurrence and development of NIHL. PMID: 28223190 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - February 17, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Wang B, Ding E, Shen H, Wang J, Sun K, Chen S, Han L, Zhang H, Zhu B, Xu M Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Pitch Ranking with Different Virtual Channel Configurations in Electrical Hearing.
In this study, we looked at pitch ranking in cochlear implant users with QPVC, VTP, and MPVC configurations to determine if place pitch shifts similarly across the cochlea or if any of the stimulation modes shift non-monotonically. Results suggest that MPVC and VTP stimulation provide a consistent monotonic shift across cochlear positions while the place shift provided by QPVCs was more variable. The use of VTP stimulation would be recommended instead of QPVC for a speech processing strategy. PMID: 28216122 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - February 15, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Padilla M, Stupak N, Landsberger DM Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Ablation of the auditory cortex results in changes in the expression of neurotransmission-related mRNAs in the cochlea.
In this report, we show that descending connections from AC to olivocochlear neurons are necessary to regulate the expression of molecules involved in cochlear afferent signaling. RT-qPCR was performed in rats at 1, 7 and 15 days after unilateral ablation of the AC, and analyzed the time course changes in gene transcripts involved in neurotransmission at the first auditory synapse. This included the glutamate metabolism enzyme glutamate decarboxylase 1 (glud1) and AMPA glutamate receptor subunits GluA2-4. In addition, gene transcripts involved in efferent regulation of type I spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) excitability media...
Source: Hearing Research - February 15, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Lamas V, Juiz JM, Merchán MA Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

The pattern and degree of capsular fibrous sheaths surrounding cochlear electrode arrays.
Abstract An inflammatory tissue reaction around the electrode array of a cochlear implant (CI) is common, in particular at the electrode insertion region (cochleostomy) where mechanical trauma often occurs. However, the factors determining the amount and causes of fibrous reaction surrounding the stimulating electrode, especially medially near the perimodiolar location, are unclear. Temporal bone (TB) specimens from patients who had undergone cochlear implantation during life with either Advanced Bionics (AB) Clarion (TM) or HiRes90K(TM) (Sylmar, CA, USA) devices that have a half-band and a pre-curved electrode, o...
Source: Hearing Research - February 15, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Ishai R, Herrmann BS, Nadol JB, Quesnel AM Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Population responses in primary auditory cortex simultaneously represent the temporal envelope and periodicity features in natural speech.
Abstract Speech perception relies on a listener's ability to simultaneously resolve multiple temporal features in the speech signal. Little is known regarding neural mechanisms that enable the simultaneous coding of concurrent temporal features in the speech signal. Here we show that two categories of temporal features in speech, the low-frequency speech envelope and periodicity cues, are processed by distinct neural mechanisms within the same population of cortical neurons. We measured population activity in primary auditory cortex of anesthetized guinea pig in response to three variants of a naturally produced s...
Source: Hearing Research - February 15, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Abrams DA, Nicol T, White-Schwoch T, Hartmann M, Zecker S, Kraus N Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

The relation between ECAP measurements and the effect of rate on behavioral thresholds in cochlear implant users.
Abstract It has been shown that electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) thresholds are not sufficiently predictive of behavioral thresholds to allow their use as a totally objective method to program a cochlear implant. Previous animal studies have shown that two other ECAP parameters (the ECAP amplitude growth slope and the effect on ECAPs of changing the phase duration (PD) or interphase gap (IPG)), and the way that behavioral thresholds change with increasing rate of stimulation, are associated with cochlear health. This experiment tested the hypotheses that a) the degree to which behavioral thresh...
Source: Hearing Research - February 13, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: McKay CM, Smale N Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Speech-in-noise perception in musicians: a review.
Abstract The ability to understand speech in the presence of competing sound sources is an important neuroscience question in terms of how the nervous system solves this computational problem. It is also a critical clinical problem that disproportionally affects the elderly, children with language-related learning disorders, and those with hearing loss. Recent evidence that musicians have an advantage on this multifaceted skill has led to the suggestion that musical training might be used to improve or delay the decline of speech-in-noise (SIN) function. However, enhancements have not been universally reported, no...
Source: Hearing Research - February 13, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Coffey EB, Mogilever N, Zatorre RJ Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Genetic variants in the peripheral auditory system significantly affect adult cochlear implant performance.
CONCLUSION: Etiological diagnosis of deafness including genetic testing is the single largest predictor of postoperative speech outcomes in adult cochlear implant recipients. A detailed understanding of the genetic underpinning of hearing loss will better inform pre-implant counseling. The method presented here should serve as a guide for further research into the molecular physiology of the peripheral auditory system and cochlear implants. PMID: 28213135 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - February 13, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Shearer AE, Eppsteiner RW, Frees K, Tejani V, Sloan-Heggen CM, Brown C, Abbas P, Dunn C, Hansen MR, Gantz BJ, Smith RJ Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Stapes displacement and intracochlear pressure in response to very high level, low frequency sounds.
Abstract The stapes is held in the oval window by the stapedial annular ligament (SAL), which restricts total peak-to-peak displacement of the stapes. Previous studies have suggested that for moderate (
Source: Hearing Research - February 7, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Greene NT, Jenkins HA, Tollin DJ, Easter JR Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Auditory perceptual load: A review.
Abstract Selective attention is a crucial mechanism in everyday life, allowing us to focus on a portion of incoming sensory information at the expense of other less relevant stimuli. The circumstances under which irrelevant stimuli are successfully ignored have been a topic of scientific interest for several decades now. Over the last 20 years, the perceptual load theory (e.g. Lavie, 1995) has provided one robust framework for understanding these effects within the visual modality. The suggestion is that successful selection depends on the perceptual demands imposed by the task-relevant information. However, less ...
Source: Hearing Research - February 7, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Murphy S, Spence C, Dalton P Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Abnormal regional activity and functional connectivity in resting-state brain networks associated with etiology confirmed unilateral pulsatile tinnitus in the early stage of disease.
This study was designed to demonstrate the functional network alterations in the patients with pulsatile tinnitus (PT). In this study, we recruited 45 patients with unilateral PT in the early stage of disease (less than 48 months of disease duration) and 45 normal controls. We used regional homogeneity (ReHo) and seed-based FC computational methods to reveal resting-state brain activity features associated with pulsatile tinnitus. Compared with healthy controls, PT patients showed regional abnormalities mainly in the left middle occipital gyrus (MOG), posterior cingulate gyrus (PCC), precuneus and right anterior insula (AI...
Source: Hearing Research - February 6, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Lv H, Zhao P, Liu Z, Li R, Zhang L, Wang P, Yan F, Liu L, Wang G, Zeng R, Li T, Dong C, Gong S, Wang Z Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Intelligibility in speech maskers with a binaural cochlear implant sound coding strategy inspired by the contralateral medial olivocochlear reflex.
on BS Abstract We have recently proposed a binaural cochlear implant (CI) sound processing strategy inspired by the contralateral medial olivocochlear reflex (the MOC strategy) and shown that it improves intelligibility in steady-state noise (Lopez-Poveda et al., 2016, Ear Hear 37:e138-e148). The aim here was to evaluate possible speech-reception benefits of the MOC strategy for speech maskers, a more natural type of interferer. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured in six bilateral and two single-sided deaf CI users with the MOC strategy and with a standard (STD) strategy. SRTs were measured in unilate...
Source: Hearing Research - February 6, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Lopez-Poveda EA, Eustaquio-Martín A, Stohl JS, Wolford RD, Schatzer R, Gorospe JM, Ruiz SS, Benito F, Wilson BS Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Identification of induced and naturally occurring conductive hearing loss in mice using bone conduction.
In this report, we investigate the use of air- and bone-conducted evoked auditory brainstem responses to perform a similar separation in mice. We describe a technique by which we stimulate the mouse ear both acoustically and via whole-head vibration. We investigate the sensitivity of this technique to conductive hearing loss by introducing middle-ear lesions in normal hearing mice. We also use the technique to investigate the presence of an age-related conductive hearing loss in a common mouse model of presbycusis, the BALB/c mouse. PMID: 28167132 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - February 2, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Chhan D, McKinnon ML, Rosowski JJ Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Auditory brainstem response latency in forward masking, a marker of sensory deficits in listeners with normal hearing thresholds.
Abstract In rodent models, acoustic exposure too modest to elevate hearing thresholds can nonetheless cause auditory nerve fiber deafferentation, interfering with the coding of supra-threshold sound. Low-spontaneous rate nerve fibers, important for encoding acoustic information at supra-threshold levels and in noise, are more susceptible to degeneration than high-spontaneous rate fibers. The change in auditory brainstem response (ABR) wave-V latency with noise level has been shown to be associated with auditory nerve deafferentation. Here, we measured ABR in a forward masking paradigm and evaluated wave-V latency ...
Source: Hearing Research - January 31, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Mehraei G, Paredes Gallardo A, Shinn-Cunningham BG, Dau T Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Analytical and numerical modeling of the hearing system: advances towards the assessment of hearing damage.
Abstract Hearing is an extremely complex phenomenon, involving a large number of interrelated variables that are difficult to measure in vivo. In order to investigate such process under simplified and well-controlled conditions, models of sound transmission have been developed through many decades of research. The value of modeling the hearing system is not only to explain the normal function of the hearing system and account for experimental and clinical observations, but to simulate a variety of pathological conditions that lead to hearing damage and hearing loss, as well as for development of auditory implants,...
Source: Hearing Research - January 31, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: De Paolis A, Bikson M, Nelson JT, de Ru JA, Packer M, Cardoso L Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans: A Chronic Effects of Neurotrauma Consortium study.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in a cohort of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans (IAV) with common post-deployment conditions, including traumatic brain injury (TBI), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other typical post-concussive conditions such as headaches and vertigo/dizziness. This retrospective observational study used data from the national Veterans Health Administration (VA) data repository from fiscal years 2001-2014. Veteran data was included if there were at least three years of VA care, with one or more years of care in 2007 or after. ...
Source: Hearing Research - January 29, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Swan AA, Nelson JT, Swiger B, Jaramillo CA, Eapen BC, Packer M, Pugh MJ Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Frequency-dependent fine structure in the frequency-following response: The byproduct of multiple generators.
Abstract The frequency-following response (FFR) is an auditory-evoked response recorded at the scalp that captures the spectrotemporal properties of tonal stimuli. Previous investigations report that the amplitude of the FFR fluctuates as a function of stimulus frequency, a phenomenon thought to reflect multiple neural generators phase-locking to the stimulus with different response latencies. When phase-locked responses are offset by different latencies, constructive and destructive phase interferences emerge in the volume-conducted signals, culminating in an attenuation or amplification of the scalp-recorded res...
Source: Hearing Research - January 26, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Tichko P, Skoe E Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Auditory-visual integration in fields of the auditory cortex.
Abstract While multimodal interactions have been known to exist in the early sensory cortices, the response properties and spatiotemporal organization of these interactions are poorly understood. To elucidate the characteristics of multimodal sensory interactions in the cerebral cortex, neuronal responses to visual stimuli with or without auditory stimuli were investigated in core and belt fields of guinea pig auditory cortex using real-time optical imaging with a voltage-sensitive dye. On average, visual responses consisted of short excitation followed by long inhibition. Although visual responses were observed i...
Source: Hearing Research - January 19, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Kubota M, Sugimoto S, Hosokawa Y, Ojima H, Horikawa J Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Development and validation of the Speech Reception in Noise (SPRINT) Test.
Abstract Since 1992, the Speech Recognition in Noise Test, or SPRINT, has been the standard speech-in-noise test for assessing auditory fitness-for-duty of US Army Soldiers with hearing loss. The original SPRINT test consisted of 200 monosyllabic words presented at a Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of +9 dB in the presence of a six-talker babble noise. Normative data for the test was collected on 319 hearing impaired Soldiers, and a procedure for making recommendations about the disposition of military personnel on the basis of their SPRINT score and their years of experience was developed and implemented as part of U...
Source: Hearing Research - January 18, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Brungart DS, Walden B, Cord M, Phatak S, Theodoroff SM, Griest S, Grant KW Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Informational masking and the effects of differences in fundamental frequency and fundamental-frequency contour on phonetic integration in a formant ensemble.
This study explored the effects on speech intelligibility of across-formant differences in fundamental frequency (ΔF0) and F0 contour. Sentence-length speech analogues were presented dichotically (left = F1 + F3; right = F2), either alone or-because competition usually reveals grouping cues most clearly-accompanied in the left ear by a competitor for F2 (F2C) that listeners must reject to optimize recognition. F2C was created by inverting the F2 frequency contour. In experiment 1, all left-ear formants shared the same constant F0 and ΔF0F2 was 0 or ±4 semitones. In experimen...
Source: Hearing Research - January 17, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Summers RJ, Bailey PJ, Roberts B Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Metabotropic glutamate and GABA receptors modulate cellular excitability and glutamatergic transmission in chicken cochlear nucleus angularis neurons.
Abstract Neurons in the avian cochlear nucleus angularis (NA) receive glutamatergic input from the auditory nerve, and GABAergic input from the superior olivary nucleus. Physiologically heterogeneous, NA neurons perform multiple functions including encoding sound intensity information. Using in vitro whole-cell patch recordings from acute brain slices and immunohistochemistry staining, we investigated neuromodulation mediated by metabotropic glutamate and GABA receptors (mGluRs and GABABRs) in NA neurons. Based on their intrinsic firing patterns in response to somatic current injections, NA neurons were classified...
Source: Hearing Research - January 15, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Shi W, Lu Y Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Adding simultaneous stimulating channels to reduce power consumption in cochlear implants.
a W Abstract Sound coding strategies for Cochlear Implant (CI) listeners can be used to control the trade-off between speech performance and power consumption. Most commercial CI strategies use non-simultaneous channel stimulation, stimulating only one electrode at a time. One could add parallel simultaneous stimulating channels such that the electrical interaction between channels is increased. This would produce spectral smearing, because the electrical fields of the simultaneous stimulated channels interact, but also power savings. The parallel channels produce a louder sensation than sequential stimulation. To...
Source: Hearing Research - January 15, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Langner F, Saoji A, Büchner A, Nogueira W Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Using acoustic reflex threshold, auditory brainstem response and loudness judgments to investigate changes in neural gain following acute unilateral deprivation in normal hearing adults.
Abstract Unilateral auditory deprivation induces a reduction in the acoustic reflex threshold (ART) and an increase in loudness. These findings have been interpreted as a compensatory change in neural gain, governed by changes in excitatory and inhibitory neural inputs. There is also evidence to suggest that changes in neural gain can be measured using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). The present study extended Munro et al. (2014) [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 135, 315-322] by investigating changes after 4 days of unilateral earplug use to: (i) ART, (ii) auditory brainstem response (ABR) and (iii) loudness. Because c...
Source: Hearing Research - January 12, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Brotherton H, Plack CJ, Schaette R, Munro KJ Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research